Science.gov

Sample records for product development processes

  1. Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.

    1989-03-21

    It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums

  2. Virtual Collaborative Simulation Environment for Integrated Product and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulli, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Deneb Robotics is a leader in the development of commercially available, leading edge three- dimensional simulation software tools for virtual prototyping,, simulation-based design, manufacturing process simulation, and factory floor simulation and training applications. Deneb has developed and commercially released a preliminary Virtual Collaborative Engineering (VCE) capability for Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). This capability allows distributed, real-time visualization and evaluation of design concepts, manufacturing processes, and total factory and enterprises in one seamless simulation environment.

  3. Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This review presents considerations which can be employed during the development of a semi-solid topical generic product. This includes a discussion on the implementation of quality by design concepts during development to ensure the generic drug product has similar desired quality attributes to the reference-listed drug (RLD) and ensure batch to batch consistency through commercial production. This encompasses the concept of reverse-engineering to copy the RLD as a strategy during product development to ensure qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) formulation similarity, as well as similarity in formulation microstructure (Q3). The concept of utilizing in vitro skin permeation studies as a tool to justify formulation differences between the test generic product and the RLD to ensure a successful pharmacodynamic or clinical endpoint bioequivalence study is discussed. The review concludes with a discussion on drug product evaluation and quality tests as well as in vivo bioequivalence studies.

  4. Process development and intensification for enhanced production of Bacillus lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Vivek; Clarke, Kim G

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in Bacillus lipopeptides for high-value applications has driven process design, development and optimization for enhanced lipopeptide production. Traditional optimization approaches have been directed towards improving the overall titres by modification of media components and environmental parameters, almost exclusively in submerged cultures. Carbon and nitrogen sources, trace elements and oxygen availability have all been demonstrated to exhibit significant influences on lipopeptide yield, productivity and selectivity. This insight into process-linked kinetics, especially selectivity, has led to the introduction of novel process intensification and integration strategies which further promote process efficiency, and which include foam fractionation, inverse fluidization, rotating disc contacting and microfiltration with recycle. These strategies have not only transformed the production capabilities, but have also successfully integrated upstream production with downstream purification through cell retention and in situ product removal. This review analyses and critically discusses the impact of process conditions and process optimization strategies for improving lipopeptide production kinetics, specifically highlighting the emerging trend of process intensification and integration strategies and further, proposes a heuristic route to enhance lipopeptide production.

  5. Development of an industrializable fermentation process for propionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Stowers, Chris C; Cox, Brad M; Rodriguez, Brandon A

    2014-05-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is a short-chain fatty acid with wide industrial application including uses in pharmaceuticals, herbicides, cosmetics, and food preservatives. As a three-carbon building block, PA also has potential as a precursor for high-volume commodity chemicals such as propylene. Currently, most PA is manufactured through petrochemical routes, which can be tied to increasing prices and volatility due to difficulty in demand forecasting and feedstock availability. Herein described are research advancements to develop an industrially feasible, renewable route to PA. Seventeen Propionibacterium strains were screened using glucose and sucrose as the carbon source to identify the best platform strain. Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was selected as the platform strain and subsequent fermentation optimization studies were performed to maximize productivity and yield. Fermentation productivity was improved three-fold to exceed 2 g/l/h by densifying the inoculum source. Byproduct levels, particularly lactic and succinic acid, were reduced by optimizing fermentor headspace pressure and shear. Following achievement of commercially viable productivities, the lab-grade medium components were replaced with industrial counterparts to further reduce fermentation costs. A pure enzymatically treated corn mash (ECM) medium improved the apparent PA yield to 0.6 g/g (PA produced/glucose consumed), but it came at the cost of reduced productivity. Supplementation of ECM with cyanocobalamin restored productivity to near lab-grade media levels. The optimized ECM recipe achieved a productivity of 0.5 g/l/h with an apparent PA yield of 0.60 g/g corresponding to a media cost <1 USD/kg of PA. These improvements significantly narrow the gap between the fermentation and incumbent petrochemical processes, which is estimated to have a manufacturing cost of 0.82 USD/kg in 2017. PMID:24627047

  6. Recovery and purification process development for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junfen; Winter, Charles; Bayer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Hundreds of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently in development, and many companies have multiple antibodies in their pipelines. Current methodology used in recovery processes for these molecules are reviewed here. Basic unit operations such as harvest, Protein A affinity chromatography and additional polishing steps are surveyed. Alternative processes such as flocculation, precipitation and membrane chromatography are discussed. We also cover platform approaches to purification methods development, use of high throughput screening methods, and offer a view on future developments in purification methodology as applied to mAbs. PMID:20647768

  7. Process development for hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on growth and product formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Florian; Morweiser, Michael; Rosello Sastre, Rosa; Kruse, Olaf; Posten, Clemens

    2012-11-30

    Certain strains of microalgae are long known to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase enzyme recombines electrons from the chloroplast electron transport chain with protons to form molecular hydrogen directly inside the chloroplast. A sustained hydrogen production can be obtained under low sulfur conditions in C. reinhardtii, reducing the net oxygen evolution by reducing the photosystem II activity and thereby overcoming the inhibition of the hydrogenases. The development of specially adapted hydrogen production strains led to higher yields and optimized biological process preconditions. So far sustainable hydrogen production required a complete exchange of the growth medium to establish sulfur-deprived conditions after biomass growth. In this work we demonstrate the transition from the biomass growth phase to the hydrogen production phase in a single batch culture only by exact dosage of sulfur. This eliminates the elaborate and energy intensive solid-liquid separation step and establishes a process strategy to proceed further versus large scale production. This strategy has been applied to determine light dependent biomass growth and hydrogen production kinetics to assess the potential of H₂ production with C. reinhardtii as a basis for scale up and further process optimization.

  8. Process development for hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on growth and product formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Florian; Morweiser, Michael; Rosello Sastre, Rosa; Kruse, Olaf; Posten, Clemens

    2012-11-30

    Certain strains of microalgae are long known to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase enzyme recombines electrons from the chloroplast electron transport chain with protons to form molecular hydrogen directly inside the chloroplast. A sustained hydrogen production can be obtained under low sulfur conditions in C. reinhardtii, reducing the net oxygen evolution by reducing the photosystem II activity and thereby overcoming the inhibition of the hydrogenases. The development of specially adapted hydrogen production strains led to higher yields and optimized biological process preconditions. So far sustainable hydrogen production required a complete exchange of the growth medium to establish sulfur-deprived conditions after biomass growth. In this work we demonstrate the transition from the biomass growth phase to the hydrogen production phase in a single batch culture only by exact dosage of sulfur. This eliminates the elaborate and energy intensive solid-liquid separation step and establishes a process strategy to proceed further versus large scale production. This strategy has been applied to determine light dependent biomass growth and hydrogen production kinetics to assess the potential of H₂ production with C. reinhardtii as a basis for scale up and further process optimization. PMID:22750091

  9. The Process and the Product: Two English Classes Develop Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Mary Ellen

    1982-01-01

    English classes conducted for two groups of women, garment factory workers and building cleaners, are compared. The garment workers interviewed each other and produced a slide-tape program. The cleaners produced a song about their work and in the process, developed awareness of the work situation, and a sense of cooperation. (MSE)

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    A Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate and a low-Btu gas. One objective of the project is to achieve successful operation on mildly caking coals of high sulfur content in support of the strategic goal of producing a metallurgical coke substitute for the Great Lakes steel industry from midwestern bituminous coal feedstocks. Task 2 primarily covers bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1-lb/hr continuous fluidized bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for a high sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and a low sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Preliminary results from Task 3 on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX R D are also reported based on limited quantities of product obtained from Task 2. More extensive upgrading studies will be performed on the larger quantities of products generated in Task 4, which will integrate process testing in the 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) currently under construction. Background information guiding this process development effort has been previously presented in two study reports addressing markets and processing technologies (January 1988). Wastewater produced in the mild gasification process was successfully biotreated at full strength in an aerated active sludge system that removed 96.9% if the biological oxygen demand (BOD), 92.7% of phenol, and 49.5% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) at 2.9 days hydraulic retention time. 14 refs., 52 figs., 47 tabs.

  11. Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1981-04-01

    Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1990-10-01

    The primary objective of the EERC/AMAX Mild Gasification project is to commercialize a process that will produce several value-added products from a high-sulfur midwestern bituminous or a low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Indiana No. 3 and Wyodak coals are being tested in a 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) that has undergone shakedown testing and is undergoing parametric testing. This unit will provide the engineering data for use in determining the technical and economic data required for the design of a commercial-scale mild gasification plant. This report discusses results of carbonizer tests, char upgrading and char separations. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Developing a Process for Commercial Silica Production from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Martin, S; Viani, B; Bruton, C

    2001-04-11

    Useful mineral by-products can be produced from geothermal brines. Although silica has many commercial uses, problems remain in producing a marketable product. We are conducting laboratory and modeling studies aimed at optimizing for rubber additive use, the properties of silica precipitates from Salton Sea and Coso-like geothermal fluids, Our goal is to develop a robust technique for producing silicas that have desirable physical and chemical properties for commercial use, while developing a generic understanding of silica precipitation that will allow extraction to be extended to additional fluid types, and to be easily modified to produce new types of marketable silica. Our experiments start with an acidified geothermal fluid similar to those treated by pH modification technology. Silica precipitation is induced by adding base and/or adding Mg or Ca salts to affect the nature of the precipitate. For the analog Salton Sea fluids, adding base alone caused silica to precipitate fairly rapidly. To date, we have characterized precipitates from experiments in which the final pH varied from 4 to 8, where NaOH and Na{sub 2}C0{sub 3} were added as bases, and CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} were added as salts. SEM photos of the silica precipitates from the Salton Sea and Cos0 fluids show that the silica particles are clusters of smaller silica particles down to the resolution of the SEM (about 80-100 nm in diameter). The particle sizes and surface areas of silicas from the Salton Sea and Coso analog brines are similar to the properties of the Degussa silica commonly used as a rubber additive. An evaluation of the strength of the silica-organic bond as tested by dispersion in oil (polybutadiene) was inconclusive. Neither the Degussa materials nor our laboratory precipitates dispersed readily in nor dispersed down to the fundamental particle size. Preliminary NMR data indicates that the Degussa silica has a smaller degree of silica polymerization (a slightly smaller average

  14. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  15. Automated dynamic fed-batch process and media optimization for high productivity cell culture process development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Franklin; Toh, Poh Choo; Burnett, Iain; Li, Feng; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf; Li, Jincai

    2013-01-01

    Current industry practices for large-scale mammalian cell cultures typically employ a standard platform fed-batch process with fixed volume bolus feeding. Although widely used, these processes are unable to respond to actual nutrient consumption demands from the culture, which can result in accumulation of by-products and depletion of certain nutrients. This work demonstrates the application of a fully automated cell culture control, monitoring, and data processing system to achieve significant productivity improvement via dynamic feeding and media optimization. Two distinct feeding algorithms were used to dynamically alter feed rates. The first method is based upon on-line capacitance measurements where cultures were fed based on growth and nutrient consumption rates estimated from integrated capacitance. The second method is based upon automated glucose measurements obtained from the Nova Bioprofile FLEX® autosampler where cultures were fed to maintain a target glucose level which in turn maintained other nutrients based on a stoichiometric ratio. All of the calculations were done automatically through in-house integration with a Delta V process control system. Through both media and feed strategy optimization, a titer increase from the original platform titer of 5 to 6.3 g/L was achieved for cell line A, and a substantial titer increase of 4 to over 9 g/L was achieved for cell line B with comparable product quality. Glucose was found to be the best feed indicator, but not all cell lines benefited from dynamic feeding and optimized feed media was critical to process improvement. Our work demonstrated that dynamic feeding has the ability to automatically adjust feed rates according to culture behavior, and that the advantage can be best realized during early and rapid process development stages where different cell lines or large changes in culture conditions might lead to dramatically different nutrient demands.

  16. Science--A Process Approach, Product Development Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara A.; Kratochvil, Daniel W.

    Science - A Process Approach, a science program for grades kindergarten through sixth, mainly focuses on scientific processes: observing, classifying, using numbers, measuring, space/time relationships, communicating, predicting, inferring, defining operationally, formulating hypotheses, interpreting data, controlling variables, and experimenting.…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  19. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  20. Process development in the QbD paradigm: Role of process integration in process optimization for production of biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Pathak, Mili; Godara, Avinash

    2016-03-01

    Biotherapeutics have become the focus of the pharmaceutical industry due to their proven effectiveness in managing complex diseases. Downstream processes of these molecules consist of several orthogonal, high resolution unit operations designed so as to be able to separate variants having very similar physicochemical properties. Typical process development involves optimization of the individual unit operations based on Quality by Design principles in order to define the design space within which the process can deliver product that meets the predefined specifications. However, limited efforts are dedicated to understanding the interactions between the unit operations. This paper aims to showcase the importance of understanding these interactions and thereby arrive at operating conditions that are optimal for the overall process. It is demonstrated that these are not necessarily same as those obtained from optimization of the individual unit operations. Purification of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF), a biotherapeutic expressed in E. coli., has been used as a case study. It is evident that the suggested approach results in not only higher yield (91.5 vs. 86.4) but also improved product quality (% RP-HPLC purity of 98.3 vs. 97.5) and process robustness. We think that this paper is very relevant to the present times when the biotech industry is in the midst of implementing Quality by Design towards process development. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:355-362, 2016.

  1. Process development in the QbD paradigm: Role of process integration in process optimization for production of biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Pathak, Mili; Godara, Avinash

    2016-03-01

    Biotherapeutics have become the focus of the pharmaceutical industry due to their proven effectiveness in managing complex diseases. Downstream processes of these molecules consist of several orthogonal, high resolution unit operations designed so as to be able to separate variants having very similar physicochemical properties. Typical process development involves optimization of the individual unit operations based on Quality by Design principles in order to define the design space within which the process can deliver product that meets the predefined specifications. However, limited efforts are dedicated to understanding the interactions between the unit operations. This paper aims to showcase the importance of understanding these interactions and thereby arrive at operating conditions that are optimal for the overall process. It is demonstrated that these are not necessarily same as those obtained from optimization of the individual unit operations. Purification of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF), a biotherapeutic expressed in E. coli., has been used as a case study. It is evident that the suggested approach results in not only higher yield (91.5 vs. 86.4) but also improved product quality (% RP-HPLC purity of 98.3 vs. 97.5) and process robustness. We think that this paper is very relevant to the present times when the biotech industry is in the midst of implementing Quality by Design towards process development. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:355-362, 2016. PMID:26588604

  2. CO-PRODUCT ENHANCEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE MASADA OXYNOL PROCESS PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald V. Watkins

    2010-06-14

    The focus of this project was an overall process improvement through the enhancement of the co-product streams. The enhancement of the process operations and co-products will increase both ethanol production and the value of other process outputs and reduces the amount of waste byproducts. This leads to a more economical and environmentally sound alternative to landfill disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). These enhancements can greatly increase the commercial potential for the production of ethanol from MSW by the Masada CES OxyNol process. Both technological and economical issues were considered for steps throughout the conversion process. The research efforts of this project are varied but synergistic. The project investigated many of the operations involved in the Masada process with the overall goal of process improvements. The general goal of the testing was to improve co-product quality, improve conversions efficiencies, minimize process losses, increase energy efficiency, and mitigate process and commercialization risks. The project was divided into 16 subtasks as described in general terms below. All these tasks are interrelated but not necessarily interdependent.

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.R. ); Hogsett, R.F. ); Sinor, J.E. Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO ); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. . Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  5. [Development of guidance for the approval process of brand-new medical products and regenerative medicine products].

    PubMed

    Niimi, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Ministry of Health, Labour and Weltare has been conducting development of guidance for the approval process of brand-new medical products/development of guidance for medical devices in collaboration with Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry as part of measures to promote practical use of brand-new medical products since 2005. The objective of this project is to expedite the processes from developmental process of medical devices to approval review and to introduce the medical devices to medical front quickly.. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare side has been making guidance for the guide in approval process of brand-new medical products and regeneration medicine products to aim at acceleration and facilitation of development and approval process of innovative medical products. Twenty-two of the guidance have been issued as director of the evaluation and licensing division. The evaluation index about safety and efficacy required for medical devices and regenerative medicine products in progress were put together in these guidance and useful for medical devices developer to understand the point at the approved review. Therefore, I think that the evaluation index could also contribute to the efficient product development. The guidance about implantable artificial heart is issued as the representative example which was useful in the approved review. PMID:26821464

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Mask Production CAR Development Process with Stepwise Defect Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woo-Gun; Lee, Jung-Kwan; Park, Dong-Il; Park, Eu-Sang; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Seo, Sun-Kyu; Lee, Dong-Heok; Kim, Jin-Min; Choi, Sang-Soo; Jeong, Soo-Hong

    2002-12-01

    Chemically amplified resist (CAR) provides superior lithographic performance compared to traditional e-beam resists in production maskmaking. Parameters benefiting the most are contrast, resolution, and sensitivity. In spite of CAR's advantages, defect control and tighter 50KeV e-beam CAR process restrictions are significantly more critical thanks to smaller geometries, tighter CD specifications, and optical proximity correction (OPC) for 90nm node mask technology. Among defect root causes, resist development is considered to be the one of the most important steps because post-development residue can generate printable defects on finished masks. We investigated the CAR development process across different resist development methods, such as binary and fan-type nozzle spin spray, and puddle development. Several high density binary and embedded-attenuated phase shift masks (EAPSMs) with 70% clear area in the main pattern field were evaluated in an effort to identify and contain post-develop defects in a typical mask production flow. Development step process residue was examined at the after-develop inspection (ADI) step and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for individual defect review. The KLA-Tencor SLF77 TeraStar inspection tool was used to inspect patterns after the development, Cr/MoSiON layer dry etch, and clean steps. The effectiveness of the various CAR development methods has been also studied following development, dry etch, and cleaning inspection by using identical binary and EAPSM masks from production. The mechanism and defect source during the stepwise process and inspections were scrutinized and discussed. Experimental results showed that stepwise process inspection was effective in identifying defects and their sources to prevent defects, and in optimizing each process step. It was found that CAR development and dry etch processes are the most important process steps to control defects in CAR-based mask production. Suggested optimized

  8. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  9. Use of consumer insight in the new product development process in the meat sector.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O; Saeed, Faiza; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Successful new product development requires input from the market throughout the product development process, from identification of opportunities via screening of ideas, development of concepts, development of physical prototypes and to launch. Drawing on work done in the EU FP6 projects PROSAFEBEEF and Q-PORKCHAINS and a Danish project, all dealing with new product development in the meat sector, it is shown how the use of consumer insight techniques can a) support the identification of market opportunities, b) make sure that technologies applied are acceptable to consumers, c) aid the selection and optimisation of new product concepts and related communication, and d) be used to test product prototypes before final launch. PMID:21605939

  10. Product quality considerations for mammalian cell culture process development and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gramer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing of a biologic drug from mammalian cells results in not a single substance, but an array of product isoforms, also known as variants. These isoforms arise due to intracellular or extracellular events as a result of biological or chemical modification. The most common examples related to biomanufacturing include amino acid modifications (glycosylation, isomerization, oxidation, adduct formation, pyroglutamate formation, phosphorylation, sulfation, amidation), amino acid sequence variants (genetic mutations, amino acid misincorporation, N- and C-terminal heterogeneity, clipping), and higher-order structure modifications (misfolding, aggregation, disulfide pairing). Process-related impurities (HCP, DNA, media components, viral particles) are also important quality attributes related to product safety. The observed ranges associated with each quality attribute define the product quality profile. A biologic drug must have a correct and consistent quality profile throughout clinical development and scale-up to commercial production to ensure product safety and efficacy. In general, the upstream process (cell culture) defines the quality of product-related substances, whereas the downstream process (purification) defines the residual level of process- and product-related impurities. The purpose of this chapter is to review the impact of the cell culture process on product quality. Emphasis is placed on studies with industrial significance and where the direct mechanism of product quality impact was determined. Where possible, recommendations for maintaining consistent or improved quality are provided.

  11. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

  13. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  14. Product Development and its Comparative Analysis by SLA, SLS and FDM Rapid Prototyping Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, C. M.; Patil, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    To grab market and meeting deadlines has increased the scope of new methods in product design and development. Industries continuously strive to optimize the development cycles with high quality and cost efficient products to maintain market competitiveness. Thus the need of Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) has started to play pivotal role in rapid product development cycle for complex product. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are the corner stone of Rapid Prototyping (RP) especially if they are used for mould development. The paper deals with the development of part made with the help of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Stereo-lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) processes to benchmark and investigate on various parameters like material shrinkage rate, dimensional accuracy, time, cost and surface finish. This helps to conclude which processes can be proved to be effective and efficient in mould development. In this research work the emphasis was also given to the design stage of a product development to obtain an optimum design solution for an existing product.

  15. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  16. Quality by design case study: an integrated multivariate approach to drug product and process development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Kaul, Goldi; Cai, Chunsheng; Chatlapalli, Ramarao; Hernandez-Abad, Pedro; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Nagi, Arwinder

    2009-12-01

    To facilitate an in-depth process understanding, and offer opportunities for developing control strategies to ensure product quality, a combination of experimental design, optimization and multivariate techniques was integrated into the process development of a drug product. A process DOE was used to evaluate effects of the design factors on manufacturability and final product CQAs, and establish design space to ensure desired CQAs. Two types of analyses were performed to extract maximal information, DOE effect & response surface analysis and multivariate analysis (PCA and PLS). The DOE effect analysis was used to evaluate the interactions and effects of three design factors (water amount, wet massing time and lubrication time), on response variables (blend flow, compressibility and tablet dissolution). The design space was established by the combined use of DOE, optimization and multivariate analysis to ensure desired CQAs. Multivariate analysis of all variables from the DOE batches was conducted to study relationships between the variables and to evaluate the impact of material attributes/process parameters on manufacturability and final product CQAs. The integrated multivariate approach exemplifies application of QbD principles and tools to drug product and process development.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  18. Measuring the impact of computer resource quality on the software development process and product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Valett, Jon; Hall, Dana

    1985-01-01

    The availability and quality of computer resources during the software development process was speculated to have measurable, significant impact on the efficiency of the development process and the quality of the resulting product. Environment components such as the types of tools, machine responsiveness, and quantity of direct access storage may play a major role in the effort to produce the product and in its subsequent quality as measured by factors such as reliability and ease of maintenance. During the past six years, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has conducted experiments with software projects in an attempt to better understand the impact of software development methodologies, environments, and general technologies on the software process and product. Data was extracted and examined from nearly 50 software development projects. All were related to support of satellite flight dynamics ground-based computations. The relationship between computer resources and the software development process and product as exemplified by the subject NASA data was examined. Based upon the results, a number of computer resource-related implications are provided.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  20. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use was developed. The process sequence was then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of certain process steps for implementation. The steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect, both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development.

  1. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-06-30

    The scope of work under this contract involves specifying a process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use. This process sequence is then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of each process step for implementation. The process steps are ranked according to the degree of development effort required and according to their significance to the overall process. Under this contract the steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development. Economic analysis using the SAMICS system has been performed during these studies to assure that development efforts have been directed towards the ultimate goal of price reduction. Details are given. (WHK)

  2. Development of a production process for COTS glass remanufacture for use in avionic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, David; MacKenzie, Iain C.

    2001-09-01

    The use of commercially available AMLCD panels to satisfy existing avionic apertures often requires re-manufacturing of the native 4:3 aspect ration panels. The approach adopted by BAE SYSTEMS to develop a robust production process to enable this is described in detail. Evidence and test results are presented which indicates that the cutting process has not compromised the seal integrity of the re- manufactured panels.

  3. [Contribution of microbiologists of Kirov City to development of penicillin and streptomycin production processes (70 years since development of technology for submerged production of first domestic antibiotics)].

    PubMed

    Bakulin, M K; Tumanov, A S; Bakulin, V M; Kalininskiĭ, V B

    2014-01-01

    The publication is concerned with development of the technological processes for submered production of the first domestic antibiotics 70 years age. The literature data on the contribution of the microbiologists of the Kirov City and mainly the workers of the Red Army Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene (nowadays Central Research Institute No. 48 of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Kirov), to development of the manufacture processes for production of penicillin and streptomycin are reviewed.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  5. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  6. Development of new critical fluid-based processing methods for nutraceuticals and natural products

    SciTech Connect

    King, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The development of new supercritical fluid processing technology as applied to nutraceuticals and natural products is no longer confined to using just supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}). Recently reported advances have been focused on modifying natural products and improving functionality of an end product using newer experimental techniques and fluid phases. In this presentation four focus areas will be emphasized: (1) control of particle size/morphology and encapsulation of the nutraceutical ingredients, (2) the use of combinatorial methodology to optimize critical fluid processing, (3) application of sub-critical water as a complementary medium for processing natural products, and (4) an assessment of the current state of products and processing which use critical fluid to produce nutraceutical and natural products for the food and cosmetic marketplace. Application of the various particle fomiation processes conducted in the presence of critical fluid media, such as: CPF, SAS, DELOS, RESS, PGSS, and GAS, can be used to produce particles of small and uniform distribution, having unique morphologies, that facilitate rapid dissolution or sustained release of many nutraceutical ingredients. These substances have included: therapeutic spices, phystosterols, vitamins, phospholpids, and carotenoids. Accelerating the development of critical fluid processing has been the application of combinatorial methodology to optimize extraction, fractionation, and/or reactions in near-, SC-, or subcritical fluid media. This is frequently accomplished by using sequential or multichannel automated instrumentation that was originally designed for analytical purposes. Several examples will be provided of rapidly assessing the extraction of anthocyanins with sub-critical water and the SFE of natural products. However, differences do exist in conducting experiments on the above instrumentation vs. scaled-up continuous processes, which

  7. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  10. Catalytic reactive distillation process development for 1,1 diethoxy butane production from renewable sources.

    PubMed

    Agirre, I; Barrio, V L; Güemez, B; Cambra, J F; Arias, P L

    2011-01-01

    Some acetals can be produced from renewable resources (bioalcohols) and seem to be good candidates for different applications such as oxygenated diesel additives. In the present case the production of 1,1 diethoxy butane from bioethanol and butanal is presented. Butanal can be obtained from biobutanol following a partial oxidation or a dehydrogenation process. In this paper innovative process development about the synthesis of the mentioned acetal including catalytic reactive distillation experimental and simulation results will be presented and discussed. Katapak SP modules containing Amberlyst 47 resin were used as structured catalytic packings. This reactive system allowed reaching higher conversions than the equilibrium ones at the same temperatures. All the experimental data gathered allowed to tune a simulation model for the reactive distillation operation which showed a fairly good behavior in order to perform initial 1,1 diethoxy butane production process design studies.

  11. Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models, and computer codes based on these models were developed which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors in which gaseous silicon compounds are converted to condensed phase silicon. The reactors to be modeled are flow reactors in which silane or one of the halogenated silanes is thermally decomposed or reacted with an alkali metal, H2 or H atoms. Because the product of interest is particulate silicon, processes which must be modeled, in addition to mixing and reaction of gas-phase reactants, include the nucleation and growth of condensed Si via coagulation, condensation, and heterogeneous reaction.

  12. Considerations for the process development of insect-derived antimicrobial peptide production.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hagen; Salzig, Denise; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could evolve into new therapeutic lead molecules against multi-resistant bacteria. As insects are a rich source of AMP, the identification and characterization of insect-derived AMPs is particularly emphasized. One challenge of bringing these molecules into market, e.g., as a drug, is to develop a cost-efficient large-scale production process. Due to the fact that a direct AMP isolation from insects is not economical and that chemical synthesis is recommended for peptide sizes below 40 amino acids, a viable option is heterologous AMP production. Therefore, previous knowledge concerning the expression of larger proteins can be adapted, but due to the AMP nature (e.g., small size, bactericide) additional challenges have to be faced during up and downstream processing. Nonetheless the bottleneck for large-scale AMP production is the same as for proteins; mainly the downstream process. This review introduces opportunities for insect-derived AMP production, like the choice of the expression system (based on previously derived data), depending on the AMP nature, as well as new purification strategies like elastin-like peptide/intein based purification strategies. All of these aspects are discussed with regard to large-scale processes and costs.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  14. Development of a Process for a High Capacity Arc Heater Production of Silicon for Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    A program was established to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant (sodium) are injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection were developed. Included in this report are: test system preparation; testing; injection techniques; kinetics; reaction demonstration; conclusions; and the project status.

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  16. Development of a highly specific and productive process for n-caproic acid production: applying lessons from methanogenic microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Agler, M T; Spirito, C M; Usack, J G; Werner, J J; Angenent, L T

    2014-01-01

    High productivity and specificity in anaerobic digesters arise because complex microbiomes organize into a metabolic cascade to maximize energy recovery and to utilize the advantage that the gaseous end product methane freely bubbles out of the system. These lessons were applied to ascertain whether a reactor microbiome could be shaped to produce a different end product. The liquid product n-caproic acid was chosen, which is a 6-carbon-chain carboxylic acid that is valuable and that has a relatively low maximum solubility concentration for product recovery. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was inhibited by pH control and a route was provided for n-caproic acid extraction by implementing selective, in-line recovery. Next, ethanol was supplemented to promote chain elongation, which is a pathway in which short-chain carboxylic acids are elongated sequentially into medium-chain carboxylic acids with two-carbon units derived from ethanol. The reactor microbiome developed accordingly with the terminal process catalyzed by chain-elongating bacteria. As a result, n-caproic acid production rates increased to levels comparable to anaerobic digestion systems for solid waste treatment. PMID:24434969

  17. Development of a scalable spray pyrolysis process for the production of non-hollow battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, Miklos; Elhassid, Dror; Atlas, Gal; Moller, William T.; Axelbaum, Richard L.

    2014-11-01

    Spray pyrolysis typically produces hollow particles when the particles are larger than about 2 microns. In this work, a scalable spray pyrolysis process was developed for the production of electrochemically active materials in a way that overcomes hollow sphere formation. With this new slurry spray pyrolysis process particles greater than 6 μm have been successfully produced with a solid, yet porous interior morphology. Results indicate that the process shows great potential for the production of high quality, electrochemically active materials, as demonstrated by the electrochemical performance of layered Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 materials. The materials are phase pure, as observed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and discharge capacities greater than 200 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at C/3 rate (where 1 C = 200 mAh g-1) are consistently obtained. The standard deviation in discharge capacity for 5 batches of material produced under identical conditions was 11 mAh g-1. These promising electrochemical results were obtained at a scale of 50 g h-1 and with minimal process optimization, indicating the potential for commercial scale production.

  18. Development of a Commercial Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    A patent was issued on ''VLS'' silicon carbide fibrils to North American Phillips Corporation in 1975. Various laboratories and companies have been attempting to improve this process and scale it to larger quantities since that time. All of these efforts met with minimal success because they were using the original technology while attempting to improve the equipment. The principal impediments have been: (1) Slow crystal growth during fibril production; (2) Sensitive stoichiometry factors in the crystal growth chamber; and (3) Precise control of a high temperature process. The principal investigator has scaled silicon carbide whisker production at American Matrix and the SiC fiber process at Advanced Composite Materials Corporation from grams in the laboratory to tons per year production. This project is a proof-of-concept effort to apply some of the recent technology to the problems listed above in the fibril growth process. Two different technology approaches were investigated. A major problem with fibril growth has been generating a consistent supply of the required SiO gas reactant, which is a product of reducing SiO{sub 2}. The first approach, in this project addresses the SiO gas production, involved mixing silica and carbon fibrous raw materials in the immediate proximity of the graphite fibril growth plates to generate SiO nearer to individual sites of fibril growth. Iron bearing catalyst was painted on the graphite plates and the SiO generator mix was placed above the plate. This system was then heated to 1600/1650 C in a graphite resistance furnace. Some fibrils were started but the growth rate and fibril quality were unacceptably low. A second approach, which uses MTS + H{sub 2} gases to address stoichiometry control, was investigated to improve fibril growth rates while reducing the previous high temperature requirements for the process. A partial vacuum chamber was construct inside a commercial microwave furnace. The fibril growth container was coated

  19. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tirla, Cornelia; Dooling, Thomas A.; Smith, Rachel B.; Shi, Xinyan; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  20. Development of a process for high capacity-arc heater production of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H.; Meyer, T. N.; Fey, M. G.; Harvey, F. J.; Arcella, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    The realization of low cost, electric power from large-area silicon, photovoltaic arrays will depend on the development of new methods for large capacity production of solar grade (SG) silicon with a cost of less than $10 per kilogram by 1986 (established Department of Energy goal). The objective of the program is to develop a method to produce SG silicon in large quantities based on the high temperature-sodium reduction of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) to yield molten silicon and the coproduct salt vapor (NaCl). Commercial ac electric arc heaters will be utilized to provide a hyper-heated mixture of argon and hydrogen which will furnish the required process energy. The reactor is designed for a nominal silicon flow rate of 45 kg/hr. Analyses and designs have been conducted to evaluate the process and complete the initial design of the experimental verification unit.

  1. Elements in the Development of a Production Process for Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Ingo; Lohr, Verena; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo; Sandig, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The production of several viral vaccines depends on chicken embryo fibroblasts or embryonated chicken eggs. To replace this logistically demanding substrate, we created continuous anatine suspension cell lines (CR and CR.pIX), developed chemically-defined media, and established production processes for different vaccine viruses. One of the processes investigated in greater detail was developed for modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). MVA is highly attenuated for human recipients and an efficient vector for reactogenic expression of foreign genes. Because direct cell-to-cell spread is one important mechanism for vaccinia virus replication, cultivation of MVA in bioreactors is facilitated if cell aggregates are induced after infection. This dependency may be the mechanism behind our observation that a novel viral genotype (MVA-CR) accumulates with serial passage in suspension cultures. Sequencing of a major part of the genomic DNA of the new strain revealed point mutations in three genes. We hypothesize that these changes confer an advantage because they may allow a greater fraction of MVA-CR viruses to escape the host cells for infection of distant targets. Production and purification of MVA-based vaccines may be simplified by this combination of designed avian cell line, chemically defined media and the novel virus strain.

