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Sample records for product development system

  1. Co amorphous systems: A product development perspective.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Rahul B; Thipparaboina, Rajesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Shastri, Nalini R

    2016-12-30

    Solubility is one of the major problems associated with most of the new chemical entities that can be reasonably addressed by drug amorphization. However, being a high-energy form, it usually tends to re-crystallize, necessitating new formulation strategies to stabilize amorphous drugs. Polymeric amorphous solid dispersion (PASD) is one of the widely investigated strategies to stabilize amorphous drug, with major limitations like limited polymer solubility and hygroscopicity. Co amorphous system (CAM), a new entrant in amorphous arena is a promising alternative to PASD. CAMs are multi component single phase amorphous solid systems made up of two or more small molecules that may be a combination of drugs or drug and excipients. Excipients explored for CAM preparation include amino acids, carboxylic acids, nicotinamide and saccharine. Advantages offered by CAM include improved aqueous solubility and physical stability of amorphous drug, with a potential to improve therapeutic efficacy. This review attempts to address different aspects in the development of CAM as drug products. Criterion for co-former selection, various methods involved in CAM preparation, characterization tools, stability, scale up and regulatory requirements for the CAM product development are discussed.

  2. Workforce Development, Higher Education and Productive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Workforce development partnerships between higher education institutions and employers involve distinctive social and technical dynamics that differ from dominant higher education practices in the UK. The New Labour government encouraged such partnerships in England, including through the use of funding that aimed to stimulate reform to…

  3. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  4. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  5. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  6. Development of Intelligent Spray Systems for Nursery Crop Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two intelligent sprayer prototypes were developed to increase pesticide application efficiency in nursery production. The first prototype was a hydraulic vertical boom system using ultrasonic sensors to detect tree size and volume for liner-sized trees and the second prototype was an air-assisted sp...

  7. Development of a Production Ready Automated Wire Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The current development effort is a Phase 3 research study entitled "A Production Ready Automated Wire Delivery System", contract number NAS8-39933, awarded to Nichols Research Corporation (NRC). The goals of this research study were to production harden the existing Automated Wire Delivery (AWDS) motion and sensor hardware and test the modified AWDS in a range of welding applications. In addition, the prototype AWDS controller would be moved to the VME bus platform by designing, fabricating and testing a single board VME bus AWDS controller. This effort was to provide an AWDS that could transition from the laboratory environment to production operations. The project was performed in two development steps. Step 1 modified and tested an improved MWG. Step 2 developed and tested the AWDS single board VME bus controller. Step 3 installed the Wire Pilot in a Weld Controller with the imbedded VME bus controller.

  8. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  9. Developing Software Product Lines for Science Data Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hughes, J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Law, E.; Hardman, S.

    2010-12-01

    Software reuse has traditionally been a challenging proposition. While the allure of reusing software has great appeal to increasing stability and reducing software costs, there has been limited success in building software that can be efficiently reused. In many cases, reuse is limited to the reuse of software expertise or repurposing existing software code. While there are certainly cultural challenges involved in reusing software, much of the challenge can be traced back to the strategy involved in developing reusable software. The discipline of software architecture plays an important role since software reuse is highly dependent on developing a reference architecture that can be used for the construction of software product lines. All too often software reference architectures are implicit or are highly focused on specific implementations. The challenge is developing a reference architecture that identifies core patterns that exist across many systems at appropriate level of abstraction and then developing a reference implementation that can serve as a reusable product line. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been involved in developing both reference architectures and software product lines for science data systems [1]. These reference architectures identify common patterns in data capture, data processing and product generation, data discovery, data access and distribution, and data movement. How those patterns are implemented is critical to establishing a reusable architecture. In addition, the separation of the technical and data architecture has proven critical to allowing for such product lines to be applied to multiple disciplines, where domain information models are developed and applied, rather than directly integrated into software. This presentation will focus on defining software architecture and product lines, the development of these capabilities at JPL, and the application to earth, planetary and biomedical domains. [1] C. Mattmann

  10. Expert Systems Development Through Software Product Lines Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, María Eugenia; Ramos, Isidro

    This chapter deals with expert systems (ES) development as the final product of a software product line (SPL). We take into account software variability management in the ES domain. Two kinds of variability emerge: variability in the behavior as well as in the structure of such systems. Experts' knowledge is captured using domain conceptual models in order to manage the variability and functionality of the ES. The ES are constructed using our baseline-oriented modeling (BOM) approach. BOM is a framework that automatically generates software applications as PRISMA architectural models by using SPL techniques. We follow the model-driven architecture (MDA) initiative for building domain models, which are automatically transformed into executable applications.

  11. Pompano subsea development: Production control system and umbilicals

    SciTech Connect

    Prichard, R.M.; DeJohn, K.P.; Farrell, P.; Baggs, C.; Harris, D.

    1996-12-31

    BP Exploration`s Pompano subsea development is a deepwater subsea production project in the Gulf of Mexico. There were various operational and technological challenges which had to be addressed to configure a subsea control system to operate effectively, to be installed and maintained effectively in deepwater, and to do so with the minimization of cost and risk. Through testing and analysis, benchmarks were developed, which were used to monitor the system performance and provide a powerful analytical tool for this remote system. Another significant feature of the program which greatly reduced risk on costs and time scale, was the contracting style adopted. The control system vendor (GEC-Marconi), as well as other key contractors, were involved at the early project definition phase. This provided assistance to BPX in optimizing their field development plan and enabled the key contractors to closely identify with BPX`s needs, as well as developing an integrated working relationship. This enabled overall system optimization to occur, while minimizing risks at interfaces. The high-cost, detailed implementation phase of the project was extremely fast track.

  12. Development of a Microchannel In Situ Propellant Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2005-09-01

    An in situ propellant production (ISPP) plant on future Mars robotic missions can produce oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) that can be used for propellant for the return voyage. By producing propellants from Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) brought from Earth, the initial mass launched in low Earth orbit can be reduced by 20% to 45%, as compared to carrying all of the propellant for a round-trip mission to the Mars surface from Earth. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory used microchannel architecture to develop a Mars-based In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system. This three year research and development effort focused on process intensification and system miniaturization of three primary subsystems: a thermochemical compressor, catalytic reactors, and components for separating gas phases from liquid phases. These systems were designed based on a robotic direct return mission scenario, but can be scaled up to human flight missions by simply numbering up the microchannel devices. The thermochemical compression was developed both using absorption and adsorption. A multichannel adsorption system was designed to meet the full-scale CO2 collection requirements using temperature swing adsorption. Each stage is designed to achieve a 10x compression of CO2. A compression ratio to collect Martian atmospheric CO2 at ~0.8 kPa and compress it to at least 100 kPa can be achieved with two adsorption stages in series. A compressor stage incorporates eight thermally coupled adsorption cells at various stages in the adsorption/desorption cycle to maximize the recuperation of thermal energy and provide a nearly continuous flow of CO2 to the downstream reactors. The thermochemically compressed CO2 is then mixed with hydrogen gas and fed to two reactors: a Sabatier Reaction unit and a Reverse Water/Gas Shift unit. The microchannel architecture allows better heat control than is possible in an adiabatic system, resulting in significantly higher conversion. The

  13. Development of a Microchannel In Situ Propellant Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kriston; Rassat, Scot; Hu, John; Stenkamp, Susie; Schlahta, Steve; Bontha, Jagan; Holladay, Jamie; Simon, Tom; Romig, Kris; Howard, Candice

    2006-01-01

    A microchannel-based system is being developed for NASA to produce propellants from atmospheric CO2 on Mars. This system will provide a means of reducing the earth-based launch mass for both sample return and human exploration missions. The atmospheric CO2 will be collected, separated, and compressed with a microchannel thermal swing adsorption system. It will be reacted with hydrogen that has either been electrolyzed from the available subsurface water or brought from earth. Methane and water will be produced by using microchannel Sabatier and Reverse Water Gas Shift reactors, respectively. The water will then separated with a microchannel condenser/phase separator and electrolyzed to produce oxygen and hydrogen. Feed gases will be separated from the products and recycled. The system design requirements will be presented in this paper. The design and fabrication methods of the microchannel CO2 sorption pump, reactors, and phase separators will be described, and the advantages of microchannel architecture will be delineated for each component. Estimates of system mass and volume will also be provided in comparison to conventional hardware. The testing and integration proposed during this project to meet NASA's Technology Readiness Level 5 will also be presented.

  14. Development of a Microchannel In Situ Propellant Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Rassat, Scot D.; Hu, Jianli; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Holladay, Jamie D.; Simon, Tom; Romig, Kris A.; Howard, Candice L.

    2006-04-12

    A microchannel-based system is being developed for NASA to produce propellants from atmospheric CO2 on Mars. This system will provide a means of reducing the earth-based launch mass for both sample return and human exploration missions. The atmospheric CO2 will be collected, separated, and compressed with a microchannel thermal swing adsorption system. It will be reacted with hydrogen that has either been electrolyzed from the available subsurface water or brought from earth. Methane and water will be produced by using microchannel Reverse Water Gas Shift and Sabatier reactors. The water will then separated with a microchannel condenser/phase separator and electrolyzed to produce oxygen and hydrogen. Feed gases will be separated from the products and recycled. The system design requirements will be presented in this paper. The design and fabrication methods of the microchannel CO2 sorption pump, reactors, and phase separators will be described, and the advantages of microchannel architecture will be delineated for each component. Estimates of system mass and volume will also be provided in comparison to conventional hardware. The testing and integration proposed during this project to meet NASA's Technology Readiness Level 5 will also be presented.

  15. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen

  16. System Development of Estimated Figures of Volume Production Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazhnikov, Maksim A.; Khorina, Irina V.; Minina, Yulia I.; Kolyasnikova, Lyudmila V.; Streltsov, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a necessity of improving production efficiency in conditions of innovative development of the economy and implementation of Import Substitution Program. The purpose of the article is development of set of criteria and procedures for the comparative assessment of alternative volume production…

  17. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  18. Guide for Transitioning Army Missile Systems From Development to Production.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    RD progrm s, partioularly in materials research and an8afaoturing tehnology development. 3. As part of Producibllty btneering and Planning efforts for...prodUctioR A~ taking Into onsideration other production *f0rt8! (2) Coniderstin has been gIven to meet Surg (peacetime) Ab mobilization (declared

  19. Pork Production System and its Development in Mainland China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production and marketing have been driven by the growing consumer demand for high quality and low cost animal protein. As a result, intensive livestock industries have been rapidly developing globally. International trade creates new opportunities and challenges for U.S. animal agriculture...

  20. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  1. 75 FR 35493 - Guidance for Industry on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Developing Medical Products for Treatment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products for Treatment; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products..., therapeutic biological products, and medical devices for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus...

  2. Decreasing costs of ground data processing system development using a software product line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I describe software product lines and why a Ground Data Processing System should use one. I also describe how to develop a software product line, using examples from an imaginary Ground Data Processing System.

  3. Systems, methods and apparatus for developing and maintaining evolving systems with software product lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Pena, Joaquin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which an evolutionary system is managed and viewed as a software product line. In some embodiments, the core architecture is a relatively unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system is viewed as a product from the product line. Each software product is generated from the core architecture with some agent-based additions. The result may be a multi-agent system software product line.

  4. Monitoring requested for developing planetary systems dust production study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2015-03-01

    Dr. George Rieke (University of Arizona) and colleagues have requested AAVSO assistance in monitoring four stars with developing planetary systems: RZ Psc, HD 15407A, V488 Per, and HD 23514. This campaign is similar to the one conducted in 2013 (see AAVSO Alert Notice 482). Dr. Rieke writes: "We have obtained 130 hours of time on the Spitzer Space Telescope to continue monitoring planetary debris disks for variability. We are asking for help from AAVSO for this program. Debris disks [are] systems of dust and particles associated with planetary systems...There are about a dozen planetary systems in which there is evidence that massive collisions are occurring right now, collisions that are building planets in much the same way that a large body added most of its mass to that of the Earth and created the Moon as a byproduct when the Solar System was young...A key part of our program is to obtain optical photometry of the same stars that we are observing in the infrared under the Spitzer program. The optical data are needed to verify that any changes we see in the infrared are not just driven by changes in the brightness of the star, but are truly due to changes in the structure or dust content of the debris disk. AAVSO observers provided this support for our previous program, as summarized in a paper [in preparation]; all of those who contributed data are co-authors of the paper. We request AAVSO to take similar observations for the new program...", which begins immediately and runs in two segments, now through May and September through December [target information and satellite schedule in full Alert Notice 511]. Observations in V are requested, with a S/N of about 100 so that the accuracy will be 1-2%. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for schedule and other details.

  5. Techniques for Unifying Disparate Elements in an EOS Instrument's Product Generation System Development Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alex; Eng, Bjorn; Leff, Craig; Schwarz, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    In the development environment for ASTER level II product generation system, techniques have been incorporated to allow automated information sharing among all system elements, and to enable the use of sound software engineering techniques in the scripting languages.

  6. Research, development, and demonstration of algal production raceway (APR) systems for the production of hydrocarbon resources

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1984-02-01

    A fractional factorial experimental design was used to determine the maximum production and photosynthetic efficiency that could be achieved in shallow algal mass culture systems (SAMCS) of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Dilution rate and CO/sub 2/ supply were found to be the most important system parameters. Maximum production was found to be about 25 g dry wt m/sup -2/d/sup -1/. This production corresponded to a photosynthetic efficiency of 5.6%. These figures are 50 to 100% better than the production rates achieved in earlier P. tricornutum cultures using conventional culture techniques. The results are consistent with a theoretical model of the impact of the flashing light effect on algal mass culture production. This model predicts that at the typical irradiances in Hawaii, full utilization of the flashing light effect should enhance production by 70% to over 200%. It was concluded that the use of foil arrays in the experimental flume creates systematic vertical mixing on a time scale suitable for utilizing the flashing light effect. Production of P. tricornutum culture is probably limited by temperature. P. tricornutum cannot survive at temperatures in excess of 25/sup 0/C in outdoor mass cultures. Growth of mesophilic species in the temperature range 30 to 35/sup 0/C may well result in even higher production than that achieved with P. tricornutum.

  7. Development of a green binder system for paper products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage and use. The binders must be strong but cost-effective. Although chemical binders are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, the public is demanding products with lower carbon footprints and that are derived from renewable sources. Results In this project, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were applied to air laid, pressed paper products in order to identify potential renewable green binders that are as strong as the current commercial binders, while being organic and renewable. Each potential green binder was applied to several filter paper strips and tested for strength in the direction perpendicular to the cellulose fibril orientation. Out of the twenty binders surveyed, soy protein, gelatin, zein protein, pectin and Salix lignin provided comparable strength results to a currently employed chemical binder. Conclusions These organic and renewable binders can be purchased in large quantities at low cost, require minimal reaction time and do not form viscous solutions that would clog sprayers, characteristics that make them attractive to the non-woven paper industry. As with any new process, a large-scale trial must be conducted along with an economic analysis of the procedure. However, because multiple examples of “green” binders were found that showed strong cross-linking activity, a candidate for commercial application will likely be found. PMID:23531016

  8. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  9. Development of the Internet-Based Customer-Oriented Ordering System Framework for Complicated Mechanical Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Mingwei; Watanuki, Keiichi

    Recently, as consumers gradually prefer buying products that reflect their own personality, there exist some consumers who wish to involve in the product design process. Parallel with the popularization of e-business, many manufacturers have utilized the Internet to promote their products, and some have even built websites that enable consumers to select their desirable product specifications. Nevertheless, this method has not been applied on complicated mechanical product due to the facts that complicated mechanical product has a large number of specifications that inter-relate among one another. In such a case, ordinary consumers who are lacking of design knowledge, are not capable of determining these specifications. In this paper, a prototype framework called Internet-based consumer-oriented product ordering system has been developed in which it enables ordinary consumers to have large freedom in determining complicated mechanical product specifications, and meanwhile ensures that the manufacturing of the determined product is feasible.

  10. Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing: Its Application in Both Product Development and System Implementation.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable discussion around the need for certification and regulation of healthcare information technology (IT). In particular, the usability of the products being developed needs to be evaluated. This has included the application of standards designed to ensure the process of system development is user-centered and takes usability into consideration while a product is being developed. In addition to this, in healthcare, organizations in the United States and Europe have also addressed the need and requirement for product certification. However, despite these efforts there are continued reports of unusable and unsafe implementations. In this paper we discuss the need to not only include (and require) usability testing in the one-time development process of health IT products (such as EHRs), but we also argue for the need to additionally develop specific usability standards and requirements for usability testing during the implementation of vendor products (i.e. post product development) in healthcare settings. It is further argued that health IT products that may have been certified regarding their development process will still require application of usability testing in the process of implementing them in real hospital settings in order to ensure usability and safety. This is needed in order to ensure that the final result of both product development and implementation processes take into account and apply the latest usability principles and methods.

  11. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of various markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.

  12. Development of DoD C3I Systems Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    N 192-10000009 DTIC AD-A249 679 S AY 6190 Development of DOD CaI Systems Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products iU Dr. Barry NI. Horowitz -. lie 9I...34’ ’ -. I " ’ "’ ’ ’"--,-- 91 2023(11 %192-BO00Q00Q9 Development of DOD C3I Systems Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products Dr. Barry N. Horowitz o...on Software- 2 Intensive Systems 2 Issues and Judgments Regarding Commercially Available 3 Equipment and Software vi INTRODUCTIO N comme ncrc ial x

  13. The Research and Development of a Soluble Reactants and Products Secondary Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    A redox battery system which employs an aqueous dectrolyte is developed. Results are presented of the following experimental studies (1) measurement of the essential physical and chemical properties of the reactants and products; (2) evaluation of commerically available anion membranes as the cell separator, (3) determination of the composition and degradation mechanism of the anion membrane, and/or developing an anion membrane separator; and (4) evaluation of the performance of prototype secondary battery systems.

  14. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development: Quarterly report, November 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report describes progress made in the advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. The topics of the report include selection of the Allison GFATS, castcool technology development for industrial engines test plan and schedule, code development and background gathering phase for the ultra low NOx combustion technology task, active turbine clearance task, and water vapor/air mixture cooling of turbine vanes task.

  15. Beef heifer development and lifetime productivity in rangeland-based production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research continues to identify nutrition and environmental factors experienced during pregnancy that result in epigenetic changes that alter offspring characteristics later throughout life. In livestock, small differences in nutrition during gestation may alter lifetime production efficiency of offs...

  16. Development of smart spray systems to enhance delivery of pesticides in field nursery production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two smart sprayer prototypes have been developed and are being evaluated with a goal of increasing pesticide application efficiency and minimizing environmental impact in field nursery production sites. The first prototype, a modified hydraulic vertical boom system, utilizes ultrasonic sensors to d...

  17. The economics of optimal health and productivity in smallholder livestock systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    McDermott, J J; Randolph, T F; Staal, S J

    1999-08-01

    Livestock kept or produced in smallholder farming systems are an important component of the agricultural economy in the developing world. The role of livestock on smallholder farms varies widely, providing draught power for crop production or as a production activity for subsistence needs or market sale under systems ranging from extensive pastoralist to intensive, peri-urban feeder and dairy systems. A set of unique conditions and features characterise smallholder systems, and these need to be appreciated when assessing the strategies that have evolved for managing animal health in smallholder systems, and evaluating opportunities for improving disease control strategies. To provide a framework for discussing animal health issues and analytical methodogies, a typology of smallholder livestock and crop/livestock systems is developed. The typology considers livestock systems both in terms of the degree of intensification, as measured by market orientation and intensity of factor use, and in terms of importance within the household economy, as measured by contribution to household income. A number of characteristics are identified that distinguish smallholder systems from the commercialised systems of developed countries, including the multiple functions livestock serve, the integrated nature of livestock activities, multiple objectives of producers and lower capacity to bear risk at the household level, as well as poor infrastructure, markets, and access to information at the community level. Three representative smallholder livestock systems from Africa are described in detail, highlighting the relevant characteristics and the implications for analysing disease control strategies. Smallholder dairy systems in Kenya demonstrate the role of individual producer decision-making for animal health management in intensive, market-oriented systems, placing emphasis on farm-level risk and production management aspects of disease control. In extensive pastoralist systems

  18. Simulation of cow-calf production systems in a range environment: I. Model development.

    PubMed

    Tess, M W; Kolstad, B W

    2000-05-01

    A mathematical computer model of beef cattle production systems was developed at Montana State University. The objective of this report was to describe the rationale and procedures used to simulate animal and system performance. The model was designed to simulate the dynamic relationships among cattle genotype, physiological state, forage quality, and management in range environments. Forage intake, energy and protein metabolism, growth, reproduction, lactation, and changes in chemical body composition are simulated for individual animals over complete life cycles. Expenses driven by animal performance, management decisions, and land resources are tabulated. Several biological and economic measures of system performance can be computed, including ratios of inputs (e.g., DM, CP, ME, dollars) to outputs (e.g., weight, lean), break even prices, and annual gross margin per cow or ranch. Primary uses of the model include the evaluation of system responses to changes in breeding strategies and management in range production/marketing systems.

  19. Development and application of risk management system for consumer products in compliance with global harmonization.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Bin; Ahn, Il Young; Cho, Keun Tae; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to the wide variety of chemicals used for manufacturing consumer products commonly occurs daily and the consequences to health are beneficial. However, some of these products are hazardous and exert deleterious effects on humans and the ecosystem. To protect consumers from exposure to hazardous chemicals, appropriate risk management systems are needed. Developed countries such as the United States and Canada have developed their own risk management systems for regulating hazardous agents. However, the risk management systems prepared by developed countries may not be readily applicable to developing or underdeveloped countries because of certain economic, political, cultural, or social factors in each country. In general, a risk management framework includes evaluation components of risk assessment, risk confrontation, risk intervention, risk communication, and risk management, but these may differ in specifics. The European Commission (EC) requires a socioeconomic analysis for formulating restrictions suggested by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The EC has an early warning system for safety management termed the Rapid Alert System (RAPEX). Korea, Australia, and Japan also developed integrated network systems for risk management of consumer products. Monitoring entails the collection of information and evaluation. The risk assessment process includes scientific evaluation of potential adverse health effects. Risk communication tasks are to (1) identify stakeholders, (2) develop stakeholder analysis, (3) assess stakeholder acceptability, (4) consult with stakeholders, (5) inform stakeholders about their options, (6) evaluate control options, and (7) monitor changing issues. The risk management process involves weighing policy options and selecting regulatory options. The decision-making step is related to the determination of governmental or voluntary actions. This review examines the critical points of risk management system in Korea to effectively

  20. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology can reduce attrition and improve productivity in pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    Leil, Tarek A; Bertz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The empirical hypothesis generation and testing approach to pharmaceutical research and development (R&D), and biomedical research has proven very effective over the last half-century; resulting in tremendous increases productivity and the rates of approval for new drug applications at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, as discovery of new therapeutic approaches for diseases with unmet medical need becomes more challenging, the productivity and efficiency of the traditional approach to drug discovery and development is diminishing. Innovative approaches are needed, such as those offered by Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) modeling and simulation. This "systems" approach to modeling and simulation can be used to guide the hypothesis generation and testing process in pharmaceutical R&D, in a manner similar to its adoption in other industries in the past. Embedding QSP into the existing processes within pharmaceutical discovery and development will be required in order to realize the full beneficial impact of this innovative approach.

  1. Development of a Safety Monitoring and Assurance System for chilled food products.

    PubMed

    Koutsoumanis, K; Taoukis, P S; Nychas, G J E

    2005-04-15

    The principles of a novel chill chain management policy, coded Safety Monitoring and Assurance System (SMAS) for the optimisation of the distribution of chilled food products within the chill chain are developed. In this system, a new approach based on actual risk evaluation at important points of the chill chain is used in order to promote products to the next stage of distribution. This evaluation based on product's time-temperature history, variation in product's characteristics (e.g. a(w), pH, etc.), and the use of predictive models for the growth of food pathogens, allows to give priority to products in such a way that risk at consumption time is minimized. The effectiveness of SMAS was evaluated against the First In First Out (FIFO) approach, the current method for food distribution, in a case study on the risk of listeriosis of cooked ham using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Furthermore, the two approaches were compared for their effect on the quality of the products in terms of remaining shelf life at the time of consumption. The results showed that following the SMAS approach the risk of listerisosis is significantly lower while the spoiled products at the time of consumption are significantly reduced compared to FIFO approach.

  2. Development of a Nuclear Hydrogen Production System by Dimethyl Ether (DME) Steam Reforming and Related Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Oota, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kazuya; Makino, Shinichi; Yagyu, Motoshige; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Asayama, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takashi; Yoshino, Masato

    Targeting a hydrogen production system using heat produced by a nuclear reactor at about 300°C, we are developing a dimethyl ether (DME) steam reformer and hydrogen purification systems as well as catalysts for DME reforming. The use of heat from a nuclear reactor suppresses the CO2 concentration change in the atmosphere. In our developments, a catalyst, consisting of mixed oxides, produced hydrogen at a rate of about 1.9 Nm3/h per catalyst volume (m3) at about 300°C. Subsequently, the DME steam reformer achieved a hydrogen production rate of approximately, at least, 1.4 Nm3/h at about 300°C, by absorbing heat from the supplied steam. The aforementioned hydrogen production system via DME steam reforming is to be demonstrated using a thermal power plant. DME steam reforming by using waste heat and the utilization of the produced hydrogen within a combined cycle power plant can reduce fuel consumption, for instance, by about 17% compared to the case of direct DME combustion. The total system, with the use of DME, was compared with the methane case. If necessary, the byproduced CO2 may be injected into coal seams, increasing CH4 production via the substitution of CO2 for CH4 on coal, where CO2 adsorption is expected to be stronger than the CH4 adsorption.