  2. Microsystem product development.

    SciTech Connect

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

  3. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  4. Continuous processing and the applications of online tools in pharmaceutical product manufacture: developments and examples.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Shing Ming; Sarkar, Srimanta; van Varenbergh, Griet; Schoeters, Kris; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2013-04-01

    Continuous processing and production in pharmaceutical manufacturing has received increased attention in recent years mainly due to the industries' pressing needs for more efficient, cost-effective processes and production, as well as regulatory facilitation. To achieve optimum product quality, the traditional trial-and-error method for the optimization of different process and formulation parameters is expensive and time consuming. Real-time evaluation and the control of product quality using an online process analyzer in continuous processing can provide high-quality production with very high-throughput at low unit cost. This review focuses on continuous processing and the application of different real-time monitoring tools used in the pharmaceutical industry for continuous processing from powder to tablets.

  5. Large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels - process design as an inherent part of microorganism development.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Maria C; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M

    2013-06-01

    Industrial biotechnology is playing an important role in the transition to a bio-based economy. Currently, however, industrial implementation is still modest, despite the advances made in microorganism development. Given that the fuels and commodity chemicals sectors are characterized by tight economic margins, we propose to address overall process design and efficiency at the start of bioprocess development. While current microorganism development is targeted at product formation and product yield, addressing process design at the start of bioprocess development means that microorganism selection can also be extended to other critical targets for process technology and process scale implementation, such as enhancing cell separation or increasing cell robustness at operating conditions that favor the overall process. In this paper we follow this approach for the microbial production of diesel-like biofuels. We review current microbial routes with both oleaginous and engineered microorganisms. For the routes leading to extracellular production, we identify the process conditions for large scale operation. The process conditions identified are finally translated to microorganism development targets. We show that microorganism development should be directed at anaerobic production, increasing robustness at extreme process conditions and tailoring cell surface properties. All the same time, novel process configurations integrating fermentation and product recovery, cell reuse and low-cost technologies for product separation are mandatory. This review provides a state-of-the-art summary of the latest challenges in large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels.

  6. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology is discussed. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant, liquid sodium, were injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction occurred, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon were developed. The desired degree of separation was not achieved. The electrical, control and instrumentation, cooling water, gas, SiCl4, and sodium systems are discussed. The plasma reactor, silicon collection, effluent disposal, the gas burnoff stack, and decontamination and safety are also discussed. Procedure manuals, shakedown testing, data acquisition and analysis, product characterization, disassembly and decontamination, and component evaluation are reviewed.

  7. Development of Energy Models for Production Systems and Processes to Inform Environmentally Benign Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Elsayed, Nancy

    Between 2008 and 2035 global energy demand is expected to grow by 53%. While most industry-level analyses of manufacturing in the United States (U.S.) have traditionally focused on high energy consumers such as the petroleum, chemical, paper, primary metal, and food sectors, the remaining sectors account for the majority of establishments in the U.S. Specifically, of the establishments participating in the Energy Information Administration's Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey in 2006, the non-energy intensive" sectors still consumed 4*109 GJ of energy, i.e., one-quarter of the energy consumed by the manufacturing sectors, which is enough to power 98 million homes for a year. The increasing use of renewable energy sources and the introduction of energy-efficient technologies in manufacturing operations support the advancement towards a cleaner future, but having a good understanding of how the systems and processes function can reduce the environmental burden even further. To facilitate this, methods are developed to model the energy of manufacturing across three hierarchical levels: production equipment, factory operations, and industry; these methods are used to accurately assess the current state and provide effective recommendations to further reduce energy consumption. First, the energy consumption of production equipment is characterized to provide machine operators and product designers with viable methods to estimate the environmental impact of the manufacturing phase of a product. The energy model of production equipment is tested and found to have an average accuracy of 97% for a product requiring machining with a variable material removal rate profile. However, changing the use of production equipment alone will not result in an optimal solution since machines are part of a larger system. Which machines to use, how to schedule production runs while accounting for idle time, the design of the factory layout to facilitate production, and even the

  8. Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  10. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon in volume at low cost were studied. Experiments were performed to evaluate product separation and collection processes, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes, determine the effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction, and make preliminary engineering and economic analyses of a scaled-up process.

  11. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

    1990-12-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

  12. Knowledge work productivity effect on quality of knowledge work in software development process in SME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zairol; Mahmuddin, Massudi; Ahmad, Mazida

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge and skill are necessary to develop the capability of knowledge workers. However, there is very little understanding of what the necessary knowledge work (KW) is, and how they influence the quality of knowledge work or knowledge work productivity (KWP) in software development process, including that in small and medium-sized (SME) enterprise. The SME constitutes a major part of the economy and it has been relatively unsuccessful in developing KWP. Accordingly, this paper seeks to explore the influencing dimensions of KWP that effect on the quality of KW in SME environment. First, based on the analysis of the existing literatures, the key characteristics of KW productivity are defined. Second, the conceptual model is proposed, which explores the dimensions of the KWP and its quality. This study analyses data collected from 150 respondents (based on [1], who involve in SME in Malaysia and validates the models by using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results provide an analysis of the effect of KWP on the quality of KW and business success, and have a significant relevance for both research and practice in the SME

  13. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes. PMID:26140350

  14. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M

    2015-07-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes.

  15. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes. PMID:26140350

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  17. Guidance for Product Category Rule Development: Process, Outcome and Next Steps

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background The development of Product Category Rules (PCRs) is inconsistent among the program operators using ISO 14025 as the basis. Furthermore, the existence of several other product claim standards and specifications that require PCRs for making product claims, has the potent...

  18. Process development of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars using gentically engineered yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Xia, Y.; Ho, N.W.Y.

    1996-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal feedstock for the large scale manufacture of fuel ethanol. Glucose and xylose represent the two major fermentable sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and efficient fermentation of both these sugars is essential for the economical production of fuel ethanol. In our laboratory, a genetically engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33) has been developed which can ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously to ethanol. This recombinant yeast has a very high ethanol tolerance (13.6% w/v) which allows high ethanol concentrations to accumulate in the fermentation medium, thus reducing downstream processing mu significantly. For large scale application of this genetically engineered cell culture, the fermentation kinetics have been investigated. We have studied the effects of substrate and product inhibition for both the host post 1400 and the engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33) during fermentation of glucose, xylose and mixtures of glucose and xylose. Plasmid instability is an important factor influencing cell culture scale up. This aspect w investigated in selective, non-selective and partially selective fermentation media and the results will be reported in this paper. Based on these kinetic studies, a model has been developed which can simulate the fermentation of glucose and xylose to ethanol using the genetically engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33), in both batch and continuous cultures.

  19. Expanding lean thinking to the product and process design and development within the framework of sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorli, M.; Sopelana, A.; Salgado, M.; Pelaez, G.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Companies require tools to change towards a new way of developing and producing innovative products to be manufactured considering the economic, social and environmental impact along the product life cycle. Based on translating Lean principles in Product Development (PD) from the design stage and, along the entire product life cycle, it is aimed to address both sustainability and environmental issues. The drivers of sustainable culture within a lean PD have been identified and a baseline for future research on the development of appropriate tools and techniques has been provided. This research provide industry with a framework which balance environmental and sustainable factors with lean principles to be considered and incorporated from the beginning of product design and development covering the entire product lifecycle.

  20. Development of a biotechnological process for the production of high quality linen fibers.

    PubMed

    Valladares Juárez, Ana Gabriela; Rost, Gernot; Heitmann, Uwe; Heger, Egon; Müller, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    A novel biotechnological process for the production of high-quality flax fibers was developed. In this process, decorticated fibers from green flax were washed with 0.5% soda solution and treated with the pectinolytic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius PB94A. Before drying the fibers, they were treated with the textile softener Adulcinol BUN. If the fibers contained contaminant shives, a bleaching step with hydrogen peroxide was performed before the softener treatment. In experiments where fibers were treated by the new process, and in which the bacterial solutions were reused seven times, the fiber quality was similar in all batches. The resolution of the treated fibers was 2.7 ± 0.4 and the fineness was 11.1 ± 1.1 dtex, while the starting material had a resolution of 7.3 and a fineness of 37 dtex. The new biotechnological treatment eliminates the weather-associated risks of the traditional fiber retting completely and produces consistently high-quality fibers that can be used to produce fine linen yarns.

  1. Developing a Data Driven Process-Based Model for Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmasri, B.; Rahman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon fluxes at various spatial and temporal scales is essential for quantifying the global carbon cycle. Numerous models have been developed for this purpose using several environmental variables as well as vegetation indices derived from remotely sensed data. Here we present a data driven modeling approach for gross primary production (GPP) that is based on a process based model BIOME-BGC. The proposed model was run using available remote sensing data and it does not depend on look-up tables. Furthermore, this approach combines the merits of both empirical and process models, and empirical models were used to estimate certain input variables such as light use efficiency (LUE). This was achieved by using remotely sensed data to the mathematical equations that represent biophysical photosynthesis processes in the BIOME-BGC model. Moreover, a new spectral index for estimating maximum photosynthetic activity, maximum photosynthetic rate index (MPRI), is also developed and presented here. This new index is based on the ratio between the near infrared and the green bands (ρ858.5/ρ555). The model was tested and validated against MODIS GPP product and flux measurements from two eddy covariance flux towers located at Morgan Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard Forest in Massachusetts. Satellite data acquired by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and MODIS were used. The data driven model showed a strong correlation between the predicted and measured GPP at the two eddy covariance flux towers sites. This methodology produced better predictions of GPP than did the MODIS GPP product. Moreover, the proportion of error in the predicted GPP for MMSF and Harvard forest was dominated by unsystematic errors suggesting that the results are unbiased. The analysis indicated that maintenance respiration is one of the main factors that dominate the overall model outcome errors and improvement in maintenance respiration estimation

  2. Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil

  3. Developing an environmentally benign process for the production of microparticles: amphiphilic crystallization.

    PubMed

    Murnane, Darragh; Marriott, Christopher; Martin, Gary P

    2008-05-01

    The production of microparticles for inhalation typically employs jet-milling which can be destructive to the solid-state properties of the particles. The objective of the current work was to develop a crystallization process for the production of respirable microparticles of salmeterol xinafoate (SX) with a controlled particle size distribution (PSD). Solvation of SX in aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PEG 400) was investigated using HPLC and FTIR. SX was crystallized from PEG 400 solutions by the addition of water under a variety of conditions of supersaturation, addition rate of antisolvent and stirring speed. The crystals were filtered, dried at 50 degrees C and their PSDs were determined by laser diffraction. A logarithmic increase in solubility of SX was observed with increasing concentration of PEG 400 in water enabling the aqueous antisolvent crystallization of SX from PEG. Similar to antisolvent crystallization from conventional solvents, a 2(4) factorial study showed the particle size to decrease with increasing supersaturation. The PSD also depended on the balance of meso- and micromixing determined by the crystallization conditions. In particular a high addition rate (200 g min(-1)) and low stirrer speed (400 rpm) minimized the median diameter (2.54+/-0.40 microm) and produced a narrow PSD (90%<8.67+/-0.77 microm) of SX particles. Amphiphilic crystallization provided a novel, environmentally benign method to produce microparticles of SX with a controlled size range.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.

    1990-10-23

    Research continued on the production of coproducts from continuous mild gasification. During the third quarter of 1990, work focused on start-up and operation of the 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU). Start-up procedures have been finalized for the methane production reactor, and the design temperature has been achieved. Flows and pressures for the overall process have been balanced and optimized. We have achieved temperatures above 1500{degree}F in the carbon formation reactor. Upgrading experiments on mild gasification pitch have also continued on a pitch produced in run MG-122. Results of heat treating and catalytic treating tests are reported.

  5. Implementation of automated macro after develop inspection in a production lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanof, Arnold W.; Plachecki, Vincent E.; Fischer, Frank W.; Cusacovich, Marcelo; Nelson, Chris; Merrill, Mark A.

    2000-06-01

    Although the subject of frequent concern, criticism, and attention in the modern semiconductor fabrication facility, human after develop inspection (ADI) does not catch the major scrap and yield events early enough, if at all. The overall success of scrap and photo redo reduction programs over past years has resulted in residual problem levels which are difficult to improve upon -- yet still very costly. Detected 'events' are few and far-between, although evidence of their prevalence is frequently seen at subsequent inspections, or finally at probe. In the ASIC fab, they put on-time delivery to customers at risk, because individual wafer lots in an ASIC facility have a designated customer. The sampled area is limited by human throughput to less than 10% of the wafers in a lot. The visual ADI process step is unpopular among manufacturing technicians. It is often a bottleneck in the photo area. Statistically, in a photo area with capacity of 5000 wafer starts per week, only a few wafers processed per day are destined for scrap. Since wafer events occur in sporadic clusters, the photo area experiences only a few significant incidents per month. The typical operator can expect to intercept such an event less than once during several months of otherwise uneventful ADI inspection haystack.' Hence the stubbornness of our residual problem. Going beyond the statistical problem, our current manual macro-inspection equipment is engineered appropriately to ancient IC generations. A collimated, oblique-oriented light was an effective darkfield illumination source, when line widths were much larger than the wavelength of light. When line width is comparable to, or smaller than, the wavelength, the collimated light source produces scintillating diffracted colors on the wafer. Thus diffraction 'noise' significantly buries the defect 'signal' in the typical bright light visual macro inspection. In addition, there is the problem of variability between human inspectors, and the

  6. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  7. Development of a more efficient process for production of fuel ethanol from bamboo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Wang, Ting; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    A process for production of fuel ethanol from bamboo treated with concentrated sulfuric acid has been previously proposed. To improve efficiency of the process, we tested saccharification with 70 weight% (wt%) sulfuric acid, acid-sugar separation by ion exclusion, addition of nutrients to the ethanol fermentation, and bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. A high efficiency of both sugar recovery (82.5 %) and acid recovery (97.5 %) was achieved in the saccharification process and in the continuous acid-sugar separation using a modified anion exchange resin, respectively. Reduction of the amount of mineral salts added to the saccharified liquid after acid-sugar separation did not negatively affect performance of the continuous ethanol fermentation. The ethanol yield and productivity were 93.7 % and 6 g/l h, respectively, at 35 °C and pH 4.0. And the ethanol yield and productivity were almost the same even at pH 3.5. Moreover, the xylose remaining in the fermented mash was efficiently converted to xylitol in batch fermentation by Candida tropicalis strain 2.1776. These results demonstrate a more efficient process for the production of fuel ethanol from bamboo.

  8. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  9. Developments in the fermentation process and quality improvement strategies for mead production.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Antonio; Pascoal, Ananias; Choupina, Altino Branco; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-08-19

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads' quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies.

  10. Risk management in medical product development process using traditional FMEA and fuzzy linguistic approach: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkire, Milind Shrikant; Rane, Santosh B.; Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram

    2015-05-01

    Medical product development (MPD) process is highly multidisciplinary in nature, which increases the complexity and the associated risks. Managing the risks during MPD process is very crucial. The objective of this research is to explore risks during MPD in a dental product manufacturing company and propose a model for risk mitigation during MPD process to minimize failure events. A case study approach is employed. The existing MPD process is mapped with five phases of the customized phase gate process. The activities during each phase of development and risks associated with each activity are identified and categorized based on the source of occurrence. The risks are analyzed using traditional Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy FMEA. The results of two methods when compared show that fuzzy approach avoids the duplication of RPNs and helps more to convert cognition of experts into information to get values of risk factors. The critical, moderate, low level and negligible risks are identified based on criticality; risk treatments and mitigation model are proposed. During initial phases of MPD, the risks are less severe, but as the process progresses the severity of risks goes on increasing. The MPD process should be critically designed and simulated to minimize the number of risk events and their severity. To successfully develop the products/devices within the manufacturing companies, the process risk management is very essential. A systematic approach to manage risks during MPD process will lead to the development of medical products with expected quality and reliability. This is the first research of its kind having focus on MPD process risks and its management. The methodology adopted in this paper will help the developers, managers and researchers to have a competitive edge over the other companies by managing the risks during the development process.

  11. Coal liquefaction processes and development requirements analysis for synthetic fuels production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Focus of the study is on: (1) developing a technical and programmatic data base on direct and indirect liquefaction processes which have potential for commercialization during the 1980's and beyond, and (2) performing analyses to assess technology readiness and development trends, development requirements, commercial plant costs, and projected synthetic fuel costs. Numerous data sources and references were used as the basis for the analysis results and information presented.

  12. Development of a glutathione production process from proteinaceous biomass resources using protease-displaying Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kim, Songhee; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kiriyama, Kentaro; Kondo, Takashi; Okai, Naoko; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-02-01

    Glutathione is a valuable tri-peptide that is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Glutathione is produced industrially by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and supplementation of fermentation with several amino acids can increase intracellular GSH content. More recently, however, focus has been given to protein as a resource for biofuel and fine chemical production. We demonstrate that expression of a protease on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae enables the direct use of keratin and soy protein as a source of amino acids and that these substrates enhanced intracellular GSH content. Furthermore, fermentation using soy protein also enhanced cell concentration. GSH fermentation from keratin and to a greater extent from soy protein using protease-displaying yeast yielded greater GSH productivity compared to GSH fermentation with amino acid supplementation. This protease-displaying yeast is potentially applicable to a variety of processes for the bio-production of value-added chemicals from proteinaceous biomass resources. PMID:22075633

  13. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  14. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the development of automated solar cell and module production is reported. The unimate robot is programmed for the final 35 cell pattern to be used in the fabrication of the deliverable modules. The mechanical construction of the automated lamination station and final assembly station phases are completed and the first operational testing is underway. The final controlling program is written and optimized. The glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panels to be used for testing and deliverables are in production. Test routines are grouped together and defined to produce the final control program.

  15. Development of a Commercial Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, R.D.

    2003-04-22

    The current work continues a project completed in 1999 by ReMaxCo Technologies in which a novel, microwave based, VLS Silicon Carbide Fibrils concept was verified. This project continues the process development of a pilot scale commercial reactor. Success will lead to sufficient quantities of fibrils to expand work by ORNL and others on heat exchanger tube development. A semicontinuous, microwave heated, vacuum reactor was designed, fabricated and tested in these experiments. Cylindrical aluminum oxide reaction boats are coated, on the inner surface, with a catalyst and placed into the reactor under a light vacuum. A series of reaction boats are then moved, one at a time, through the reactor. Each boat is first preheated with resistance heaters to 850 C to 900 C. Each reaction boat is then moved, in turn, to the microwave heated section. The catalyst is heated to the required temperature of 1200 C to 1300 C while a mixture of MTS (methyl trichlorosilane) and hydrogen are introduced into the annulus of the boat. The MTS is dissociated to allow the carbon and silicon components to be dissolved into the catalyst. The catalyst saturates and precipitates silicon carbide onto the surface of the reaction boat to grow the Fibrils. The reaction continues as long as the MTS is introduced into the reactor. The major obstacle that had to be overcome during this project was the performance of the reactor. The original design of the reactor focused the microwaves in such a manner that they missed the catalyst/Fibrils growth zone. The microwaves did react with the insulation and the reactor was heated by heating the insulation. Modifications were made to the reactor to focus the microwaves on the catalyst. SiC Fibrils were produced using both MTS and Starfire SP4000 as feed-gas precursors. Both precursors produced fibrils at temperatures of less than 1000 C. The new Starfire SP4000 produced fibrils as low as 800 C, without the use of hydrogen and without producing the hazardous

  16. Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

  17. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1993-12-01

    It is important that a mild gasification reactor interface easily with the subsequent product upgrading steps in which the market value of the products is enhanced. Upgrading and marketing of the char are critical to the overall economics of a mild gasification plant because char is the major product (65 to 75% of the coal feedstock). In the past, the char product was sold as a ``smokeless`` fuel, but in today`s competitive markets the best price for char as a fuel for steam generation would be that of the parent coal. Substantially higher prices could be obtained for char upgraded into products such as metallurgical coke, graphite, carbon electrode feedstock or a slurry fuel replacement for No. 6 fuel oil. In this effort, upgrading techniques are being developed to address these premium markets. Liquid products can similarly be upgraded to high market value products such as high-density fuel, chemicals, binders for form coke, and also gasoline and diesel blending stocks. About half of the non-condensable fuel gases produced by the gasification process will be required to operate the process; the unused portion could be upgraded into value-added products or used as fuel either internally or in ``across the fence`` sales. The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization.

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  19. Development of the silane process for the production of low-cost polysilicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iya, S. K.

    1986-02-01

    It was recognized that the traditional hot rod type deposition process for decomposing silane is energy intensive, and a different approach for converting silane to silicon was chosen. A 1200 metric tons/year capacity commercial plant was constructed in Moses Lake, Washington. A fluidized bed processor was chosen as the most promising technology and several encouraging test runs were conducted. This technology continues to be very promising in producing low cost polysilicon. The Union Carbide silane process and the research development on the fluidized bed silane decomposition are discussed.

  20. Development of the silane process for the production of low-cost polysilicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    It was recognized that the traditional hot rod type deposition process for decomposing silane is energy intensive, and a different approach for converting silane to silicon was chosen. A 1200 metric tons/year capacity commercial plant was constructed in Moses Lake, Washington. A fluidized bed processor was chosen as the most promising technology and several encouraging test runs were conducted. This technology continues to be very promising in producing low cost polysilicon. The Union Carbide silane process and the research development on the fluidized bed silane decomposition are discussed.

  1. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  2. Process Development of Adenoviral Vector Production in Fixed Bed Bioreactor: From Bench to Commercial Scale.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Hanna P; Heikkilä, Kati M; Lipponen, Eevi M; Valonen, Piia; Müller, Achim; Räsänen, Eva; Tuunanen, Tarja; Hassinen, Minna M; Parker, Nigel; Karhinen, Minna; Shaw, Robert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale vector manufacturing for phase III and beyond has proven to be challenging. Upscaling the process with suspension cells is increasingly feasible, but many viral production applications are still applicable only in adherent settings. Scaling up the adherent system has proven to be troublesome. The iCELLis(®) disposable fixed-bed bioreactors offer a possible option for viral vector manufacturing in large quantities in an adherent environment. In this study, we have optimized adenovirus serotype 5 manufacturing using iCELLis Nano with a cultivation area up to 4 m(2). HEK293 cell cultivation, infection, and harvest of the virus (by lysing the cells inside the bioreactor) proved possible, reaching total yield of up to 1.6×10(14) viral particles (vp)/batch. The iCELLis 500 is designed to satisfy demand for large-scale requirements. Inoculating a large quantity of cell mass into the iCELLis 500 was achieved by first expanding the cell mass in suspension. Upscaling the process into an iCELLis 500/100 m(2) cultivation area cassette was practical and produced up to 6.1×10(15) vp. Flask productivity per cm(2) in iCELLis Nano and iCELLis 500 was in the same range. As a conclusion, we showed for the first time that iCELLis 500 equipment has provided an effective way to manufacture large batches of adenoviral vectors. PMID:26176404

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild-gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W. ); Jha, Mahesh C. )

    1991-11-01

    This report contains descriptions of mild-gasification and char-to-carbon process research units (PRUS) used by WRI and AMAX R D Center to conduct tests under contract AC21-87MC24268. Descriptions of materials produced during those tests are also contained herein. Western Research Institute proposes to dispose of remaining fines and dried coal by combustion and remaining coal liquids by incineration during mid-1992. The mild-gasification PRU will be used for additional tests until 1993, at which time WRI proposes to decontaminate and disassemble the PRU. AMAX R D Center intends to return the spent char, any remaining feed char, and unusable product carbon to the Eagle Butte Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, from where the coal originally came. The solid products will be added to the mine's coal product stream. Coal liquids collected from condensers will be concentrated and sent to a local oil and solvent recycling company where the liquids will be burned as fuel. The char-to-carbon PRU will be operated periodically until 1993 when the plant will be decontaminated and disassembled.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating a process concept called Mild Gasification in which rapid devolatilization of coal under mild conditions of temperature and pressure would yield three product slates: a low- or medium-BTU gas, a valuable hydrocarbon condensate, and a reactive char. The ongoing objective of this program is to develop a continuous mild gasification process which will produce a product mix that optimizes process economics. In order to provide the incentive for private industry to commercialize the process, it is necessary to demonstrate yields and qualities in a versatile continuous process development unit (PDU). This unit must be capable of assessing both coal- and process-specific effects in a cost-effective and timely manner. Based on literature reviews and experimental verification, a data base will be developed correlating coal and process parameters with product characteristics. This will provide process developers with the information necessary to derive site-specific economics which will be crucial for the commercialization of the mild gasification process. The literature review and market assessment has been completed under Task 1 of the program. Under Task 2, coal-specific tests are being conducted on three AMAX coals: Chinook, an Indiana {number_sign}3 bituminous coal; Delta, an Illinois {number_sign}6 bituminous coal; and Eagle Butte, a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Various methods of char upgrading are being conducted by AMAX R&D of Golden, Colorado. The upgraded char is then combined with iron ore and tested for pig iron production under an AMAX subcontract to Pellet Technology Corporation of Marquette, Michigan. In addition to the test program, process development and scaleup information is being developed for a 1 ton/hr pilot plant unit. Plans for Tasks 2 and 3, equipment modifications, and report. Results include: char analysis, condensable analysis, waste water analysis, and gas analysis.

  5. Stakeholder engagement in scenario development process - bioenergy production and biodiversity conservation in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Haatanen, Anniina; den Herder, Michael; Leskinen, Pekka; Lindner, Marcus; Kurttila, Mikko; Salminen, Olli

    2014-03-15

    In this study participatory approaches were used to develop alternative forest resource management scenarios with particular respect to the effects on increased use of forest bioenergy and its effect on biodiversity in Eastern Finland. As technical planning tools, we utilized a forest management planning system (MELA) and the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) to visualize the impacts of the scenarios. We organized a stakeholder workshop where group discussions were used as a participatory method to get the stakeholder preferences and insights concerning forest resource use in the year 2030. Feedback from the workshop was then complemented with a questionnaire. Based on the results of the workshop and a questionnaire we developed three alternative forest resource scenarios: (1) bioenergy 2030 - in which energy production is more centralized and efficient; (2) biodiversity 2030 - in which harvesting methods are more nature friendly and protected forests make up 10% of the total forest area; and (3) mixed bioenergy + biodiversity 2030 scenario - in which wood production, recreation and nature protection are assigned to the most suitable areas. The study showed that stakeholder engagement combined with the MELA and ToSIA tools can be a useful approach in scenario development.

  6. The Application of Modern Powder Characterisation Methods in Product and Process Development of Solid Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Tim; Brockbank, Katrina; Armstrong, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry still produces the vast majority of their products, from powdered ingredients, in the form of solid doses. Despite their ubiquity, powders are difficult materials to characterise and understand, as evidenced by the frequent problems encountered during manufacture. The reason for this is their complex rheological behaviour coupled with numerous environmental variations, such as humidity. Equally, the range of processes used to manipulate powders subject them to extremes of stress from high compaction loads seen in compactors to the dispersed state seen in fluidised bed dryers. Thus, it is evident that ensuring that the powders characteristics are compatible with the way they are to be processed is a clear prerequisite for today's Quality by Design driven manufacturing. Modern, computer controlled instrumental techniques, including the dynamic, bulk and shear property measurements have enabled direct measurements of a powders response to aeration, consolidation and flow rate - all at low stresses - as well as quantifying shear and bulk properties (such as density, compressibility and permeability). In order to demonstrate how fully characterising a powder can be used in the design, operation and troubleshooting of processes, this paper will present examples of common pharmaceutical unit operations and the different powder characteristics that most influence the performance of each.

  7. High-throughput process development of an alternative platform for the production of virus-like particles in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Baumann, Pascal; Weigel, Claudia; Vormittag, Philipp; Middelberg, Anton; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-02-10

    The production of safe vaccines against untreatable or new diseases has pushed the research in the field of virus-like particles (VLPs). Currently, a large number of commercial VLP-based human vaccines and vaccine candidates are available or under development. A promising VLP production route is the controlled in vitro assembly of virus proteins into capsids. In the study reported here, a high-throughput screening (HTS) procedure was implemented for the upstream process development of a VLP platform in bacterial cell systems. Miniaturized cultivations were carried out in 48-well format in the BioLector system (m2p-Labs, Germany) using an Escherichia coli strain with a tac promoter producing the murine polyomavirus capsid protein (VP1). The screening procedure incorporated micro-scale cultivations, HTS cell disruption by sonication and HTS-compatible analytics by capillary gel electrophoresis. Cultivation temperatures, shaking speeds, induction and medium conditions were varied to optimize the product expression in E. coli. The most efficient system was selected based on an evaluation of soluble and insoluble product concentrations as well as on the percentage of product in the total soluble protein fraction. The optimized system was scaled up to cultivation 2.5L shaker flask scale and purified using an anion exchange chromatography membrane adsorber, followed by a size exclusion chromatography polishing procedure. For proof of concept, purified VP1 capsomeres were assembled under defined buffer conditions into empty capsids and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presented HTS procedure allowed for a fast development of an efficient production process of VLPs in E. coli. Under optimized cultivation conditions, the VP1 product totalled up to 43% of the total soluble protein fraction, yielding 1.63 mg VP1 per mL of applied cultivation medium. The developed production process strongly promotes the murine polyoma-VLP platform, moving towards

  8. Development of a Model and Computer Code to Describe Solar Grade Silicon Production Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models and computer codes based on these models, which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors for converting gaseous silicon compounds to condensed-phase silicon were developed. The following tasks were accomplished: (1) formulation of a model for silicon vapor separation/collection from the developing turbulent flow stream within reactors of the Westinghouse (2) modification of an available general parabolic code to achieve solutions to the governing partial differential equations (boundary layer type) which describe migration of the vapor to the reactor walls, (3) a parametric study using the boundary layer code to optimize the performance characteristics of the Westinghouse reactor, (4) calculations relating to the collection efficiency of the new AeroChem reactor, and (5) final testing of the modified LAPP code for use as a method of predicting Si(1) droplet sizes in these reactors.

  9. Development of a hybrid ozonation biofilm-membrane filatration process for the production of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Leiknes, T; Lazarova, M; Odegaard, H

    2005-01-01

    Drinking water sources in Norway are characterized by high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM), low alkalinity and low turbidity. The removal of NOM is therefore a general requirement in producing potable water. Drinking water treatment plants are commonly designed with coagulation direct filtration or NF spiral wound membrane processes. This study has investigated the feasibility and potential of a hybrid process combining ozonation and biofiltration with a rotating disk membrane for treating drinking water with high NOM concentrations. Ozonation will oxidize the NOM content removing colour and form biodegradable organic compounds, which can be removed in biological filters. A constructed water was used in this study which is representative of ozonated NOM-containing water. A rotating membrane disk bioreactor downstream the ozonation process was used to carry out both the biodegradation as well as biomass separation in the same reactor. Maintenance of biodegradation of the organic matter while controlling biofouling of the membrane and acceptable water production rates was the focus in the study. Three operating modes were investigated. Removal of the biodegradable organics was consistent throughout the study indicating that sufficient biomass was maintained in the reactor for all operating conditions tested. Biofouling control was not achieved through shear-induced cleaning by periodically rotating the membrane disks at high speed. By adding a small amount of sponges in the membrane chamber the biofouling could be controlled by mechanical cleaning of the membrane surface during disk rotation. The overall results indicate that the system can favorably be used in an ozonation/biofiltration process by carrying out both biodegradation as well as biomass separation in the same reactor.

  10. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  11. The development of the super-biodiesel production continuously from Sunan pecan oil through the process of reactive distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohana, Eflita; Yulianto, Moh. Endy; Ikhsan, Diyono; Nanta, Aditya Marga; Puspitasari, Ristiyanti

    2016-06-01

    In general, a vegetable oil-based biodiesel production commercially operates a batch process with high investments and operational costs. Thus, it is necessary to develop super-biodiesel production from sunan pecan oil continuously through the process of reactive distillation. There are four advantages of the reactive distillation process for the biodiesel production, as follows: (i) it incorporates the process of transesterification reaction, and product separation of residual reactants become one stage of the process, so it saves the investment and operation costs, (ii) it reduces the need for raw materials because the methanol needed corresponds to the stoichiometry, so it also reduces the operation costs, (iii) the holdup time in the column is relatively short (5±0,5 minutes) compared to the batch process (1-2 hours), so it will reduce the operational production costs, and (iv) it is able to shift the reaction equilibrium, because the products and reactants that do not react are instantly separated (based on Le Chatelier's principles) so the conversion will be increased. However, the very crucial problem is determining the design tools and process conditions in order to maximize the conversion of the transesterification reaction in both phases. Thus, the purpose of this research was to design a continuous reactive distillation process by using a recycled condensate to increase the productivity of the super-biodiesel from sunan pecan oil. The research was carried out in three stages including (i) designing and fabricating the reactive distillation equipment, (ii) testing the tool performance and the optimization of the biodiesel production, and (iii) biodiesel testing on the diesel engine. These three stages were needed in designing and scaling-up the process tools and the process operation commercially. The reactive distillation process tools were designed and manufactured with reference to the design system tower by Kitzer, et.al. (2008). The manufactured

  12. Developing a process for commercial silica production from Salton Sea brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; McCutcheon, M; Leif, R; Bruton, C

    2000-09-25

    The goal of this joint LLNL-CalEnergy project is to develop a method for precipitating marketable silica from spent Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brines. Many markets for silica exist. We have initially targeted production of silica as a rubber additive. Silica reinforced rubber gives tires less rolling resistance, greater tear strength, and better adhesion to steel belts. Previous silica precipitates produced by CalEnergy from Salton Sea brines were not suitable as rubber additives. They did not to disperse well in the rubber precursors and produced inferior rubber. CalEnergy currently minimizes silica scaling in some of their production facilities by acidifying the brine pH. The rate of silica precipitation slows down as the pH is lowered, so that energy extraction and brine reinfection are possible without unacceptable amounts of scaling even with more than 700 ppm SiO{sub 2} in solution. We are adding a step in which a small amount of base is added to the acidified brine to precipitate silica before reinfection. By carefully controlling the type, rate, and amount of base addition, we can optimize the properties of the precipitate to approach those of an ideal rubber additive.

  13. Development of a Model and Computer Code to Describe Solar Grade Silicon Production Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The program aims at developing mathematical models and computer codes based on these models, which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors for converting gaseous silicon compounds to condensed-phase silicon. The major interest is in collecting silicon as a liquid on the reactor walls and other collection surfaces. Two reactor systems are of major interest, a SiCl4/Na reactor in which Si(l) is collected on the flow tube reactor walls and a reactor in which Si(l) droplets formed by the SiCl4/Na reaction are collected by a jet impingement method. During this quarter the following tasks were accomplished: (1) particle deposition routines were added to the boundary layer code; and (2) Si droplet sizes in SiCl4/Na reactors at temperatures below the dew point of Si are being calculated.

  14. Fjords: Processes and products

    SciTech Connect

    Syvitski, J.P.M.; Burrell, D.C.; Skei, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fjords are a major feature of coasts and provide geologists and oceanographers with an excellent environment for studying and modeling coastal processes and products. This book brings together and integrates an enormous amount of information on fjords and provides the reader with a thorough, interdisciplinary account of current research with emphasis on sedimentary processes. The processes demonstrated in fjords are often relevant to the estuarine or open ocean environment.

  15. Development and processing of LEU targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Hofman, G.L.

    1997-04-01

    Most of the world`s supply of {sup 99m}Tc for medical purposes is currently produced from the decay of {sup 99}Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substantial progress has been made in developing targets and chemical processes for producing {sup 99}Mo using low-enriched uranium (LEU). Target development has been focused on a uranium-metal foil target as a replacement for the coated-UO{sub 2} Cintichem-type target. Although the first designs were not successful because of ion mixing-induced bonding of the uranium foil to the target tubes, recent irradiations of modified targets have proven successful. Only minor modifications of the Cintichem chemical process are required for the uranium-metal foil targets. A demonstration using prototypically irradiated targets is anticipated in February 1997. Progress has also been made in basic dissolution of both uranium-metal foil and aluminum-clad U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion fuel targets.

  16. Further development of chemical vapor deposition process for production of large diameter carbon-base monofilaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, R. L.; Richmond, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The development of large diameter carbon-base monofilament in the 50 micron to 250 micron diameter range using the chemical vapor deposition process is described. The object of this program was to determine the critical process variables which control monofilament strength, monofilament modulus, and monofilament diameter. It was confirmed that wide scatter in the carbon substrate strength is primarily responsible for the scatter in the monofilament strength. It was also shown through etching experiments that defective substrate surface conditions which can induce low strength modular growth in the monofilament layers are best controlled by processing improvements during the synthesis of the substrate. Modulus was found to be linearily proportional to monofilament boron content. Filament modulus was increased to above 27.8MN/sq cm but only by a considerable increase in monofilament boron content to 60 wt. % or more. Monofilament diameter depended upon dwell time in the synthesis apparatus. A monofilament was prepared using these findings which had the combined properties of a mean U.T.S. of 398,000 N/sq cm, a modulus of 18.9 MN/sq cm (24,000,000 psi), and a diameter of 145 microns. Highest measured strength for this fiber was 451,000 N/sq cm (645,000 psi).

  17. Process to Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gary, Ed.; Mirkes, Donna Z., Ed.

    Intended for educators who direct federally funded model projects, the booklet provides a framework for special education product development. In "Making Media Decisions," G. Richman explores procedures for selecting the most appropriate medium to carry the message of a given product. The fundamental questions are addressed: what is the goal; who…

  18. Development of processes for the production of low cost silicon dendritic web for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hill, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    High area output rates and continuous, automated growth are two key technical requirements for the growth of low-cost silicon ribbons for solar cells. By means of computer-aided furnace design, silicon dendritic web output rates as high as 27 sq cm/min have been achieved, a value in excess of that projected to meet a $0.50 per peak watt solar array manufacturing cost. The feasibility of simultaneous web growth while the melt is replenished with pelletized silicon has also been demonstrated. This step is an important precursor to the development of an automated growth system. Solar cells made on the replenished material were just as efficient as devices fabricated on typical webs grown without replenishment. Moreover, web cells made on a less-refined, pelletized polycrystalline silicon synthesized by the Battelle process yielded efficiencies up to 13% (AM1).

  19. Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2011-08-01

    A Review on Torrefaction Process and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System for Biomass Processing Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Shahab Sokhansanj2 and Christopher T. Wright1 Idaho National Laboratory Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Group Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. There is a lack of literature on the design aspects of torrefaction reactor and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed torrefier for different capacities ranging from 25-1000 kg/hr, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and

  20. Drug Development Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... public. More Information More in The Drug Development Process Step 1: Discovery and Development Step 2: Preclinical ...

  1. Novel Magnetically Fluidized Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Renwei; Hahn, David; Klausner, James; Petrasch, Jorg; Mehdizadeh, Ayyoub; Allen, Kyle; Rahmatian, Nima; Stehle, Richard; Bobek, Mike; Al-Raqom, Fotouh; Greek, Ben; Li, Like; Chen, Chen; Singh, Abhishek; Takagi, Midori; Barde, Amey; Nili, Saman

    2013-09-30

    prediction of hydrogen production rates over a large range of experimental conditions in the laboratory scale reactor and the bench-scale reactor. In the economic analysis, a comparison of the hydrogen production plants using iron/iron oxide looping cycle and the conventional process has been presented. Plant configurations are developed for the iron/iron oxide looping cycle. The study suggests a higher electric power generation but a lower hydrogen production efficiency comparing with the conventional process. Additionally, it was shown that the price of H{sub 2} obtained from our reactor can be as low as $1.7/kg, which is 22% lower than the current price of the H{sub 2} obtained from reforming plants.

  2. Investigation of metallurgical phenomena related to process and product development by means of High Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diéguez-Salgado, U.; Michelic, S.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-03-01

    An increased interest for high temperature metallurgical processes appeared during the last decades, in order to achieve the high quality requirements in steel products. A defined steel cleanness and microstructure essentially influence the final product quality. The high temperatures involved in metallurgical processes and the lack of in situ observations do not only complicate the verification of simulation model predictions but also make significant conclusions regarding the industrial processes difficult. For that reason, new tools and techniques are necessary to develop. By combining the advances of a laser, confocal optics and an infrared image furnace, the High Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (HTCSLM) is a strong tool which enables high temperature in situ observations of different metallurgical phenomena. Next to solidification processes and phase transformations also the behavior of inclusions at different interfaces in the system steel-slag-refractory can be observed. The present study focuses on the aspects of inclusion agglomeration in the liquid steel and the inclusion behavior at the steel/refractory interface in two different steel grades. Out of the obtained experimental data, attraction forces are calculated and compared. This information provides an important basis for a better understanding of inclusion behavior in industrial processes and the therewith related process optimization, like for example the clogging phenomenon during continuous casting.

  3. BIOGAS Process development

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Sajjad, A.; Henry, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate and commercialize the IGT two-phase BIOGAS Process for optimized methane production from, and simultaneous stabilization of, municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objective of the current program is to conduct a laboratory-scale investigation of simple, cost-effective feed pretreatment techniques and selected digestion reactor designs to optimize methane production from MSW-sludge blends, and to select the best pretreatment and digestion conditions for testing during the subsequent program for process development unit (PDU) operation. A significant portion of the program efforts to date has been directed at evaluating and/or developing feeding, mixing and discharging systems for handling high concentration, large particle size RDF slurries for anaerobic digestion processes. The performance of such processes depends significantly on the operational success of these subsystems. The results of the subsystem testing have been implemented in the design and operation of the 10-L, 20-L, and 125-L digesters. These results will also be utilized to design the CSTR and the upflow digesters of a large two-phase system. Data collected during the initial phase of this research showed in general that methane production from RDF decreased as the loading rate was increased. Thermophilic digestion did not appear to be significantly better than mesophlic digestion. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Maintaining a Technology-Neutral Approach to Hydrogen Production Process Development through Conceptual Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Patterson

    2008-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), tasking the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with demonstrating High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology. The demonstration is to include the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of HTGR technology for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), a component of the DOE Hydrogen Program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy, is also investigating multiple approaches to cost effective hydrogen production from nuclear energy. The objective of NHI is development of the technology and information basis for a future decision on commercial viability. The initiatives are clearly intertwined. While the objectives of NGNP and NHI are generally consistent, NGNP has progressed to the project definition phase and the project plan has matured. Multiple process applications for the NGNP require process heat, electricity and hydrogen in varied combinations and sizes. Coupling these processes to the reactor in multiple configurations adds complexity to the design, licensing and demonstration of both the reactor and the hydrogen production process. Commercial viability of hydrogen production may depend on the specific application and heat transport configuration. A component test facility (CTF) is planned by the NGNP to support testing and demonstration of NGNP systems, including those for hydrogen production, in multiple configurations. Engineering-scale demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start in 2012 to support scheduled design and licensing activities leading to subsequent construction and operation. Engineering-scale demonstrations planned by NHI are expected to start at least two years later. Reconciliation of these schedules is recommended to successfully complete both initiatives. Hence, closer and earlier integration of hydrogen process development and heat transport systems is sensible

  5. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

  6. Strategies for the development of a side stream process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sugar cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M G E; Eiroa, M; Torres, C; Nunes, B R; Reis, M A M

    2007-07-15

    A three-stage process was developed to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sugar cane molasses. The process includes (1) molasses acidogenic fermentation, (2) selection of PHA-accumulating cultures, (3) PHA batch accumulation using the enriched sludge and fermented molasses. In the fermentation step, the effect of pH (5-7) on the organic acids profile and productivity was evaluated. At higher pH, acetic and propionic acids were the main products, while lower pH favoured the production of butyric and valeric acids. PHA accumulation using fermented molasses was evaluated with two cultures selected either with acetate or fermented molasses. The effect of organic acids distribution on polymer composition and yield was evaluated with the acetate selected culture. Storage yields varied from 0.37 to 0.50Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA. A direct relationship between the type of organic acids used and the polymers composition was observed. Low ammonia concentration (0.1Nmmol/l) in the fermented molasses stimulated PHA storage (0.62Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA). In addition, strategies of reactor operation to select a PHA-accumulating culture on fermented molasses were developed. The combination of low organic loading with high ammonia concentration selected a culture with a stable storage capacity and with a storage yield (0.59Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA) similar to that of the acetate-selected culture.

  7. Enabling technologies: Supporting the development and use of innovative, energy-efficient, and environmentally friendly products and processes

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This pamphlet describes the Office of Industrial Technologies cooperative efforts to address industry needs for advanced materials, sensors and controls, process energy and energy efficiency. US industry needs enabling materials that are stronger and lighter, with resistance to high-temperature fatigue and improved resistance to corrosion and wear. New industrial materials such as intermetallic alloys and advanced ceramics have the potential to meet the challenges of the Industries of the Future. The manufacturing industries obtain over 85% of their energy from the on-site combustion of fuels. Enhancements to burners, boilers, and process heating systems can lower energy costs, reduce emissions, enhance fuel options, and increase safety and reliability. Robust, integrated measurement devices linked to intelligent control systems will enable US industry to use resources more efficiently and improve product quality. Through constant process monitoring and adjustment of parameters, these systems can reduce energy use and labor, minimize waste and pollution, and boost productivity. The Enabling Technologies Program is designed to address the cross-cutting needs of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT). OIT partners with industry to promote the development and use of energy-efficient, pollution-preventing technologies. The Nation`s environment benefits from greater use of these technologies, and industries benefit from cost savings, improved productivity, and increased competitiveness.

  8. Effect of ambient light on IgG1 monoclonal antibodies during drug product processing and development.

    PubMed

    Sreedhara, Alavattam; Yin, Jian; Joyce, Michael; Lau, Kimberly; Wecksler, Aaron T; Deperalta, Galahad; Yi, Li; John Wang, Y; Kabakoff, Bruce; Kishore, Ravuri S K

    2016-03-01

    Photostability studies are standard stress testing conducted during drug product development of various pharmaceutical compounds, including small molecules and proteins. These studies as recommended by ICH Q1B are carried out using no less than 1.2× 10(6)lux-hours in the visible region and no less than 200Wh/m(2) in UV light. However, normal drug product processing is carried out under fluorescent lamps that emit white light almost exclusively in the >400nm region with a small UV quotient. We term these as ambient or mild light conditions. We tested several IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 1-5) under these ambient light conditions and compared them to the ICH light conditions. All the mAbs were significantly degraded under the ICH light but several mAbs (mAbs 3-5) were processed without impacting any product quality attributes under ambient or mild light conditions. Interestingly we observed site-specific Trp oxidation in mAb1, while higher aggregation and color change were observed for mAb2 under mild light conditions. The recommended ICH light conditions have a high UV component and hence may not help to rank order photosensitivity under normal protein DP processing conditions.

  9. Functioning at the Edge of Knowledge: A Study of Learning Processes in New Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doos, Marianne; Wilhelmson, Lena; Backlund, Thomas; Dixon, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In the telecommunication industry, companies gain a competitive edge through the competence of their employees, making issues of learning critical. The study aims to identify specific learning processes necessary when working at the edge both of one's own knowledge and of that of the branch. Design/methodology/approach: This research…

  10. Efficient Process Development of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (rh-GCSF) Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Babaeipour, Valiollah; Khanchezar, Sirwan; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Pesaran Hagi Abbas, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The protein hormone granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) stimulates the production of white blood cells and plays an important role in medical treatment of cancer patients. Methods: An efficient process was developed for heterologous expression of the human GCSF in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The feeding rate was adjusted to achieve the maximum attainable specific growth rate under critical value. In this method, specific growth rate was maintained at the maximum value of 0.55 h-1 at the beginning of feeding to 0.4 h-1 at the induction time. Recombinant human GCSF (rh-GCSF) was produced as inclusion body. At first, inclusion bodies were released by cell disruption and then washed, solubilized and refolded. Finally, the rh-GCSF was purified by cation exchange chromatography. Results: Obviouly, higher specific growth rate decreases process time and consequently increases productivity. The final concentration of biomass and GCSF was achieved 126 g DCW.l-1 and 32.1 g.l-1. Also, the final specific yield (YP/X) and total productivity of rh-GCSF were obtained 254 mg.g-1 DCW and 1.83 g.l-1.h-1, respectively. According to the available data, this is one of the highest YP/X and productivity that has been reported for any human protein which is expressed in E. coli. Recovery yield of purification process was %40 and purity of recombinant protein was over than 99%. The circular dichroism spectra of purified rh-GCSF, Neupogen® and PD-Grastim showed that all proteins have a similar secondary structure. Conclusion: Modified exponential feeding strategy for fed-batch cultivation of recombinant E. coli, results in minimum fed-batch duration and maximum productivity. PMID:25864815

  11. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task: A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Several major modifications were made to the design presented at the PDR. The frame was deleted in favor of a "frameless" design which will provide a substantially improved cell packing factor. Potential shaded cell damage resulting from operation into a short circuit can be eliminated by a change in the cell series/parallel electrical interconnect configuration. The baseline process sequence defined for the MEPSON was refined and equipment design and specification work was completed. SAMICS cost analysis work accelerated, format A's were prepared and computer simulations completed. Design work on the automated cell interconnect station was focused on bond technique selection experiments.

  12. From e-manufacturing to Internet Product Process Development (IPPD) through remote - labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba Nieto, Ernesto; Andres Cifuentes Parra, Paulo; Camilo Parra Díaz, Juan

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the research developed at Universidad Nacional de Colombia about the e-Manufacturing platform that is being developed and implemented at LabFabEx (acronym in Spanish as "Laboratorio Fabrica Experimental"). This platform besides has an approach to virtual-remote labs that have been tested by several students and engineers of different industrial fields. At this paper it is shown the physical and communication experimental platform, the general scope and characteristics of this e-Manufacturing platform and the virtual lab approach. This research project is funded by COLCIENCIAS (Administrative Department of science, technology and innovation in Colombia) and the enterprise IMOCOM S.A.

  13. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils. Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnsorg, R.W.; Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Lau, S.K.; Ko, F.K.; Schatz, K.

    1995-04-01

    As reinforcements for composites, VLS SiC fibrils have attractive mechanical properties including high-strength, high modulus, and excellent creep resistance. To make use of their excellent mechanical properties in a composite, a significant volume fraction (>10%) of aligned, long fibrils (>2 mm) needs to be consolidated in the ceramic matrix. The fibrils must be processed into an assembly that will allow for composite fabrication while maintaining fibril alignment and length. With Advanced Product Development (APD) as the yam fabrication subcontractor, Carborundum investigated several approaches to achieve this goaL including traditional yam-forming processes such as carding and air-vortex spinning and nontraditional processes such as tape forming and wet casting. Carborundum additionally performed an economic analysis for producing 500 and 10,000 pounds of SiC fibrils annually using both conservative and more aggressive processing parameters. With the aggressive approach, the projected costs for SiC fibril production for 500 and 10,000 pounds per year are $1,340/pound and $340/pound, respectively.

  14. Developing Critically Thoughtful, Media-Rich Lessons in Science: Process and Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcaen, Philip

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a professional development approach and a conceptual framework used to create critically thoughtful and media-rich science learning resources. Greater clarity about the nature of critical thinking and how to support teachers in learning to implement it are needed if we are to respond to broader calls for critical thinking…

  15. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Efforts continued to obtain financing for a commercial continuous formed coke plant. Discussions were held with two steel companies that are interested in producing coke for their use in steel production and foundry operations. Planning for production of 40 tons of foundry formed coke is underway. This coke will be used in two 20-ton tests at General Motors` foundries. During this production, it is planned to determine if a tunnel kiln can be used as a coking furnace as an alternative for a rotary hearth. A rotary hearth is about three times more costly than a competitive-sized tunnel kiln. Work continued on using Western non-caking coals to produce formed coke. Successful tests were made by using Eastern caking coals and other binders to permit using up to 50% of the cheaper Western non-caking coals in formed coke production. The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization.

  16. Process Development for Automated Solar Cell and Module Production. Task 4: Automated Array Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A baseline sequence for the manufacture of solar cell modules was specified. Starting with silicon wafers, the process goes through damage etching, texture etching, junction formation, plasma edge etch, aluminum back surface field formation, and screen printed metallization to produce finished solar cells. The cells were then series connected on a ribbon and bonded into a finished glass tedlar module. A number of steps required additional developmental effort to verify technical and economic feasibility. These steps include texture etching, plasma edge etch, aluminum back surface field formation, array layup and interconnect, and module edge sealing and framing.

  17. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  18. Process development for the production of bioethanol from waste algal biomass of Gracilaria verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rishikesh; Kumar, Manoj; Chakraborty, Subhojit; Gupta, Rishi; Kumar, Savindra; Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2016-11-01

    The algal biomass of different species of Gracilaria were collected from coasts of Orissa and Tamil Nadu, India and characterized biochemically. Among various species, G. verrucosa was found to be better in terms of total carbohydrate content (56.65%) and hence selected for further studies. The agar was extracted from algal biomass and the residual pulp was enzymatically hydrolyzed. The optimization of algal pulp hydrolysis for various parameters revealed a maximum sugar release of 75.8mg/ml with 63% saccharification yield. The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate of algal pulp was optimized and 8% (v/v) inoculum size, 12h inoculum age, pH 5.0 were found to be optimum parameters for maximum ethanol concentration (27.2g/L) after 12h. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were successfully scaled up to 2L bioreactor scale. PMID:27619709

  19. Process development for the production of bioethanol from waste algal biomass of Gracilaria verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rishikesh; Kumar, Manoj; Chakraborty, Subhojit; Gupta, Rishi; Kumar, Savindra; Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2016-11-01

    The algal biomass of different species of Gracilaria were collected from coasts of Orissa and Tamil Nadu, India and characterized biochemically. Among various species, G. verrucosa was found to be better in terms of total carbohydrate content (56.65%) and hence selected for further studies. The agar was extracted from algal biomass and the residual pulp was enzymatically hydrolyzed. The optimization of algal pulp hydrolysis for various parameters revealed a maximum sugar release of 75.8mg/ml with 63% saccharification yield. The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate of algal pulp was optimized and 8% (v/v) inoculum size, 12h inoculum age, pH 5.0 were found to be optimum parameters for maximum ethanol concentration (27.2g/L) after 12h. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were successfully scaled up to 2L bioreactor scale.

  20. Development of a process for producing ribbon shaped filaments. [production of silicon carbide filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debolt, H. E.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1973-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ribbon filaments were produced on a carbon ribbon substrate, about 1500 microns (60 mils) wide and 100 microns (4 mils) thick in lengths up to 2 meters (6 ft), and with tensile strengths up to 142 KN/cm sq (206 Ksi). During the course of the study, ribbon filaments of boron were also produced on the carbon ribbon substrate; the boron ribbon produced was extremely fragile. The tensile strength of the SiC ribbon was limited by large growths or flaws caused by anomalies at the substrate surface; these anomalies were either foreign dirt or substrate imperfections or both. Related work carried out on round 100 micron (4 mils) diameter SiC filaments on a 33 micron (1.3 mil) diameter, very smooth carbon monofilament substrate has shown that tensile strengths as high as 551 KN/cm sq (800 Ksi) are obtainable with the SiC-carbon round substrate combination, and indicates that if the ribbon substrate surface and ribbon deposition process can be improved similar strengths can be realizable. Cost analysis shows that 100 micron x 5-10 micron SiC ribbon can be very low cost reinforcement material.

  1. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  2. Development of a Novel Process Integrating the Treatment of Sludge Reject Water and the Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).

    PubMed

    Frison, Nicola; Katsou, Evina; Malamis, Simos; Oehmen, Adrian; Fatone, Francesco

    2015-09-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from activated sludge and renewable organic material can become an alternative product to traditional plastics since they are biodegradable and are produced from renewable sources. In this work, the selection of PHA storing bacteria was integrated with the side stream treatment of nitrogen removal via nitrite from sewage sludge reject water. A novel process was developed and applied where the alternation of aerobic-feast and anoxic-famine conditions accomplished the selection of PHA storing biomass and nitrogen removal via nitrite. Two configurations were examined: in configuration 1 the ammonium conversion to nitrite occurred in the same reactor in which the PHA selection process occurred, while in configuration 2 two separate reactors were used. The results showed that the selection of PHA storing biomass was successful in both configurations, while the nitrogen removal efficiency was much higher (almost 90%) in configuration 2. The PHA selection degree was evaluated by the volatile fatty acid (VFA) uptake rate (-qVFAs) and the PHA production rate (qPHA), which were 239 ± 74 and 89 ± 7 mg of COD per gram of active biomass (Xa) per hour, respectively. The characterization of the biopolymer recovered after the accumulation step, showed that it was composed of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) (60%) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) (40%). The properties associated with the produced PHA suggest that they are suitable for thermoplastic processing.

  3. Lenses for terahertz applications: Development of new materials and production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocic, N.; Wichmann, M.; Hochrein, T.; Heidemeyer, P.; Kretschmer, K.; Radovanovic, I.; Mondol, A. S.; Koch, M.; Bastian, M.

    2014-05-01

    Up to now, polymer-based terahertz lenses have been made of pure polymers, such as high-density polyethylene, polytetrafluoroethylene or polypropylene. They are fabricated by injection molding, sintering or mechanical machining. Yet, the refractive indices of the abovementioned materials lie in a range between 1.40 to 1.55. Materials with a higher refractive index would allow for the fabrication of thinner lenses with a smaller curvature, shorter focal lengths and thus improved imaging properties. In this work innovative THz-lenses based on highly filled polymeric compounds, possessing a refractive index significantly higher than that of pure polymers, were developed. Furthermore, a simple and versatile approach for the fabrication of THz-lenses by means of extrusion and subsequent compression molding is presented. It was shown, that the new lenses exhibit refractive indices around 2.0 and simultaneously a low absorption. Other relevant material properties were satisfying as well. The new lenses show a very good surface quality. Compared to conventional lenses made of pure polymers, the new lenses possess an improved imaging quality and functionality. In addition, substrate lenses filled with highly refracting titanium dioxide could be used as an adequate replacement for their expensive, silicon made counterparts. Furthermore, compression molding proved to be a suitable method to fabricate lenses in a fast, efficient and precise way.

  4. Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. K.; Srivastava, R.

    1979-01-01

    Two computer codes were developed for describing flow reactors in which high purity, solar grade silicon is produced via reduction of gaseous silicon halides. The first is the CHEMPART code, an axisymmetric, marching code which treats two phase flows with models describing detailed gas-phase chemical kinetics, particle formation, and particle growth. It can be used to described flow reactors in which reactants, mix, react, and form a particulate phase. Detailed radial gas-phase composition, temperature, velocity, and particle size distribution profiles are computed. Also, deposition of heat, momentum, and mass (either particulate or vapor) on reactor walls is described. The second code is a modified version of the GENMIX boundary layer code which is used to compute rates of heat, momentum, and mass transfer to the reactor walls. This code lacks the detailed chemical kinetics and particle handling features of the CHEMPART code but has the virtue of running much more rapidly than CHEMPART, while treating the phenomena occurring in the boundary layer in more detail.

  5. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, Mild gasification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

    1990-12-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

  6. Developing products on Internet time.

    PubMed

    Iansiti, M; MacCormack, A

    1997-01-01

    The rise of the World Wide Web has provided one of the most challenging environments for product development in recent history. The market needs that a product is meant to satisfy and the technologies required to satisfy them can change radically--even as the product is under development. In response to such factors, companies have had to modify the traditional product-development process, in which design implementation begins only once a product's concept has been determined in its entirety. In place of that traditional approach, they have pioneered a flexible product-development process that allows designers to continue to define and shape products even after implementation has begun. This innovation enables Internet companies to incorporate rapidly evolving customer requirements and changing technologies into their designs until the last possible moment before a product is introduced to the market. Flexible product development has been most fully realized in the Internet environment because of the turbulence found there, but the foundations for it exist in a wide range of industries where the need for responsiveness is paramount. When technology, product features, and competitive conditions are predictable or evolve slowly, a traditional development process works well. But when new competitors and technologies appear overnight, when standards and regulations are in flux, and when a company's entire customer base can easily switch to other suppliers, businesses don't need a development process that resists change--they need one that embraces it.

  7. An Open Computing Infrastructure that Facilitates Integrated Product and Process Development from a Decision-Based Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Computer applications for design have evolved rapidly over the past several decades, and significant payoffs are being achieved by organizations through reductions in design cycle times. These applications are overwhelmed by the requirements imposed during complex, open engineering systems design. Organizations are faced with a number of different methodologies, numerous legacy disciplinary tools, and a very large amount of data. Yet they are also faced with few interdisciplinary tools for design collaboration or methods for achieving the revolutionary product designs required to maintain a competitive advantage in the future. These organizations are looking for a software infrastructure that integrates current corporate design practices with newer simulation and solution techniques. Such an infrastructure must be robust to changes in both corporate needs and enabling technologies. In addition, this infrastructure must be user-friendly, modular and scalable. This need is the motivation for the research described in this dissertation. The research is focused on the development of an open computing infrastructure that facilitates product and process design. In addition, this research explicitly deals with human interactions during design through a model that focuses on the role of a designer as that of decision-maker. The research perspective here is taken from that of design as a discipline with a focus on Decision-Based Design, Theory of Languages, Information Science, and Integration Technology. Given this background, a Model of IPPD is developed and implemented along the lines of a traditional experimental procedure: with the steps of establishing context, formalizing a theory, building an apparatus, conducting an experiment, reviewing results, and providing recommendations. Based on this Model, Design Processes and Specification can be explored in a structured and implementable architecture. An architecture for exploring design called DREAMS (Developing Robust

  8. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  9. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Final report, September 1987--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Char, the major co-product of mild coal gasification, represents about 70 percent of the total product yield. The only viable use for the char is in the production of formed coke. Early work to develop formed coke used char from a pilot plant sized mild gasification unit (MGU), which was based on commercial units of the COALITE plant in England. Formed coke was made at a bench-scale production level using MGU chars from different coals. An evolutionary formed coke development process over a two-year period resulted in formed coke production at bench-scale levels that met metallurgical industries` specifications. In an ASTM D5341 reactivity test by a certified lab, the coke tested CRI 30.4 and CSR 67.0 which is excellent. The standard is CRI < 32 and CSR > 55. In 1991, a continuous 1000 pounds per hour coal feed mild coal gasification pilot plant (CMGU) was completed. The gasification unit is a heated unique screw conveyor designed to continuously process plastic coal, vent volatiles generated by pyrolysis of coal, and convert the plastic coal to free flowing char. The screw reactor auxiliary components are basic solids materials handling equipment. The screw reactor will convert coal to char and volatile co-products at a rate greater than 1000 pounds per hour of coal feed. Formed coke from CMGU char is comparable to that from the MGU char. In pilot-plant test runs, up to 20 tons of foundry coke were produced. Three formed coke tests at commercial foundries were successful. In all of the cupola tests, the iron temperature and composition data indicated that the formed coke performed satisfactorily. No negative change in the way the cupola performed was noticed. The last 20-ton test was 100 percent CTC/DOE coke. With conventional coke in this cupola charging rates were 10 charges per hour. The formed coke charges were 11 to 12 charges per hour. This equates to a higher melt rate. A 10 percent increase in cupola production would be a major advantage. 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Development Program of IS Process Pilot Test Plant for Hydrogen Production With High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Iwatsuki; Atsuhiko Terada; Hiroyuki Noguchi; Yoshiyuki Imai; Masanori Ijichi; Akihiro Kanagawa; Hiroyuki Ota; Shinji Kubo; Kaoru Onuki; Ryutaro Hino

    2006-07-01

    At the present time, we are alarmed by depletion of fossil energy and effects on global environment such as acid rain and global warming, because our lives depend still heavily on fossil energy. So, it is universally recognized that hydrogen is one of the best energy media and its demand will be increased greatly in the near future. In Japan, the Basic Plan for Energy Supply and Demand based on the Basic Law on Energy Policy Making was decided upon by the Cabinet on 6 October, 2003. In the plan, efforts for hydrogen energy utilization were expressed as follows; hydrogen is a clean energy carrier without carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission, and commercialization of hydrogen production system using nuclear, solar and biomass, not fossil fuels, is desired. However, it is necessary to develop suitable technology to produce hydrogen without CO{sub 2} emission from a view point of global environmental protection, since little hydrogen exists naturally. Hydrogen production from water using nuclear energy, especially the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is one of the most attractive solutions for the environmental issue, because HTGR hydrogen production by water splitting methods such as a thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process has a high possibility to produce hydrogen effectively and economically. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the HTTR (High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) project from the view to establishing technology base on HTGR and also on the IS process. In the IS process, raw material, water, is to be reacted with iodine (I{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) to produce hydrogen iodide (HI) and sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), the so-called Bunsen reaction, which are then decomposed endo-thermically to produce hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and oxygen (O{sub 2}), respectively. Iodine and sulfur dioxide produced in the decomposition reactions can be used again as the reactants in the Bunsen reaction. In JAEA, continuous

  11. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-03-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  12. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  13. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  14. Experimental study of the space-time development of the particle production process in hadron-nucleon collisions, using massive target nucleus as a detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental study of the space-time development of the particle production process in hadronic collisions at its initial stage was performed. Massive target nuclei have been used as fine detectors of properties of the particle production process development within time intervals smaller than 10 to the 22nd power s and spatial distances smaller than 10 to the 12th power cm. In hadron-nucleon collisions, in particular in nucleon-nucleon collisions, the particle production process goes through intermediate objects in 2 yields 2 type endoergic reactions. The objects decay into commonly observed resonances and paricles.

  15. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  16. Influence Learning Tour on Salted Fish Processing Behavior in Product Development in Karangantu Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudaya, Yaya

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase revenue, salted fish processors in Karangantu NFP should be able to change the behavior of production from quantity to quality orientation. The increase in revenue will be difficult to achieve if the salted fish products produced still monotonous and traditional and only sold in sacks or cardboard. Development of a quality…

  17. Development and application of process-based simulation models for cotton production: A review of past, present, and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and application of cropping system simulation models for cotton production has a long and rich history, beginning in the southeast United States in the 1960's and now expanded to major cotton production regions globally. This paper briefly reviews the history of cotton simulation mo...

  18. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The chemical engineering analysis of the preliminary process design of a process for producing solar cell grade silicon from dichlorosilane is presented. A plant to produce 1,000 MT/yr of silicon is analyzed. Progress and status for the plant design are reported for the primary activities of base case conditions (60 percent), reaction chemistry (50 percent), process flow diagram (35 percent), energy balance (10 percent), property data (10 percent) and equipment design (5 percent).

  19. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for producing silicon from dichlorosilane in a 1,000 MT/yr plant was continued. Progress and status for the chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process are reported for the primary process design engineering activities: base case conditions (85%), reaction chemistry (85%), process flow diagram (60%), material balance (60%), energy balance (30%), property data (30%), equipment design (20%) and major equipment list (10%). Engineering design of the initial distillation column (D-01, stripper column) in the process was initiated. The function of the distillation column is to remove volatile gases (such as hydrogen and nitrogen) which are dissolved in liquid chlorosilanes. Initial specifications and results for the distillation column design are reported including the variation of tray requirements (equilibrium stages) with reflux ratio for the distillation.