  3. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  4. Development of GRAS strains for nutraceutical production using systems and synthetic biology approaches: advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Guan, Ningzi; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Nutraceuticals are food substances with medical and health benefits for humans. Limited by complicated procedures, high cost, low yield, insufficient raw materials, resource waste, and environment pollution, chemical synthesis and extraction are being replaced by microbial synthesis of nutraceuticals. Many microbial strains that are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) have been identified and developed for the synthesis of nutraceuticals, and significant nutraceutical production by these strains has been achieved. In this review, we systematically summarize recent advances in nutraceutical research in terms of physiological effects on health, potential applications, drawbacks of traditional production processes, characteristics of production strains, and progress in microbial fermentation. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology techniques have enabled comprehensive understanding of GRAS strains and its wider applications. Thus, these microbial strains are promising cell factories for the commercial production of nutraceuticals.

  5. Development of a New Thermochemical and Electrolytic Hybrid Hydrogen Production System for Sodium Cooled FBR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagiri, Toshio; Kase, Takeshi; Kato, Shoichi; Aoto, Kazumi

    A new thermo-chemical and electrolytic hybrid hydrogen production system in lower temperature range is newly proposed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JAEA) to realize the hydrogen production from water by using the heat generation of sodium cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). The system is based on sulfuric acid (H2SO4) synthesis and decomposition process developed earlier (Westinghouse process), and sulfur trioxide (SO3) decomposition process is facilitated by electrolysis with ionic oxygen conductive solid electrolyte to reduce the operation temperature 200-300°C lower than Westinghouse process. SO3 decomposition with the voltage lower than 0.5V was confirmed in the temperature range of 500 to 600°C and theoretical thermal efficiency of the system evaluated based on chemical reactions was within the range of 35% to 55% under the influence of H2SO4 concentration and heat recovery. Furthermore, hydrogen production experiments to substantiate the whole process were performed. Stable hydrogen and oxygen production were observed in the experiments, and maximum duration of the experiments was about 5 hours.

  6. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August--October, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The objective of Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. A secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS. During this report period, the following tasks were completed: Market study; System definition and analysis; and Integrated program plans. Progress on Task 8, Design and Test of Critical Components, is also discussed. This particular task includes expanded materials and component research covering recuperators, combustion, autothermal fuel reformation, ceramics application and advanced gas turbine system controls.

  7. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology can reduce attrition and improve productivity in pharmaceutical research and development

    PubMed Central

    Leil, Tarek A.; Bertz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The empirical hypothesis generation and testing approach to pharmaceutical research and development (R&D), and biomedical research has proven very effective over the last half-century; resulting in tremendous increases productivity and the rates of approval for new drug applications at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, as discovery of new therapeutic approaches for diseases with unmet medical need becomes more challenging, the productivity and efficiency of the traditional approach to drug discovery and development is diminishing. Innovative approaches are needed, such as those offered by Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) modeling and simulation. This “systems” approach to modeling and simulation can be used to guide the hypothesis generation and testing process in pharmaceutical R&D, in a manner similar to its adoption in other industries in the past. Embedding QSP into the existing processes within pharmaceutical discovery and development will be required in order to realize the full beneficial impact of this innovative approach. PMID:25426074

  8. Advanced Turbine Systems Program, Conceptual Design and Product Development. Task 6, System definition and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The strategy of the ATS program is to develop a new baseline for industrial gas turbine systems for the 21st century, meeting the buying criteria of industrial gas turbine end users, and having growth potential. These criteria guided the Solar ATS Team in selecting the system definition described in this Topical Report. The key to selecting the ATS system definition was meeting or exceeding each technical goal without negatively impacting other commercial goals. Among the most crucial goals are the buying criteria of the industrial gas turbine market. Solar started by preliminarily considering several cycles with the potential to meet ATS program goals. These candidates were initially narrowed based on a qualitative assessment of several factors such as the potential for meeting program goals and for future growth; the probability of successful demonstration within the program`s schedule and expected level of funding; and the appropriateness of the cycle in light of end users` buying criteria. A first level Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis then translated customer needs into functional requirements, and ensured favorable interaction between concept features. Based on this analysis, Solar selected a recuperated cycle as the best approach to fulfilling both D.O.E. and Solar marketing goals. This report details the design and analysis of the selected engine concept, and explains how advanced features of system components achieve program goals. Estimates of cost, performance, emissions and RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability) are also documented in this report.

  9. Advanced Turbine Systems Program -- Conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The objective of Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. A secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS. This quarterly report, addresses only Task 4, conversion of a gas turbine to a coal-fired gas turbine, which was completed during the quarter and the nine subtasks included in Task 8, design and test of critical components. These nine subtasks address six ATS technologies as follows: catalytic combustion; recuperator; autothermal fuel reformer; high temperature turbine disc; advanced control system (MMI); and ceramic materials.

  10. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1994--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes the tasks completed under this project during the period from August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1994. The objective of the study is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. The tasks completed include a market study for the advanced turbine system; definition of an optimized recuperated gas turbine as the prime mover meeting the requirements of the market study and whose characteristics were, in turn, used for forecasting the total advanced turbine system (ATS) future demand; development of a program plan for bringing the ATS to a state of readiness for field test; and demonstration of the primary surface recuperator ability to provide the high thermal effectiveness and low pressure loss required to support the proposed ATS cycle.

  11. Integrating ergonomics into production system development--the Volvo Powertrain case.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W Patrick; Ekman, Marianne; Winkel, Jørgen

    2009-05-01

    Understanding the barriers and assists to integrating ergonomics into production system design remains a research issue. An action research case study at Volvo Powertrain/Sweden was conducted. Researchers worked collaboratively with the firm in efforts to improve the company's ability to handle ergonomics in their daily work of improving and developing production systems. Researchers observed and reflected collectively on the change process using field notes and recordings to support their observations. Observed integration barriers included both individual level issues like life events, and organisational aspects such as communication barriers between groups or assignment of tasks to people not involved in decision-making. Observed assists included the 'political reflective navigation' (c.f. Broberg, O., Hermund, I., 2004. The OHS consultant as a 'political reflective navigator' in technological change processes. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 33 (4), 315-326) by the project owner to find new ways to overcome barriers and anchor ergonomics into the organisation. While special 'ergonomics' groups did not survive long, progress was observed in including ergonomics in regular design groups. A cross-functional workshop that fostered discussion across organisational boundaries helped shift focus from retrofitting systems to future production systems and improve engagement of engineering teams. Progress was marked by both success and setbacks and full integration appears to require more than 2 years time. It is concluded that support by senior managers should include succession planning for personnel that are key to the change effort.

  12. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: implications of beef heifer development systems and lifetime productivity.

    PubMed

    Endecott, R L; Funston, R N; Mulliniks, J T; Roberts, A J

    2013-03-01

    Research emphasis has been placed on heifer development strategies in recent years, comparing traditional, more intensive systems to more extensive systems using less feed and relying on compensatory gain to reach a target BW. Recent research has indicated that developing heifers to a lighter target BW at breeding (i.e., 50 to 57% of mature BW compared with 60 to 65% BW) reduced development costs and did not impair reproductive performance. Research published through the late 1980s demonstrated greater negative effects of limited postweaning growth on age at puberty and pregnancy rates whereas more recent studies demonstrate less of a negative impact of delayed puberty on pregnancy rate. A limitation of most research concerning influences of nutrition on heifer development and cow reproductive performance is little or limited consideration of long-term implications. Longevity has relatively low heritability; therefore, heifer development and other management strategies have a greater potential to impact cow retention. Establishing the impact of heifer development protocols on longevity is complex, requiring consideration of nutritional factors after the start of breeding and through subsequent calvings. Lower-input heifer development, where all heifers are managed together after the postweaning period, did not impair rebreeding, but continued subsequent restriction in the form of marginal winter supplementation resulted in decreased retention in the breeding herd. Therefore, the compensatory BW gain period for restricted-growth heifers may be important to longevity and lifetime productivity. Adequate growth and development to ensure minimal calving difficulty can be of critical importance for longevity; however, providing additional supplemental feed during postweaning development to accomplish this may be less efficient than later in development. Restricting gain during postweaning development by limiting DMI or developing heifers on dormant winter forage resulted

  13. Towards cell-free isobutanol production: Development of a novel immobilized enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Joseph; Collins, Cynthia H; Belfort, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Producing fuels and chemical intermediates with cell cultures is severely limited by low product concentrations (≤0.2%(v/v)) due to feedback inhibition, cell instability, and lack of economical product recovery processes. We have developed an alternate simplified production scheme based on a cell-free immobilized enzyme system. Two immobilized enzymes (keto-acid decarboxylase (KdcA) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)) and one enzyme in solution (formate dehydrogenase (FDH) for NADH recycle) produced isobutanol titers 8 to 20 times higher than the highest reported titers with S. cerevisiae on a mol/mol basis. These high conversion rates and low protein leaching were achieved by covalent immobilization of enzymes (ADH) and enzyme fusions (fKdcA) on methacrylate resin. The new enzyme system without in situ removal of isobutanol achieved a 55% conversion of ketoisovaleric acid to isobutanol at a concentration of 0.135 (mole isobutanol produced for each mole ketoisovaleric acid consumed). Further increasing titer will require continuous removal of the isobutanol using an in situ recovery system.

  14. Horizon: The Portable, Scalable, and Reusable Framework for Developing Automated Data Management and Product Generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Alarcon, C.; Quach, N. T.

    2014-12-01

    Capture, curate, and analysis are the typical activities performed at any given Earth Science data center. Modern data management systems must be adaptable to heterogeneous science data formats, scalable to meet the mission's quality of service requirements, and able to manage the life-cycle of any given science data product. Designing a scalable data management doesn't happen overnight. It takes countless hours of refining, refactoring, retesting, and re-architecting. The Horizon data management and workflow framework, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a portable, scalable, and reusable framework for developing high-performance data management and product generation workflow systems to automate data capturing, data curation, and data analysis activities. The NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)'s Data Management and Archive System (DMAS) is its core data infrastructure that handles capturing and distribution of hundreds of thousands of satellite observations each day around the clock. DMAS is an application of the Horizon framework. The NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)'s solution for making high-resolution global imageries available to the science communities. The Imagery Exchange (TIE), an application of the Horizon framework, is a core subsystem for GIBS responsible for data capturing and imagery generation automation to support the EOSDIS' 12 distributed active archive centers and 17 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). This presentation discusses our ongoing effort in refining, refactoring, retesting, and re-architecting the Horizon framework to enable data-intensive science and its applications.

  15. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Enedy

    2001-12-14

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant.

  16. Advanced turbine systems program--conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, November 1994--January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Research continued in the design and development of advanced gas turbine systems. This report presents progress towards turbine blade development, diffuser development, combustion noise investigations,catalytic combustion development, and diagnostic probe development.

  17. Development of Energy Models for Production Systems and Processes to Inform Environmentally Benign Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Elsayed, Nancy

    Between 2008 and 2035 global energy demand is expected to grow by 53%. While most industry-level analyses of manufacturing in the United States (U.S.) have traditionally focused on high energy consumers such as the petroleum, chemical, paper, primary metal, and food sectors, the remaining sectors account for the majority of establishments in the U.S. Specifically, of the establishments participating in the Energy Information Administration's Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey in 2006, the non-energy intensive" sectors still consumed 4*109 GJ of energy, i.e., one-quarter of the energy consumed by the manufacturing sectors, which is enough to power 98 million homes for a year. The increasing use of renewable energy sources and the introduction of energy-efficient technologies in manufacturing operations support the advancement towards a cleaner future, but having a good understanding of how the systems and processes function can reduce the environmental burden even further. To facilitate this, methods are developed to model the energy of manufacturing across three hierarchical levels: production equipment, factory operations, and industry; these methods are used to accurately assess the current state and provide effective recommendations to further reduce energy consumption. First, the energy consumption of production equipment is characterized to provide machine operators and product designers with viable methods to estimate the environmental impact of the manufacturing phase of a product. The energy model of production equipment is tested and found to have an average accuracy of 97% for a product requiring machining with a variable material removal rate profile. However, changing the use of production equipment alone will not result in an optimal solution since machines are part of a larger system. Which machines to use, how to schedule production runs while accounting for idle time, the design of the factory layout to facilitate production, and even the

  18. Development of an efficient algal H{sub 2}-production system

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, M.L.; Flynn, T.; Forestier, M.; Seibert, M.

    1998-08-01

    Two major problems facing the development of a commercial photobiological algal H{sub 2}-producing system are the low rates of H{sub 2} evolution and the sensitivity of the H{sub 2}-evolving enzyme system to O{sub 2}, a by-product of the photosynthetic water-splitting process. The objective of this project is to generate O{sub 2}-tolerant mutants from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that are high producers of H{sub 2} for use in a photobiological water-splitting, H{sub 2}-producing system that is cost effective, renewable, scalable, and non-polluting. The authors are currently employing a dual approach to address the O{sub 2}-sensitivity problem. The first approach, based on classical mutagenesis and selection procedures, depends on the ability of a mutagenized population of algal cells to survive under conditions that require them to either produce (H{sub 2}-production selection) or consume (photoreductive selection) H{sub 2} in the presence of controlled amounts of O{sub 2}. The second approach, based on molecular genetic strategies, involves the cloning of the hydrogenase gene from C. reinhardtii and identification of expression factors required for optimal H{sub 2}-evolution activity. The latter approach will complement the first in the future goal of generating a commercial organism suitable for use in the private sector.

  19. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1993--July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Yearly Technical Progress Report covers the period August 3, 1993 through July 31, 1994 for Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program by Solar Turbines Incorporated under DOE Contract No. DE-AC421-93MC30246. As allowed by the Contract (Part 3, Section J, Attachment B) this report is also intended to fulfill the requirements for a fourth quarterly report. The objective of Phase 2 of the ATS Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized in the year 2000. During the period covered by this report, Solar has completed three of eight program tasks and has submitted topical reports. These three tasks included a Project Plan submission of information required by NEPA, and the selection of a Gas-Fueled Advanced Turbine System (GFATS). In the latest of the three tasks, Solar`s Engineering team identified an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine as the eventual outcome of DOE`s ATS program coupled with Solar`s internal New Product Introduction (NPI) program. This machine, designated ``ATS50`` will operate at a thermal efficiency (turbine shaft power/fuel LHV) of 50 percent, will emit less than 10 parts per million of NOx and will reduce the cost of electricity by 10 percent. It will also demonstrate levels of reliability, availability, maintainability, and durability (RAMD) equal to or better than those of today`s gas turbine systems. Current activity is concentrated in three of the remaining five tasks a Market Study, GFATS System Definition and Analysis, and the Design and Test of Critical Components.

  20. Development of an advanced multimode automatic ultrasonic texture measurement system for laboratory and production line application.

    PubMed

    Potter, M D G; Dixon, S; Morrison, J P; Suliamann, A S

    2006-12-22

    We present work on the development of an ultrasonic texture measurement system for sheet metals using non-contact transducers, suitable for use both in the laboratory and on the production line. Variation of the velocity of the zero-order symmetric (S0) Lamb wave is used to determine the crystallographic texture of polycrystalline metal sheets ranging in thickness from 0.1 to 3 mm. This system features improvements on previous state-of-the-art ultrasonic technology in that it probes velocity over a continuous range of angles using only two electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). This is demonstrated to offer a significant improvement in accuracy and allows the detection and investigation of asymmetric anisotropies in the sheets. Another advantage of the system is its potential for combining several different measurements using a single pair of transducers. The capability is demonstrated for through-thickness shear wave measurements as well as the zero-order symmetric Lamb wave measurements which are the primary means of determining the texture. The change between generating Lamb and through-thickness bulk waves can be made entirely by changing the electrical circuit connected to the EMATs without modifying the transducer assembly in any way. Measurement of all of the above waves can provide information on the sheet thickness and other physical properties of the sheet in addition to texture. Certain texture parameters can be calculated from both Lamb and shear wave velocities, allowing self-calibration of the system.

  1. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  2. Systems biology of yeast: enabling technology for development of cell factories for production of advanced biofuels.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Transportation fuels will gradually shift from oil based fuels towards alternative fuel resources like biofuels. Current bioethanol and biodiesel can, however, not cover the increasing demand for biofuels and there is therefore a need for advanced biofuels with superior fuel properties. Novel cell factories will provide a production platform for advanced biofuels. However, deep cellular understanding is required for improvement of current biofuel cell factories. Fast screening and analysis (-omics) methods and metabolome-wide mathematical models are promising techniques. An integrated systems approach of these techniques drives diversity and quantity of several new biofuel compounds. This review will cover the recent technological developments that support improvement of the advanced biofuels 1-butanol, biodiesels and jetfuels.

  3. Advanced turbine systems program -- Conceptual design and product development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-26

    This Final Technical Report presents the accomplishments on Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS). The ATS is an advanced, natural gas fired gas turbine system that will represent a major advance on currently available industrial gas turbines in the size range of 1--20 MW. This report covers a market-driven development. The Market Survey reported in Section 5 identified the customer`s performance needs. This market survey used analyses performed by Solar turbine Incorporated backed up by the analyses done by two consultants, Research Decision Consultants (RDC) and Onsite Energy Corporation (Onsite). This back-up was important because it is the belief of all parties that growth of the ATS will depend both on continued participation in Solar`s traditional oil and gas market but to a major extent on a new market. This new market is distributed electrical power generation. Difficult decisions have had to be made to meet the different demands of the two markets. Available resources, reasonable development schedules, avoidance of schedule or technology failures, probable acceptance by the marketplace, plus product cost, performance and environmental friendliness are a few of the complex factors influencing the selection of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System described in Section 3. Section 4 entitled ``Conversion to Coal`` was a task which addresses the possibility of a future interruption to an economic supply of natural gas. System definition and analysis is covered in Section 6. Two major objectives were met by this work. The first was identification of those critical technologies that can support overall attainment of the program goals. Separate technology or component programs were begun to identify and parameterize these technologies and are described in Section 7. The second objective was to prepare parametric analyses to assess performance sensitivity to operating variables and to select design approaches to meet the overall program goals.

  4. Ongoing development of dryland oilseed production systems in the northwestern region of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report addresses the development of dryland oilseed crops to provide feedstock for production of biofuels in semiarid portions of the northwestern United States. Bioenergy feedstocks derived from Brassica oilseed crops have been considered for production of hydrotreated renewable jet fuel, but...

  5. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the tasks completed for the advanced turbine systems program. The topics of the report include last row turbine blade development, single crystal blade casting development, ceramic materials development, combustion cylinder flow mapping, shroud film cooling, directional solidified valve development, shrouded blade cooling, closed-loop steam cooling, active tip clearance control, flow visualization tests, combustion noise investigation, TBC field testing, catalytic combustion development, optical diagnostics probe development, serpentine channel cooling tests, brush seal development, high efficiency compressor design, advanced air sealing development, advanced coating development, single crystal blade development, Ni-based disc forging development, and steam cooling effects on materials.

  6. Development of an Advanced Stimulation / Production Predictive Simulator for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, John W.

    2015-04-15

    projects, not just software designers. It is hoped that, as a result, HeatEx will prove useful during the early stages of the development of EGS technology. The basic objective was to design a tool that could use field data that are likely to become available during the early phases of an EGS project (that is, during initial reconnaissance and fracture stimulation operations) to guide forecasts of the longer-term behavior of the system during production and heat-mining.

  7. Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

  8. Development of optimal enzymatic and microbial conversion systems for biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramrueang, Natthiporn

    The increase in demand for fuels, along with the concerns over the depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental problems associated with the use of the petroleum-based fuels, has driven the exploitation of clean and renewable energy. Through a collaboration project with Mendota Bioenergy LLC to produce advanced biofuel from sugar beet and other locally grown crops in the Central Valley of California through demonstration and commercial-scale biorefineries, the present study focused on the investigation of selected potential biomass as biofuel feedstock and development of bioconversion systems for sustainable biofuel production. For an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, three important steps, which are central to this research, must be considered: feedstock characterization, enzymatic hydrolysis of the feedstock, and the bioconversion process. The first part of the research focused on the characterization of various lignocellulosic biomass as feedstocks and investigated their potential ethanol yields. Physical characteristics and chemical composition were analyzed for four sugar beet varieties, three melon varieties, tomato, Jose tall wheatgrass, wheat hay, and wheat straw. Melons and tomato are those products discarded by the growers or processors due to poor quality. The mass-based ethanol potential of each feedstock was determined based on the composition. The high sugar-containing feedstocks are sugar beet roots, melons, and tomato, containing 72%, 63%, and 42% average soluble sugars on a dry basis, respectively. Thus, for these crops, the soluble sugars are the main substrate for ethanol production. The potential ethanol yields, on average, for sugar beet roots, melons, and tomato are 591, 526, and 448 L ethanol/metric ton dry basis (d.b.), respectively. Lignocellulosic biomass, including Jose Tall wheatgrass and wheat straw, are composed primarily of cellulose (27-39% d.b.) and hemicellulose (26-30% d.b.). The ethanol yields from these

  9. Developing ratings for food products: lessons learned from media rating systems.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Dale; McKinley, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Children regularly consume low-nutrient, high-calorie food that is not consistent with a healthful diet, contributing to an increasing epidemic of overweight and obesity. Among the multiple causes of this problem is the food industry's emphasis on marketing calorie-dense food products to children. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended that industry adopt a uniform system of simplified food ratings to convey the nutritional qualities of food in a manner that is understandable and appealing to children and youth. This report analyzes the need for such a system in a food marketing environment that increasingly identifies healthful products for the consumer in inconsistent fashion. It considers evidence regarding current usage of food labeling and draws parallels with media rating systems in discussing the prospects for a uniform food rating system that would accomplish the IOM's objective.

  10. Gas and liquid fuel system test facilities for research, development, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, L.

    1995-09-01

    Meeting the challenges associated with the support of both mature product lines and new high flow, high accuracy DLE (dry low emissions) control valves and systems has been complex. This paper deals with the design and capabilities of the gas and liquid test facility at the Woodward Governor Company Turbomachinery Controls in Loveland, Colorado.

  11. The development of optical fringe measurement system integrated with a CMM for products inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2010-11-01

    In the field of industrial product inspection, a CMM (Coordinate Measurement Machine) is indispensable to get high precise dimensions, and it is tedious to inspect a complex shape by manual. For many products, high precise dimensions are only needed on some special features, such as cylinders, holes, and plans. In this paper, an optical fringe measurement system is implemented based on Gray code, and a Canon DSL camera with high resolution is adopted to capture the projection patterns and the coded markers glued on the CMM. The range images from the optical measurement system are automatically aligned with the CMM coordinate system through the coded markers. A greedy feature fitting algorithm is used to processing the obtained points cloud, and the special features are extracted, which are used to direct the CMM to obtain more precise parameters. In this integration system, the whole inspection procedure is automated regardless of the existence of the CAD model of the product. The data from different sensors are fused together by an overlap patch algorithm. As a result, the full surface is scanned, and the necessary precision is guaranteed on some special locations. The design principle and workflow of the integration method are presented, and a detail example is given.

  12. Development of a Low Input and sustainable Switchgrass Feedstock Production System Utilizing Beneficial Bacterial Endophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Chuansheng; Nowak, Jerzy; Seiler, John

    2014-10-24

    Switchgrass represents a promising feedstock crop for US energy sustainability. However, its broad utilization for bioenergy requires improvements of biomass yields and stress tolerance. In this DOE funded project, we have been working on harnessing beneficial bacterial endophytes to enhance switchgrass performance and to develop a low input feedstock production system for marginal lands that do not compete with the production of food crops. We have demonstrated that one of most promising plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize roots and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, greenhouse, as well as field conditions. Furthermore, PsJN bacterization improved growth and development of switchgrass seedlings, significantly stimulated plant root and shoot growth, and tiller number in the field, and enhanced biomass accumulation on both poor (p<0.001) and rich (p<0.05) soils, with more effective stimulation of plant growth in low fertility soil. Plant physiology measurements showed that PsJN inoculated Alamo had consistently lower transpiration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher water use efficiency in greenhouse conditions. These physiological changes may significantly contribute to the recorded growth enhancement. PsJN inoculation rapidly results in an increase in photosynthetic rates which contributes to the advanced growth and development. Some evidence suggests that this initial growth advantage decreases with time when resources are not limited such as in greenhouse studies. Additionally, better drought resistance and drought hardening were observed in PsJN inoculated switchgrass. Using the DOE-funded switchgrass EST microarray, in a collaboration with the Genomics Core Facility at the Noble Foundation, we have determined gene expression profile changes in both responsive switchgrass cv. Alamo and non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock (CR) following Ps

  13. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439.

    PubMed

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B; Melançon, Charles E

    2016-02-19

    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development.

  14. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B.; Melançon, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally-derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development. PMID:26562751

  15. Development of a Salmonella cross-protective vaccine for food animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Heithoff, Douglas M; House, John K; Thomson, Peter C; Mahan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is associated with increased Salmonella exposure, transmission, animal disease, and contamination of food and water supplies. Modified live Salmonella enterica vaccines that lack a functional DNA adenine methylase (Dam) confer cross-protection to a diversity of salmonellae in experimental models of murine, avian, ovine, and bovine models of salmonellosis. However, the commercial success of any vaccine is dependent upon the therapeutic index, the ratio of safety/efficacy. Herein, secondary virulence-attenuating mutations targeted to genes involved in intracellular and/or systemic survival were introduced into Salmonella dam vaccines to screen for vaccine candidates that were safe in the animal and the environment, while maintaining the capacity to confer cross-protective immunity to pathogenic salmonellae serotypes. Salmonella dam mgtC, dam sifA, and dam spvB vaccine strains exhibited significantly improved vaccine safety as evidenced by the failure to give rise to virulent revertants during the infective process, contrary to the parental Salmonella dam vaccine. Further, these vaccines exhibited a low grade persistence in host tissues that was associated with reduced vaccine shedding, reduced environmental persistence, and induction of cross-protective immunity to pathogenic serotypes derived from infected livestock. These data indicate that Salmonella dam double mutant vaccines are suitable for commercial applications against salmonellosis in livestock production systems. Reducing pre-harvest salmonellae load through vaccination will promote the health and productivity of livestock and reduce contamination of livestock-derived food products, while enhancing overall food safety.