  20. Restoration of spatial heterogeneity and ecohydrological processes in deserts: Development of artificial islands of hydrologically-enhanced productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal and spatial heterogeneity in biological productivity, from the scale of plants to landscapes, is characteristic of arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The processes which control the formation of resource islands and determine the size, shape, longevity and distribution of resource islands acros...

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  2. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.R.; Hogsett, R.F.; Sinor, J.E.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D.

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  3. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analysis was continued for the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) in which solar cell silicon is produced in a 1,000 MT/yr plant. Progress and status are reported for the primary engineering activities involved in the preliminary process engineering design of the plant base case conditions (96%), reaction chemistry (96%), process flow diagram (85%), material balance (85%), energy balance (60%), property data (60%), equipment design (40%), major equipment list (30%) and labor requirements (10%). Engineering design of the second distillation column (D-02, TCS column) in the process was completed. The design is based on a 97% recovery of the light key (TCS, trichlorosilane) in the distillate and a 97% recovery of the heavy key (TET, silicon tetrachloride) in the bottoms. At a reflux ratio of 2, the specified recovery of TCS and TET is achieved with 20 trays (equilibrium stages, N=20). Respective feed tray locations are 9, 12 and 15 (NF sub 1 = 9, NF sub 2 = 12,, and NF sub 3 = 15). A total condenser is used for the distillation which is conducted at a pressure of 90 psia.

  4. Powder towpreg process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

  5. Development of a continuous roll-to-roll processing system for mass production of plastic optical film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsun

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a highly effective method for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern based on a continuous roll-to-roll film extrusion and roller embossing process. In this study, a thin steel mold with a micro-circular hole array pattern is fabricated by photolithography and a wet chemical etching process. The thin steel mold was then wrapped onto a metal cylinder to form an embossing roller mold. During the roll-to-roll process operation, a thermoplastic raw material (polycarbonate grains) was put into the barrel of the plastic extruder with a flat T-die. Then, the molten polymer film was extruded and immediately pressed against the surface of the embossing roller mold. Under the proper processing conditions, the molten polymer will just partially fill the micro-circular holes of the mold and due to surface tension form a convex lens surface. A continuous plastic optical film with a microlens array pattern was obtained. Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of plastic microlens formation on the roll-to-roll process. Finally, the geometrical and optical properties of the fabricated plastic optical film were measured and proved satisfactory. This technique shows great potential for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern.

  6. Engineering scale development of the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Mills, W.H.

    1993-09-01

    Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)SiC fibrils are used as reinforcement in ceramic matrix composites (CMC). A program has been completed for determining process scaleup parameters and to produce material for evaluation in a CMC. The scaleup is necessary to lower production cost and increase material availability. Scaleup parameters were evaluated in a reactor with a vertical dimension twice that of the LANL reactor. Results indicate that the scaleup will be possible. Feasibility of recycling process gas was demonstrated and the impact of postprocessing on yields determined.

  7. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  8. Red mud product development

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, D.B.

    1996-10-01

    Kaiser Alumina and Chemical Co. impounds red mud, the byproduct of alumina production, behind levees. Kaiser recognizes that this action cannot be maintained indefinitely. Therefore, a project is in progress to produce useful products from red mud that increase the profitability of the Gramercy facility. Before products could be developed, an obstacle had to be overcome. The annual rainfall in South Louisiana prevents evaporative drying of the mud lakes. Innovative methods were applied to dry the lake mud. Two products have been developed. A daily landfill cover and an absorbant, which are marketed under the Cajunite{trademark} banner. Both products are currently being tested by potential customers at their sites. Environmental concerns were addressed during development. Extensive TCLP results show no metal leachate problems. All pilot tests and plant trials received LADEQ approval. Products that are under development include levee core, road base, fertilizer fillers and synthetic soils. State and Federal agencies are interested in using red mud to remediate coastal erosion. Kaiser is also pursuing the recovery of metals from red mud.

  9. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January--March, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    Determination of the best furnace for a commercial coke plant is underway. A shuttle or tunnel kiln has economic advantage over a rotary hearth design. Production of 20 tons of coke in a small shuttle kiln is near completion which will provide experience for this design. Twenty tons of CTC continuous coke are being produced for testing at a General Motors` foundry. The production is approximately 75 percent complete. During this production, variables of the process are being studied to aid in design of a commercial coke plant. Raw material composition, blending, briquetting variables, and calcining heat profile are the major areas of interest. Western SynCoal Company produces a dried coal product from sub-bituminous coal. This upgraded product was evaluated for producing coke products by blending char from this coal product with the coal product along with suitable binders. The green briquettes were then calcined to produce coke. The resulting coke was judged to be usable as part of a cupola coke charge or as a fuel in cement kilns and sugar beet furnaces.

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    PubMed

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  11. Development of a Commercial Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide Fibrils - Draft Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, RD

    2002-10-24

    The current work continues a project completed in 1999 by ReMaxCo Technologies in which a novel, microwave based, VLS Silicon Carbide Fibrils concept was verified. This project continues the process development of a pilot scale commercial reactor. Success will lead to sufficient quantities of fibrils to expand work by ORNL and others on heat exchanger tube development. A semi-continuous, microwave heated, vacuum reactor was designed, fabricated and tested in these experiments. Cylindrical aluminum oxide reaction boats are coated, on the inner surface, with a catalyst and placed into the reactor under a light vacuum. A series of reaction boats are then moved, one at a time, through the reactor. Each boat is first preheated with resistance heaters to 850 C to 900 C. Each reaction boat is then moved, in turn, to the microwave heated section. The catalyst is heated to the required temperature of 1200 C to 1300 C while a mixture of MTS (methyl trichlorosilane) and hydrogen are introduced into the annulus of the boat. The MTS is dissociated to allow the carbon and silicon components to be dissolved into the catalyst. The catalyst saturates and precipitates silicon carbide onto the surface of the reaction boat to grow the Fibrils. The reaction continues as long as the MTS is introduced into the reactor. The major obstacle that had to be overcome during this project was the performance of the reactor. The original design of the reactor focused the microwaves in such a manner that they missed the catalyst/Fibrils growth zone. The microwaves did react with the insulation and the reactor was heated by heating the insulation. Modifications were made to the reactor to focus the microwaves on the catalyst. SiC Fibrils were produced using both MTS and Starfire SP4000 as feed-gas precursors. Both precursors produced fibrils at temperatures of less than 1000 C. The new Starfire SP4000 produced fibrils as low as 800 C, without the use of hydrogen and without producing the hazardous

  12. Development of a yeast strain for xylitol production without hydrolysate detoxification as part of the integration of co-product generation within the lignocellulosic ethanol process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Fang; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song

    2011-02-01

    The present study verified an applicable technology of xylitol bioconversion as part of the integration of co-product generation within second-generation bioethanol processes. A newly isolated yeast strain, Candida tropicalis JH030, was shown to have a capacity for xylitol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate without detoxification. The yeast gives a promising xylitol yield of 0.71 g(p) g(s)(-1) from non-detoxified rice straw hydrolysate that had been prepared by the dilute acid pretreatment under severe conditions. The yeast's capacity was also found to be practicable with various other raw materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, silvergrass, napiergrass and pineapple peel. The lack of a need to hydrolysate detoxification enhances the potential of this newly isolated yeast for xylitol production and this, in turn, has the capacity to improve economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production. PMID:21095119

  13. Two-stage continuous process development for the production of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates).

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Hazenberg, W; Prieto, M; Witholt, B

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas oleovorans forms medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) most effectively at growth rates below the maximum specific growth rate. Under adequate conditions, PHA accumulates in inclusion bodies in cells up to levels higher than half of the cell mass, which is a time-consuming process. For PHA production, a two-stage continuous cultivation system with two fermentors connected in series is a potentially useful system. It offers production of cells at a specific growth rate in a first compartment at conditions that lead cells to generate PHA at higher rates in a second compartment, with a relatively long residence time. In such a system, dilution rates of 0.21 h(-1) in the first fermentor (D(1)) and 0.16 h(-1) in the second fermentor (D(2)) were found to yield the highest volumetric PHA productivity. Transient-state experiments allowed investigation of D(1) and D(2) over a wide dilution rate range at high resolution in time-saving experiments. Furthermore, the influence of temperature, pH, nutrient limitation, and carbon source on PHA productivity was investigated and results similar to optimum conditions in single-stage chemostat cultivations of P. oleovorans were found. With all culture parameters optimized, a volumetric PHA productivity of 1.06 g L(-1) h(-1) was determined. Under these conditions, P. oleovorans cells contained 63% (dry weight) PHA in the effluent of the second fermentor. This is the highest PHA productivity and PHA content reported thus far for P. oleovorans cultures grown on alkanes. PMID:11084589

  14. Development of a two-step process for production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol using Klebsiella pneumoniae and Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Lin, Jinping; Wang, Hualei; Xie, Jingli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a two-step process was developed for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol. In the first step, glycerol was converted to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumonia. In the second step, the 1,3-propanediol was converted into 3-hydroxypropionic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. In a 7.0 L bioreactor, the whole process took 54 h, consumed 480 g glycerol and produced 242 g 3-hydroxypropionic acid. The conversion rate of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid was 50.4 % (g g(-1)). The final concentration of 3-hydroxypropionic acid arrived 60.5 g L(-1). The process was effective for 3-HP production from glycerol and it might provide a new approach to the biosynthesis of 3-HP from a cheap starting material. Moreover, in this paper, it was first reported that the by-product of 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from 1,3-propandeiol was acrylic acid.

  15. Development of a two-step process for production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol using Klebsiella pneumoniae and Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Lin, Jinping; Wang, Hualei; Xie, Jingli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a two-step process was developed for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol. In the first step, glycerol was converted to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumonia. In the second step, the 1,3-propanediol was converted into 3-hydroxypropionic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. In a 7.0 L bioreactor, the whole process took 54 h, consumed 480 g glycerol and produced 242 g 3-hydroxypropionic acid. The conversion rate of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid was 50.4 % (g g(-1)). The final concentration of 3-hydroxypropionic acid arrived 60.5 g L(-1). The process was effective for 3-HP production from glycerol and it might provide a new approach to the biosynthesis of 3-HP from a cheap starting material. Moreover, in this paper, it was first reported that the by-product of 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from 1,3-propandeiol was acrylic acid. PMID:26481922

  16. Generative inspection process planner for integrated production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W. . Kansas City Div.); Gyorog, D.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    This work describes the design prototype development of a generative process planning system for dimensional inspection. The system, IPPEX (Inspection Process Planning EXpert), is a rule-based expert system for integrated production. Using as advanced product modeler, relational databases, and artificial intelligence techniques, IPPEX generates the process plan and part program for the dimensional inspection of products using CMMs. Through an application interface, the IPPEX system software accesses product definition from the product modeler. The modeler is a solid geometric modeler coupled with a dimension and tolerance modeler. Resource data regarding the machines, probes, and fixtures are queried from databases. IPPEX represents inspection process knowledge as production rules and incorporates an embedded inference engine to perform decision making. The IPPEX system, its functional architecture, system architecture, system approach, product modeling environment, inspection features, inspection knowledge, hierarchical planning strategy, user interface formats, and other fundamental issues related to inspection planning and part programming for CMMs are described. 27 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Development of New Materials and Technologies for Welding and Surfacing at Research and Production Center "Welding Processes and Technologies"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Titov, D. A.; Shurupov, V. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides description of research into the influence of new materials and technologies on quality parameters of welds and added metal carried out at research and production center «Welding processes and technologies». New welding technologies of tanks for northern conditions are considered, as well as technologies of submerged arc welding involving fluxing agents AN - 348, AN - 60, AN - 67, OK. 10.71 and carbon-fluorine containing additives, new flux cored wires and surfacing technologies, teaching programs and a trainer for welders are designed.

  18. 'Best practice' development and transfer in the NHS: the importance of process as well as product knowledge.

    PubMed

    Newell, Sue; Edelman, Linda; Scarbrough, Harry; Swan, Jacky; Bresnen, Mike

    2003-02-01

    A core prescription from the knowledge management movement is that the successful management of organizational knowledge will prevent firms from 'reinventing the wheel', in particular through the transfer of 'best practices'. Our findings challenge this logic. They suggest instead that knowledge is emergent and enacted in practice, and that normally those involved in a given practice have only a partial understanding of the overall practice. Generating knowledge about current practice is therefore a precursor to changing that practice. In this sense, knowledge transfer does not occur independently of or in sequence to knowledge generation, but instead the process of knowledge generation and its transfer are inexorably intertwined. Thus, rather than transferring 'product' knowledge about the new 'best practice' per se, our analysis suggests that it is more useful to transfer 'process' knowledge about effective ways to generate the knowledge of existing practice, which is the essential starting point for attempts to change that practice.

  19. High-throughput downstream process development for cell-based products using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Sarah; Gretzinger, Sarah; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Scheeder, Christian; Zimmermann, Philipp K; Oelmeier, Stefan A; Gottwald, Eric; Bogsnes, Are; Hansson, Mattias; Staby, Arne; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-09-16

    As the clinical development of cell-based therapeutics has evolved immensely within the past years, downstream processing strategies become more relevant than ever. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) enable the label-free, scalable, and cost-effective separation of cells, making them a promising tool for downstream processing of cell-based therapeutics. Here, we report the development of an automated robotic screening that enables high-throughput cell partitioning analysis in ATPS. We demonstrate that this setup enables fast and systematic investigation of factors influencing cell partitioning. Moreover, we examined and optimized separation conditions for the differentiable promyelocytic cell line HL-60 and used a counter-current distribution-model to investigate optimal separation conditions for a multi-stage purification process. Finally, we show that the separation of CD11b-positive and CD11b-negative HL-60 cells is possible after partial DMSO-mediated differentiation towards the granulocytic lineage. The modeling data indicate that complete peak separation is possible with 30 transfers, and >93% of CD11b-positive HL-60 cells can be recovered with >99% purity. The here described screening platform facilitates faster, cheaper, and more directed downstream process development for cell-based therapeutics and presents a powerful tool for translational research. PMID:27567679

  20. Development of a mixed mode adsorption process for the direct product sequestration of an extracellular protease from microbial batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G E; Luechau, F; Burton, S C; Lyddiatt, A

    2000-04-28

    Direct product sequestration of extracellular proteins from microbial batch cultures can be achieved by continuous or intermittent broth recycle through an external extractive loop. Here, we describe the development of a fluidisable, mixed mode adsorbent, designed to tolerate increasing ionic strength (synonymous with extended productive batch cultures). This facilitated operations for the integrated recovery of an extracellular acid protease from cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica. Mixed mode adsorbents were prepared using chemistries containing hydrophobic and ionic groups. Matrix hydrophobicity and titration ranges were matched to the requirements of integrated protease adsorption. A single expanded bed was able to service the productive phase of growth without recourse to the pH adjustment of the broth previously required for ion exchange adsorption. This resulted in increased yields of product, accompanied by further increases in enzyme specific activity. A step change from pH 4.5 to 2.6, across the isoelectric point of the protease, enabled high resolution fixed bed elution induced by electrostatic repulsion. The generic application of mixed mode chemistries, which combine the physical robustness of ion-exchange ligands in sanitisation and sterilisation procedures with a selectivity, which approaches that of affinity interactions, is discussed.

  1. Austempered ductile iron process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, C. D.; Keough, J. R.; Pramstaller, D. M.

    1986-11-01

    Pressure from imports and material substitution has severly affected demand for domestic iron industry products. It is estimated that the potential market for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) is as large as the market for carburized and/or through hardened forgings. The primary interest in ADI is generated by the economics of process. Improved machinability and reduced processing costs as well as interesting physical properties has created an enormous interest in all metalworking industries towards ADI. The development of gas-fired austempering processes and resoluton of technical and economic uncertainities concerning the process will help improve the outlook for iron founderies.

  2. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4.6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  3. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process.

  4. Products and Processes: Synergistic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Most people agree that products are the culmination of what students have studied. For this article, "product" will refer to students' abilities to create outcomes and design artifacts. Those abilities are guided by four processes: inquiry-based learning, use of a research model, use of Web 2.0 tools, and appropriate assessments.…

  5. Restoration of Spatial Heterogeneity and Ecohydrological Processes in Deserts: Development of Artificial Islands of Hydrologically-Enhanced Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartowski, S.; Herrick, J. E.; Rango, A.

    2006-12-01

    Temporal and spatial heterogeneity in biological productivity, from the scale of plants to landscapes, is characteristic of arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The processes which control the formation of resource islands and determine the size, shape, longevity and distribution of resource islands across the landscape are influenced by climate, topography, soils and biota. The installation of water retention dikes (7.5-30 cm tall, 50- 150 m long) at the Jornada Experimental Range (3-6 dikes/site at 4 sites) in the Chihuahuan Desert from 1975- 1981 enabled us to test whether increased surface water retention was sufficient to initiate the formation of islands of enhanced resource availability and biological productivity. Compared to nearby reference areas, soil moisture was 20-45% higher behind dikes. Clay and silt soil fractions tended to be greater behind the dikes, though the detailed pattern depended upon the local site conditions. Soil aggregate stability was higher and saturated infiltration rates were up to 80% lower behind the dikes. Vegetation cover behind the dikes was more than twice that in nearby reference areas. Plant species richness was up to 4 times greater behind the dikes. Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) and unpalatable shrubs were less dominant behind the dikes, while cover of small shrubs, grasses and forbs was greater than in reference areas. Rehabilitation of degraded arid ecosystems often entails the restoration of spatial heterogeneity and the creation of islands of concentrated resources. Artificial water retention structures can mimic natural processes that reduce surface water flow rates, allowing more time for infiltration, and can initiate formation of islands of increased resource availability and increased biological productivity. The effects of these water retention dikes persisted for up to 30 years without maintenance.

  6. Development and validation of a technoeconomic analysis tool for early-stage evaluation of bio-based chemical production processes.

    PubMed

    Claypool, Joshua T; Raman, D Raj

    2013-12-01

    By using cost correlations and standard scale-factors, a spreadsheet-based early-stage cost estimation tool was developed. Named BioPET (Biorenewables Process Evaluation Tool), this tool allows users to specify up to seven primary unit operations--fermentation, separation, three catalytic stages, and purification--along with key parameters for each. BioPET then computes an estimated minimum selling price for the pathway. Model validation was conducted by selecting three molecules (ethanol, succinic acid, and adipic acid), and comparing BioPET's results to literature values and to results from a commercial process design tool. BioPET produced virtually identical prices to the process design tool, although the costs were not identically distributed amongst the categories. BioPET produced estimates that were within 40% of other literature values at low feedstock costs, and within 5% at high feedstock costs.

  7. Development and validation of a technoeconomic analysis tool for early-stage evaluation of bio-based chemical production processes.

    PubMed

    Claypool, Joshua T; Raman, D Raj

    2013-12-01

    By using cost correlations and standard scale-factors, a spreadsheet-based early-stage cost estimation tool was developed. Named BioPET (Biorenewables Process Evaluation Tool), this tool allows users to specify up to seven primary unit operations--fermentation, separation, three catalytic stages, and purification--along with key parameters for each. BioPET then computes an estimated minimum selling price for the pathway. Model validation was conducted by selecting three molecules (ethanol, succinic acid, and adipic acid), and comparing BioPET's results to literature values and to results from a commercial process design tool. BioPET produced virtually identical prices to the process design tool, although the costs were not identically distributed amongst the categories. BioPET produced estimates that were within 40% of other literature values at low feedstock costs, and within 5% at high feedstock costs. PMID:24041977

  8. Development of a hazel cell culture-based paclitaxel and baccatin III production process on a benchtop scale.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Ana; Imseng, Nicole; Bonfill, Mercedes; Cusido, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier; Eibl, Regine; Moyano, Elisabeth

    2015-02-10

    The growing demand for the antitumorous agent paclitaxel and the difficulty in increasing its production by genetic engineering has prompted a search for new sources of taxanes. It has been reported that taxanes can be extracted from the angiosperm Corylus avellana L. Our aim was to improve taxane production by scaling up the process from mL-level to benchtop bioreactors, optimizing culture conditions and comparing the effect of two elicitors, 1 μM coronatine (Cor) and 100 μM methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Orbitally shaken flask cultures achieved a maximum fresh cell weight of 11.54 gDCW/L under control conditions, and MeJA- and Cor-treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in growth to 4.28 gDCW/L and 5.69 gDCW/L, while increasing the taxane content 3- and 27-fold, respectively. The enhancing effect of these elicitors on taxane production, despite affecting growth, was confirmed in orbitally shaken TubeSpin Bioreactors 50, where the highest taxane content (8583.3 μg/L) was obtained when 1μM Cor was used and elicitation took place at a packed cell volume of 50%. Two benchtop stirred bioreactors, BIOSTAT B plus and UniVessel SU, were compared, the latter providing a higher biomass of C. avellana cell suspension cultures. Transferring the established optimum culture conditions for taxane production to the UniVessel SU resulted in a total taxane content of 6246.1 μg/L, a 10-fold increase compared with shake flask experiments.

  9. Development of a hazel cell culture-based paclitaxel and baccatin III production process on a benchtop scale.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Ana; Imseng, Nicole; Bonfill, Mercedes; Cusido, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier; Eibl, Regine; Moyano, Elisabeth

    2015-02-10

    The growing demand for the antitumorous agent paclitaxel and the difficulty in increasing its production by genetic engineering has prompted a search for new sources of taxanes. It has been reported that taxanes can be extracted from the angiosperm Corylus avellana L. Our aim was to improve taxane production by scaling up the process from mL-level to benchtop bioreactors, optimizing culture conditions and comparing the effect of two elicitors, 1 μM coronatine (Cor) and 100 μM methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Orbitally shaken flask cultures achieved a maximum fresh cell weight of 11.54 gDCW/L under control conditions, and MeJA- and Cor-treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in growth to 4.28 gDCW/L and 5.69 gDCW/L, while increasing the taxane content 3- and 27-fold, respectively. The enhancing effect of these elicitors on taxane production, despite affecting growth, was confirmed in orbitally shaken TubeSpin Bioreactors 50, where the highest taxane content (8583.3 μg/L) was obtained when 1μM Cor was used and elicitation took place at a packed cell volume of 50%. Two benchtop stirred bioreactors, BIOSTAT B plus and UniVessel SU, were compared, the latter providing a higher biomass of C. avellana cell suspension cultures. Transferring the established optimum culture conditions for taxane production to the UniVessel SU resulted in a total taxane content of 6246.1 μg/L, a 10-fold increase compared with shake flask experiments. PMID:25558804

  10. Development of an efficient process intensification strategy for enhancing Pfu DNA polymerase production in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Hua; Wang, Feng; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An efficient induction strategy that consisted of multiple additions of small doses of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) in the early cell growth phase was developed for enhancing Pfu DNA polymerase production in Escherichia coli. In comparison to the most commonly used method of a single induction of 1 mM IPTG, the promising induction strategy resulted in an increase in the Pfu activity of 13.5% in shake flasks, while simultaneously decreasing the dose of IPTG by nearly half. An analysis of the intracellular IPTG concentrations indicated that the cells need to maintain an optimum intracellular IPTG concentration after 6 h for efficient Pfu DNA polymerase production. A significant increase in the Pfu DNA polymerase activity of 31.5% under the controlled dissolved oxygen concentration of 30% in a 5 L fermentor was achieved using the multiple IPTG induction strategy in comparison with the single IPTG induction. The induction strategy using multiple inputs of IPTG also avoided over accumulation of IPTG and reduced the cost of Pfu DNA polymerase production.

  11. Product development cycle time reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farran, Robin

    1992-05-01

    We are facing here today the key issues that face us in the competitive environment. North American companies are struggling to compete in the global marketplace. Gone are the days when presence ensured success. Then, sales and earnings were guaranteed. Today the competition is intense. Many manufacturing and service companies are no longer competitive. Traditionally, manufacturing companies have created the most wealth for the community and economy. Losing this ability to create wealth is tragic and unnecessary. A company can only be successful by focusing on customer satisfaction at competitive costs. Revenue growth and earnings growth require a continuous stream of products that anticipate the customers' needs, result from shorter and shorter innovation cycles, continually improve in quality, and are produced at improved costs on each cycle. The best opportunities for increased quality and decreased costs are with new products. Sure, work on quality and costs everyday. The biggest changes, however, will come through the new product development cycle. We must improve our development processes to provide leadership products which result in high levels of customer satisfaction. This is a prerequisite for business success. When presence in the marketplace was a virtual guarantee of success for a North American company, technology tended to drive the products, and the customers bought virtually everything that was produced. Functional excellence was stressed within companies ... and that was enough. Effective planning processes were not a prerequisite for success. Today success demands highly developed business research and planning processes, and functional excellence combined with organizational capabilities that ensure commercialization excellence.

  12. Progress in developing processes for converting {sup 99}Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium--1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.

    1998-10-28

    During 1998, the emphasis of our activities was focused mainly on target fabrication. Successful conversion requires a reliable irradiation target; the target being developed uses thin foils of uranium metal, which can be removed from the target hardware for dissolution and processing. This paper describes successes in (1) improving our method for heat-treating the uranium foil to produce a random-small grain structure, (2) improving electrodeposition of zinc and nickel fission-fragment barriers onto the foil, and (3) showing that these fission fragment barriers should be stable during transport of the targets following irradiation. A method was also developed for quantitatively electrodepositing uranium and plutonium contaminants in the {sup 99}Mo. Progress was also made in broadening international cooperation in our development activities.

  13. From gene to harvest: insights into upstream process development for the GMP production of a monoclonal antibody in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Sack, Markus; Rademacher, Thomas; Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Hellwig, Stephan; Drossard, Juergen; Stoger, Eva; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    The EU Sixth Framework Programme Integrated Project 'Pharma-Planta' developed an approved manufacturing process for recombinant plant-made pharmaceutical proteins (PMPs) using the human HIV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 as a case study. In contrast to the well-established Chinese hamster ovary platform, which has been used for the production of therapeutic antibodies for nearly 30 years, only draft regulations were initially available covering the production of recombinant proteins in transgenic tobacco plants. Whereas recombinant proteins produced in animal cells are secreted into the culture medium during fermentation in bioreactors, intact plants grown under nonsterile conditions in a glasshouse environment provide various 'plant-specific' regulatory and technical challenges for the development of a process suitable for the acquisition of a manufacturing licence for clinical phase I trials. During upstream process development, several generic steps were addressed (e.g. plant transformation and screening, seed bank generation, genetic stability, host plant uniformity) as well as product-specific aspects (e.g. product quantity). This report summarizes the efforts undertaken to analyse and define the procedures for the GMP/GACP-compliant upstream production of 2G12 in transgenic tobacco plants from gene to harvest, including the design of expression constructs, plant transformation, the generation of production lines, master and working seed banks and the detailed investigation of cultivation and harvesting parameters and their impact on biomass, product yield and intra/interbatch variability. The resulting procedures were successfully translated into a prototypic manufacturing process that has been approved by the German competent authority.

  14. Process development and production of cGMP grade Melan-A for cancer vaccine clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bardliving, Cameron L; Lowe, Adam J; Huang, Chung-Jr; Manley, Laura; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd; Batt, Carl A

    2013-12-01

    Melan-A is a cancer testis antigen commonly found in melanoma, and has been shown to stimulate the body's immune response against cancerous cells. We have developed and executed a process utilizing current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) to produce the 6 times-His tagged protein in C41DE3 Escherichia coli for use in Phase I clinical trials. Approximately 11 g of purified Melan-A were produced from a 20 L fed-batch fermentation. Purification was achieved through a three column process utilizing immobilized metal affinity, anion exchange, and cation exchange chromatography with a buffer system optimized for low-solubility, high LPS binding capacity proteins. The host cell proteins, residual DNA, and endotoxin concentration were well below limits for a prescribed dose with a final purity level of 91%. PMID:24045055

  15. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  16. Processing science and materials development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegel, Harold L.

    1988-08-01

    The development of advanced technologies for the fabrication of close-tolerance parts, in conjunction with the development of advanced materials, plays a key role in the design and manufacturing of affordable aerospace systems. New process and product-design concepts must be evolved in parallel with the development of advanced materials for future systems in order to exploit the achievements being made in materials science and to tailor specific properties while simultaneously producing controlled geometrical shapes. A scientific description of production equipment and, in general, physical objects, media, fields, and interface and material-related phenomena requires theoretical models which are capable of predicting the response of the fabricating system to the initial inputs. The design of a product and the corresponding manufacturing process generally requires both deterministic models and expert systems which utilize designer intuition and logic in finding acceptable solutions. Reviewed here are some of the recent developments in process modeling as related primarily to metalworking systems and how they aid in the understanding of the role of computer and human expertise in modern computer-aided engineering (CAE).

  17. Process development and techno-economic analysis of a novel process for MeOH production from CO2 using solar-thermal energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Henao, Carlos; Kim, Jiyong; Johnson, Terry Alan; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Maravelias, Christos T.; Miller, James Edward

    2010-11-01

    Mitigating and overcoming environmental problems brought about by the current worldwide fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure requires the creation of innovative alternatives. In particular, such alternatives must actively contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions via carbon recycling and a shift to the use of renewable sources of energy. Carbon neutral transformation of biomass to liquid fuels is one of such alternatives, but it is limited by the inherently low energy efficiency of photosynthesis with regard to the net production of biomass. Researchers have thus been looking for alternative, energy-efficient chemical routes inspired in the biological transformation of solar power, CO2 and H2O into useful chemicals; specifically, liquid fuels. Methanol has been the focus of a fair number of publications for its versatility as a fuel, and its use as an intermediate chemical in the synthesis of many compounds. In some of these studies, (e.g. Joo et al., (2004), Mignard and Pritchard (2006), Galindo and Badr (2007)) CO2 and renewable H2 (e.g. electrolytic H2) are considered as the raw materials for the production of methanol and other liquid fuels. Several basic PFD diagrams have been proposed. One of the most promising is the so called CAMERE process (Joo et al., 1999 ). In this process, carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen are fed to a first reactor and transformed according to: H2 + CO2 <=> H2O + CO Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) After eliminating the produced water the resulting H2/CO2/CO mixture is then feed to a second reactor where it is converted to methanol according to: CO2 + 3.H2 <=> CH3OH + H2O Methanol Synthesis (MS) CO + H2O <=> CO2 + H2 Water Gas Shift (WGS) The approach here is to produce enough CO to eliminate, via WGS, the water produced by MS. This is beneficial since water has been proven to block active sites in the MS catalyst. In this work a different process alternative is presented: One that combines the CO2 recycling of the CAMERE

  18. Discovery Reconceived: Product before Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the question, "What exactly about a mathematical concept should students discover, when they study it via discovery learning?", I present and demonstrate an interpretation of discovery pedagogy that attempts to address its criticism. My approach hinges on decoupling the solution process from its resultant product. Whereas theories of…

  19. MINEHOUND production development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Hunt, Nigel

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the further engineering development and performance of the MINEHOUND affordable humanitarian mine detector, sponsored by the UK Department for International Development and developed by ERA Technology. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs, in terms of the man machine interface, MINEHOUND offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Trials were carried out during the period 2002-2004 and have been reported at SPIE 2002 and SPIE 2004. MINEHOUND has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers an affordable solution to hand held mine detection. The GPR is a time-domain radar transmitting 1ns duration impulses at a repetition frequency of 1MHz. The GPR transmitter- receiver and associated control and signal processing is mounted on a compact purpose designed printed circuit board 220mm by 100mm. A dedicated state of the art "Blackfin" DSP processor is used to provide all control and signal processing functions. Trials of batches of MINEHOUND are planned for 2005 in the Cambodia and Angola as well as the Balkans.

  20. Sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for L. casei cultivation for probiotic beverage development: process optimisation and product stability.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Fonteles, Thatyane Vidal; de Jesus, Ana Laura Tibério; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for producing a probiotic beverage by Lactobacillus casei NRRL B442. Maximal microbial viability was found by cultivating L. casei at 31°C and pH 5.8 (optimised conditions). After fermentation, samples of sweetened and non-sweetened juice were stored. After 42 days of storage under refrigeration (4°C), the microbial viability was 6.03 Log CFU/mL in the non-sweetened sample and 4.77 Log CFU/mL in the sweetened sample. The pH of both samples decreased during storage due to lactic acid production (post acidification). The characteristic colour of the juice was maintained throughout the shelf life and no browning was observed. Sonicated pineapple juice was shown to be a suitable substrate for L. casei cultivation and for the development of an alternative non-dairy probiotic beverage.

  1. Sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for L. casei cultivation for probiotic beverage development: process optimisation and product stability.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Fonteles, Thatyane Vidal; de Jesus, Ana Laura Tibério; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for producing a probiotic beverage by Lactobacillus casei NRRL B442. Maximal microbial viability was found by cultivating L. casei at 31°C and pH 5.8 (optimised conditions). After fermentation, samples of sweetened and non-sweetened juice were stored. After 42 days of storage under refrigeration (4°C), the microbial viability was 6.03 Log CFU/mL in the non-sweetened sample and 4.77 Log CFU/mL in the sweetened sample. The pH of both samples decreased during storage due to lactic acid production (post acidification). The characteristic colour of the juice was maintained throughout the shelf life and no browning was observed. Sonicated pineapple juice was shown to be a suitable substrate for L. casei cultivation and for the development of an alternative non-dairy probiotic beverage. PMID:23561104

  2. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationship models to develop optimized processes for the removal of tobacco host cell proteins during biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Woo, J A; Cramer, S M; Fischer, R

    2013-12-27

    The production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plants benefits from the low cost of upstream production and the greater scalability of plants compared to fermenter-based systems. Now that manufacturing processes that comply with current good manufacturing practices have been developed, plants can compete with established platforms on equal terms. However, the costs of downstream processing remain high, in part because of the dedicated process steps required to remove plant-specific process-related impurities. We therefore investigated whether the ideal strategy for the chromatographic removal of tobacco host cell proteins can be predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling to reduce the process development time and overall costs. We identified more than 100 tobacco proteins by mass spectrometry and their structures were reconstructed from X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or homology modeling data. The resulting three-dimensional models were used to calculate protein descriptors, and significant descriptors were selected based on recently-published retention data for model proteins to develop QSAR models for protein retention on anion, cation and mixed-mode resins. The predicted protein retention profiles were compared with experimental results using crude tobacco protein extracts. Because of the generic nature of the method, it can easily be transferred to other expression systems such as mammalian cells. The quality of the models and potential improvements are discussed.

  3. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationship models to develop optimized processes for the removal of tobacco host cell proteins during biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Woo, J A; Cramer, S M; Fischer, R

    2013-12-27

    The production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plants benefits from the low cost of upstream production and the greater scalability of plants compared to fermenter-based systems. Now that manufacturing processes that comply with current good manufacturing practices have been developed, plants can compete with established platforms on equal terms. However, the costs of downstream processing remain high, in part because of the dedicated process steps required to remove plant-specific process-related impurities. We therefore investigated whether the ideal strategy for the chromatographic removal of tobacco host cell proteins can be predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling to reduce the process development time and overall costs. We identified more than 100 tobacco proteins by mass spectrometry and their structures were reconstructed from X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or homology modeling data. The resulting three-dimensional models were used to calculate protein descriptors, and significant descriptors were selected based on recently-published retention data for model proteins to develop QSAR models for protein retention on anion, cation and mixed-mode resins. The predicted protein retention profiles were compared with experimental results using crude tobacco protein extracts. Because of the generic nature of the method, it can easily be transferred to other expression systems such as mammalian cells. The quality of the models and potential improvements are discussed. PMID:24268820

  4. Designing, Developing, and Marketing Multimedia Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Anna; Randall, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    States that more and more technical writers across the discipline are likely to become involved in designing and developing multimedia products in the future. Finds that this will require retooling current skills used in production of text-based information products. Presents an overview of the process of bringing a multimedia product to the point…

  5. Production of thin glass mirrors by hot slumping for x-ray telescopes: present process and ongoing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, B.; Basso, S.; Brizzolari, C.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2014-07-01

    Thin glass foils are considered good candidates to build a segmented X-ray telescope with effective area as large as 2 m2 and angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. In order to produce thin glass mirror segments, we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, in which the shape of a mould is replicated onto the optical surface of the glass. In this paper we present the result obtained with AF32 (by Schott) and EAGLE XG (by Corning) glass types. The selected mould material is Zerodur K20, as it does not require any anti-sticking layer and has a good matching, in terms of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, with both glass types. Our group already produced a few prototypes, reaching angular resolution near 20 arcsec. In this work, relevant steps forward aimed at attaining a 5 arcsec angular resolution are described, along with the tuning of few key parameters in the slumping process. The results obtained on a newly procured cylindrical Zerodur K20 mould are presented.

  6. Designing medical devices for conformance with harmonized standards. The European Community's Medical Devices Directives and their effect on the product development process.

    PubMed

    Fries, R C; Graber, M D

    1995-01-01

    The European Community's Medical Devices Directives represent an ambitious effort to streamline the regulation of medical devices within the European Economic Area, and area comprising more than 380 million people. In this, the first of two special reports, Richard C. Fries and Mark D. Graber describe the Medical Devices Directives and their effect on the product development process. In the second report, appearing on page 294 Jean A. Goggins uses a case study format to demonstrate the process that would be used to gain European approval for a hypothetical medical device. PMID:7550495

  7. Development of Automated Production Line Processes for Solar Brightfield Modules: Final Annual Technical Progress Report, 1 July 2004 -- 15 October 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2006-08-01

    Spire Corporation is addressing the Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D project goals of improving photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing processes and products while reducing costs and providing a technology foundation that supports significant manufacturing scale-up. To accomplish this, we are focusing our efforts on the design of a large-area utility-scale module and the development of the necessary manufacturing techniques and equipment to manufacture such a module in a high-volume production environment. A three-phase program is under way for developing and demonstrating new automated systems for fabricating very large PV modules ideal for use in multi-megawatt grid-connected applications. We designed a large-area (1.57 m x 3.68 m) 800-W module, and we are developing associated module production equipment that will minimize the total installed system cost for utility-scale PV arrays. Activities in Phase 2 focused on the development of automation for module materials lay-up, cell string busing, and module lamination; enhancements to the cell stringing and lamination processes; and performance testing of large-area modules.

  8. Synthesis: Intertwining product and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis is a proposed systematic process for rapidly creating different members of a program family. Family members are described by variations in their requirements. Requirements variations are mapped to variations on a standard design to generate production quality code and documentation. The approach is made feasible by using principles underlying design for change. Synthesis incorporates ideas from rapid prototyping, application generators, and domain analysis. The goals of Synthesis and the Synthesis process are discussed. The technology needed and the feasibility of the approach are also briefly discussed. The status of current efforts to implement Synthesis methodologies is presented.

  9. Development of a fed-batch process for the production of a dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase in Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii ZV 580.

    PubMed

    Jérôme, Valérie; Hermann, Markus; Hilbrig, Frank; Freitag, Ruth

    2007-12-01

    The dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (dlFalDH) from Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii ZV 580 processes formaldehyde in a highly selective manner and without need for NAD(P). The enzyme thus has considerable potential for technical applications if the difficulties associated with its efficient production can be resolved. In this contribution, a fed-batch bioprocess is developed, which improves both the biomass production of H. zavarzinii ZV 580 (from 0.6 to 2 g l(-1) dry mass) and the specific dlFalDH production (from 0.1 to 0.3 units g(-1) biomass), resulting in an overall improvement of the productivity by more than an order of magnitude compared to the previously reported process (Klein et al., Biochem J 301:289-295, 1994). In particular, the process uses an automated feeding strategy controlled via the dissolved oxygen concentration. In addition, our results show that the growth of H. zavarzinii ZV 580 is rather sensitive toward increasing salt concentration in the culture medium. Growth is also inhibited by the presence of surfactant-based antifoam reagents. Adjustment of the pH via the addition of methylamine instead of NaOH, on the other hand, leads to an increase in biomass yield. PMID:17938908

  10. Development of a brazing process for the production of water- cooled bipolar plates made of chromium-coated metal foils for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.; Hoehlich, D.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.; Hollaender, U.; Maier, H. J.

    2016-03-01

    Beside lithium batteries, PEM fuel cells are the most promising strategy as a power source to achieve the targets for introducing and increasing the usage of electric vehicles. Due to limited space and weight problems, water cooled, metallic bipolar plates in a fuel cell metal stack are preferred in motor vehicles. These plates are stamped metal sheets with a complex structure, interconnected media-tight. To meet the multiple tasks and requirements in use, complex and expensive combinations of materials are currently in use (carbon fiber composites, graphite, gold-plated nickel, stainless and acid resistant steel). The production of such plates is expensive as it is connected with considerable effort or the usage of precious metals. As an alternative, metalloid nitrides (CrN, VN, W2N, etc.) show a high chemical resistance, hardness and a good conductivity. So this material category meets the basic requirements of a top layer. However, the standard methods for their production (PVD, CVD) are expensive and have a slow deposition rate and a lower layer thicknesses. Because of these limitations, a full functionality over the life cycle of a bipolar plate is not guaranteed. The contribution shows the development and quantification of an alternative production process for bipolar plates. The expectation is to get significant advantages from the combination of chromium electrodeposition and thermochemical treatment to form chromium nitrides. Both processes are well researched and suitable for series production. The thermochemical treatment of the chromium layer also enables a process-integrated brazing.

  11. NISAR ISRO science data processing and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Krishna Murari; Mehra, Raghav; Ryali, Usha Sundari

    2016-05-01

    NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) is a Dual Frequency (L & S band) mission which will be operating in SweepSAR mode. As compared to traditional SAR imaging modes in which Swath and resolution are at trade-off, SweepSAR imaging concept can acquire data over large swath (240 Km) without compromising azimuth resolution (6m approximately). NISAR L-band & S-band sensors will be developed by JPL-NASA and ISRO respectively. NISAR science data will be downloaded at both NASA and ISRO ground stations. SAC-ISRO will develop the SAR processor for both L & S band data to generate products in compliance with science requirements. Moreover, JPL will develop L-band SAR processor and all data products will be available to users. Distributed data processing architecture will be used for handling large volume of data resulting from moderate resolution and larger swath in SweepSAR mode. Data products will be available in multiple processing levels like raw signal products, signal processed single-look and multi-look products, ground range products and Geo-Referenced products in HDF5 & GeoTiff formats. Derived Geo-Referenced Polarimetric and Interferometric data products will also be available for dissemination to the users. A rigorous calibration exercise will be performed by acquiring data over reference targets like Amazon rain-forest & corner reflectors sites for the generation of calibrated data products. Furthermore, various science data products (for science applications) will also be derived from basic data products for operational dissemination.

  12. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process controls. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall develop, conduct, control, and monitor production...

  13. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process controls. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall develop, conduct, control, and monitor production...

  14. A Guide to Developing Educational Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, John J., III; And Others

    Intended to assist in the development of instructional products that can be used without direction or assistance from the developer, this guide identifies and describes in a systematic yet flexible approach steps in the product development process. These steps, called phases, serve as chapter headings: Phase I--Clarifying the Need; Phase…

  15. Development of a fed-batch process for the production of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Simon; Richter, Sven M; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2007-05-01

    A fed-batch process utilizing a pET-based expression system (pET28a+ derivative) and E. coli BL21(DE3) as production strain for the heterologous expression of recombinant cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium was developed. In a first step the expression was optimized during a series of flask experiments testing several parameters for their influence on the expression level, activity and solubility of the recombinant protein. The optimal process parameters found in the flask experiments were transferred to a cultivation process in a 5l (operating volume) bioreactor with a special focus on the feeding strategy and the aeration during expression. Glycerol feeding proved to be superior over glucose as carbon source since the formation of larger amounts of acetate was prevented. Expression levels exceeding 12,500nmoll(-1), corresponding to approximately 1.5gl(-1) of product in culture medium ( approximately 11% of CDW) could be demonstrated. The P450 enzyme showed high activity and high solubility. The findings now can be transferred to other enzyme variants and different P450 monooxygenases to increase production of recombinant proteins.

  16. Continuous process of production of pentaerythritol

    SciTech Connect

    Pakulin, V.V.; Rogachev, Y.V.; Gulevich, P.E.; Kruglikov, A.A.

    1982-12-01

    To meet the rising needs of the national economy for pentaerythritol, used in the production of alkyd resins, polyurethane foams, ester lubricants, and so forth, it is necessary to set up large-tonnage continuous production meeting the modern level of technology with a precise system of automatic process control. A continuous method for production of pentaerythritol in the presence of sodium hydroxide has been developed at the Uralkhimplast production association. The technology of the process was tested and developed on an experimental-industrial installation in the present pentaerythritol plant. The basic merit of the continuous process for production of pentaerythritol using NaOH as catalyst over the traditional method based on calcium hydroxide as catalyst, besides the increase of productivity, is the simpler technological scheme of the process. In the continuous production of pentaerythritol, the steps of catalyst preparation (roasting of limestone, slaking of lime, preparation of milk of lime), vacuum filtration of the condensation solution to remove gypsum (elimination of solid wastes in the form of gypsum) are eliminated. In addition, the specific consumption of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, formic acid, electric power and steam is reduced. A characteristic distinction of the process using sodium hydroxide from that using calcium hydroxide is the fact that the condensation solutions produced in the former case are almost colorless and do not change color at the end of the reaction. Therefore, the finished product produced in the presence of NaOH is superior with regard to physicochemical properties to that produced in the presence of Ca(OH)/sub 2/.

  17. Overview of drug product development.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Padma

    2011-12-01

    The process for developing drug delivery systems has evolved over the past two decades with more scientific rigor, involving a collaboration of various fields, i.e., biology, chemistry, engineering, and pharmaceutics. Drug products, also commonly known in the pharmaceutical industry as formulations or "dosage forms," are used for administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for purposes of assessing safety in preclinical models, early- to late-phase human clinical trials, and for routine clinical/commercial use. This overview discusses approaches for creating small-molecule API dosage forms, from preformulation to commercial manufacturing.

  18. Integrated Product and Process Data for B2B Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad; Jones, Albert; Wysk, Richard A.

    2003-09-01

    Collaborative development of engineered products in a business-to-business (B2B) environment will require more than just the selection of components from an on-line catalogue. It will involve the electronic exchange of product, process, and production engineering information during both design and manufacturing. While the state-of-the-practice does include a variety of ways to exchange product data electronically, it does not extend to the exchange of manufacturing process data. The reason is simple; process data is usually tied to specific manufacturing resources. These resources are not known typically at product development time. This paper proposes an approach, called an Integrated Product and Process Data (IPPD), where manufacturing process data is considered during product development. This approach replaces traditional process plans, which are resource specific, with a resource-independent process representation. Such a representation will allow a much wider collaboration among business partners and provide the necessary base for collaborative product development.

  19. Carbon nanotube mass production: principles and processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Qian, Wei-Zhong; Wei, Fei

    2011-07-18

    Our society requires new materials for a sustainable future, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the most important advanced materials. This Review describes the state-of-the-art of CNT synthesis, with a focus on their mass-production in industry. At the nanoscale, the production of CNTs involves the self-assembly of carbon atoms into a one-dimensional tubular structure. We describe how this synthesis can be achieved on the macroscopic scale in processes akin to the continuous tonne-scale mass production of chemical products in the modern chemical industry. Our overview includes discussions on processing methods for high-purity CNTs, and the handling of heat and mass transfer problems. Manufacturing strategies for agglomerated and aligned single-/multiwalled CNTs are used as examples of the engineering science of CNT production, which includes an understanding of their growth mechanism, agglomeration mechanism, reactor design, and process intensification. We aim to provide guidelines for the production and commercialization of CNTs. Although CNTs can now be produced on the tonne scale, knowledge of the growth mechanism at the atomic scale, the relationship between CNT structure and application, and scale-up of the production of CNTs with specific chirality are still inadequate. A multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite for the sustainable development of the CNT industry.

  20. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  1. A high cell density transient transfection system for therapeutic protein expression based on a CHO GS-knockout cell line: process development and product quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rajendra, Yashas; Hougland, Maria D; Alam, Riazul; Morehead, Teresa A; Barnard, Gavin C

    2015-05-01

    Transient gene expression (TGE) is a rapid method for the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. While the volumetric productivity of TGE has improved significantly over the past decade, most methods involve extensive cell line engineering and plasmid vector optimization in addition to long fed batch cultures lasting up to 21 days. Our colleagues have recently reported the development of a CHO K1SV GS-KO host cell line. By creating a bi-allelic glutamine synthetase knock out of the original CHOK1SV host cell line, they were able to improve the efficiency of generating high producing stable CHO lines for drug product manufacturing. We developed a TGE method using the same CHO K1SV GS-KO host cell line without any further cell line engineering. We also refrained from performing plasmid vector engineering. Our objective was to setup a TGE process to mimic protein quality attributes obtained from stable CHO cell line. Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated transfections were performed at high cell density (4 × 10(6) cells/mL) followed by immediate growth arrest at 32 °C for 7 days. Optimizing DNA and PEI concentrations proved to be important. Interestingly, found the direct transfection method (where DNA and PEI were added sequentially) to be superior to the more common indirect method (where DNA and PEI are first pre-complexed). Moreover, the addition of a single feed solution and a polar solvent (N,N dimethylacetamide) significantly increased product titers. The scalability of process from 2 mL to 2 L was demonstrated using multiple proteins and multiple expression volumes. Using this simple, short, 7-day TGE process, we were able to successfully produce 54 unique proteins in a fraction of the time that would have been required to produce the respective stable CHO cell lines. The list of 54 unique proteins includes mAbs, bispecific antibodies, and Fc-fusion proteins. Antibody titers of up to 350 mg/L were achieved with the simple 7-day process. Titers

  2. Developing a commercial production process for 500,000 targets per day: A key challenge for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, D.T.; Alexander, N.B.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Bozek, A.S.; Brown, L.C.; Flint, G.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; McQuillan, B.W.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R.R.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Schroen, D.G.; Sheliak, J.D.; Vermillion, B.A.; Carlson, L.C.; Goodman, P.; Maksaereekul, W.; Raffray, R.; Spalding, J.; Tillack, M.S.

    2006-05-15

    As is true for current-day commercial power plants, a reliable and economic fuel supply is essential for the viability of future Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) [Energy From Inertial Fusion, edited by W. J. Hogan (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995)] power plants. While IFE power plants will utilize deuterium-tritium (DT) bred in-house as the fusion fuel, the 'target' is the vehicle by which the fuel is delivered to the reaction chamber. Thus the cost of the target becomes a critical issue in regard to fuel cost. Typically six targets per second, or about 500 000/day are required for a nominal 1000 MW(e) power plant. The electricity value within a typical target is about $3, allocating 10% for fuel cost gives only 30 cents per target as-delivered to the chamber center. Complicating this economic goal, the target supply has many significant technical challenge - fabricating the precision fuel-containing capsule, filling it with DT, cooling it to cryogenic temperatures, layering the DT into a uniform layer, characterizing the finished product, accelerating it to high velocity for injection into the chamber, and tracking the target to steer the driver beams to meet it with micron-precision at the chamber center.

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  4. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this mission-oriented research program is the production of renewable hydrogen for fossil fuel processing. This program will build upon promising results that have been obtained in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the utilization of intact microalgae for photosynthetic water splitting. In this process, specially adapted algae are used to perform the light-activated cleavage of water into its elemental constituents, molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of their hydrogen-producing capability. These are: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the original development of an evacuated photobiological reactor for real-world engineering applications; (6) the potential for using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. The significance of each of these points in the context of a practical system for hydrogen production is discussed. This program will be enhanced by collaborative research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and senior faculty members at Duke University, the University of Chicago, and Iowa State University. The special contribution that these organizations and faculty members will make is access to strains and mutants of unicellular algae that will potentially have useful properties for hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting.

  5. Development of biobased products.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Research conducted over the past seven years by the biotechnology byproducts consortium (BBC) addresses its mission to investigate the opportunities to add value to agricultural products, byproducts and coproducts and to manage the wastewater arising from agribusinesses in an environmentally favorable way. Since a wide variety of research approaches have been taken, the results are collected in five topic groups: (1) bioremediation that includes anaerobic fermentations of wastes to produce methane and hydrogen, the genetics of methanogenesis and in situ remediation of contaminated aquifer systems, landfill leachates and industrial effluents; (2) land application of fermentation byproducts and their use in animal feeds; (3) biocatalytic studies of transformations of components of corn and soybean oils, peroxidases present in plant products, such as soybean hulls; (4) biochemical reactions for the production of de-icers from industrial water streams, biodiesel production from fats and greases, biodegradable plastics from polymerizable sugar derivatives, single cell foods derived from fungal growth on waste streams, and bacterial polysaccharides from Erwinia species; (5) separation and recovery of components by membrane technologies.

  6. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  7. Process development for the production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose using beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Splechtna, Barbara; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Zehetner, Romana; Lettner, Hans Peter; Lorenz, Werner; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2007-04-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are formed from lactose in discontinuous mode of conversion using beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus sp. (beta-gal). The discontinuous process was optimized for technical application with regard to GOS yield, enzyme preparation, reaction temperature and substrate source. It proved to be advantageous to directly apply the crude cell-free enzyme extract for the conversion, since similar GOS yields and composition were obtained as when using the pure enzyme preparation, but expensive purification could be avoided. Reaction temperature was lowered to 17 degrees C to limit microbial contamination when using technical substrates. Thereby GOS yield decreased from 30% to 28% of total sugars and enzyme demand increased 2.7-fold. Whey permeate was compared to buffered lactose solution as a substrate source. The initial reaction rate was found to be 1.8 times higher for the whey permeate substrate; however, GOS yield was slightly lower (approximately 25% of total sugar at 17 degrees C) mainly due to smaller amounts of allolactose[beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Glc] and the trisaccharide beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Lac formed.

  8. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-01-31

    Construction of an automated solar cell layup and interconnect system is now complete. This system incorporates a Unimate 2000 B industrial robot with an end effector consisting of a vacuum pick up and induction heating coil. The robot interfaces with a smart cell preparation station which correctly orients the cell, applies solder paste and forms and positions the correct lengths of interconnect lead. The system is controlled and monitored by a TRS-80 micro computer. The first operational tests of the fully integrated station have been run. These tests proved the soundness of the basic design concept but also pointed to areas in which modifications are necessary. These modifications are nearly complete and the improved parts are being integrated. Development of the controlling computer program is progressing to both reflect these changes and reduce operating time.

  9. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  10. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  11. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  12. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. PMID:27091319

  13. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Carlos A; Sánchez, Oscar J

    2007-09-01

    Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. In this work, the key role that process design plays during the development of cost-effective technologies is recognized through the analysis of major trends in process synthesis, modeling, simulation and optimization related to ethanol production. Main directions in techno-economical evaluation of fuel ethanol processes are described as well as some prospecting configurations. The most promising alternatives for compensating ethanol production costs by the generation of valuable co-products are analyzed. Opportunities for integration of fuel ethanol production processes and their implications are underlined. Main ways of process intensification through reaction-reaction, reaction-separation and separation-separation processes are analyzed in the case of bioethanol production. Some examples of energy integration during ethanol production are also highlighted. Finally, some concluding considerations on current and future research tendencies in fuel ethanol production regarding process design and integration are presented.

  14. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

  15. Development of metallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-04-01

    Solar cells were produced using a Mo/Sn/TiH screen printed paste with a lead/borosilicate frit that are electrically comparable to control silver cells. The process is currently unsuccessful because the soldering of interconnects to these cells has proved difficult. Future work will investigate using CO instead of H2 as the reducing gas and putting an ITO coating on the cell prior to metallization.

  16. Silicon Web Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

  17. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

  18. Processes and process development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noda, T.

    1986-01-01

    The commercialization of solar power generation necessitates the development of low cost manufacturing method of silicon suitable for solar cells. The manufacturing methods of semiconductor grade silicon (SEG-Si) and the development of solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) in foreign countries was investigated. It was concluded that the most efficient method of developing such materials was the hydrogen reduction process of trichlorosilane (TCS), using a fluidized bed reactor. The low cost reduction of polysilicon requires cost reductions of raw materials, energy, labor, and capital. These conditions were carefully reviewed. The overall conclusion was that a development program should be based on the TCS-FBR process and that the experimental program should be conducted in test facilities capable of producing 10 tons of silicon granules per year.

  19. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  20. ASI-Volcanic Risk System (SRV): a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring, first results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Dini, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The project philosophy is to implement, by incremental versions, specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools geophysical parameters suitable for volcanic risk management. The ASI-SRV is devoted to the development of an integrated system based on Earth Observation (EO) data to respond to specific needs of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) and improve the monitoring of Italian active volcanoes during all the risk phases (Pre Crisis, Crisis and Post Crisis). The ASI-SRV system provides support to risk managers during the different volcanic activity phases and its results are addressed to the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC). SRV provides the capability to manage the import many different EO data into the system, it maintains a repository where the acquired data have to be stored and generates selected volcanic products. The processing modules for EO Optical sensors data are based on procedures jointly developed by INGV and University of Modena. This procedures allow to estimate a number of parameters such as: surface thermal proprieties, gas, aerosol and ash emissions and to characterize the volcanic products in terms of composition and geometry. For the analysis of the surface thermal characteristics, the available algorithms allow to extract information during the prevention phase and during the Warning and Crisis phase. In the prevention phase the thermal analysis is directed to the identification of temperature variation on volcanic structure which may indicate a change in the volcanic activity state. At the moment the only sensor that

  1. Integration of rapid prototyping into product development

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is a vertically multi-disciplined research and development laboratory with a long history of designing and developing d electro-mechanical products in the national interest. Integrating new technologies into the prototyping phase of our development cycle is necessary to reduce the cycle time from initial design to finished product. The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with relative speed and production-like quality. Issues of accuracy, feature definition, and surface finish continue to drive research and development of these processes. Sandia uses Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal product development efforts. The primary use of SL and SLS is to produce patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured using SL and SLS with a focus on application, accuracy, surface and feature definition.

  2. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2011-12-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  3. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  4. Creating project plans to focus product development.

    PubMed

    Wheelwright, S C; Clark, K B

    1992-01-01

    The long-term competitiveness of most manufacturers depends on their product development capabilities. Yet few companies approach the development process systematically or strategically. They end up with an unruly collection of projects that do not match long-term business objectives and that consume far more development resources than are available. Instead of working on important projects, development engineers spend their time fighting fires. Their productivity sinks, and products are invariably late to market. To attack development malaise and reinvigorate the process, companies should put together an "aggregate project plan." The plan helps managers restructure the development process so they no longer think in terms of individual projects but in terms of the "set" of projects. It is the set, not individual projects, that shapes the creation of a successful product line. The aggregate project plan also helps managers allocate resources, sequence projects, and build critical development capabilities. A central element of the aggregate project plan is the project map. The map categorizes projects into five types: breakthrough, platform, derivative, research and development, and partnerships. Each project type has its own unique characteristics and requires a different amount of development time. Companies should have projects in all categories to ensure a robust development process. PMID:10117370

  5. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  6. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester

    2011-06-01

    As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant

  8. Developing the JPL Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

  9. Consolidated processes for product recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, fermentation industries are structured on individual unit operations for production of biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and 2,3-butanediol which result in increased capital and operational costs. Such increased costs result in low profitability and increased consumer price. With the d...

  10. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  11. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. PMID:26153056

  12. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils and linear fibril assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Tenhover, M.; Biernacki, J.; Schatz, K.; Ko, F.

    1995-08-01

    In order to exploit the superior thermomechanical properties of the VLS fibril, the feasibility of scaled-up production of the SiC fibril is demonstrated in this study. Through time series study and computer simulation, the parameters affecting the growth process and properties of the fibrils were examined. To facilitate translation of the superior mechanical properties into higher level preform structures, conventional and unconventional processing methods were evaluated. As revealed by scanning electron microscopic examination and X-ray diffractometry, high level alignment of the fibrils was achieved by the wet-laid process.

  13. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  14. Business Communication: Its Process and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Joel P.; Branchaw, Bernadine P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the essential difference between the writing process and its product; namely, that the former is a private and unique activity, whereas the latter is an observable artifact that can be publicly evaluated. Argues that even proponents of the process approach to writing cannot escape basing their discussions on products. (JD)

  15. Reading: Product and Process in Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, William D.

    Reading has been viewed both as a product and as a process. The product view of reading is generally associated with static information produced by testing techniques. A major difficulty with the product view seems to be that reading is treated as though it is stopped in time, captured in the static scores of tests. This feature of the product…

  16. The pulsar planet production process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, E. S.; Hansen, B. M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Most plausible scenarios for the formation of planets around pulsars end with a disk of gas around the pulsar. The supplicant author then points to the solar system to bolster faith in the miraculous transfiguration of gas into planets. We here investigate this process of transfiguration. We derive analytic sequences of quasi-static disks which give good approximations to exact solutions of the disk diffusion equation with realistic opacity tables. These allow quick and efficient surveys of parameter space. We discuss the outward transfer of mass in accretion disks and the resulting timescale constraints, the effects of illumination by the central source on the disk and dust within it, and the effects of the widely different elemental compositions of the disks in the various scenarios, and their extensions to globular clusters. We point out where significant uncertainties exist in the appropriate grain opacities, and in the effect of illumination and winds from the neutron star.

  17. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  18. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  19. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  20. Advanced uncooled sensor product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A.; Masini, P.; Lamb, M.; Hamers, J.; Kocian, T.; Gordon, E.; Parrish, W.; Williams, R.; LeBeau, T.

    2015-06-01

    The partnership between RVS, Seek Thermal and Freescale Semiconductor continues on the path to bring the latest technology and innovation to both military and commercial customers. The partnership has matured the 17μm pixel for volume production on the Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program in efforts to bring advanced production capability to produce a low cost, high performance product. The partnership has developed the 12μm pixel and has demonstrated performance across a family of detector sizes ranging from formats as small as 206 x 156 to full high definition formats. Detector pixel sensitivities have been achieved using the RVS double level advanced pixel structure. Transition of the packaging of microbolometers from a traditional die level package to a wafer level package (WLP) in a high volume commercial environment is complete. Innovations in wafer fabrication techniques have been incorporated into this product line to assist in the high yield required for volume production. The WLP seal yield is currently > 95%. Simulated package vacuum lives >> 20 years have been demonstrated through accelerated life testing where the package has been shown to have no degradation after 2,500 hours at 150°C. Additionally the rugged assembly has shown no degradation after mechanical shock and vibration and thermal shock testing. The transition to production effort was successfully completed in 2014 and the WLP design has been integrated into multiple new production products including the TWS and the innovative Seek Thermal commercial product that interfaces directly to an iPhone or android device.

  1. High-throughput process development: I. Process chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Bhambure, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Chromatographic separation serves as "a workhorse" for downstream process development and plays a key role in removal of product-related, host cell-related, and process-related impurities. Complex and poorly characterized raw materials and feed material, low feed concentration, product instability, and poor mechanistic understanding of the processes are some of the critical challenges that are faced during development of a chromatographic step. Traditional process development is performed as trial-and-error-based evaluation and often leads to a suboptimal process. High-throughput process development (HTPD) platform involves an integration of miniaturization, automation, and parallelization and provides a systematic approach for time- and resource-efficient chromatography process development. Creation of such platforms requires integration of mechanistic knowledge of the process with various statistical tools for data analysis. The relevance of such a platform is high in view of the constraints with respect to time and resources that the biopharma industry faces today. This protocol describes the steps involved in performing HTPD of process chromatography step. It described operation of a commercially available device (PreDictor™ plates from GE Healthcare). This device is available in 96-well format with 2 or 6 μL well size. We also discuss the challenges that one faces when performing such experiments as well as possible solutions to alleviate them. Besides describing the operation of the device, the protocol also presents an approach for statistical analysis of the data that is gathered from such a platform. A case study involving use of the protocol for examining ion-exchange chromatography of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), a therapeutic product, is briefly discussed. This is intended to demonstrate the usefulness of this protocol in generating data that is representative of the data obtained at the traditional lab scale. The agreement in the

  2. Development of a data driven process-based model for remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and above-ground biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Masri, Bassil

    2011-12-01

    Modeling terrestrial ecosystem functions and structure has been a subject of increasing interest because of the importance of the terrestrial carbon cycle in global carbon budget and climate change. In this study, satellite data were used to estimate gross primary production (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET) for two deciduous forests: Morgan Monroe State forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard forest in Massachusetts. Also, above-ground biomass (AGB) was estimated for the MMSF and the Howland forest (mixed forest) in Maine. Surface reflectance and temperature, vegetation indices, soil moisture, tree height and canopy area derived from the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMRS-E), LIDAR, and aerial imagery respectively, were used for this purpose. These variables along with others derived from remotely sensed data were used as inputs variables to process-based models which estimated GPP and ET and to a regression model which estimated AGB. The process-based models were BIOME-BGC and the Penman-Monteith equation. Measured values for the carbon and water fluxes obtained from the Eddy covariance flux tower were compared to the modeled GPP and ET. The data driven methods produced good estimation of GPP and ET with an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 molC/m2 and 0.40 mm/day, respectively for the MMSF and the Harvard forest. In addition, allometric data for the MMSF were used to develop the regression model relating AGB with stem volume. The performance of the AGB regression model was compared to site measurements using remotely sensed data for the MMSF and the Howland forest where the model AGB RMSE ranged between 2.92--3.30 Kg C/m2. Sensitivity analysis revealed that improvement in maintenance respiration estimation and remotely sensed maximum photosynthetic activity as well as accurate estimate of canopy resistance will result in improved GPP and ET predictions. Moreover, AGB estimates were

  3. Process-Based Quality (PBQ) Tools Development

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, J.L.

    2001-12-03

    The objective of this effort is to benchmark the development of process-based quality tools for application in CAD (computer-aided design) model-based applications. The processes of interest are design, manufacturing, and quality process applications. A study was commissioned addressing the impact, current technologies, and known problem areas in application of 3D MCAD (3-dimensional mechanical computer-aided design) models and model integrity on downstream manufacturing and quality processes. The downstream manufacturing and product quality processes are profoundly influenced and dependent on model quality and modeling process integrity. The goal is to illustrate and expedite the modeling and downstream model-based technologies for available or conceptual methods and tools to achieve maximum economic advantage and advance process-based quality concepts.

  4. The effects of different preservation processes on the total protein and growth factor content in a new biological product developed from human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Bonci, Paola; Bonci, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the total protein and growth factors content in a tissue-suspension obtained from processed human amniotic membrane (hAM). hAM was collected, frozen, freeze dried, powdered and sterilized by γ-irradiation. At each step of the process, samples were characterized for the total protein amounts by a Bradford protein assay and for the growth factor concentrations by ELISA test of the tissue suspensions. Frozen-hAM samples show higher release of total proteins and specific growth factors in the tissue suspension in comparison with freeze-dried hAM. We observed that even if the protein extraction is hindered once the tissue is dried, the powdering process allows a greater release in the tissue suspension of total proteins and growth factors after tissue re-solubilization in comparison with only the freeze-drying process (+91 ± 13% for EGF, +16 ± 4% for HGF, +11 ± 5% for FGF, +16 ± 9% for TGF-β1), and a greater release of EGF (85 ± 10%) in comparison with only the freezing process, because proteins become much readily solubilized in the solution. According with these results, we describe a protocol to obtain a new sterile biological product from hAM tissue, with well-known effects of thermal, mechanical and physical processes on the total protein and grow factors contents.