  16. Embedding 'speaking up' into systems for safe healthcare product development and marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian; Hugman, Bruce; Tobin, Mary; Whalen, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    Robust, active cooperation, and effective, open communication between all stakeholders is essential for ensuring regulatory compliance and healthcare product safety; avoiding the necessity for whistle-blowing; and, most essentially, meeting the transparency requirements of public trust.The focus here is on what can be done within a healthcare product organization (HPO) to achieve actionable, sustainable policies and practices such as leadership, management, and supervision role-modelling of best practice; ongoing process review and improvements in every department; protection of those who report concerns through robust policies endorsed at Board level throughout an organization to eliminate the fear of retaliation; training in open, non-defensive team-working principles; and mediation structure and process for resolution of differences of opinion or interpretation of contradictory and volatile data.Based on analyses of other safety systems, workplace silence and interpersonal breakdowns are warning signs of defective systems underlying poor compliance and compromising safety. Remedying the situation requires attention to the root causes underlying such symptoms of dysfunction, especially the human factor, i.e. those factors that influence human performance. It is essential that leadership and management listen to employees' concerns about systems and processes, assess them impartially and reward contributions that improve safety.Fundamentally, the safety, transparency, and trustworthiness of HPOs, both commercial and regulatory, can be judged by the extent of the freedom of their staff to 'speak up' when the time is right. This, in turn, consolidates the trust of external stakeholders in the safety of a system and its products. The promotion of 'speaking up' in an organization provides an important safeguard against the risk of poor compliance and the undermining of societal confidence in the safety of healthcare products.

  17. Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    GE has achieved a leadership position in the worldwide gas turbine industry in both industrial/utility markets and in aircraft engines. This design and manufacturing base plus their close contact with the users provides the technology for creation of the next generation advanced power generation systems for both the industrial and utility industries. GE has been active in the definition of advanced turbine systems for several years. These systems will leverage the technology from the latest developments in the entire GE gas turbine product line. These products will be USA based in engineering and manufacturing and are marketed through the GE Industrial and Power Systems. Achieving the advanced turbine system goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NO{sub x} and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coating and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompasses two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined cycle system for the industrial market and a combined cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine.

  18. Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, September, 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    GE has achieved a leadership position in the worldwide gas turbine industry in both industrial/utility markets and in aircraft engines. This design and manufacturing base plus our close contact with the users provides the technology for creation of the next generation advanced power generation systems for both the industrial and utility industries. GE has been active in the definition of advanced turbine systems for several years. These systems will leverage the technology from the latest developments in the entire GE gas turbine product line. These products will be USA-based in engineering and manufacturing and are marketed through GE Power Systems. Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NOx, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both the efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NOx emissions. Improved coatings and other materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions which will achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine.

  19. Advanced turbine systems phase II - conceptual design and product development. Final report, August 1993--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The National Energy Strategy (NES) calls for a balanced program of greater energy efficiency, use of alternative fuels, and the environmentally responsible development of all U.S. energy resources. Consistent with the NES, a Department of Energy (DOE) program has been created to develop Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS). The technical ATS requirements are based upon two workshops held in Greenville, SC that were sponsored by DOE and hosted by Clemson University. The objective of this 8-year program, managed jointly by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, and, Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy, is to develop natural-gas-fired base load power plants that will have cycle efficiencies greater than 60%, lower heating value (LHV), be environmentally superior to current technology, and also be cost competitive. The program will include work to transfer advanced technology to the coal- and biomass-fueled systems being developed in other DOE programs.

  20. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  1. Breeding objectives for pigs in Kenya. I: bio-economic model development and application to smallholder production systems.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, Jackson M; Rewe, Thomas O; Kahi, Alexander K

    2015-02-01

    A deterministic bio-economic model was developed and applied to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterize smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Two pig production systems were considered namely, semi-intensive (SI) and extensive (EX). The input variables were categorized into biological variables including production and functional traits, nutritional variables, management variables and economic variables. The model factored the various sow physiological systems including gestation, farrowing, lactation, growth and development. The model was developed to evaluate a farrow to finish operation, but the results were customized to account for a farrow to weaner operation for a comparative analysis. The operations were defined as semi-intensive farrow to finish (SIFF), semi-intensive farrow to weaner (SIFW), extensive farrow to finish (EXFF) and extensive farrow to weaner (EXFW). In SI, the profits were the highest at KES. 74,268.20 per sow per year for SIFF against KES. 4026.12 for SIFW. The corresponding profits for EX were KES. 925.25 and KES. 626.73. Feed costs contributed the major part of the total costs accounting for 67.0, 50.7, 60.5 and 44.5 % in the SIFF, SIFW, EXFF and EXFW operations, respectively. The bio-economic model developed could be extended with modifications for use in deriving economic values for breeding goal traits for pigs under smallholder production systems in other parts of the tropics.

  2. Development of a sensor and control system for the production of titanium matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Berzins, L.V.; McClelland, M.A.; Anklam, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    Titanium matrix composites promise to dramatically increase the thrust-to-weight ratio of gas turbine engines. Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) is ideal for coating fibers if issues with composition control can be worked out. LLNL is developing a control system based on Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DLAS) for the deposition of titanium orthorhombic alloys. In this paper, the important features and components of a DLAS control system are reviewed and a methodology for selecting the appropriate atomic transitions is described. Data characterizing the diagnostic performance as well as information on potential control strategies is presented. Finally, applications of this diagnostic to other alloy systems are discussed.

  3. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology. PMID:27274814

  4. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1994--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    Objective of the ATS program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive gas turbine systems for base-load application in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. This report discusses the major accomplishments achieved during the second year of the ATS Phase 2 program, particularly the design and test of critical components.

  5. Strategic system development toward biofuel, desertification, and crop production monitoring in continental scales using satellite-based photosynthesis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2013-10-01

    The author regards fundamental root functions as underpinning photosynthesis activities by vegetation and as affecting environmental issues, grain production, and desertification. This paper describes the present development of monitoring and near real-time forecasting of environmental projects and crop production by approaching established operational monitoring step-by-step. The author has been developing a thematic monitoring structure (named RSEM system) which stands on satellite-based photosynthesis models over several continents for operational supports in environmental fields mentioned above. Validation methods stand not on FLUXNET but on carbon partitioning validation (CPV). The models demand continuing parameterization. The entire frame system has been built using Reanalysis meteorological data, but model accuracy remains insufficient except for that of paddy rice. The author shall accomplish the system that incorporates global environmental forces. Regarding crop production applications, industrialization in developing countries achieved through direct investment by economically developed nations raises their income, resulting in increased food demand. Last year, China began to import rice as it had in the past with grains of maize, wheat, and soybeans. Important agro-potential countries make efforts to cultivate new crop lands in South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Trends toward less food sustainability and stability are continuing, with exacerbation by rapid social and climate changes. Operational monitoring of carbon sequestration by herbaceous and bore plants converges with efforts at bio-energy, crop production monitoring, and socio-environmental projects such as CDM A/R, combating desertification, and bio-diversity.

  6. SHARP's systems engineering challenge: rectifying integrated product team requirements with performance issues in an evolutionary spiral development acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehl, C. Stephen

    2003-08-01

    Completing its final development and early deployment on the Navy's multi-role aircraft, the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet, the SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) provides the war fighter with the latest digital tactical reconnaissance (TAC Recce) Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor system. The SHARP program is an evolutionary acquisition that used a spiral development process across a prototype development phase tightly coupled into overlapping Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) and Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) phases. Under a tight budget environment with a highly compressed schedule, SHARP challenged traditional acquisition strategies and systems engineering (SE) processes. Adopting tailored state-of-the-art systems engineering process models allowd the SHARP program to overcome the technical knowledge transition challenges imposed by a compressed program schedule. The program's original goal was the deployment of digital TAC Recce mission capabilities to the fleet customer by summer of 2003. Hardware and software integration technical challenges resulted from requirements definition and analysis activities performed across a government-industry led Integrated Product Team (IPT) involving Navy engineering and test sites, Boeing, and RTSC-EPS (with its subcontracted hardware and government furnished equipment vendors). Requirements development from a bottoms-up approach was adopted using an electronic requirements capture environment to clarify and establish the SHARP EMD product baseline specifications as relevant technical data became available. Applying Earned-Value Management (EVM) against an Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) resulted in efficiently managing SE task assignments and product deliveries in a dynamically evolving customer requirements environment. Application of Six Sigma improvement methodologies resulted in the uncovering of root causes of errors in wiring interconnectivity drawings, pod manufacturing processes, and avionics

  7. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Achieving the advanced turbine system goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NOx emission. Improved costing and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy duty machines utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities require the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving Advanced Turbine System (ATS) goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS will be placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS will be placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS will be placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emissions combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE`s Industrial and Power Systems is solely responsible for offering Ge products for the industrial and utility markets. The GE ATS program will be managed fully by this organization with core engine technology being supplied by GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and fundamental studies supporting both product developments being conducted by GE Corporate Research and Development (CRD).

  8. Research and development of shallow algal mass culture systems for the production of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1984-10-01

    The major accomplishment of the past nine months' work was the identification of a microalgal species which can be grown in the system on a 12-month basis without temperature control. The most promising species identified to date is a strain of platymonas sp. This strain grows rapidly at temperatures from 20/sup 0/ to 34/sup 0/C, and at salinities from 1.5 to 3.5%. Neither the lower temperature limit nor the lower salinity limit of the strain are known at this time. A factorial experiment designed to determine optimum growth conditions indicated that the optimum culture depth was 10 cm, the optimum pH about 7.5, and the optimum flow rate about 30 cm/s. A major discovery was that diluting the culture every third day greatly enhanced production. In this dilution mode daily yields averaged 46 g/m/sup 2/ ash-free dry weight (AFDW) over a one-month period, and photosynthetic efficiencies averaged 11% (based on visible light energy). The former figure is over twice the best long-term yields achieved in microalgal mass culture systems grown exclusively on inorganic nutrients.

  9. Constraint analysis to improve integrated dairy production systems in developing countries: the importance of participatory rural appraisal.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity.

  10. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  11. Development of biobased products.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Research conducted over the past seven years by the biotechnology byproducts consortium (BBC) addresses its mission to investigate the opportunities to add value to agricultural products, byproducts and coproducts and to manage the wastewater arising from agribusinesses in an environmentally favorable way. Since a wide variety of research approaches have been taken, the results are collected in five topic groups: (1) bioremediation that includes anaerobic fermentations of wastes to produce methane and hydrogen, the genetics of methanogenesis and in situ remediation of contaminated aquifer systems, landfill leachates and industrial effluents; (2) land application of fermentation byproducts and their use in animal feeds; (3) biocatalytic studies of transformations of components of corn and soybean oils, peroxidases present in plant products, such as soybean hulls; (4) biochemical reactions for the production of de-icers from industrial water streams, biodiesel production from fats and greases, biodegradable plastics from polymerizable sugar derivatives, single cell foods derived from fungal growth on waste streams, and bacterial polysaccharides from Erwinia species; (5) separation and recovery of components by membrane technologies.

  12. System development and early biological tests in NASA's biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Dreschel, T. W.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Strayer, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center was constructed to conduct large scale plant growth studies for NASA's CELSS program. Over the past four years, physical systems and computer control software have been continually upgraded and the degree of atmospheric leakage from the chamber has decreased from about 40 to 5 percent of the total volume per day. Early tests conducted with a limited degree of closure showed that total crop (wheat) growth from the best trays was within 80 percent of reported optimal yields for similar light levels. Yields from subsequent tests under more tightly closed conditions have not been as good--up to only 65 percent of optimal yields. Yields appear to have decreased with increasing closure, yet potential problems exist in cultural techniques and further studies are warranted. With the ability to tightly seal the chamber, quantitative data were gathered on CO2 and water exchange rates. Results showed that stand photosynthesis and transpiration reached a peak near 25 days after planting, soon after full vegetative ground cover was established. In the final phase of testing when atmospheric closure was the highest, ethylene gas levels in the chamber rose from about 10 to nearly 120 ppb. Evidence suggests that the ethylene originated from the wheat plants themselves and may have caused an epinastic rolling of the leaves, but no apparent detrimental effects on whole plant function.

  13. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  14. Advanced Turbine Systems Program: Conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, February--April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, G.J.

    1994-06-01

    Objective (Phase II) is to develop an industrial gas turbine system to operate at a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50) with efficiency enhancements to be added as they become possible. During this quarter, Solar`s engine design team has refined both the 1- and 2-spool cycle concepts, to determine sensitivity to key component efficiencies, cooling air usage and origin, and location of compressor surge lines. The refined analysis included more detailed component work such as compressor and turbine design; different speed trade-offs for the low-and high-pressure compressor in the 1-spool configuration were examined for the best overall compressor efficiency. High-temperature and creep testing of recuperator candidate materials continued. Creep, yield, and proportional limit were measured for foil thicknesses 0.0030--0.0050 for Type 347 ss, Inconel 625, and Haynes 230. Combustor design work included preliminary layout of a multi-can annular combustor integrated into the main engine layout. During the subscale catalytic combustion rig testing, NOx emissions < 5 ppmv were measured. Integration of the engine concept designs into the full power plant system designs has started.