  5. Mariner 9-Image processing and products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levinthal, E.C.; Green, W.B.; Cutts, J.A.; Jahelka, E.D.; Johansen, R.A.; Sander, M.J.; Seidman, J.B.; Young, A.T.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the system for the display, processing, and production of image-data products created to support the Mariner 9 Television Experiment. Of necessity, the system was large in order to respond to the needs of a large team of scientists with a broad scope of experimental objectives. The desire to generate processed data products as rapidly as possible to take advantage of adaptive planning during the mission, coupled with the complexities introduced by the nature of the vidicon camera, greatly increased the scale of the ground-image processing effort. This paper describes the systems that carried out the processes and delivered the products necessary for real-time and near-real-time analyses. References are made to the computer algorithms used for the, different levels of decalibration and analysis. ?? 1973.

  6. Processing prefixes and suffixes in handwriting production.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonia; Spinelli, Elsa; Tremblay, Annie; Guerassimovitch, Helena; Álvarez, Carlos J

    2012-07-01

    Previous research showed that handwriting production is mediated by linguistically oriented processing units such as syllables and graphemes. The goal of this study was to investigate whether French adults also activate another kind of unit that is more related to semantics than phonology, namely morphemes. Experiment 1 revealed that letter duration and inter-letter intervals were longer for suffixed words than for pseudo-suffixed words. These results suggest that the handwriting production system chunks the letter components of the root and suffix into morpheme-sized units. Experiment 2 compared the production of prefixed and pseudo-prefixed words. The results did not yield significant differences. This asymmetry between suffix and prefix processing has also been observed in other linguistic tasks. In suffixed words, the suffix would be processed on-line during the production of the root, in an analytic fashion. Prefixed words, in contrast, seem to be processed without decomposition, as pseudo-affixed words. PMID:22664316

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  8. Benchmarking Peer Production Mechanisms, Processes & Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Thomas; Kretschmer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This deliverable identifies key approaches for quality management in peer production by benchmarking peer production practices and processes in other areas. (Contains 29 footnotes, 13 figures and 2 tables.)[This report has been authored with contributions of: Kaisa Honkonen-Ratinen, Matti Auvinen, David Riley, Jose Pinzon, Thomas Fischer, Thomas…

  9. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined.

  10. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

  11. An EMQ model in an imperfect production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2010-06-01

    The intention of this article is to develop a framework of production policy (resumption and non-resumption) in order to find out optimal safety stock, optimal production rate and production lot size. It encompasses specific versions of the concept of quality and inventory model, stochastic machine breakdown and its correcting and regular repair paths with safety stocks. This framework hopefully serves to simplify answers to the important questions: How much safety stocks, production rate and production lot size are required to minimise the total expected system cost. The optimal production rate, production lot size, production run time and safety stocks are determined numerically and the joint effect of process deterioration, machine breakdown and its repair (correcting and preventive) on the optimal decision is investigated for a numerical example. Such an investigation should also yield logistics directions for the design of products and their manufacturing processes.

  12. Gravimelt Process development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This final report contains the results of a bench-scale program to continue the development of the TRW proprietary Gravimelt Process for chemically cleaning coal. This project consisted of two major efforts, a laboratory study aimed at identifying parameters which would influence the operation of a bench unit for desulfurization and demineralization of coal and the design, construction and operation of two types of continuous plug-flow type bench-scale fused caustic leachers. This present bench scale project has demonstrated modes for the continuous operation of fused caustic leaching of coal at coal throughputs of 1 to 5 pounds per hour. The remaining process unit operations of leach solutions regeneration and coal washing and filtration should be tested at bench scale together with fused caustic leaching of coal to demonstrate the complete Gravimelt Process. 22 figures, 11 tables.

  13. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  14. Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

  15. Anisotropic porous metals production by melt processing

    SciTech Connect

    Shapovalov, V.; Boiko, L.; Baldwin, M.D.; Maguire, M.C.; Zanner, F.J.

    1997-02-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has left many of its scientific institutes and technical universities without their traditional backbone of financial support. In an effort to stem the export of science to nations advocating nuclear proliferation, and to acquire potentially useful technology, several US government-sponsored programs have arise to mine the best of former USSR scientific advances. In the field of metallurgy, the earliest institutes to be investigated by Sandia National Laboratories are located in Ukraine. In particular, scientists at the State Metallurgical Academy have developed unique porous metals, resembling what could be described as gas-solid ``eutectic``. While porous metals are available in the US and other western countries, none have the remarkable structure and properties of these materials. Sandia began a collaborative program with the Ukrainian scientists to bring this technology to the US, verify the claims regarding these materials, and begin production of the so-called Gasars. This paper will describe the casting process technology and metallurgy associated with the production of Gasars, and will review the progress of the collaborative project.

  16. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  17. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  18. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  19. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  20. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for monitoring of process-related synthetic organic impurities of profenofos in technical products.

    PubMed

    Nageswara Rao, R; Naga Raju, D; Venkateswarlu, N; Vittal Rao, B; Parvathi, N; Manjula, A; Reddy, G N; Gawali, P B; Sreekanth, M; Nageswara Rao, P

    2003-09-01

    A simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the monitoring of process-related synthetic organic impurities of profenofos (PFS) is developed. Impurities are separated and determined on a reversed-phase Hypersil C(18) column using gradient elution of 50 mM ammonium formate buffer-acetonitrile as a mobile phase and detection at 230 nm at ambient temperature. The method is validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, and limits of detection and quantitation. The method is found to be suitable not only for monitoring the reactions involved in the process development of PFS, but also quality assurance, as it can detect impurities at the level of 1.5 x 10(-8) g. PMID:14558934

  1. Development and evaluation of a collection apparatus for recoil products for study of the deexcitation process of (235m)U.

    PubMed

    Shigekawa, Y; Kasamatsu, Y; Shinohara, A

    2016-05-01

    The nucleus (235m)U is an isomer with extremely low excitation energy (76.8 eV) and decays dominantly through the internal conversion (IC) process. Because outer-shell electrons are involved in the IC process, the decay constant of (235m)U depends on its chemical environment. We plan to study the deexcitation process of (235m)U by measuring the energy spectra of IC electrons in addition to the decay constants for various chemical forms. In this paper, the preparation method of (235m)U samples from (239)Pu by using alpha-recoil energy is reported. A Collection Apparatus for Recoil Products was fabricated, and then collection efficiencies under various conditions were determined by collecting (224)Ra recoiling out of (228)Th electrodeposited and precipitated sources. The pressure in the apparatus (vacuum or 1 atm of N2 gas) affected the variations of the collection efficiencies depending on the negative voltage applied to the collector. The maximum values of the collection efficiencies were mainly affected by the thickness of the (228)Th sources. From these results, the suitable conditions of the (239)Pu sources for preparation of (235m)U were determined. In addition, dissolution efficiencies were determined by washing collected (224)Ra with solutions. When (224)Ra was collected in 1 atm of N2 gas and dissolved with polar solutions such as water, the dissolution efficiencies were nearly 100%. The method of rapid dissolution of recoil products would be applicable to rapid preparation of short-lived (235m)U samples for various chemical forms. PMID:27250424

  2. Decisions on new product development under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Liu, Li-Chen; Ho, Jyh-Wen

    2015-04-01

    In an intensively competitive market, developing a new product has become a valuable strategy for companies to establish their market positions and enhance their competitive advantages. Therefore, it is essential to effectively manage the process of new product development (NPD). However, since various problems may arise in NPD projects, managers should set up some milestones and subsequently construct evaluative mechanisms to assess their feasibility. This paper employed the approach of Bayesian decision analysis to deal with the two crucial uncertainties for NPD, which are the future market share and the responses of competitors. The proposed decision process can provide a systematic analytical procedure to determine whether an NPD project should be continued or not under the consideration of whether effective usage is being made of the organisational resources. Accordingly, the proposed decision model can assist the managers in effectively addressing the NPD issue under the competitive market.

  3. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates. PMID:27088667

  4. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  5. Productive Skills for Process Operatives. Skills Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, L.; Kodz, J.; Evans, C.

    A study of process operatives examined the developments in processing work in 20 organizations within the chemical and food and drink processing industries. Seven exploratory interviews were followed by 20 employer interviews. Technological innovations caused job losses and layoffs. Organizational responses adopted to meet increasing competitive…

  6. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  7. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  8. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  9. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  10. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  11. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  12. Exploring Group Communication and Productivity Improvement: Using an Experiential Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.; Mandeville, David E.

    Engineering students at Oklahoma State University used an experiential process (the ACME Basket Exercise) to develop an understanding of how quality and productivity can be improved. The exercise simulates a traditional production organization in the classroom and mirrors the efforts, the successes, and the frustrations of individuals and work…

  13. Natural fiber production, harvesting, and preliminary processing: options and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utilization of natural fibers and plant oils in bio-products introduces numerous logistical challenges not typically encountered with non-agricultural resources. Once it has been determined that a plant material is suitable for commercial development, the production, harvesting, and processing s...

  14. Development of a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous screening of seven water-soluble vitamins in processing semi-coarse wheat flour products.

    PubMed

    Nurit, Eric; Lyan, Bernard; Piquet, Agnès; Branlard, Gérard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Wheat is the second largest crop cultivated around the world and constitutes a major part of the daily diet in Europe. It is therefore important to determine the content of micronutrient in wheat and wheat-based food products to define the contribution of wheat-based foods to the nutrition of the consumers. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple and rapid method based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins in various wheat-based food materials. The vitamins present in the test material were separated in less than 15 min by using a reverse-phase C18 column, and analyzed by positive ion electrospray selected reaction monitoring MS/MS. The MS response for all the vitamins was linear over the working range (0.05 to 9 μg/mL) with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.991 and 1. Limits of quantification in the different food materials ranged from 0.09 to 3.5 μg/g. Intra-day and inter-day precision were found satisfactory. The developed method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the water-soluble vitamin natural content of different semi-coarse wheat flours and in their corresponding baking products.

  15. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.

  16. Managing the Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubelczky, Jeffrey T.; Parra, Amy

    1999-01-01

    The goal of any software development project is to produce a product that is delivered on time, within the allocated budget, and with the capabilities expected by the customer and unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved. However, a properly managed project in a mature software engineering environment can consistently achieve this goal. In this paper we provide an introduction to three project success factors, a properly managed project, a competent project manager, and a mature software engineering environment. We will also present an overview of the benefits of a mature software engineering environment based on 24 years of data from the Software Engineering Lab, and suggest some first steps that an organization can take to begin benefiting from this environment. The depth and breadth of software engineering exceeds this paper, various references are cited with a goal of raising awareness and encouraging further investigation into software engineering and project management practices.

  17. Process redesign of production maintenance operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, M.; Lowe, B.; Disney, V. Spilman, K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for the systematic redesign of traditional production maintenance operations as they relate to subsurface failures of sucker rod pumped wells. The paper advocates an organized approach to process definition, refinement and redesign such that improvement objectives are clearly communicated, appropriate human and physical resources are brought to bear, and a system of improvement measurements becomes the overriding focus of the operation. Specific examples of the use of statistical process control tools in the production maintenance quality improvement effort are explored.

  18. Recombinant protein production and insect cell culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas (Inventor); Francis, Karen (Inventor); Andrews, Angela (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using the cultured insect cells as host for a virus encoding the described polypeptide such as baculovirus. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  19. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  20. Development a scalable production process for truncated human papillomavirus type-6 L1 protein using WAVE Bioreactor and hollow fiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhao, Dandan; Zhang, Xizhen; Gu, Tiejun; Yu, XiangHui; Sun, Shiyang; Zhao, Xinghong; Wei, Liu; Liu, Dawei; Yan, Hui; Meng, Xiangyu; Kong, Wei; Xu, Fei; Yang, Ping; Jiang, Chunlai

    2016-02-01

    Here, we describe a process for expression, purification, and characterization of truncated human papillomavirus type-6 (HPV-6) L1 virus-like particles (VLPs). The scalable cultivation process in a WAVE Bioreactor at the 10-L scale was optimized to express HPV-6 L1 VLPs using the baculovirus insect expression system. A hollow fiber membrane system was used for the integrated operation, including concentration, diafiltration, extraction, and clarification. The HPV-6 L1 protein was further purified by anion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic chromatography. The HPV-6 L1 protein could self-assemble into VLPs with a diameter of approximately 50-60 nm after removal of the reductant dithiothreitol (DTT). The final purified HPV-6 L1 VLPs product was characterized to estimate yield and purity, and exceeds the requirements for pharmaceutical-grade VLP vaccine. Immunization of mice demonstrated that the vaccine could elicit high titer neutralizing antibodies in vivo. This study confirms the feasibility of producing pharmaceutical-grade HPV type-6 L1 VLPs on an industrial scale for clinical trials.

  1. Managing a Product Development Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtonen, Kenneth E.; Barrett, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Orbiting 380 miles above the earth, NASA s Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has returned a wealth of scientific data about our universe and galaxies beyond highlighted by spectacular images of the birth and death of stars, colliding galaxies, and other extra-worldly events. Despite its tremendous success for almost two decades, the HST ground support system experienced down-to-earth problems prior to the turn of the century, namely budgetary ones. To keep HST operating efficiently to 201 2 and beyond, the Vision 2000 project was conceived with the primary goal of substantially reducing the costs of operating and maintaining the spacecraft ground systems. Taking advantage of this atypical management opportunity, a set of Product Development Teams (PDTs) were established, whose charter was to re-engineer the ground system, and in doing so, reduce the remaining life-of-mission operating and maintenance costs, while providing improved reliability and increased capabilities.

  2. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  3. Process-Product Research: A Cornerstone in Educational Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    This article links the contribution of process-product studies in developing the theoretical framework of educational effectiveness by pointing out the importance of teacher behavior in the classroom. The role that Jere Brophy played in this evolving research is described within the various phases of teacher effectiveness research. Process-product…

  4. Spin stream develop process for ZEP resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jaecheon; Ha, Tae-Joong; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Han, Oscar

    2004-08-01

    ZEP is a field-proven stable E-Beam resist for photo-mask manufacturing. The spin-spray develop method has been widely used for ZEP resist processing. Recently, we have successfully adopted the spin-stream develop process for ZEP resist by using modified TEL MARK-8 wafer process track. This paper presents a comparison result of CD uniformity between the conventional spin-spray method and new spin-stream method on 6-inch production halftone phase shift masks. In this process, we apply low temperature(18 deg. C) develop solution in room temperature ambient. The spin-stream process with low temperature solution is found to be a suitable recipe for high-end phase shift mask manufacturing with under 10 nm CD uniformity (3sigma) in 120mm X 120mm area. Moreover, the modified MARK-8 track can provide both of a FEP and a ZEP process module in one unit, and this advantage reduces the cost of ownership for a high-end mask manufacturing facility.

  5. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasiński, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H2 at a production cost of (1-2)/kg(H2) (or 60 g(H2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  6. Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chong-hao; Min, Min; Nie, Yong; Xie, Qing-long; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Anderson, Erik; Li, Dong; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Currently scum is treated either by anaerobic digestion or landfilling which raised several environmental issues. The newly developed process used a six-step method to convert scum to biodiesel, a higher value product. A combination of acid washing and acid catalyzed esterification was developed to remove soap and impurities while converting free fatty acids to methyl esters. A glycerol washing was used to facilitate the separation of biodiesel and glycerin after base catalyzed transesterification. As a result, 70% of dried and filtered scum was converted to biodiesel which is equivalent to about 134,000 gallon biodiesel per year for the Saint Paul waste water treatment plant in Minnesota.

  7. Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chong-hao; Min, Min; Nie, Yong; Xie, Qing-long; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Anderson, Erik; Li, Dong; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Currently scum is treated either by anaerobic digestion or landfilling which raised several environmental issues. The newly developed process used a six-step method to convert scum to biodiesel, a higher value product. A combination of acid washing and acid catalyzed esterification was developed to remove soap and impurities while converting free fatty acids to methyl esters. A glycerol washing was used to facilitate the separation of biodiesel and glycerin after base catalyzed transesterification. As a result, 70% of dried and filtered scum was converted to biodiesel which is equivalent to about 134,000 gallon biodiesel per year for the Saint Paul waste water treatment plant in Minnesota. PMID:25770465

  8. Production of strange particles in hadronization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, W.

    1987-08-01

    Strange particles provide an important tool for the study of the color confinement mechanisms involved in hadronization processes. We review data on inclusive strange-particle production and on correlations between strange particles in high-energy reactions, and discuss phenomenological models for parton fragmentation. 58 refs., 24 figs.

  9. Syllables as Processing Units in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Vallee, Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    This research focused on the syllable as a processing unit in handwriting. Participants wrote, in uppercase letters, words that had been visually presented. The interletter intervals provide information on the timing of motor production. In Experiment 1, French participants wrote words that shared the initial letters but had different syllable…

  10. Sustainability Analysis for Products and Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability Analysis for Products and Processes Subhas K. Sikdar National Risk Management Research Laboratory United States Environmental protection Agency 26 W. M.L. King Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45237 Sikdar.subhas@epa.gov ABSTRACT Claims of both sustainable and unsu...

  11. Workplace exposure at nanomaterial production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhlmann, Carsten; Welter, Johannes; Klenke, Martin; Sander, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Typical nanomaterial production processes from daily practice had been performed in order to determine simultaneously the exposure to nanoparticles. They involve mixing of ZnO powder into a liquid, filling and emptying an oven with indium tin oxide (ITO), spraying a suspension of nanoparticles, flame spraying of silanes, and an outside location as comparison.

  12. Written Composition: Process, Product, Program. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles R., Ed.; Schlawin, Sheila A., Ed.

    Intended for teachers and administrators, this collection of essays focuses on the dual meaning of practice--practice of writing skills, and teaching practices in composition instruction. The process section focuses on the types of activities that build composition skills. The product and program sections shift focus to professional practice, the…

  13. Thermoradiation processes of energy-carrier production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzantiev, B. G.; Ermakov, A. N.; Zhitomirskii, V. M.; Popov, V. N.

    Thermoradiation processes in the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from water vapor and CO2 are discussed. An radiolysis experiment was conducted using a one-pass flow system and an electron accelerator (with energy of 3 Me V), according to parameters of dose rate, regent-radiation contact time, and temperature (700 deg). Steady-state concentrations of H2 and CO were found to correspond to 20 and 40 percent radiation energy-product and energy conversion, respectively. The results of the experiment permit an accurate determination of the optimal parameters of the conversion process and an estimate of the relative efficiencies of chemonuclear and electrochemical methods (plasmolysis and electrolysis) of H2 and CO production using nuclear piles.

  14. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  15. Optimization process of tribenzoine production as a glycerol derived product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Abdurrakhman, Rifianto, Y.; Abdullah, Hadiyanto, Samsudin, Asep M.; Annisa, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Tribenzoin is a derived product from glycerol that can produce from glycerol conversion via esterification process. The product can be used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and also can be used to improve the properties of adhesive materials and water resistance in the ink printer.In the other hand, it advantages is environmentally friendly andrenewable because it is not derived from petroleum. This paper discusses the effect of temperature and catalyst concentration for tribenzoin production. For the responses, yield and product composition were observed. Results showed that the highest yield achieved at optimal variable data processed using Central Composite Design (CCD) which is 63.64 temperature (°C), mole ratio of benzoic acidto glycerol is 3.644:1, and catalyst concentration 6.25% (wt% glycerol). Yield products produced 58.71%. FTIR analysis results showed that the samples contained the results of IR spectra wavelength 1761 cm-1 in the fingerprint region and 3165 cm-1 frequency region group. The existence of these two adjustments that fixed in the area is strong evidence that the compound is tribenzoin.

  16. Process for biodiesel production from Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Thiru, Meikandhan; Sankh, Santosh; Rangaswamy, Vidhya

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the current report is process optimization for economical production of lipids by the well known oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus and conversion of the lipids to biodiesel. A high cell density fed-batch cultivation on low cost substrate viz. crude glycerol resulted in a dry biomass and oil yield of up to 69 g/L and 48% (w/w), respectively. The process was scaled up easily to 26 L. The oil extraction process was also optimized using environmentally safe solvents. The oil profile indicated a high oleic acid content followed by palmitic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid. The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel and thoroughly characterized. This is the first end to end report on production of biodiesel from the C. curvatus oil.

  17. Smart consumer products with a pathfinder product development strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alec

    1994-09-01

    It is generally acknowledged that technologies diffuse through industry and that the rate of diffusion varies both within different industries and according to the circumstances. Innovation is a process involving risk, especially during the adoption and adaptation of a powerful new technology. Central to a consumer products success using new technology is the quality of their designs and the nature of their forms. Form is of prime importance in influencing the purchasing decisions of consumers and it is also influential in determining the relationships between people in its use environment. The acceptance of a new product into the world is often unduly ad hoc. Many failures are created for each success and there are few guidelines to assist the formulation of a strategy for creating an appropriate form. It is suggested below that success of consumer products incorporating 'smart structures' may be determined not only by the function of products and systems, but also by the form they take. The definition of a desirable product form depends entirely on the point of view taken: technological, commercial, ecological, cultural, and social. However any design using new will incorporate the old and the new. The probability of acceptance of a new product is enhanced by maintaining a fine balance between imaginative and creative form and that with which people are familiar and prefer: a new design may be rejected if it is too novel and unfamiliar, or too traditional. The acceptance of a new product and its subsequent development depends on the success designers and engineers have when dealing with the initial forms, particularly using new technology such as 'smart structures'.

  18. Technical Writing: Process and Product. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Sharon J.; Gerson, Steven M.

    This book guides students through the entire writing process--prewriting, writing, and rewriting--developing an easy-to-use, step-by-step technique for writing the types of documents they will encounter on the job. It engages students in the writing process and encourages hands-on application as well as discussions about ethics, audience…

  19. Ionic liquid-based green processes for energy production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suojiang; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xiaochun; Xin, Jiayu; Miao, Qingqing; Wang, Jianji

    2014-11-21

    To mitigate the growing pressure on resource depletion and environment degradation, the development of green processes for the production of renewable energy is highly required. As a class of novel and promising media, ionic liquids (ILs) have shown infusive potential applications in energy production. Aiming to offer a critical overview regarding the new challenges and opportunities of ILs for developing green processes of renewable energy, this article emphasises the role of ILs as catalysts, solvents, or electrolytes in three broadly interesting energy production processes from renewable resources, such as CO2 conversion to fuels and fuel additives, biomass pretreatment and conversion to biofuels, as well as solar energy and energy storage. It is expected that this article will stimulate a generation of new ideas and new technologies in IL-based renewable energy production. PMID:24553494

  20. Ionic liquid-based green processes for energy production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suojiang; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xiaochun; Xin, Jiayu; Miao, Qingqing; Wang, Jianji

    2014-11-21

    To mitigate the growing pressure on resource depletion and environment degradation, the development of green processes for the production of renewable energy is highly required. As a class of novel and promising media, ionic liquids (ILs) have shown infusive potential applications in energy production. Aiming to offer a critical overview regarding the new challenges and opportunities of ILs for developing green processes of renewable energy, this article emphasises the role of ILs as catalysts, solvents, or electrolytes in three broadly interesting energy production processes from renewable resources, such as CO2 conversion to fuels and fuel additives, biomass pretreatment and conversion to biofuels, as well as solar energy and energy storage. It is expected that this article will stimulate a generation of new ideas and new technologies in IL-based renewable energy production.

  1. Control of the dehydration process in production of intermediate-moisture meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    Chang, S F; Huang, T C; Pearson, A M

    1996-01-01

    IM meat products are produced by lowering the aw to 0.90 to 0.60. Such products are stable at ambient temperature and humidity and are produced in nearly every country in the world, especially in developing areas where refrigeration is limited or unavailable. Traditionally IM meats use low cost sources of energy for drying, such as sun drying, addition of salt, or fermentation. Products produced by different processes are of interest since they do not require refrigeration during distribution and storage. Many different IM meat products can be produced by utilizing modern processing equipment and methods. Production can be achieved in a relatively short period of time and their advantages during marketing and distribution can be utilized. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the principles involved in heat transfer and efficiency of production are still needed to increase efficiency of processing. A basic understanding of the influence of water vapor pressure and sorption phenomena on water activity can materially improve the efficiency of drying of IM meats. Predrying treatments, such as fermentation and humidity control, can also be taken advantage of during the dehydration process. Such information can lead to process optimization and reduction of energy costs during production of IM meats. The development of sound science-based methods to assure the production of high-quality and nutritious IM meats is needed. Finally, such products also must be free of pathogenic microorganisms to assure their success in production and marketing.

  2. Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

  3. Multiphase Processing of Isoprene Oxidation Products - Kinetic and Product Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Schoene, L.; Schindelka, J.; Herrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Isoprene represents a significant fraction of NMHC in the troposphere with recently estimated emission rates of 500-750 TgC yr-1 (1). Due to its enormous source strength, the fate of isoprene and its degradation products is important in atmospheric processes. Possible ascendancies of such oxidation processes are the regional ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Some aspects of SOA formation from isoprene and its degradation products have already been studied by chamber studies (2,3). Aqueous phase oxidation processes which may occur after phase transfer of ‘early’ oxidation products are often neglected. But these processes provide a potentially important source for organic particle mass constituents such as carboxylic acids. The majority of existing aqueous phase modelling studies focus only on ‘later’ products such as methylglyoxal and oxalic acid. Yet, a recent field study reports much higher aqueous phase concentrations of some ‘earlier’ isoprene oxidation products including methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) than expected (4). This indicates a possibly underestimated importance of multiphase chemical processes in the course of the isoprene oxidation as a source for the production of organic particle mass together with known ‘heterogeneous processes’ such as the direct condensation of low-volatility products from gas phase processes onto existing particle surfaces. In order to implement the isoprene multiphase chemistry in atmospheric models detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies are needed. Hence, the temperature dependence of MACR, MVK, methacrylic acid and acrylic acid exposed to NO3, SO4- and OH radicals in the aqueous phase was investigated. The measurements were performed using a laser-photolysis laser long path absorption technique. The analysis confirmed in all cases the much higher reactivity of the OH radical in comparison to SO4- and NO3 radicals. The temperature dependence is most distinct for NO3

  4. The JSC Engineering Directorate Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Engineering Directorate has developed a Product Peer Review process in support of NASA policies for project management and systems engineering. The process complies with the requirements of NPR 7120.5, NPR 7123.1 and NPR 7150.2 and follows the guidance in NASA/SP-2007-6105. This presentation will give an overview of the process followed by a brief demonstration of an actual peer review, with audience participation.

  5. Integrating artificial and human intelligence into tablet production process.

    PubMed

    Gams, Matjaž; Horvat, Matej; Ožek, Matej; Luštrek, Mitja; Gradišek, Anton

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new machine learning-based method in order to facilitate the manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical products, such as tablets, in accordance with the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives. Our approach combines the data, available from prior production runs, with machine learning algorithms that are assisted by a human operator with expert knowledge of the production process. The process parameters encompass those that relate to the attributes of the precursor raw materials and those that relate to the manufacturing process itself. During manufacturing, our method allows production operator to inspect the impacts of various settings of process parameters within their proven acceptable range with the purpose of choosing the most promising values in advance of the actual batch manufacture. The interaction between the human operator and the artificial intelligence system provides improved performance and quality. We successfully implemented the method on data provided by a pharmaceutical company for a particular product, a tablet, under development. We tested the accuracy of the method in comparison with some other machine learning approaches. The method is especially suitable for analyzing manufacturing processes characterized by a limited amount of data.

  6. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  7. MCFC integrated system in a biodiesel production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, F.; Freni, S.; Galvagno, A.; Chiodo, V.

    2011-03-01

    The continuous increasing in biodiesel production by transesterification process is leading to an excess of glycerol production as a byproduct. The utilization of this huge amount of glycerol appears as a not easy solvable problem and thus several authors have proposed alternative ways. The integration of the main production process with a glycerol feed molten carbonate fuel cells bottoming cycle, to satisfy plant energy requirements, seems to be one of the most promising one. The proposed paper reports the main results obtained by authors in the framework of an investigation on a possible use of glycerol as energy sources for a real pilot plant for biodiesel production. An overall evaluation of worldwide biodiesel production plants was made and especially about the production capacity in European Union in the last decade. To make a more detailed study, authors were taken into account a real production plant. After a preliminary step, purported to plant mass and energy flows determination, authors considered the integration of a bottoming cycle based on: (i) steam reforming of glycerol for syn-gas production; (ii) molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) system supplied by syn-gas for heat and electricity production. A mathematical model, based on experimental data, has been developed to calculate mass and energy balances for the proposed plant lay-out as well as plant energy efficiency enhancement has been determined. Results have evidenced the feasibility of this process and demonstrated that plant integrated with bottoming cycle can reach a very high level of energy self-production.

  8. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed. PMID:21048859

  9. Product assortment and individual decision processes.

    PubMed

    Chernev, Alexander

    2003-07-01

    Research presented in this article examines the impact of product assortment on individuals' decisions. Four experiments report converging evidence that the impact of assortment is moderated by the degree to which individuals have articulated attribute preferences, whereby individuals with an articulated ideal point are more likely to prefer larger assortments than individuals without articulated preferences. The data further show that choices made from large assortments are associated with more selective, alternative-based, and confirmatory processing for individuals with articulated preferences and more comprehensive, attribute-based, and comparative processing for those without articulated preferences.

  10. Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Process Development Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, William A.; Buckner, Melvin R.

    2005-07-21

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Thermochemical Process is a means of producing hydrogen via water-splitting through a combination of chemical reactions and electrochemistry. Energy is supplied to the system as high temperature heat (approximately 900 C) and electricity. Advanced nuclear reactors (Generation IV) or central solar receivers can be the source of the primary energy. Large-scale hydrogen production based on this process could be a major contributor to meeting the needs of a hydrogen economy. This project's objectives include optimization of the HyS process design, analysis of technical issues and concerns, creation of a development plan, and laboratory-scale proof-of-concept testing. The key component of the HyS Process is the SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Studies were performed that showed that an electrolyzer operating in the range of 500-600 mV per cell can lead to an overall HyS cycle efficiency in excess of 50%, which is superior to all other currently proposed thermochemical cycles. Economic analysis indicated hydrogen production costs of approximately $1.60 per kilogram for a mature nuclear hydrogen production plant. However, in order to meet commercialization goals, the electrolyzer should be capable of operating at high current density, have a long operating lifetime , and have an acceptable capital cost. The use of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) technology, which leverages work for the development of PEM fuel cells, was selected as the most promising route to meeting these goals. The major accomplishments of this project were the design and construction of a suitable electrolyzer test facility and the proof-of-concept testing of a PEM-based SDE.

  11. Poly(vinyl chloride) processes and products.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R N

    1981-10-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) resins are produced by four basic processes: suspension, emulsion, bulk and solution polymerization. PVC suspensions resins are usually relatively dust-free and granular with varying degrees of particle porosity. PVC emulsion resins are small particle powders containing very little free monomer. Bulk PVC resins are similar to suspension PVC resins, though the particles tend to be more porous. Solution PVC resins are smaller in particle size than suspension PVC with high porosity particles containing essentially no free monomer. The variety of PVC resin products does not lend itself to broad generalizations concerning health hazards. In studying occupational hazards the particular PVC process and the product must be considered and identified in the study.

  12. Glycemic index of processed wheat products.

    PubMed

    Ross, S W; Brand, J C; Thorburn, A W; Truswell, A S

    1987-10-01

    Our aim was to determine the in vivo glycemic and insulin responses and in vitro starch digestibility of seven processed wheat products (shortbread biscuits, custard, quick-cooking wheat, wholemeal bread, water biscuits, puffed wheat, and puffed crispbread). The degree of starch gelatinization in the foods was measured. Fifty-gram carbohydrate portions of the foods were fed to eight volunteers after an overnight fast. The calculated glycemic indices (GI) (mean +/- SEM) ranged from 43 +/- 10 for custard to 81 +/- 9 for puffed crispbread. Insulin responses paralleled the glycemic responses. The GI correlated positively with the percentage of starch digested in vitro (p less than 0.05). The degree of starch gelatinization ranged from 0.4 to 60% and correlated positively with the percentage starch digested in vitro (p less than 0.05). Differences in the glycemic and insulin responses to wheat products may be explained in part by the extent of processing and the degree of gelatinization achieved.

  13. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

    1995-03-01

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product. PMID:22692017

  14. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

    1995-03-01

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product.

  15. "From the Formal to the Innovative": The Use of Case Studies and Sustainable Projects in Developing a Design Process Model for Educating Product/Industrial Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, G. L.; Felton, A. J.; Garner, K. B.

    2006-01-01

    The BSc in computer aided product design (CAPD) course at the University of Wolverhampton was conceived as a collaborative venture in 1989 between the School of Engineering and the School of Art and Design. The award was at the forefront of forging interdisciplinary collaboration at undergraduate level in the field of product design. It has…

  16. Amphoteric surfactants: processing, product composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Leidreiter, H I; Gruning, B; Kaseborn, D

    1997-10-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) has been the most important secondary surfactant for personal-cleansing products for a long time. Its excellent toxicological profile is an important reason for its increasing use in oral-care products. Recently it has gained interest for further applications such as household cleaners, dish-washing liquids, and industrial and technical products. Imidazoline-derived amphoterics such as sodium cocoampho-acetate (SCAA) or diacetate play a more minor role than CAPB. Owing to the low irritation potential of the pure surfactant and its good toxicological properties, ampho-acetates have mainly found applications in cosmetics. Their industrial applications have been relatively small. While CAPB has a well-defined chemical structure from a straightforward production process, most imidazoline-derived amphoterics exhibit a complex composition of compounds with different structures. This depends on the production parameters. Improved processing methods have recently led to the commercial availability of well-defined SCAA with low levels of by-products. Modern production processes and the composition of high-purity amphoterics are reviewed. Raw materials and by-products are described, together with their analytical methods. The cosmetic performance, cleansing and foaming power, rheological effects and mildness-enhancing properties of both CAPB and SCAA are compared. La cocamidopropyl-betaine (CAPB) est, depuis longtemps le tensio-actif secondaire le plus important pour les produits d'hygiene personnelle. L'excellent profil toxicologique de la CAPB est certainement une raison majeure de son usage croissant dans les produits de soin buccaux. La CAPB a suscite depuis peu un interet pour des applications supplementaires telles que les nettoyants menagers, les liquides vaisselle, les produits industriels et techniques. Les derives amphoteres de l'imidazoline tels que le cocoampho-acetate de sodium (SCAA) ou le diacetate occupent une place mineure

  17. ON DEVELOPING CLEANER ORGANIC UNIT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic waste products, potentially harmful to the human health and the environment, are primarily produced in the synthesis stage of manufacturing processes. Many such synthetic unit processes, such as halogenation, oxidation, alkylation, nitration, and sulfonation are common to...

  18. Image processing and products for the Magellan mission to Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jerry; Alexander, Doug; Andres, Paul; Lewicki, Scott; Mcauley, Myche

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan mission to Venus is providing planetary scientists with massive amounts of new data about the surface geology of Venus. Digital image processing is an integral part of the ground data system that provides data products to the investigators. The mosaicking of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data from the spacecraft is being performed at JPL's Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). MIPL hosts and supports the Image Data Processing Subsystem (IDPS), which was developed in a VAXcluster environment of hardware and software that includes optical disk jukeboxes and the TAE-VICAR (Transportable Applications Executive-Video Image Communication and Retrieval) system. The IDPS is being used by processing analysts of the Image Data Processing Team to produce the Magellan image data products. Various aspects of the image processing procedure are discussed.

  19. Development of novel microencapsulation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Weisi

    of polymer solution suspended in water or from a spray. Hollow PS particles were obtained by swelling PS latex with solvent, freezing in liquid nitrogen, and drying in vacuum. It is shown that the particle morphology is due to phase separation in the polymer emulsion droplets upon freezing in liquid nitrogen, and that morphological changes are driven largely by lowering interfacial free energy. The dried hollow particles were resuspended in a dispersing media and exposed to a plasticizer, which imparts mobility to polymer chains, to close the surface opening and form microcapsules surrounding an aqueous core. The interfacial free energy difference between the hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside surfaces is the major driving force for closing the hole on the surface. A controlled release biodegradable vehicle for drug was made by encapsulating procaine hydrochloride, a water-soluble drug, into the core of poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) microcapsules, which were made by the freeze-drying and subsequent closing process. The encapsulation efficiency is affected by the hollow particle morphology, amount of closing agent, exposure time, surfactant, and method of dispersing the hollow particles in water. Controlled release of procaine hydrochloride from the microcapsules into phosphate buffer was observed. The use of benign solvents dimethyl carbonate in spray/freeze-drying and CO2 for closing would eliminate concerns of residual harmful solvent in the product. The ease of separation of CO2 from the drug solution may also enable recycling of the drug solution to increase the overall encapsulation efficiency using these novel hollow particles.

  20. Development and application of novel SNP-based serotyping assays in targeting Salmonella enterica within the poultry production and processing continuum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide. While some S. enterica serotypes are specific to birds, many represent human zoonotic pathogens, thus their presence and survival throughout the continuum of poultry production...

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild-gasification process for the production of coproducts. Report for Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild-gasification and char-to-carbon PRUs and disposal of products from testing

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, Mahesh C.

    1991-11-01

    This report contains descriptions of mild-gasification and char-to-carbon process research units (PRUS) used by WRI and AMAX R&D Center to conduct tests under contract AC21-87MC24268. Descriptions of materials produced during those tests are also contained herein. Western Research Institute proposes to dispose of remaining fines and dried coal by combustion and remaining coal liquids by incineration during mid-1992. The mild-gasification PRU will be used for additional tests until 1993, at which time WRI proposes to decontaminate and disassemble the PRU. AMAX R&D Center intends to return the spent char, any remaining feed char, and unusable product carbon to the Eagle Butte Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, from where the coal originally came. The solid products will be added to the mine`s coal product stream. Coal liquids collected from condensers will be concentrated and sent to a local oil and solvent recycling company where the liquids will be burned as fuel. The char-to-carbon PRU will be operated periodically until 1993 when the plant will be decontaminated and disassembled.

  2. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  3. THE URBAN SCHOOL--PURPOSE-PROCESS-PRODUCT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FANTINI, MARIO D.; WEINSTEIN, GERALD

    THE PRESENT PURPOSE OF OUR SCHOOLS IS TO HELP ALL CHILDREN ASSUME MATURE ADULT ROLES, EQUIPPED WITH THOSE ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL SKILLS, UNDERSTANDINGS, AND ATTITUDES WHICH WILL GIVE THEM SOCIAL MOBILITY, TO FULLY DEVELOP THEIR INDIVIDUAL POTENTIALITIES, AND TO EFFECTIVELY CONTRIBUTE TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF OUR DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY. THE PROCESS HAS…

  4. System Development by Process Integrated Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Margareth; Laner, Dietmar

    Due to globalization and ever shorter change cycle's organizations improve increasingly faster their products, services, technologies, IT and organization according to customer requirements, optimize their efficiency, effectiveness and reduce costs. Thus the largest potential is the continually improvement and the management of information, data and knowledge. Long time organizations had developed lot separate and frequently independent IT applications. In the last years they were integrated by interfaces and always more by common databases. In large sized enterprises or in the public administration IT must operate various different applications, which requires a lot of personal and cost. Many organizations improve their IT starting from the lived processes using new technologies, but ask not, how they can use technology to support new processes.

  5. Pulsed electric field processing of egg products: a review.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K

    2016-02-01

    Thermal processing ensures safety and enhances the shelf-life of most of the food products. It alters the structural-chemical composition, modifies heat labile components, as well as affects the functional properties of food products. This has driven the development of non-thermal food processing techniques, primarily for extending the shelf-life of different food products. These techniques are currently also being evaluated for their effects on product processing, quality and other safety parameters. Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an example of non-thermal technique which can be applied for a variety of purpose in the food processing industry. PEF can be used for antimicrobial treatment of various food products to improve the storability or food safety, for extraction and recovery of some high-value compounds from a food matrix or for stabilization of various food products through inactivation of some enzymes or catalysts. Research on the application of PEF to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in different egg products is being currently focused. It has been reported that PEF effectively reduces the activity of various microorganisms in a variety of egg products. However, the PEF treatment also alters the structural and functional properties to some extent and there is a high degree of variability between different studies. In addition to integrating findings, the present review also provides several explanations for the inconsistency in findings between different studies related to PEF processing of egg products. Several specific recommendations for future research directions on PEF processing are well discussed in this review. PMID:27162373

  6. Power Ultrasound to Process Dairy Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Conventional methods of pasteurizing milk involve the use of heat regardless of treatment (batch, high temperature short time - HTST or ultra high temperature - UHT sterilization), and the quality of the milk is affected because of the use of high temperatures. Consequences of thermal treatment are a decrease in nutritional properties through the destruction of vitamins or denaturation of proteins, and sometimes the flavor of milk is undesirably changed. These changes are produced at the same time that the goal of the pasteurization process is achieved, which is to have a microbiological safe product, free of pathogenic bacteria, and to reduce the load of deteriorative microorganisms and enzymes, resulting in a product with a longer storage life.

  7. High conversion TAME and MTBE production process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owens, H.

    1991-01-29

    This patent describes isopentene, or isoamylene, conversion to methyl tertamyl ether that can be substantially improved while high conversion of isobutylene to methyl tert-butyl ether can be maintained by carrying out the overall etherification process with alkanol in a staged manner, wherein the first stage is methanol etherification of a C{sub 5+}, or C{sub 5}, hydrocarbon feedstream rich in isoamylene and the second stage is etherification to produce MTBE and additional TAME from a C{sub 4+}, or C{sub 4}, feedstream. Unreacted methanol and hydrocarbons from the first etherification are uniquely separated by fractionation from the TAME product by using the second stage C{sub 4+} feedstream as a reflux stream to the fractionator and passed to the second etherification zone. Products from the second etherification zone are separated by distillation to produce MTBE, TAME and C{sub 5+}, or C{sub 5}, hydrocarbons as a bottom stream.

  8. [Comparative study on nutmeg, mace and their processed products].

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Li, J

    1997-09-01

    The contents of volatile oil, myristicin, safrol and methyleugenol, as well as the composition and content of fatty oil in nutmeg, mace and their processed products were comparatively studied. The composition of volatile oil and the detection of trimyristin were compared by TLC. A scientific basis for the development and application of mace has thus been provided. PMID:11038942

  9. Entropy production in irreversible processes with friction.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S

    2008-08-01

    Established expressions for entropy production in irreversible processes are generalized to include friction explicitly, as a source of irreversibility in the interaction between a system and its surroundings. The net amount of heat delivered to the system does not come now only from the reservoir, but may have an additional component coming from the work done against friction forces and dissipated as heat. To avoid ambiguities in interpreting the different contributions to entropy increase, the latter is also written in terms of the heat directly exchanged between the system and surroundings and of the fraction of frictional work that is lost in the system. PMID:18850816

  10. 40 CFR 158.330 - Description of production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production (reaction) processes used to produce the active ingredients in the product. The applicant must... from an EPA-registered product. If the production process is not continuous (a single reaction process... chemical equations of each intended reaction occurring at each step of the process, and of the duration...

  11. Process Accountability in Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D.; Grotelueschen, Arden

    This paper urges the curriculum developer to assume the accountability for his decisions necessitated by the actual ways our society functions. The curriculum developer is encouraged to recognize that he is a salesman with a commodity (the curriculum). He is urged to realize that if he cannot market the package to the customers (the various…

  12. Process for production of a metal hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  13. Cellulase production by the anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.W.; van den Berg, L.

    1981-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion process is described for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using a methanogenic cellulose-enrichment culture. After a heat treatment designed to destroy all but spore-forming bacteria, this culture produced cellulase from a variety of cellulosic materials as well as from cellobiose. The enzyme system contained endo- and exoglucanase, acted on filter paper, and showed cellobiase and xylanase activities. It was stable at 2/sup 0/C under aerobic conditions and showed a pH optimum at 5 and a temperature optimum at 50/sup 0/C. Endoglucanase and filter paper activities were mostly exogenic, whereas cellobiase and xylanase activities were cell associated. The cellulolytic activity produced by this mixed culture was comparable to that of commercially available fungal preparations, and the process could be useful as an alternate source for these enzymes.

  14. Production of organic acids by electrodialysis/pervaporation process.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S. P.; Datta, R.; Henry, M.; Halpern, Y.; Frank, J. R.; Energy Systems

    1999-05-01

    Lactate esters produced from carbohydrates have potential markets as nontoxic replacements for halogenated and toxic solvents and as feedstocks for large-volume chemicals and polymers. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel process for the production of high-purity lactate esters from carbohydrates. The process uses advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation technologies to overcome major technical barriers in product separation; more specifically, the process involves cation elimination without the generation of salt waste and efficient esterification for final purification. This patented process requires little energy input, is highly efficient and selective, avoids the large volumes of salt waste produced by conventional processes, and significantly reduces manufacturing costs. The enabling membrane separation technologies make it technically and commercially feasible for lactate esters to penetrate the potential markets.

  15. Monosaccharide production in an acid sulfite process: kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Rueda, C; Fernández-Rodríguez, J; Ruiz, G; Llano, T; Coz, A

    2015-02-13

    Spent sulfite liquor is a lignocellulosic waste obtained after the sulfite pulping process. It is mainly formed by sugars and lignosulfonates which are isolated from the pulp during the cooking process. The current work investigates the kinetic modeling of the sulfite process from a biorefinery point of view since monosaccharides present in the spent liquor can be used as a raw material in further biorefinery processes to produce other value-added products. Kinetic parameters of carbohydrate degradation have been determined following sugar and inhibitors from wood to spent liquor, using laboratory scale reactors and different temperatures, 130, 140 and 150 °C. Three types of reaction schemes were developed. Kinetic parameters were obtained for each one using first and n order reactions, using Aspen Custom Modeler. Results show that the best temperature to be used in the process is 130 °C, giving the maximum sugar conversion, 33.91 mol% and obtaining 13.81 mol% of decomposition products.

  16. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up.

  17. From Process to Product: Your Risk Process at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Fogarty, Jenifer; Charles, John; Buquo, Lynn; Sibonga, Jean; Alexander, David; Horn, Wayne G.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and Human Research Program (HRP) at the NASA/Johnson Space Center work together to address and manage the human health and performance risks associated with human space flight. This includes all human system requirements before, during, and after space flight, providing for research, and managing the risk of adverse long-term health outcomes for the crew. We previously described the framework and processes developed for identifying and managing these human system risks. The focus of this panel is to demonstrate how the implementation of the framework and associated processes has provided guidance in the management and communication of human system risks. The risks of early onset osteoporosis, CO2 exposure, and intracranial hypertension in particular have all benefitted from the processes developed for human system risk management. Moreover, we are continuing to develop capabilities, particularly in the area of information architecture, which will also be described. We are working to create a system whereby all risks and associated actions can be tracked and related to one another electronically. Such a system will enhance the management and communication capabilities for the human system risks, thereby increasing the benefit to researchers and flight surgeons.

  18. Television Production. A Career Development Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Virginia; Hogan, William

    In an attempt to build career development activities into the English curriculum this hands-on television production course focusing on video tape production was offered as an English elective in a Minnesota high school. The course was developed to emphasize the following objectives: (1) to develop and apply the interpersonal competency skills…

  19. Modeling the continuous lactic acid production process from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Karen; Tebbani, Sihem; Lopes, Filipa; Thorigné, Aurore; Givry, Sébastien; Dumur, Didier; Pareau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    A kinetic model of the simultaneous saccharification, protein hydrolysis, and fermentation (SSPHF) process for lactic acid production from wheat flour has been developed. The model describes the bacterial growth, substrate consumption, lactic acid production, and maltose hydrolysis. The model was fitted and validated with data from SSPHF experiments obtained under different dilution rates. The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Steady state concentrations of biomass, lactic acid, glucose, and maltose as function of the dilution rate were predicted by the model. This steady state analysis is further useful to determine the operating conditions that maximize lactic acid productivity.

  20. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Natalia A; Valdez, Alejandra L; Fariña, Julia I

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259

  1. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Natalia A.; Valdez, Alejandra L.; Fariña, Julia I.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259

  2. Development of prilling process for biodegradable microspheres through experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Fabien, Violet; Minh-Quan, Le; Michelle, Sergent; Guillaume, Bastiat; Van-Thanh, Tran; Marie-Claire, Venier-Julienne

    2016-02-10

    The prilling process proposes a microparticle formulation easily transferable to the pharmaceutical production, leading to monodispersed and highly controllable microspheres. PLGA microspheres were used for carrying an encapsulated protein and adhered stem cells on its surface, proposing a tool for regeneration therapy against injured tissue. This work focused on the development of the production of PLGA microspheres by the prilling process without toxic solvent. The required production quality needed a complete optimization of the process. Seventeen parameters were studied through experimental designs and led to an acceptable production. The key parameters and mechanisms of formation were highlighted. PMID:26656302

  3. Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jie

    Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant

  4. Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  6. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production. PMID:25954182

  7. Process and reactor design for biophotolytic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Tamburic, Bojan; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Zemichael, Fessehaye W; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2013-07-14

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has the ability to produce molecular hydrogen (H2), a clean and renewable fuel, through the biophotolysis of water under sulphur-deprived anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to advance the development of a practical and scalable biophotolytic H2 production process. Experiments were carried out using a purpose-built flat-plate photobioreactor, designed to facilitate green algal H2 production at the laboratory scale and equipped with a membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system to accurately measure H2 production rates in real time. The nutrient control method of sulphur deprivation was used to achieve spontaneous H2 production following algal growth. Sulphur dilution and sulphur feed techniques were used to extend algal lifetime in order to increase the duration of H2 production. The sulphur dilution technique proved effective at encouraging cyclic H2 production, resulting in alternating Chlamydomonas reinhardtii recovery and H2 production stages. The sulphur feed technique enabled photobioreactor operation in chemostat mode, resulting in a small improvement in H2 production duration. A conceptual design for a large-scale photobioreactor was proposed based on these experimental results. This photobioreactor has the capacity to enable continuous and economical H2 and biomass production using green algae. The success of these complementary approaches demonstrate that engineering advances can lead to improvements in the scalability and affordability of biophotolytic H2 production, giving increased confidence that H2 can fulfil its potential as a sustainable fuel of the future. PMID:23689756

  8. Modeling Sustainability in Product Development and Commercialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert C.; Rafinejad, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the framework of a model that integrates strategic product development decisions with the product's impact on future conditions of resources and the environment. The impact of a product on stocks of nonrenewable sources and sinks is linked in a feedback loop to the cost of manufacturing and using the product…

  9. Low cost solar array project silicon materials task. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fey, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental verification system for the production of silicon via the arc heater-sodium reduction of SiCl4 was designed, fabricated, installed, and operated. Each of the attendant subsystems was checked out and operated to insure performance requirements. These subsystems included: the arc heaters/reactor, cooling water system, gas system, power system, Control & Instrumentation system, Na injection system, SiCl4 injection system, effluent disposal system and gas burnoff system. Prior to introducing the reactants (Na and SiCl4) to the arc heater/reactor, a series of gas only-power tests was conducted to establish the operating parameters of the three arc heaters of the system. Following the successful completion of the gas only-power tests and the readiness tests of the sodium and SiCl4 injection systems, a shakedown test of the complete experimental verification system was conducted.

  10. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Gibson, Tracy; Captain, James; Athman, Robert; Nugent, Matthew; Parks, Steven; Devor, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methane/oxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO2 is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a HiCO2 recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO2/hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO2 freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH4/hr and 71.3 g H20/hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH4/O2 propellant per 14 hr day (including O2 from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H2 for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASA's new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  11. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Gibson, Tracy; Captain, James; Athman, Robert; Nugent, Matthew; Parks, Steven; Devor, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methane/oxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (approx.8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO2 is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a HiCO2 recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO2/hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO2 freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH4/hr and 71.3 g H2O/hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH4/O2 propellant per 14 hr day (including O2 from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H2 for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASA's new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  12. Control and Diagnosis in Integrated Product Development - Observations during the Development of an AGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Simundsson, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the integration of control and diagnosis functionalities into the development of complete systems which include mechanical, electrical and electronic subsystems. For the development of such systems the strategies, methods and tools of integrated product development have attracted significant attention during the last decades. Today, it is generally observed that product development processes of complex systems can only be successful if the activities in the different domains are well connected and synchronised and if an ongoing communication is present - an ongoing communication spanning the technical domains and also including functions such as production planning, marketing/distribution, quality assurance, service and project planning. Obviously, numerous approaches to tackle this challenge are present in scientific literature and in industrial practice, as well. Today, the functionality and safety of most products is to a large degree dependent on control and diagnosis functionalities. Still, there is comparatively little research concentrating on the integration of the development of these functionalities into the overall product development processes. The main source of insight of the presented research is the product development process of an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) which is intended to be used on rough terrain. The paper starts with a background describing Integrated Product Development. The second section deals with the product development of the sample product. The third part summarizes some insights and formulates first hypotheses concerning control and diagnosis in Integrated Product Development.

  13. 77 FR 22843 - Notice of Product Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Product Development In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code...) have provided the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) a Notice of Product Development per 49 CFR...

  14. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process... could occur as a result of the manufacturing process, the manufacturer shall establish and...

  15. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process... could occur as a result of the manufacturing process, the manufacturer shall establish and...

  16. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-19

    A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

  17. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    PubMed

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased. PMID:9279028

  18. Satellite Imagery Production and Processing Using Apache Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. V.; Werpy, J.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Land Science Research and Development (LSRD) project has devised a method to fulfill its processing needs for Essential Climate Variable (ECV) production from the Landsat archive using Apache Hadoop. Apache Hadoop is the distributed processing technology at the heart of many large-scale, processing solutions implemented at well-known companies such as Yahoo, Amazon, and Facebook. It is a proven framework and can be used to process petabytes of data on thousands of processors concurrently. It is a natural fit for producing satellite imagery and requires only a few simple modifications to serve the needs of science data processing. This presentation provides an invaluable learning opportunity and should be heard by anyone doing large scale image processing today. The session will cover a description of the problem space, evaluation of alternatives, feature set overview, configuration of Hadoop for satellite image processing, real-world performance results, tuning recommendations and finally challenges and ongoing activities. It will also present how the LSRD project built a 102 core processing cluster with no financial hardware investment and achieved ten times the initial daily throughput requirements with a full time staff of only one engineer. Satellite Imagery Production and Processing Using Apache Hadoop is presented by David V. Hill, Principal Software Architect for USGS LSRD.

  19. A process model to estimate biodiesel production costs.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; McAloon, Andrew J; Yee, Winnie C; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-03-01

    'Biodiesel' is the name given to a renewable diesel fuel that is produced from fats and oils. It consists of the simple alkyl esters of fatty acids, most typically the methyl esters. We have developed a computer model to estimate the capital and operating costs of a moderately-sized industrial biodiesel production facility. The major process operations in the plant were continuous-process vegetable oil transesterification, and ester and glycerol recovery. The model was designed using contemporary process simulation software, and current reagent, equipment and supply costs, following current production practices. Crude, degummed soybean oil was specified as the feedstock. Annual production capacity of the plant was set at 37,854,118 l (10 x 10(6)gal). Facility construction costs were calculated to be US dollar 11.3 million. The largest contributors to the equipment cost, accounting for nearly one third of expenditures, were storage tanks to contain a 25 day capacity of feedstock and product. At a value of US dollar 0.52/kg (dollar 0.236/lb) for feedstock soybean oil, a biodiesel production cost of US dollar 0.53/l (dollar 2.00/gal) was predicted. The single greatest contributor to this value was the cost of the oil feedstock, which accounted for 88% of total estimated production costs. An analysis of the dependence of production costs on the cost of the feedstock indicated a direct linear relationship between the two, with a change of US dollar 0.020/l (dollar 0.075/gal) in product cost per US dollar 0.022/kg (dollar 0.01/lb) change in oil cost. Process economics included the recovery of coproduct glycerol generated during biodiesel production, and its sale into the commercial glycerol market as an 80% w/w aqueous solution, which reduced production costs by approximately 6%. The production cost of biodiesel was found to vary inversely and linearly with variations in the market value of glycerol, increasing by US dollar 0.0022/l (dollar 0.0085/gal) for every US

  20. Oxygen production on the Lunar materials processing frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenberg, Barbara H.

    1992-01-01

    During the pre-conceptual design phase of an initial lunar oxygen processing facility, it is essential to identify and compare the available processes and evaluate them in order to ensure the success of such an endeavor. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of materials processing to produce lunar oxygen as one part of a given scenario of a developing lunar occupation. More than twenty-five techniques to produce oxygen from lunar materials have been identified. While it is important to continue research on any feasible method, not all methods can be implemented at the initial lunar facility. Hence, it is necessary during the pre-conceptual design phase to evaluate all methods and determine the leading processes for initial focus. Researchers have developed techniques for evaluating the numerous proposed methods in order to suggest which processes would be best to go to the Moon first. As one section in this paper, the recent evaluation procedures that have been presented in the literature are compared and contrasted. In general, the production methods for lunar oxygen fall into four categories: thermochemical, reactive solvent, pyrolytic, and electrochemical. Examples from two of the four categories are described, operating characteristics are contrasted, and terrestrial analogs are presented when possible. In addition to producing oxygen for use as a propellant and for life support, valuable co-products can be derived from some of the processes. This information is also highlighted in the description of a given process.

  1. Process and product in cross-cultural treatment research: development of a culturally sensitive women-centered substance use intervention in georgia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Kirtadze, Irma; Otiashvili, David; O'Grady, Kevin E; Murphy, Keryn; Zule, William; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-01-01

    Women who inject drugs (WID) are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals) project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture-and WID within that culture-so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT) and the Women's CoOp (WC) were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID (N = 55) and providers of health services (N = 34) to such women and focus groups [2 with WID (N = 15) and 2 with health service providers (N = 12)]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20 WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed.

  2. Development of Waste Reduction System of Wastewater Treatment Process Using a Moss: Production of Useful Materials from Remainder of a Moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumihisa, Kobayashi

    Landfill leachate pollution presents a serious environmental problem. It would be valuable to develop a sustainable method, one that is inexpensive and requires little energy, to eliminate the pollution and dispose of the waste. In a previous study, we reported the results of a leachate treatment for landfills in which we relied on the moss, Scopelophia cataractae, to support a sustainable method of waste reduction. In this study, for the development of a waste reduction system of landfill leachate treatment, we attempted to produce zinc as useful metal and ethanol as fuel from the remainder of moss after wastewater treatment. Steam explosions, which were used as physicochemical pretreatments to expose the raw material to saturated steam under high pressure and temperature, were used to pretreat the moss. By electrolysis, zinc recovered, and the maximum zinc recovery after wastewater treatment was 0.504 at 2.0 MPa steam pressure (211 °C) and 5 min steaming time. After that time, by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using a Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 0.42 g dm-3 of the maximum ethanol concentration was produced from 10 g dm-3 of exploded moss at 2.5 MPa steam pressure (223 °C) and 1 min steaming time.

  3. Process and product in cross-cultural treatment research: development of a culturally sensitive women-centered substance use intervention in georgia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Kirtadze, Irma; Otiashvili, David; O'Grady, Kevin E; Murphy, Keryn; Zule, William; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-01-01

    Women who inject drugs (WID) are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals) project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture-and WID within that culture-so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT) and the Women's CoOp (WC) were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID (N = 55) and providers of health services (N = 34) to such women and focus groups [2 with WID (N = 15) and 2 with health service providers (N = 12)]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20 WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed. PMID:25332836

  4. Process and Product in Cross-Cultural Treatment Research: Development of a Culturally Sensitive Women-Centered Substance Use Intervention in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hendrée E.; Otiashvili, David; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Zule, William; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2014-01-01

    Women who inject drugs (WID) are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals) project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture—and WID within that culture—so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT) and the Women's CoOp (WC) were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID (N = 55) and providers of health services (N = 34) to such women and focus groups [2 with WID (N = 15) and 2 with health service providers (N = 12)]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20 WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed. PMID:25332836

  5. Cell culture process operations for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Abu-Absi, Susan; Xu, Sen; Graham, Hugh; Dalal, Nimish; Boyer, Marcus; Dave, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    The market for protein therapeutics has grown significantly over the past two decades and the pace of development continues to increase. It is a challenge to the industry to maintain the desired quality attributes while accelerating delivery to patients, reducing the cost of goods, and providing production flexibility. Efficient manufacturing scale production of protein therapeutics is required to continue to meet the needs of the patients and stockholders. This chapter describes batch, fed-batch, and perfusion processes and their utilization in the production of monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins. In addition, we have provided detailed discussions of the ongoing challenges of lactate metabolism and the future prospects of process monitoring and control. PMID:24153406

  6. Cell culture process operations for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Abu-Absi, Susan; Xu, Sen; Graham, Hugh; Dalal, Nimish; Boyer, Marcus; Dave, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    The market for protein therapeutics has grown significantly over the past two decades and the pace of development continues to increase. It is a challenge to the industry to maintain the desired quality attributes while accelerating delivery to patients, reducing the cost of goods, and providing production flexibility. Efficient manufacturing scale production of protein therapeutics is required to continue to meet the needs of the patients and stockholders. This chapter describes batch, fed-batch, and perfusion processes and their utilization in the production of monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins. In addition, we have provided detailed discussions of the ongoing challenges of lactate metabolism and the future prospects of process monitoring and control.

  7. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  10. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  12. Active PZT fibers: a commercial production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strock, Harold B.; Pascucci, Marina R.; Parish, Mark V.; Bent, Aaron A.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    1999-07-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) active fibers, from 80 to 250 micrometers in diameter, are produced for the AFOSR/DARPA funded Active Fiber Composites Consortium (AFCC) Program and commercial customers. CeraNova has developed a proprietary ceramics-based technology to produce PZT mono-filaments of the required purity, composition, straightness, and piezoelectric properties for use in active fiber composite structures. CeraNova's process begins with the extrusion of continuous lengths of mono-filament precursor fiber from a plasticized mix of PZT-5A powder. The care that must be taken to avoid mix contamination is described using illustrations form problems experiences with extruder wear and metallic contamination. Corrective actions are described and example microstructures are shown. The consequences of inadequate lead control are also shown. Sintered mono- filament mechanical strength and piezoelectric properties data approach bulk values but the validity of such a benchmark is questioned based on variable correlation with composite performance measures. Comb-like ceramic preform structures are shown that are being developed to minimize process and handling costs while maintaining the required mono-filament straightness necessary for composite fabrication. Lastly, actuation performance data are presented for composite structures fabricated and tested by Continuum Control Corporation. Free strain actuation in excess of 2000 microstrain are observed.

  13. Application of the suggestion system in the improvement of the production process and product quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołaś, H.; Mazur, A.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    The elaboration is a case study and the research was carried out in the company Alco-Mot Ltd., which employs 120 people. The company specializes in the production of lead poles for industrial and traction batteries using gravity casting. The elements embedded in the cast are manufactured on a machining centre, which provides the stability of the process and of the dimensions of the product as well as a very short production time. As a result of observation and analysis the authors have developed a concept for the implementation of a dynamic suggestion system in ALCO-MOT, including, among others, a standard for actions in the implementation of the suggestion system, as well as clear guidelines for the processing and presentation of the activities undertaken in the time between the establishment of the concept (suggestions) and the benefits analysis after the proposed solutions have been implemented. The authors also present how suggestions proposed by ALCO-MOT staff contributed to the improvement of the processes of production and quality control. Employees offered more than 30 suggestions, of which more than a half are being implemented now and further actions are being prepared for implementation. The authors will present the results of improvements in, for example, tool replacement time, scrap reduction. The authors will present how kaizen can improve the production and quality control processes. They will present how the production and quality control processes looked before and after the implementation of employee suggestions.

  14. Analysis of Organization of Production Process on the Basis of Value Stream Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattarova, K. T.; Kokareva, V. V.; Pronichev, N. D.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the process of identifying the problem areas of the product cycle by the value stream. Mapping value stream mapping allowed the development of a number of management solutions to increase productivity, optimize the process and improve the competitiveness of products. For the study a product manufactured by one of the industrial enterprises of the city of Samara was selected. The production process as repeatedly optimized by services of the plant, but its cycle is still and unstable. To solve these problems the pull scheme of production was proposed. The proposed method for the improvement of the production process on the basis of value stream mapping allows optimizing the production process, reducing the production cycle, improving the quality and efficiency of production. The final results were expressed in value terms. The final result showed that the use of this method allows reducing the duration of the production cycle for 42.28%, the cost of products - by 57.71%.

  15. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllectorPrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methaneoxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO(sub 2) is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a H(sub 2)CO(sub 2) recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO(sub 2) hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO(sub 2) freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH(sub 4) hr and 71.3 g H(sub 2)O hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH(sub 2)O(sub 2) propellant per 14 hr day (including O(sub 2) from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H(sub 2) for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASAs new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  16. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, A.; Devor, R.; Captain, J.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methaneoxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (approx. 8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO(sub 2) is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a H(sub 2)CO(sub 2) recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO(sub 2) hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO(sub 2) freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH(sub 4) hr and 71.3 g H(sub 2)O hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH(sub 2)O(sub 2) propellant per 14 hr day (including O(sub 2) from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H(sub 2) for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASAs new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  17. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  18. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  19. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S.

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  20. Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve process efficiency through microbial routes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications.

  1. Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve process efficiency through microbial routes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications. PMID:25874756

  2. Biohydrogen Production: Strategies to Improve Process Efficiency through Microbial Routes

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications. PMID:25874756

  3. Simulation Modeling of Software Development Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calavaro, G. F.; Basili, V. R.; Iazeolla, G.

    1996-01-01

    A simulation modeling approach is proposed for the prediction of software process productivity indices, such as cost and time-to-market, and the sensitivity analysis of such indices to changes in the organization parameters and user requirements. The approach uses a timed Petri Net and Object Oriented top-down model specification. Results demonstrate the model representativeness, and its usefulness in verifying process conformance to expectations, and in performing continuous process improvement and optimization.