  15. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the overall program status of the General Electric Advanced Gas Turbine Development program, and reports progress on three main task areas. The program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70-MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology, utilizing a new air cooling methodology; and (2) a 200-MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy-duty machine, utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. The emphasis for the industrial system is placed on cycle design and low emission combustion. For the utility system, the focus is on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while achieving low emission combustion. The three tasks included in this progress report are on: conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system, integrated program plan, and design and test of critical components. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Product Line Systems Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Mellon University Product Line Systems Program Our mission: • create, mature, apply, and transition technology and practices • to effect... Technology Initiative) Predictable Software Construction (Predictable Assembly from Certifiable Code Initiative) Software Product Lines (Product...Presentation Software Architecture (Software Architecture Technology Initiative) Predictable Software Construction (Predictable Assembly from Certifiable

  17. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    GE has achieved a leadership position in the worldwide gas turbine industry in both industrial/utility markets and in aircraft engines. This design and manufacturing base plus our close contact with the users provides the technology for creation of the next generation advanced power generation systems for both the industrial and utility industries. GE has been active in the definition of advanced turbine systems for several years. These systems will leverage the technology from the latest developments in the entire GE gas turbine product line. These products will be USA based in engineering and manufacturing and are marketed through the GE Industrial and Power Systems. Achieving the advanced turbine system goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NOx emission. Improved coating and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal.

  18. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August 25--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    GE has achieved a leadership position in the worldwide gas turbine industry in both industrial/utility markets and in aircraft engines. This design and manufacturing base plus our close contact with the users provides the technology for creation of the next generation advanced power generation systems for both the industrial and utility industries. GE has been active in the definition of advanced turbine systems for several years. These systems will leverage the technology from the latest developments in the entire GE gas turbine product line. These products will be USA based in engineering and manufacturing and are marketed through the GE Industrial and Power Systems. Achieving the advanced turbine system goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NOx emission. Improved coating and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal.

  19. Exploring the potential of Product Service Systems to achieve household waste prevention on new housing developments in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gottberg, Annika; Longhurst, Philip J; Cook, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Product service systems (PSS) are cleaner product concepts which have been developed to achieve improvements in resource productivity which may be realized from modern trends in service delivery. However, there is a paucity of research on the waste prevention performance of PSS in UK household markets. This paper reports the findings of exploratory research which begins to address this gap in knowledge. An exploratory waste prevention assessment was completed on four experimental PSS which were developed in conjunction with a major UK house-builder for delivery on their new housing developments. The results of the assessment show that the selected PSS concepts have potential to prevent high value and harmful Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) arising in UK household waste streams. Consistent with the canon of exploratory research, the assessment also identifies a number of factors which are thought to influence PSS waste prevention performance. It is recognized that further research is needed to gain an in-depth understanding of these factors as well as to define policy measures which enable the conditions in which PSS prevent household waste on new housing developments in the UK to be created.

  20. Integrating novel data streams to support biosurveillance in commercial livestock production systems in developed countries: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gates, M Carolyn; Holmstrom, Lindsey K; Biggers, Keith E; Beckham, Tammy R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the burden of emerging and endemic infectious diseases on commercial livestock production systems will require the development of innovative technology platforms that enable information from diverse animal health resources to be collected, analyzed, and communicated in near real-time. In this paper, we review recent initiatives to leverage data routinely observed by farmers, production managers, veterinary practitioners, diagnostic laboratories, regulatory officials, and slaughterhouse inspectors for disease surveillance purposes. The most commonly identified challenges were (1) the lack of standardized systems for recording essential data elements within and between surveillance data streams, (2) the additional time required to collect data elements that are not routinely recorded by participants, (3) the concern over the sharing and use of business sensitive information with regulatory authorities and other data analysts, (4) the difficulty in developing sustainable incentives to maintain long-term program participation, and (5) the limitations in current methods for analyzing and reporting animal health information in a manner that facilitates actionable response. With the significant recent advances in information science, there are many opportunities to develop more sophisticated systems that meet national disease surveillance objectives, while still providing participants with valuable tools and feedback to manage routine animal health concerns.

  1. Integrating Novel Data Streams to Support Biosurveillance in Commercial Livestock Production Systems in Developed Countries: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Holmstrom, Lindsey K.; Biggers, Keith E.; Beckham, Tammy R.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the burden of emerging and endemic infectious diseases on commercial livestock production systems will require the development of innovative technology platforms that enable information from diverse animal health resources to be collected, analyzed, and communicated in near real-time. In this paper, we review recent initiatives to leverage data routinely observed by farmers, production managers, veterinary practitioners, diagnostic laboratories, regulatory officials, and slaughterhouse inspectors for disease surveillance purposes. The most commonly identified challenges were (1) the lack of standardized systems for recording essential data elements within and between surveillance data streams, (2) the additional time required to collect data elements that are not routinely recorded by participants, (3) the concern over the sharing and use of business sensitive information with regulatory authorities and other data analysts, (4) the difficulty in developing sustainable incentives to maintain long-term program participation, and (5) the limitations in current methods for analyzing and reporting animal health information in a manner that facilitates actionable response. With the significant recent advances in information science, there are many opportunities to develop more sophisticated systems that meet national disease surveillance objectives, while still providing participants with valuable tools and feedback to manage routine animal health concerns. PMID:25973416

  2. Development of variable-rate precision spraying systems for tree crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive pesticides are often applied to target and non-target areas in orchards and nurseries, resulting in greater production costs, worker exposure to unnecessary pesticide risks, and adverse contamination of the environment. To improve spray application efficiency, two types of variable-rate pr...

  3. Developing hygiene protocols against mechanically transmitted pathogens in greenhouse tomato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse tomato propagation and production require intensive crop work that promotes the spread of mechanically transmitted pathogens (e.g. fungi, bacteria, viruses and viroids). Therefore, a clean seed program is very important to prevent any un-intentional introduction of seed-borne pathogens t...

  4. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  5. Potential impact of synthetic biology on the development of microbial systems for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Picataggio, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    Synthetic biology leverages advances in computational biology, molecular biology, protein engineering, and systems biology to design, synthesize, and assemble genetic elements for manipulating cell phenotypes. This emerging field is founded on a vast amount of gene sequence data available in public databases and our ability to rapidly and inexpensively synthesize DNA fragments of sufficient length to encode full-length genes, enzymes, metabolic pathways, and even entire genomes. Several thousand genetic elements encoding enzymes, reporters, repressors, activators, promoters, terminators, ribosome binding sites, signaling devices, and measurement systems are now available for engineering microbes. In addition to facilitating rational design, these new tools allow us to create and harness genetic diversity in combinatorial approaches to rapidly optimize metabolic pathways. As such, synthetic biology holds great promise for accelerating the development of microbial systems for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals.

  6. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  7. Development of low-altitude remote sensing systems for crop production management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture accounts for within-field variability for targeted treatment rather than uniform treatment of an entire field. Precision agriculture is built on agricultural mechanization and state-of-the-art technologies of geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (G...

  8. Production of systemically circulating Hedgehog by the intestine couples nutrition to growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rodenfels, Jonathan; Lavrynenko, Oksana; Ayciriex, Sophie; Sampaio, Julio L; Carvalho, Maria; Shevchenko, Andrej; Eaton, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    In Drosophila larvae, growth and developmental timing are regulated by nutrition in a tightly coordinated fashion. The networks that couple these processes are far from understood. Here, we show that the intestine responds to nutrient availability by regulating production of a circulating lipoprotein-associated form of the signaling protein Hedgehog (Hh). Levels of circulating Hh tune the rates of growth and developmental timing in a coordinated fashion. Circulating Hh signals to the fat body to control larval growth. It regulates developmental timing by controlling ecdysteroid production in the prothoracic gland. Circulating Hh is especially important during starvation, when it is also required for mobilization of fat body triacylglycerol (TAG) stores. Thus, we demonstrate that Hh, previously known only for its local morphogenetic functions, also acts as a lipoprotein-associated endocrine hormone, coordinating the response of multiple tissues to nutrient availability.

  9. Systems Engineering and Project Management for Product Development: Optimizing Their Working Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    guide to the project management body of knowledge ( PMBOK (R) GUIDE). Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute, Inc. Ulrich, K., & Eppinger, S...activities to meet the project requirements. (Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013, p. 6) The PMBOK states that project management requires a set of...The PMBOK , however, does not address the product processes (i.e., processes required to ensure the project’s deliverable meets the customer’s needs

  10. Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2011-08-01

    A Review on Torrefaction Process and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System for Biomass Processing Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Shahab Sokhansanj2 and Christopher T. Wright1 Idaho National Laboratory Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Group Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. There is a lack of literature on the design aspects of torrefaction reactor and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed torrefier for different capacities ranging from 25-1000 kg/hr, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and

  11. Design of a data model for developing laboratory information management and analysis systems for protein production.

    PubMed

    Pajon, Anne; Ionides, John; Diprose, Jon; Fillon, Joël; Fogh, Rasmus; Ashton, Alun W; Berman, Helen; Boucher, Wayne; Cygler, Miroslaw; Deleury, Emeline; Esnouf, Robert; Janin, Joël; Kim, Rosalind; Krimm, Isabelle; Lawson, Catherine L; Oeuillet, Eric; Poupon, Anne; Raymond, Stéphane; Stevens, Tim; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Westbrook, John; Wood, Peter; Ulrich, Eldon; Vranken, Wim; Xueli, Li; Laue, Ernest; Stuart, David I; Henrick, Kim

    2005-02-01

    Data management has emerged as one of the central issues in the high-throughput processes of taking a protein target sequence through to a protein sample. To simplify this task, and following extensive consultation with the international structural genomics community, we describe here a model of the data related to protein production. The model is suitable for both large and small facilities for use in tracking samples, experiments, and results through the many procedures involved. The model is described in Unified Modeling Language (UML). In addition, we present relational database schemas derived from the UML. These relational schemas are already in use in a number of data management projects.

  12. GPS: Actions Needed to Address Ground System Development Problems and User Equipment Production Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    review the status of OCX development and DOD’s efforts to field M- code signal capability. This report addresses (1) the extent to which DOD is...meeting cost, schedule, and performance requirements for OCX; (2) the progress DOD is making in delivering M- code capable MGUE by the end of fiscal year...2017; and (3) the challenges DOD faces in synchronizing the development of GPS III, OCX, and MGUE to deploy M- code . To conduct this work, GAO

  13. Advanced manpower and time saving testing concept for development, production, and maintenance of electro-optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabib, Dario; Buckwald, R. A.; Nirkin, Shimon; Lavi, Moshe; Neria, Oded; Ben Yaakov, Claudia; Tzafrir, Efraim; Blau, Moshe; Dolev, Jacob

    2006-05-01

    In all stages of an electro-optics system's life, development, production, and periodic maintenance, a large amount of manpower and time is devoted to testing. Each subsystem separately as well as the system as a whole are tested by a PC controlled test system, which consists of hardware for creation of the appropriate stimuli, and software for tests management and control. A very considerable portion of this manpower and time is devoted by the system manufacturer to configure the test routines, to manually input certain parameter values of the Unit Under Test (UUT) at predefined test nodes, and to reconfigure these routines from time to time, as the needs change during the system's life time. CI has developed the CTE (CI Test Executive), a software package which is a breakthrough in saving manpower and time devoted to electro-optics system testing. The new concept is based on: 1. The CTE can communicate directly with any UUT able to communicate with the outside world through a known protocol, to automatically set the UUT parameters before testing, 2. The user can more easily reconfigure the communication with the UUT through a provided special Excel file, without the help of the test system manufacturer, 3. The interface screen is automatically reconfigured every time the Excel file is changed to build the new test routine, 4. The CTE can simulate the test system stimuli with error injection capability, and simultaneously monitor communication and other hardware functions, 5. Test "verification" signals are provided on-line for the convenience and time saving of the test operator.