  4. Writing in dyslexia: product and process.

    PubMed

    Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Turid

    2013-08-01

    Research on dyslexia has largely centred on reading. The aim of this study was to assess the writing of 13 children with and 28 without dyslexia at age 11 years. A programme for keystroke logging was used to allow recording of typing activity as the children performed a sentence dictation task. Five sentences were read aloud twice each. The task was to type the sentence as correctly as possible, with no time constraints. The data were analysed from a product (spelling, grammar and semantics) and process (transcription fluency and revisions) perspective, using repeated measures ANOVA and t-tests to investigate group differences. Furthermore, the data were correlated with measures of rapid automatic naming and working memory. Results showed that the group with dyslexia revised their texts as much as the typical group, but they used more time, and the result was poorer. Moreover, rapid automatic naming correlated with transcription fluency, and working memory correlated with the number of semantic errors. This shows that dyslexia is generally not an issue of effort and that cognitive skills that are known to be important for reading also affect writing. PMID:23720272

  5. Writing in dyslexia: product and process.

    PubMed

    Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Turid

    2013-08-01

    Research on dyslexia has largely centred on reading. The aim of this study was to assess the writing of 13 children with and 28 without dyslexia at age 11 years. A programme for keystroke logging was used to allow recording of typing activity as the children performed a sentence dictation task. Five sentences were read aloud twice each. The task was to type the sentence as correctly as possible, with no time constraints. The data were analysed from a product (spelling, grammar and semantics) and process (transcription fluency and revisions) perspective, using repeated measures ANOVA and t-tests to investigate group differences. Furthermore, the data were correlated with measures of rapid automatic naming and working memory. Results showed that the group with dyslexia revised their texts as much as the typical group, but they used more time, and the result was poorer. Moreover, rapid automatic naming correlated with transcription fluency, and working memory correlated with the number of semantic errors. This shows that dyslexia is generally not an issue of effort and that cognitive skills that are known to be important for reading also affect writing.

  6. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  7. Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnucci, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year program to develop the processes required for low-energy ion implantation for the automated production of silicon solar cells are described. The program included: (1) demonstrating state-of-the-art ion implantation equipment and designing an automated ion implanter, (2) making efforts to improve the performance of ion-implanted solar cells to 16.5 percent AM1, (3) developing a model of the pulse annealing process used in solar cell production, and (4) preparing an economic analysis of the process costs of ion implantation.

  8. Developing Friction Stir Welding Process Model for ICME Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A framework for developing a product involving manufacturing processes was developed with integrated computational materials engineering approach. The key component in the framework is a process modeling tool which includes a thermal model, a microstructure model, a thermo-mechanical, and a property model. Using friction stir welding (FSW) process as an example, development of the process modeling tool was introduced in detail. The thermal model and the microstructure model of FSW of steels were validated with the experiment data. The model can predict reasonable temperature and hardness distributions as observed in the experiment. The model was applied to predict residual stress and joint strength of a pipe girth weld.

  9. An integrated approach to product development and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Readey, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A new approach to product development is described that integrates various unit operations into a unified ``knowledge-base``. This knowledge-base is easily accessible to all members of the design team due to the advent of high performance and networking capabilities of today`s desktop computers. This permits rapid optimization of the product`s material, shape, and manufacturing processes that satisfy the customer`s performance requirements while maximizing economic return for the manufacturer.

  10. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section 820.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process controls. (a) General. Each...

  11. Development of cultivation strategies for friulimicin production in Actinoplanes friuliensis.

    PubMed

    Steinkämper, Anne; Schmid, Joachim; Schwartz, Dirk; Biener, Richard

    2015-02-10

    Actinoplanes friuliensis is a rare actinomycete which produces the highly potent lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin. This lipopeptide antibiotic is active against a broad range of multi-resistant gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus (MRE, MRSA) strains. Antibiotic biosynthesis and regulation in actinomycetes is very complex. In order to study the biosynthesis of these species and to develop efficient production processes, standardized cultivation conditions are a prerequisite. For this reason a chemically defined production medium for A. friuliensis was developed. With this chemically defined medium it was possible to analyze the influence of medium components on growth and antibiotic biosynthesis. These findings were used to develop process strategies for friulimicin production. The focus of the project presented here was to develop cultivation strategies which included fed-batch and continuous cultivation processes. In fed-batch processes, volumetric productivities for friulimicin of 1-2 mg/l h were achieved. In a perfusion process, a very simple cell retention system, which works via sedimentation of the mycelial cell pellets, was used. With this system, stable continuous cultivations with cell retention were dependent on the dilution rate. With a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1), cell retention worked well and volumetric productivity of friulimicin was enhanced to 3-5 mg/l h. With a higher dilution rate of 0.1 h(-1), friulimicin production ceased because cell retention was not possible any longer with this simple cell retention system. In order to support process development, cultivation data were used to characterize metabolic fluxes in the developed friulimicin production processes. PMID:25541462

  12. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  13. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  14. Development Process for Science Operation Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Scientific software development at ESO involves defined processes for the main phases of project inception, monitoring of development performed by instrument consortia, application maintenance, and application support. We discuss the lessons learnt and evolution of the process for the next generation of tools and observing facilities.

  15. Development of the Concise Data Processing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2011-01-01

    The Concise Data Processing Assessment (CDPA) was developed to probe student abilities related to the nature of measurement and uncertainty and to handling data. The diagnostic is a ten question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pre-test and post-test. A key component of the development process was interviews with students, which…

  16. Fungal morphology and metabolite production in submerged mycelial processes.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The use of fungi for the production of commercial products is ancient, but it has increased rapidly over the last 50 years. Fungi are morphologically complex organisms, differing in structure at different times in their life cycle, differing in form between surface and submerged growth, differing also with the nature of the growth medium and physical environment. Many genes and physiological mechanisms are involved in the process of morphogenesis. In submerged culture, a large number of factors contribute to the development of any particular morphological form. Factors affecting morphology include the type and concentration of carbon substrate, levels of nitrogen and phosphate, trace minerals, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, pH and temperature. Physical factors affecting morphology include fermenter geometry, agitation systems, rheology and the culture modes, whether batch, fed-batch or continuous. In many cases, particular morphological forms achieve maximum performance. It is a very difficult task to deduce unequivocal general relationships between process variables, product formation and fungal morphology since too many parameters influence these interrelationships and the role of many of them is still not fully understood. The use of automatic image analysis systems during the last decade proved an invaluable tool for characterizing complex mycelial morphologies, physiological states and relationships between morphology and productivity. Quantified morphological information can be used to build morphologically structured models of predictive value. The mathematical modeling of the growth and process performance has led to improved design and operation of mycelial fermentations and has improved the ability of scientists to translate laboratory observations into commercial practice. However, it is still necessary to develop improved and new experimental techniques for understanding phenomena such as the mechanisms of mycelial fragmentation and non

  17. Test Marketing in New Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klompmaker, Jay E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the role of test marketing in new product development, based on interviews with marketing executives. Attempts to clarify when a test market should be done, what its aims should be, and how it should be used. (JG)

  18. ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

    1992-01-01

    ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

  19. Development of Sand Production Evaluation Apparatus for Methane Hydrate Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakumoto, M.; Yoneda, J.; Tenma, N.; Katagiri, J.; Noda, S.

    2015-12-01

    As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we performed a study on sand production mechanism during methane gas production. In 2013, the first methane hydrate offshore production test was conducted in Japan, and it was recognized in the production of about 20000m3/day of methane gas from methane hydrate bearing sand sediment in deep marine sediment. In methane hydrate development, depressurization method has been proposed for gas extraction. This method is a method to reduce the bottom hole pressure by submersible pump lowering water level in the production well, and gas and water is recovered by methane hydrate dissociation at the in situ. At that time, a phenomenon that sand flows into the wells is feared. In actually, sand production phenomenon occurred after 6 days from production start in offshore production test. A mechanism of sand production has not yet been resolved in case of methane hydrate development. Therefore, we developed large scale laboratory test apparatus for the purpose of elucidation of the mechanism of sand production phenomenon. In this presentation, we introduce basic performance of this apparatus, and usefulness is made mention by representative test results.

  20. Lessons Learned In Developing The VACIS™ Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphan, Victor J.

    2011-06-01

    SAIC's development of VACIS™ provides useful "lessons learned" in bridging the gap from an idea to a security or contraband detection product. From a gamma densitometer idea for solving a specific Customs Service (CS) requirement (detection of drugs in near-empty tanker trucks) in mid-1990's, SAIC developed a broad line of vehicle and cargo inspections systems (over 500 systems deployed to date) based on a gamma-ray radiographic imaging technique. This paper analyzes the reasons for the successful development of VACIS and attempts to identify "lessons learned" useful for future security and contraband detection product developments.

  1. Analysis of dynamic system response to product random processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidwell, K.

    1978-01-01

    The response of dynamic systems to the product of two independent Gaussian random processes is developed by use of the Fokker-Planck and associated moment equations. The development is applied to the amplitude modulated process which is used to model atmospheric turbulence in aeronautical applications. The exact solution for the system response is compared with the solution obtained by the quasi-steady approximation which omits the dynamic properties of the random amplitude modulation. The quasi-steady approximation is valid as a limiting case of the exact solution for the dynamic response of linear systems to amplitude modulated processes. In the nonlimiting case the quasi-steady approximation can be invalid for dynamic systems with low damping.

  2. Product-oriented Software Certification Process for Software Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy; Fischer, Bernd; Denney, Ewen; Schumann, Johann; Richardson, Julian; Oh, Phil

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to propose a product-oriented software certification process to facilitate use of software synthesis and formal methods. Why is such a process needed? Currently, software is tested until deemed bug-free rather than proving that certain software properties exist. This approach has worked well in most cases, but unfortunately, deaths still occur due to software failure. Using formal methods (techniques from logic and discrete mathematics like set theory, automata theory and formal logic as opposed to continuous mathematics like calculus) and software synthesis, it is possible to reduce this risk by proving certain software properties. Additionally, software synthesis makes it possible to automate some phases of the traditional software development life cycle resulting in a more streamlined and accurate development process.

  3. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  4. Digital processing system for developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  5. Product development: the making of the Abbott ARCHITECT.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1997-01-01

    Many laboratorians have a limited perspective on what is involved in developing an instrument and bringing it to market. This article traces the product development process used by Abbott Diagnostics Division that resulted in Abbott being named the 1996 Concurrent Engineering Company of the Year for the design of the ARCHITECT. PMID:10176160

  6. Product development: the making of the Abbott ARCHITECT.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1997-01-01

    Many laboratorians have a limited perspective on what is involved in developing an instrument and bringing it to market. This article traces the product development process used by Abbott Diagnostics Division that resulted in Abbott being named the 1996 Concurrent Engineering Company of the Year for the design of the ARCHITECT.

  7. Development and validation of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of process related impurities and degradation products of rasagiline mesylate in pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Sunil; Sudhakar Babu, K; Kumar, Navneet

    2013-03-01

    A sensitive, stability-indicating gradient reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method has been developed for the quantitative determination of process-related impurities and forced degradation products of rasagiline mesylate in pharmaceutical formulation. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an ACE C8, 150 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm column with mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvents A and B. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.8 mL/min with column temperature of 30°C and detection wavelength at 210 nm. Rasagiline was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. Rasagiline was found to degrade significantly in acid and thermal stress conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from rasagiline and its impurities. The peak purity test results confirmed that the rasagiline peak was homogenous and pure in all stress samples and the mass balance was found to be more than 97%, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated according to the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization with respect to specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness.

  8. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Butler, T.A.; Johns, I.B.

    1959-03-10

    The removal of fission products such as strontium, barium, cesium, rubidium, or iodine from neutronirradiated uranium is described. Uranium halide or elemental halogen is added to melted irradiated uranium to convert the fission products to either more volatile compositions which vaporize from the melt or to higher melting point compositions which separate as solids.

  9. Process for the production of phthalic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Miserlis, C. D.

    1984-03-06

    A system for producing phthalic anhydride by the catalytic oxidation of nathphalene, wherein without creating a significant pressure drop in the system substantially aff of the catalyst particles are removed from the product stream before the product stream is sent to a battery of switch condensers for recovery of the phthalic anhydride.

  10. Architectures, Representations and Processes of Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alario, F.-Xavier; Costa, Albert; Ferreira, Victor S.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present an overview of recent research conducted in the field of language production based on papers presented at the first edition of the International Workshop on Language Production (Marseille, France, September 2004). This article comprises two main parts. In the first part, consisting of three sections, the authors review the…

  11. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  12. Ash melting system and reuse of products by arc processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kinto, Koichiro

    1996-12-31

    To form a resource recycling society and to extend the life of landfill sites, the melting process of municipal waste incinerator residue is estimated to be the best way of recycling products as resources. This paper presents a recent application of an arc melting system and utilization of its products. Five plants are now operating satisfactorily and two are under construction. Total capacity of these corresponds to the largest in the world. The slag and metal from these plants are under trial utilization. Pb and Zn recovery methods from the condensate have been developed. The arc melting process of fly ash mixed with bottom ash has been certified and the mechanical properties and chemical stability of fly ash mixed slag was found to be equivalent to bottom ash slag, both fulfilling the regulations.

  13. Hydrogen in the Methanol Production Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralj, Anita Kovac; Glavic, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very important industrial gas in chemical processes. It is very volatile; therefore, it can escape from the process units and its mass balance is not always correct. In many industrial processes where hydrogen is reacted, kinetics are often related to hydrogen pressure. The right thermodynamic properties of hydrogen can be found for…

  14. Autism and the development of face processing

    PubMed Central

    Golarai, Golijeh; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L.

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition, characterized by impairments in non-verbal communication, social relationships and stereotypical patterns of behavior. A large body of evidence suggests that several aspects of face processing are impaired in autism, including anomalies in gaze processing, memory for facial identity and recognition of facial expressions of emotion. In search of neural markers of anomalous face processing in autism, much interest has focused on a network of brain regions that are implicated in social cognition and face processing. In this review, we will focus on three such regions, namely the STS for its role in processing gaze and facial movements, the FFA in face detection and identification and the amygdala in processing facial expressions of emotion. Much evidence suggests that a better understanding of the normal development of these specialized regions is essential for discovering the neural bases of face processing anomalies in autism. Thus, we will also examine the available literature on the normal development of face processing. Key unknowns in this research area are the neuro-developmental processes, the role of experience and the interactions among components of the face processing system in shaping each of the specialized regions for processing faces during normal development and in autism. PMID:18176635

  15. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an economical method for producing low-sulfur and low-ash coals using the selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process. This work has been divided into three tasks: (1) project planning and sample acquisition; (2) studies of the fundamental mechanism(s) of the selective coagulation process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur; and (3) bench-scale process development test work to establish the best possible method(s) of separating the hydrophobic and coagula from the dispersed mineral matter.

  16. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Anand, M.; Carvill, B.

    1995-09-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process, the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The consequences of SER are: (1) reformation reaction at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than conventional SMR (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (2) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 99+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (3) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The early focus of the program will be on the identification of an adsorbent/chemisorbent for CO{sub 2} and on the demonstration of the SER concept for SMR in our state-of-the-art bench scale process. In the latter stages, a pilot plant will be built to scale-up the technology and to develop engineering data. The program has just been initiated and no significant results for SMR will be reported. However, results demonstrating the basic principles and process schemes of SER technology will be presented for reverse water gas shift reaction as the model reaction. If successful, this technology will be commercialized by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) and used in its existing hydrogen business. APCI is the world leader in merchant hydrogen production for a wide range of industrial applications.

  17. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment. PMID:20828493

  18. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  19. Production Process of Biocompatible Magnesium Alloy Tubes Using Extrusion and Dieless Drawing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustra, Piotr; Milenin, Andrij; Płonka, Bartłomiej; Furushima, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Development of technological production process of biocompatible magnesium tubes for medical applications is the subject of the present paper. The technology consists of two stages—extrusion and dieless drawing process, respectively. Mg alloys for medical applications such as MgCa0.8 are characterized by low technological plasticity during deformation that is why optimization of production parameters is necessary to obtain good quality product. Thus, authors developed yield stress and ductility model for the investigated Mg alloy and then used the numerical simulations to evaluate proper manufacturing conditions. Grid Extrusion3d software developed by authors was used to determine optimum process parameters for extrusion—billet temperature 400 °C and extrusion velocity 1 mm/s. Based on those parameters the tube with external diameter 5 mm without defects was manufactured. Then, commercial Abaqus software was used for modeling dieless drawing. It was shown that the reduction in the area of 60% can be realized for MgCa0.8 magnesium alloy. Tubes with the final diameter of 3 mm were selected as a case study, to present capabilities of proposed processes.

  20. Economic production quantity (EPQ) models under an imperfect production process with shortages backordered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Lie-Fern; Hsu, Jia-Tzer

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we develop economic production quantity (EPQ) models to determine the optimal production lot size and backorder quantity for a manufacturer under an imperfect production process. The imperfect production process is characterised by the fraction of defective items at the time of production γ. The paper considers different cases of the EPQ model depending on (1) whether γ is known with certainty or is a random variable, and (2) whether imperfect items are drawn from inventory (a) as they are detected, (b) at the end of each production period or (c) at the end of each production cycle. Straightforward convexity results are shown and closed-form solutions are provided for the optimal order and backorder quantities for each of the cases we considered. We provide two numerical examples: one in which the defective probability follows a uniform distribution and the second which we assume follows a beta distribution, to illustrate the effects of yield variability and timing of the withdrawal of defectives on the optimal solutions. We obtain similar results for both numerical examples, which show that both the yield variability and the withdrawal timing are not critical factors.

  1. Concise Review: Process Development Considerations for Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brieva, Thomas; Raviv, Lior; Rowley, Jon; Niss, Knut; Brandwein, Harvey; Oh, Steve; Karnieli, Ohad

    2015-01-01

    The development of robust and well-characterized methods of production of cell therapies has become increasingly important as therapies advance through clinical trials toward approval. A successful cell therapy will be a consistent, safe, and effective cell product, regardless of the cell type or application. Process development strategies can be developed to gain efficiency while maintaining or improving safety and quality profiles. This review presents an introduction to the process development challenges of cell therapies and describes some of the tools available to address production issues. This article will provide a summary of what should be considered to efficiently advance a cellular therapy from the research stage through clinical trials and finally toward commercialization. The identification of the basic questions that affect process development is summarized in the target product profile, and considerations for process optimization are discussed. The goal is to identify potential manufacturing concerns early in the process so they may be addressed effectively and thus increase the probability that a therapy will be successful. Significance The present study contributes to the field of cell therapy by providing a resource for those transitioning a potential therapy from the research stage to clinical and commercial applications. It provides the necessary steps that, when followed, can result in successful therapies from both a clinical and commercial perspective. PMID:26315572

  2. Software Model Of Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Synott, Debra J.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs constitutes software tool for simulation of medium- to large-scale software-development projects. Necessary to include easily identifiable and more-readily quantifiable characteristics like costs, times, and numbers of errors. Mathematical model incorporating these and other factors of dynamics of software-development process implemented in the Software Life Cycle Simulator (SLICS) computer program. Simulates dynamics of software-development process. In combination with input and output expert software systems and knowledge-based management software system, develops information for use in managing large software-development project. Intended to aid managers in planning, managing, and controlling software-development processes by reducing uncertainties in budgets, required personnel, and schedules.

  3. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    PubMed

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

  4. Process of beneficiating coal and product

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; McGarry, P.E.

    1981-12-08

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water unsoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal, particularly the iron pyrites, remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically, and the carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry'', or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  5. 40 CFR 158.330 - Description of production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Description of production process. 158.330 Section 158.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.330 Description of production process....

  6. 40 CFR 158.330 - Description of production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of production process. 158.330 Section 158.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.330 Description of production process....

  7. 40 CFR 158.330 - Description of production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Description of production process. 158.330 Section 158.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.330 Description of production process....

  8. 40 CFR 158.330 - Description of production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Description of production process. 158.330 Section 158.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.330 Description of production process....

  9. A Prevalidation of the Product-Process Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenbaum, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for instructors of supply chain and operations management (SCOM) courses is to help students who have never seen a production floor visualize concepts, such as the product-process matrix from standard introductory SCOM texts. This article presents a classroom exercise, which "prevalidates" the product-process matrix.…

  10. Oxygen production processes on the Moon: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Carrier, W. David, III

    1991-01-01

    The production of oxygen on the Moon utilizing indigenous material is paramount to a successful lunar colonization. Several processes were put forth to accomplish this. The lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) generation schemes which have received the most study to date are those involving: (1) the reduction of ilmenite (FeTiO3) by H2, C, CO, CH4, CO-Cl2 plasma; (2) magma electrolysis, both unadulterated and fluoride-fluxed, and (3) several others, including carbo-chlorination, HF acid leaching, fluorine extraction, magma oxidation, and vapor pyrolysis. The H2 reduction of ilmenite and magma electrolysis processes have received the most study to date. At this stage of development, they both appear feasible schemes with various pros and cons. However, all processes should be addressed at least at the onset of the considerations. It is ultimatley the energy requirements of the entire process, including the acquisition of feedstock, which will determine the mode of oxygen productions. There is an obvious need for considerably more experimentation and study. Some of these requisite studies are in progress, and several of the most studied and feasible processes for winning oxygen from lunar materials are reviewed.

  11. EUV extendibility via dry development rinse process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayan, Safak; Zheng, Tao; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2016-03-01

    Conventional photoresist processing involves resist coating, exposure, post-exposure bake, development, rinse and spin drying of a wafer. DDRP mitigates pattern collapse by applying a special polymer material (DDRM) which replaces the exposed/developed part of the photoresist material before wafer is spin dried. As noted above, the main mechanism of pattern collapse is the capillary forces governed by surface tension of rinse water and its asymmetrical recession from both sides of the lines during the drying step of the develop process. DDRP essentially eliminates these failure mechanisms by replacing remaining rinse water with DDRM and providing a structural framework that support resist lines from both sides during spin dry process. Dry development rinse process (DDRP) eliminates the root causes responsible for pattern collapse of photoresist line structures. Since these collapse mechanisms are mitigated, without the need for changes in the photoresist itself, achievable resolution of the state-of-the-art EUV photoresists can further be improved.

  12. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  13. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes were developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. The SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  14. WRAP process area development control work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    This work plan defines the manner in which the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module I Process Area will be maintained under development control status. This status permits resolution of identified design discrepancies, control system changes, as-building of equipment, and perform modifications to increase process operability and maintainability as parallel efforts. This work plan maintains configuration control as these efforts are undertaken. This task will end with system testing and reissue of field verified design drawings.

  15. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A

    1999-04-01

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques.

  16. Course Development: Industrial or Social Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David

    The development of course materials at the Open Learning Institute, British Columbia, Canada, is examined from two perspectives: as an industrial process and as a social process. The public institute provides distance education through paced home-study courses. The course team model used at the Institute is a system approach. Course development…

  17. Teaching Information Systems Development via Process Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee-Kek; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring the knowledge to assemble an integrated Information System (IS) development process that is tailored to the specific needs of a project has become increasingly important. It is therefore necessary for educators to impart to students this crucial skill. However, Situational Method Engineering (SME) is an inherently complex process that…

  18. A Comprehensive Process for Display Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, William A.

    A comprehensive development process for display design, focusing on computer-generated cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is presented. A framework is created for breaking the display into its component parts, used to guide the design process. The objective is to design or select the most cost effective graphics solution (hardware and software) to…

  19. Process Consultation: Its Role in Organization Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Edgar H.

    This volume focuses on the process by which the consultant builds readiness for organizational development (OD) programs, actually conducts training, and works with the key individuals of an organization as part of an OD program. Part I describes in some detail the human processes in organizations--communication, functional roles of group members,…

  20. Multi-scale process and supply chain modelling: from lignocellulosic feedstock to process and products.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Shah, Nilay

    2011-04-01

    There is a large body of literature regarding the choice and optimization of different processes for converting feedstock to bioethanol and bio-commodities; moreover, there has been some reasonable technological development in bioconversion methods over the past decade. However, the eventual cost and other important metrics relating to sustainability of biofuel production will be determined not only by the performance of the conversion process, but also by the performance of the entire supply chain from feedstock production to consumption. Moreover, in order to ensure world-class biorefinery performance, both the network and the individual components must be designed appropriately, and allocation of resources over the resulting infrastructure must effectively be performed. The goal of this work is to describe the key challenges in bioenergy supply chain modelling and then to develop a framework and methodology to show how multi-scale modelling can pave the way to answer holistic supply chain questions, such as the prospects for second generation bioenergy crops.

  1. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  2. Semisolid Metal Processing Techniques for Nondendritic Feedstock Production

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, M. N.; Omar, M. Z.; Salleh, M. S.; Alhawari, K. S.; Kapranos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Semisolid metal (SSM) processing or thixoforming is widely known as a technology that involves the formation of metal alloys between solidus and liquidus temperatures. For the procedure to operate successfully, the microstructure of the starting material must consist of solid near-globular grains surrounded by a liquid matrix and a wide solidus-to-liquidus transition area. Currently, this process is industrially successful, generating a variety of products with high quality parts in various industrial sectors. Throughout the years since its inception, a number of technologies to produce the appropriate globular microstructure have been developed and applied worldwide. The main aim of this paper is to classify the presently available SSM technologies and present a comprehensive review of the potential mechanisms that lead to microstructural alterations during the preparation of feedstock materials for SSM processing. PMID:24194689

  3. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  4. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  5. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  6. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  7. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  8. 7 CFR 926.11 - Processed cranberries or cranberry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed cranberries or cranberry products. 926.11... COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.11 Processed cranberries or cranberry products. Processed cranberries or...

  9. 7 CFR 926.11 - Processed cranberries or cranberry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed cranberries or cranberry products. 926.11... COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.11 Processed cranberries or cranberry products. Processed cranberries or...

  10. 7 CFR 926.11 - Processed cranberries or cranberry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed cranberries or cranberry products. 926.11... COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.11 Processed cranberries or cranberry products. Processed cranberries or...

  11. 7 CFR 926.11 - Processed cranberries or cranberry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed cranberries or cranberry products. 926.11... COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.11 Processed cranberries or cranberry products. Processed cranberries or...

  12. 7 CFR 926.11 - Processed cranberries or cranberry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed cranberries or cranberry products. 926.11... COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.11 Processed cranberries or cranberry products. Processed cranberries or...

  13. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  14. Standardizing PhenoCam Image Processing and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, T. E.; Richardson, A. D.; Klosterman, S.; Gray, J. M.; Hufkens, K.; Aubrecht, D.; Chen, M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The PhenoCam Network (http://phenocam.unh.edu) contains an archive of imagery from digital webcams to be used for scientific studies of phenological processes of vegetation. The image archive continues to grow and currently has over 4.8 million images representing 850 site-years of data. Time series of broadband reflectance (e.g., red, green, blue, infrared bands) and derivative vegetation indices (e.g. green chromatic coordinate or GCC) are calculated for regions of interest (ROI) within each image series. These time series form the basis for subsequent analysis, such as spring and autumn transition date extraction (using curvature analysis techniques) and modeling the climate-phenology relationship. Processing is relatively straightforward but time consuming, with some sites having more than 100,000 images available. While the PhenoCam Network distributes the original image data, it is our goal to provide higher-level vegetation phenology products, generated in a standardized way, to encourage use of the data without the need to download and analyze individual images. We describe here the details of the standard image processing procedures, and also provide a description of the products that will be available for download. Products currently in development include an "all-image" file, which contains a statistical summary of the red, green and blue bands over the pixels in predefined ROI's for each image from a site. This product is used to generate 1-day and 3-day temporal aggregates with 90th percentile values of GCC for the specified time-periodwith standard image selection/filtering criteria applied. Sample software (in python, R, MATLAB) that can be used to read in and plot these products will also be described.

  15. The message processing and distribution system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, K. L.

    1981-06-01

    A historical approach is used in presenting the life cycle development of the Navy's message processing and distribution system beginning with the planning phase and ending with the integrated logistic support phase. Several maintenance problems which occurred after the system was accepted for fleet use were examined to determine if they resulted from errors in the acquisition process. The critical decision points of the acquisition process are examined and constructive recommendations are made for avoiding the problems which hindered the successful development of this system.

  16. Developing Technology Products - A Physicist's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burka, Michael

    2014-03-01

    There are many physicists working in the industrial sector. We rarely have the word physicist in our job title; we are far more commonly called engineers or scientists. But, we are physicists, and we succeed because our training in physics has given us the habits of mind and the technical skills that one needs to solve complex technical challenges. This talk will explore the transition from physics research to technology product development using examples from my own career, first as a postdoctoral fellow and research scientist on the LIGO project, and then developing products in the spectroscopy, telecommunications, and medical device industries. Approaches to identifying and pursuing opportunities in industry will be discussed.

  17. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Information Processing Theory and Conceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, H. M.

    An educational program based upon information processing theory has been developed at Southern Illinois University. The integrating theme was the development of conceptual ability for coping with social and personal problems. It utilized student information search and concept formation as foundations for discussion and judgment and was organized…

  19. Cognitive Process of Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddington, Eulalee N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  20. PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, R.D.

    1958-11-01

    A process is described for the manufacture of uranium bexafluoride which consists in contacting an oxide of uranium simultaneously with elemental carbon and elemental fluorine at an elevated temperature, using a proportion of the carbon to the oxide about 50% in excess of that theoretically required to combine with f the oxygen as C0/.sub 2/. The process has the advantage that the uranium oxide is reduced by tbe carbon aad converted to the hexafluoride in a single operation.

  1. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  2. Preform Characterization in VARTM Process Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal; Loos, Alfred C.; Kellen, Charles B.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is a Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process where both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 kPa or less. Originally developed over a decade ago for marine composite fabrication, VARTM is now considered a viable process for the fabrication of aerospace composites (1,2). In order to optimize and further improve the process, a finite element analysis (FEA) process model is being developed to include the coupled phenomenon of resin flow, preform compaction and resin cure. The model input parameters are obtained from resin and fiber-preform characterization tests. In this study, the compaction behavior and the Darcy permeability of a commercially available carbon fabric are characterized. The resulting empirical model equations are input to the 3- Dimensional Infiltration, version 5 (3DINFILv.5) process model to simulate infiltration of a composite panel.

  3. A process for the agile product realization of electro-mechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed and demonstrated at Sandia by the A-PRIMED (Agile Product Realization for Innovative Electro MEchanical Devices) project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` into a complete, design-to-production process. Evidence indicates that the process has reduced the product realization cycle and assured product quality. Products included discriminators for a robotic quick change adapter and for an electronic defense system. These discriminators, built using A-PRIMED, met random vibration requirements and had life cycles that far surpass the performance obtained from earlier efforts.

  4. The development process for the space shuttle primary avionics software system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Primary avionics software system; software development approach; user support and problem diagnosis; software releases and configuration; quality/productivity programs; and software development/production facilities are addressed. Also examined are the external evaluations of the IBM process.

  5. A process for the agile product realization of electromechanical devices (A-primed)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed at Sandia National Laboratories by the A-PRIMED project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` (Nagel & Dove, 1992) into a complete, step-by-step, design-to-production process. For two separate product realization efforts, each geared to a different set of requirements, A-PRIMED demonstrated product realization of a custom device in less than a month. A-PRIMED used a discriminator (a precision electro mechanical device) as the demonstration device, but the process is readily adaptable to other electro mechanical products. The process begins with a qualified design parameter space (Diegert et al, 1995). From that point, the product realization process encompasses all facets of requirements development, analysis and testing, design, manufacturing, robot assembly and quality assurance, as well as product data management and concurrent engineering. In developing the product realization process, A-PRIMED employed an iterative approach whereby after each build, the process was reviewed and refinements were made on the basis of lessons learned. This paper describes the integration of project functions and product realization technologies to develop a product realization process that on repeated iterations, was proven successful.

  6. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  7. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

  8. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Tanya Y.; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

  9. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    PubMed

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors.

  10. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  11. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

    1993-03-30

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  12. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Bauer, Hans F.; Grimes, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  13. Agriculture Products Processing. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  14. Development of Cotton-Based Nonwovens Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article briefly describes the planned or projected developments of cotton-based nonwoven products, using state-of-the art technologies and equipment that now, after the devastating hurricane Katrina, have been made available for research at the Southern Regional Reserach Center. Although we sti...

  15. Increasing Sales by Developing Production Consortiums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; Russo, Robert

    Intended to help rehabilitation facility administrators increase organizational income from manufacturing and/or contracted service sources, this document provides a decision-making model for the development of a production consortium. The document consists of five chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 defines the consortium concept, explains…

  16. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  17. Separation processes during binary monotectic alloy production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1984-01-01

    Observation of microgravity solidification processes indicates that outside of sedimentation, at least two other important effects can separate the phases: critical-point wetting and spreading; and thermal migration of second-phase droplets due to interfacial tension gradients. It is difficult to study these surface tension effects while in a unit gravity field. In order to investigate the processes occurring over a temperature range, i.e., between a consolute point and the monotectic temperature, it is necessary to use a low-gravity environment. The MSFC drop tube (and tower), the ballistic trajectory KC-135 airplane, and the Space Shuttle are ideal facilities to aid formation and testing of hypotheses. Much of the early work in this area focuses on transparent materials so that process dynamics may be studied by optical techniques such as photography for viewing macro-processes; holography for studying diffusional growth; spinodal decomposition and coalescence; ellipsometry for surface wetting and spreading effects; and interferometry and spectroscopy for small-scale spatial resolution of concentration profiles.

  18. Sweet sorghum processing for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Schmulevich, I.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.

    1983-12-01

    Several processing techniques for producing ethanol from sweet sorghum were investigated. Fermentating chopped stalks yielded more ethanol than shredded sorghum or juice. Leaf removal prior to fermentation resulted in higher yields per unit feedstock. Removal of solids after fermentation yielded slightly more ethanol than solids removal before fermentation.

  19. Content, Process, and Product: Modeling Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara Kline

    2015-01-01

    Modeling differentiated instruction is one way to demonstrate how educators can incorporate instructional strategies to address students' needs, interests, and learning styles. This article discusses how secondary teacher candidates learn to focus on content--the "what" of instruction; process--the "how" of instruction;…

  20. Process for the production of hydrogen peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Datta, R.; Randhava, S.S.; Tsai, S.P.

    1997-09-02

    An integrated membrane-based process method for producing hydrogen peroxide is provided comprising oxidizing hydrogenated anthraquinones with air bubbles which were created with a porous membrane, and then contacting the oxidized solution with a hydrophilic membrane to produce an organics free, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} laden permeate. 1 fig.