  14. Development of rhizosecretion as a production system for recombinant proteins from hydroponic cultivated tobacco.

    PubMed

    Drake, Pascal M W; Barbi, Tommaso; Sexton, Amy; McGowan, Edward; Stadlmann, Johannes; Navarre, Catherine; Paul, Matthew J; Ma, Julian K-C

    2009-10-01

    Rhizosecretion is an attractive technology for the production of recombinant proteins from transgenic plants. However, to date, yields of plant-derived recombinant pharmaceuticals by this method have been too low for commercial viability. Studies conducted focused on three transgenic plant lines grown in hydroponic culture medium, two expressing monoclonal antibodies Guy's 13 and 4E10 and one expressing a small microbicide polypeptide cyanovirin-N. Rhizosecretion rates increased significantly by the addition of the plant growth regulator alpha-naphthalene acetic acid. The maximum rhizosecretion rates achieved were 58 microg/g root dry weight/24 h for Guy's 13, 10.43 microg/g root dry weight/24 h for 4E10, and 766 microg/g root dry weight/24 h for cyanovirin-N, the highest figures so far reported for a full-length antibody and a recombinant protein, respectively. The plant growth regulators indole-butyric acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, and kinetin were also demonstrated to increase rhizosecretion of Guy's 13. The effect of the growth regulators differed, as alpha-naphthalene acetic acid and indole-butyric acid increased the root dry weight of hydroponic plants, whereas the cytokinins benzylaminopurine and kinetin increased rhizosecretion without affecting root mass. A comparative glycosylation analysis between MAb Guy's 13 purified from either hydroponic culture medium or from leaf extracts demonstrated a similar pattern of glycosylation comprising high mannose to complex glycoforms. Analysis of the hydroponic culture medium at harvest revealed significantly lower and less complex levels of proteolytic enzymes, in comparison with leaf extracts, which translated to a higher proportion of intact Guy's 13 IgG in relation to other IgG products. Hydroponic medium could be added directly to a chromatography column for affinity purification, allowing simple and rapid production of high purity Guy's 13 antibody. In addition to the attractiveness of controlled cultivation within

  15. Task 6 -- Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-10

    The Allison Engine Company has completed the Task 6 Conceptual Design and Analysis of Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) contract. At the heart of Allison`s system is an advanced simple cycle gas turbine engine. This engine will incorporate components that ensure the program goals are met. Allison plans to commercialize the ATS demonstrator and market a family of engines incorporating this technology. This family of engines, ranging from 4.9 MW to 12 MW, will be suitable for use in all industrial engine applications, including electric power generation, mechanical drive, and marine propulsion. In the field of electric power generation, the engines will be used for base load, standby, cogeneration, and distributed generation applications.

  16. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  17. Advanced turbine systems program: Conceptual design and product development. Topical report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wilken, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared by Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar) in accordance with Task 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Contract. This report addresses only the work that will be performed under Task 8 (Design and Test of Critical Components) of the Contract. The discussion is divided into four general sections: Project Description; Potential Environmental Impacts; Required Permits and Licenses; and Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Agency Contact Information. As described in further detail herein, the activities to occur during the project (i.e., Task 8) consists primarily of short duration testing of laboratory-scale components (or portions of components) for the ATS program. The testing involved will fall in the following general categories: recuperator, combustor, and blade/airfoil cooling. All activities contemplated will occur at existing facilities. Solar believes that the information in this report supports the conclusion that no significant environmental impacts will be associated with the project.

  18. Advanced Turbine Systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, February--April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Task 8.5 (active clearance control) was replaced with a test of the 2600F prototype turbine (Task 8.1T). Test 8.1B (Build/Teardown of prototype turbine) was added. Tasks 4 (conversion of gas-fired turbine to coal-fired turbine) and 5 (market study) were kicked off in February. Task 6 (conceptual design) was also initiated. Task 8.1 (advanced cooling technology) now has an approved test plan. Task 8.4 (ultra low NOx combustion technology) has completed the code development and background gathering phase. Task 8.6 (two-phase cooling of turbine vanes) is proceeding well; initial estimates indicate that nearly 2/3 of required cooling flow can be eliminated.

  19. The SPOOKI post production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchemin, M.; Klasa, M.; Fortier, S.; Fortin, F.; Hardy, G.; Pelletier, L.; Edouard, S.; Archambault, B.; Yazidi, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of human and computing resources. The "Weather Elements" section of CMC is aware of the problems associated with its maintenance in the long term and has therefore decided to review in depth the whole approach to the operational post production. The analysis of present and future needs have led to the development of an innovative concept in the operational production field inspired by the "Plug and Play" process. SPOOKI (Système de Production Orienté-Objet contennant une Kyrielle d'Informations - Object oriented production system containing a myriad of information) was created in its present form in 2007. It is based on a modular approach where each plug-in component is specialized, reusable and autonomous. These object oriented programming characteristics greatly simplify the maintenance of the system. Particular attention was also given to create a user-friendly system for novice users. An experimental version of SPOOKI is currently running in development mode and an operational one is planned to be implemented in the coming year. The poster presentation will describe SPOOKI, the future CMC operational post production system. Several examples of usage will be shown.

  20. Purchasing Productivity Measurement Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Defense More Productive", Perspectives in Defense Management, Winter 1974-1975. 4. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, " Taylor , Frederick Winslow ", v...Some of the earliest successes in Productivity Systems and studies are attributed to Frederick W. Taylor and his concept of Scientific Management...sociological interactions. Taylorism , as it became known, provoked resentment and opposition from labor when it was carried to extremes. It was, however

  1. Three genetic systems controlling growth, development and productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.): a reevaluation of the 'Green Revolution'.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Yun-Zhu; Yu, Si-Bin; Ali, J; Paterson, A H; Khush, G S; Xu, Jian-Long; Gao, Yong-Ming; Fu, Bin-Ying; Lafitte, R; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2013-04-01

    The Green Revolution (GR-I) included worldwide adoption of semi-dwarf rice cultivars (SRCs) with mutant alleles at GA20ox2 or SD1 encoding gibberellin 20-oxidase. Two series of experiments were conducted to characterize the pleiotropic effects of SD1 and its relationships with large numbers of QTLs affecting rice growth, development and productivity. The pleiotropic effects of SD1 in the IR64 genetic background for increased height, root length/mass and grain weight, and for reduced spikelet fertility and delayed heading were first demonstrated using large populations derived from near isogenic IR64 lines of SD1. In the second set of experiments, QTLs controlling nine growth and yield traits were characterized using a new molecular quantitative genetics model and the phenotypic data of the well-known IR64/Azucena DH population evaluated across 11 environments, which revealed three genetic systems: the SD1-mediated, SD1-repressed and SD1-independent pathways that control rice growth, development and productivity. The SD1-mediated system comprised 43 functional genetic units (FGUs) controlled by GA. The SD1-repressed system was the alternative one comprising 38 FGUs that were only expressed in the mutant sd1 backgrounds. The SD1-independent one comprised 64 FGUs that were independent of SD1. GR-I resulted from the overall differences between the former two systems in the three aspects: (1) trait/environment-specific contributions; (2) distribution of favorable alleles for increased productivity in the parents; and (3) different responses to (fertilizer) inputs. Our results suggest that at 71.4 % of the detected loci, a QTL resulted from the difference between a functional allele and a loss-of-function mutant, whereas at the remaining 28.6 % of loci, from two functional alleles with differentiated effects. Our results suggest two general strategies to achieve GR-II (1) by further exploiting the genetic potential of the SD1-repressed and SD1-independent pathways and (2

  2. Managing a Product Development Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtonen, Kenneth E.; Barrett, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Orbiting 380 miles above the earth, NASA s Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has returned a wealth of scientific data about our universe and galaxies beyond highlighted by spectacular images of the birth and death of stars, colliding galaxies, and other extra-worldly events. Despite its tremendous success for almost two decades, the HST ground support system experienced down-to-earth problems prior to the turn of the century, namely budgetary ones. To keep HST operating efficiently to 201 2 and beyond, the Vision 2000 project was conceived with the primary goal of substantially reducing the costs of operating and maintaining the spacecraft ground systems. Taking advantage of this atypical management opportunity, a set of Product Development Teams (PDTs) were established, whose charter was to re-engineer the ground system, and in doing so, reduce the remaining life-of-mission operating and maintenance costs, while providing improved reliability and increased capabilities.

  3. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  4. A Study of the Impacts of Selected Products Developed by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kenneth W.; Rhodes, Isabelle N.

    The impact of NCHEMS (National Center for Higher Education Management Systems) products upon planning and management tasks is examined in this study performed at a sample of 126 institutions. The institutions have used one or more of the following NCHEMS products: Program Classification of Structure (PCS); Resource Requirements Prediction Model…

  5. Adaptive Production Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    Melton, A. W., and Marton. E. (Eds.). Coding Processes in Human Memory, Washington, DC , Winston and Sons, 1972. Newell. A. Production systems...STM (1 A ’) (ACTION (USED) (DEP (NEXT B))) (B ?) (LOC A) (A ?) (B ?) ( SEPIc ’ fiAB) 16 TRUE IN PS STM (NEXT A) (1 A?) (ACTION (USED) (DEP (NEXT B

  6. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  7. Organic watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Research investigating certified organic production requires a systems approach to determine the optimum combination of individual components to max...

  8. Print Product Development and Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Five phases in the process: concept development, concept review, draft development, draft review, and editing per comments with final review. Your concept should address purpose and target audience, and have approval from a Product Review Officer (PRO).

  9. Development of a Rhodobacter capsulatus self-reporting model system for optimizing light-dependent, [FeFe]-hydrogenase-driven H 2 production: A Model System for Optimizing H 2 Production

    DOE PAGES

    Wecker, Matt S. A.; Beaton, Stephen E.; Chado, Robert A.; ...

    2016-08-23

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus normally photoproduces H2 as a by-product of its nitrogenase-catalyzed nitrogen-fixing activity. Such H2 production, however, is expensive from a metabolic perspective, requiring nearly four times as many photons as the equivalent algal hydrogenase-based system (Ghirardi et al. 2009). Here we report the insertion of a Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its three attendant hydrogenase assembly proteins into an R. capsulatus strain lacking its native uptake hydrogenase. Further, this strain is modified to fluoresce upon sensing H2. The resulting strain photoproduces H2 and self-reports its own H2 production through fluorescence. This model system represents a unique methodmore » of developing hydrogenase-based H2 production in R. capsulatus, may serve as a powerful system for in vivo directed evolution of hydrogenases and hydrogenase-associated genes, and provides a means of screening for increased metabolic production of H2.« less

  10. [Development of an magnetic resonance imaging safety management system for metallic biomedical products using an magnetic resonance compatibility database and inquiry-based patient records].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Kata, Tomomi; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Yachida, Takuya; Kanamoto, Masayuki; Nanbu, Yousuke; Seki, Kouichirou; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirohiko; Adachi, Toshiki

    2014-12-01

    Several incidents involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of patients with unchecked MR-unsafe metallic products have been reported. To improve patient safety, we developed a new MRI safety management system for metallic biomedical products and evaluated its efficiency in clinical practice. Our system was integrated into the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and comprised an MR compatibility database and inquiry-based patient records of internal metallic biomedical products, enabling hospital staff to check MR compatibility by product name. A total of 6,637 biomedical implants and devices were listed in this system, including product names and their MR compatibilities. Furthermore, MRI histories for each patient at our hospital were also recorded. Using this system, it was possible to confirm the MR compatibility of the patients' metallic biomedical products effectively and to reduce the number of unchecked internal products through systematic patient inquiry. In conclusion, our new system enhanced metallic biomedical product checking procedures, and improved patient safety during clinical MRI examinations.

  11. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA system for glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takanori; Joo, Hoo Don; Lee, Jae Min; Ju, Sung Mi; Tao, Wang Hong; Higashimoto, Yuichiro; Fukami, Kei; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2015-10-01

    We have previously found that glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (glycer-AGEs) elicit oxidative stress generation and evoke inflammatory and thrombotic reactions through their higher binding affinity to RAGE (receptor for AGEs), thereby playing a role in vascular complications in diabetes. Furthermore, circulating levels of glycer-AGEs are elevated in diabetes. We characterized a monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against glycer-AGEs and prepared its specific ELISA system in human serum. We developed here mAb reacted specifically with glycer-AGEs or glyceraldehyde-derived pyridinium, but not other structurally identified AGEs or AGE precursors. The mAb not only completely neutralized the deleterious effects of glycer-AGEs on endothelial cells, but also detected glycer-AGEs in the aorta of type 2 diabetic rats. Intra and inter-assay coefficient variations of the ELISA were 6 and 2.6%, respectively. ELISA linearity was shown intact within 5-fold dilution, and recovery ratio of added glycer-AGEs was 88-117%. Results of serum and plasma were comparable, and repeated freeze-thawing of samples did not affect the results (90.1-112.4%). Serum glycer-AGEs levels in 30 healthy subjects evaluated by the ELISA were strongly correlated with those by polyclonal Ab-based one (r=0.82). Our present study suggests the clinical utility of mAb for evaluating glycer-AGE levels in both tissue and serum.

  12. Development of a Rhodobacter capsulatus self-reporting model system for optimizing light-dependent, [FeFe]-hydrogenase-driven H2 production

    DOE PAGES

    Wecker, Matt S. A.; Beaton, Stephen E.; Chado, Robert A.; ...

    2016-08-17

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus normally photoproduces H2 as a by-product of its nitrogenase-catalyzed nitrogen-fixing activity. Such H2 production, however, is expensive from a metabolic perspective, requiring nearly four times as many photons as the equivalent algal hydrogenase-based system. Here we report the insertion of a Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its three attendant hydrogenase assembly proteins into an R. capsulatus strain lacking its native uptake hydrogenase. Further, this strain is modified to fluoresce upon sensing H2. The resulting strain photoproduces H2 and self-reports its own H2 production through fluorescence. Furthermore, this model system represents a unique method of developing hydrogenase-basedmore » H2 production in R. capsulatus, may serve as a powerful system for in vivo directed evolution of hydrogenases and hydrogenase-associated genes, and provides a means of screening for increased metabolic production of H2.« less

  13. Lessons Learned In Developing The VACIS™ Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphan, Victor J.

    2011-06-01

    SAIC's development of VACIS™ provides useful "lessons learned" in bridging the gap from an idea to a security or contraband detection product. From a gamma densitometer idea for solving a specific Customs Service (CS) requirement (detection of drugs in near-empty tanker trucks) in mid-1990's, SAIC developed a broad line of vehicle and cargo inspections systems (over 500 systems deployed to date) based on a gamma-ray radiographic imaging technique. This paper analyzes the reasons for the successful development of VACIS and attempts to identify "lessons learned" useful for future security and contraband detection product developments.

  14. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  15. Development of continuous glass melting for production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for the NIF and LMJ laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jack H.; McLean, M. J.; Hawley-Fedder, Ruth A.; Suratwala, Tayyab I.; Ficini-Dorn, G.; Trombert, Jean-Hugues

    1999-07-01

    The NIF and LMJ laser systems require about 3380 and 4752 Nd-doped laser glass slabs, respectively. Continuous laser glass melting and forming will be used for the first time to manufacture these slabs. Two vendors have been chosen to produce the glass: Hoya Corporation and Schott Glass Technologies. The laser glass melting systems that each of these two vendors have designed, built and tested are arguably the most advanced in the world. Production of the laser glass will begin on a pilot scale in the fall of 1998.

  16. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  17. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code and Tritium Transport in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Coupled with Hydrogen Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

    2010-06-01

    Abstract – A tritium permeation analyses code (TPAC) was developed by Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of analyzing tritium distributions in very high temperature reactor (VHTR) systems, including integrated hydrogen production systems. A MATLAB SIMULINK software package was used in developing the code. The TPAC is based on the mass balance equations of tritium-containing species and various forms of hydrogen coupled with a variety of tritium sources, sinks, and permeation models. In the TPAC, ternary fission and neutron reactions with 6Li, 7Li 10B, and 3He were taken into considerations as tritium sources. Purification and leakage models were implemented as main tritium sinks. Permeation of tritium and H2 through pipes, vessels, and heat exchangers were considered as main tritium transport paths. In addition, electroyzer and isotope exchange models were developed for analyzing hydrogen production systems, including high temperature electrolysis and sulfur-iodine processes.

  18. Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Achieving the goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system: the turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase, leading also to increased NOx emission. However, improved coating and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. The program is focused on two specific products: a 70MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling technology, and a 200MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency.

  19. Product development cycle time reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farran, Robin

    1992-05-01

    We are facing here today the key issues that face us in the competitive environment. North American companies are struggling to compete in the global marketplace. Gone are the days when presence ensured success. Then, sales and earnings were guaranteed. Today the competition is intense. Many manufacturing and service companies are no longer competitive. Traditionally, manufacturing companies have created the most wealth for the community and economy. Losing this ability to create wealth is tragic and unnecessary. A company can only be successful by focusing on customer satisfaction at competitive costs. Revenue growth and earnings growth require a continuous stream of products that anticipate the customers' needs, result from shorter and shorter innovation cycles, continually improve in quality, and are produced at improved costs on each cycle. The best opportunities for increased quality and decreased costs are with new products. Sure, work on quality and costs everyday. The biggest changes, however, will come through the new product development cycle. We must improve our development processes to provide leadership products which result in high levels of customer satisfaction. This is a prerequisite for business success. When presence in the marketplace was a virtual guarantee of success for a North American company, technology tended to drive the products, and the customers bought virtually everything that was produced. Functional excellence was stressed within companies ... and that was enough. Effective planning processes were not a prerequisite for success. Today success demands highly developed business research and planning processes, and functional excellence combined with organizational capabilities that ensure commercialization excellence.

  20. Advanced turbine systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, September 1 - November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Achieving the advanced turbine system goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system: the turbine inlet temperature must increase, although this will lead to increased NOx emission. Improved coating and materials along with creative combustor design can result in solutions. The program is focused on two specific products: a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology, and a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy duty machines utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. This report reports on tasks 3-8 for the industrial ATS and the utility ATS. Some impingement heat transfer results are given.

  1. Advanced uncooled sensor product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A.; Masini, P.; Lamb, M.; Hamers, J.; Kocian, T.; Gordon, E.; Parrish, W.; Williams, R.; LeBeau, T.

    2015-06-01

    The partnership between RVS, Seek Thermal and Freescale Semiconductor continues on the path to bring the latest technology and innovation to both military and commercial customers. The partnership has matured the 17μm pixel for volume production on the Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program in efforts to bring advanced production capability to produce a low cost, high performance product. The partnership has developed the 12μm pixel and has demonstrated performance across a family of detector sizes ranging from formats as small as 206 x 156 to full high definition formats. Detector pixel sensitivities have been achieved using the RVS double level advanced pixel structure. Transition of the packaging of microbolometers from a traditional die level package to a wafer level package (WLP) in a high volume commercial environment is complete. Innovations in wafer fabrication techniques have been incorporated into this product line to assist in the high yield required for volume production. The WLP seal yield is currently > 95%. Simulated package vacuum lives >> 20 years have been demonstrated through accelerated life testing where the package has been shown to have no degradation after 2,500 hours at 150°C. Additionally the rugged assembly has shown no degradation after mechanical shock and vibration and thermal shock testing. The transition to production effort was successfully completed in 2014 and the WLP design has been integrated into multiple new production products including the TWS and the innovative Seek Thermal commercial product that interfaces directly to an iPhone or android device.

  2. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  3. Development of real-time line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for online agricultural and food product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports a recent development of a line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for real-time multispectral imaging applications in agricultural and food industries. The hyperspectral imaging system consisted of a spectrograph, an EMCCD camera, and application software. The real-time multispectral imaging with the developed system was possible due to (1) data binning, especially a unique feature of the EMCCD sensor allowing the access to non-contiguous multispectral bands, (2) an image processing algorithm designed for real-time multispectral imaging, and (3) the design and implementation of the real-time application software. The imaging system was developed as a poultry inspection instrument determining the presence of surface feces on poultry carcasses moving at commercial poultry processing line speeds up to 180 birds per minute. The imaging system can be easily modifiable to solve other real-time inspection/sorting problems. Three wavelengths at 517 nm, 565 nm and 802 nm were selected for real-time fecal detection imaging. The fecal detection algorithm was based on dual band ratios of 565nm/517nm and 802nm/517nm followed by thresholding. The software architecture was based on a ping pong memory and a circular buffer for the multitasking of image grabbing and processing. The software was written in Microsoft Visual C++. An image-based internal triggering (i.e. polling) algorithm was developed to determine the start and end positions of birds. Twelve chickens were used for testing the imaging system at two different speeds (140 birds per minute and 180 bird per minute) in a pilot-scale processing line. Four types of fecal materials (duodenum, ceca, colon and ingesta) were used for the evaluation of the detection algorithm. The software grabbed and processed multispectral images of the dimension 118 (line scans) x 512 (height) x 3 (bands) pixels obtained from chicken carcasses moving at the speed up to 180 birds per minute (a frame rate 286 Hz). Intensity

  4. Development of a Rhodobacter capsulatus self-reporting model system for optimizing light-dependent, [FeFe]-hydrogenase-driven H2 production.

    PubMed

    Wecker, Matt S A; Beaton, Stephen E; Chado, Robert A; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2017-02-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus normally photoproduces H2 as a by-product of its nitrogenase-catalyzed nitrogen-fixing activity. Such H2 production, however, is expensive from a metabolic perspective, requiring nearly four times as many photons as the equivalent algal hydrogenase-based system (Ghirardi et al., 2009 Photobiological hydrogen-producing systems. Chem Soc Rev 38(1):52-61). Here, we report the insertion of a Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its three attendant hydrogenase assembly proteins into an R. capsulatus strain lacking its native uptake hydrogenase. Further, this strain is modified to fluoresce upon sensing H2 . The resulting strain photoproduces H2 and self-reports its own H2 production through fluorescence. This model system represents a unique method of developing hydrogenase-based H2 production in R. capsulatus, may serve as a powerful system for in vivo directed evolution of hydrogenases and hydrogenase-associated genes, and provides a means of screening for increased metabolic production of H2 . Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 291-297. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Development of a high yielding E. coli periplasmic expression system for the production of humanized Fab' fragments.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark; Patel, Pareshkumar; Edon, Marjory; Ramage, Walter; Dickinson, Robert; Humphreys, David P

    2017-01-01

    Humanized Fab' fragments may be produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli but can be subject to degradation by host cell proteases. In order to increase Fab' yield and reduce proteolysis we developed periplasmic protease deficient strains of E. coli. These strains lacked the protease activity of Tsp, protease III and DegP. High cell density fermentations indicated Tsp deficient strains increased productivity two fold but this increase was accompanied by premature cell lysis soon after the induction of Fab' expression. To overcome the reduction in cell viability we introduced suppressor mutations into the spr gene. The mutations partially restored the wild type phenotype of the cells. Furthermore, we coexpressed a range of periplasmic chaperone proteins with the Fab', DsbC had the most significant impact, increasing humanized Fab' production during high cell density fermentation. When DsbC coexpression was combined with a Tsp deficient spr strain we observed an increase in yield and essentially restored "wild type" cell viability. We achieved a final periplasmic yield of over 2.4g/L (final cell density OD600 105), 40 h post Fab' induction with minimal cell lysis.The data suggests that proteolysis, periplasm integrity, protein folding and disulphide bond formation are all potential limiting steps in the production of Fab' fragments in the periplasm of E. coli. In this body of work, we have addressed these limiting steps by utilizing stabilized protease deficient strains and chaperone coexpression. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:212-220, 2017.

  6. Turning Bacteria into Biofuel: Development of an Integrated Microbial Electrocatalytic (MEC) System for Liquid Biofuel Production from CO2

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-01

    Electrofuels Project: LBNL is improving the natural ability of a common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to use hydrogen and carbon dioxide for biofuel production. First, LBNL is genetically modifying the bacteria to produce biofuel at higher concentrations. Then, LBNL is using renewable electricity obtained from solar, wind, or wave power to produce high amounts of hydrogen in the presence of the bacteria—increasing the organism’s access to its energy source and improving the efficiency of the biofuel-creation process. Finally, LBNL is tethering electrocatalysts to the bacteria’s surface which will further accelerate the rate at which the organism creates biofuel. LBNL is also developing a chemical method to transform the biofuel that the bacteria produce into ready-to-use jet fuel.

  7. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  8. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status.

  9. Development of a web-based support system for both homogeneous and heterogeneous air quality control networks: process and product.

    PubMed

    Andrade, J; Ares, J; García, R; Presa, J; Rodríguez, S; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui, S; Prada, D

    2007-10-01

    The Environmental Laboratories Automation Software System or PALMA (Spanish abbreviation) was developed by a multidisciplinary team in order to support the main tasks of heterogeneous air quality control networks. The software process for PALMA development, which can be perfectly applied to similar multidisciplinary projects, was (a) well-defined, (b) arranged between environmental technicians and informatics, (c) based on quality guides, and (d) clearly user-centred. Moreover, it introduces some interesting advantages with regard to the classical step-by-step approaches. PALMA is a web-based system that allows 'off-line' and automated telematic data acquisition from distributed inmission stations belonging not only to homogeneous but also to heterogeneous air quality control networks. It provides graphic and tabular representations for a comprehensive and centralised analysis of acquired data, and considers the daily work that is associated with such networks: validation of the acquired data, alerts with regard to (periodical) tasks (e.g., analysers verification), downloading of files with environmental information (e.g., dust forecasts), etc. The implantation of PALMA has provided qualitative and quantitative improvements in the work performed by the people in charge of the considered control network.

  10. Productivity Research and Development Planning Workshop.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), Leadership and Management Development Center (LMDC), Army Research Institute (ARI), and the Navy Personnel...Lloyd Woodman Leadership and Management Development Center 1555 Quality Circles Dr. Bob Steel Air Force Institute of Technology 1620 NPRDC...is that it is easier to think about productivity in orthodox or conventional terms than in the sense of weapons systems and technology . People plus

  11. Development of additive [11C]CO2 target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [11C]radiopharmaceutical production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin; Lee, Won Kyung; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [11C]CO2, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [11C]CO2 production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [11C]CO2 production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [11C]CO2 production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [11C]PIB, [11C]DASB, [11C]PBR28, [11C]Methionine and [11C]Clozapine, the radiochemical yields were shown to be 25-38% (decay corrected) with over 166 GBq/μmol of

  12. Navigating sticky areas in transdermal product development.

    PubMed

    Strasinger, Caroline; Raney, Sam G; Tran, Doanh C; Ghosh, Priyanka; Newman, Bryan; Bashaw, Edward D; Ghosh, Tapash; Shukla, Chinmay G

    2016-07-10

    The benefits of transdermal delivery over the oral route to combat such issues of low bioavailability and limited controlled release opportunities are well known and have been previously discussed by many in the field (Prausnitz et al. (2004) [1]; Hadgraft and Lane (2006) [2]). However, significant challenges faced by developers as a product moves from the purely theoretical to commercial production have hampered full capitalization of the dosage forms vast benefits. While different technical aspects of transdermal system development have been discussed at various industry meetings and scientific workshops, uncertainties have persisted regarding the pharmaceutical industry's conventionally accepted approach for the development and manufacturing of transdermal systems. This review provides an overview of the challenges frequently faced and the industry's best practices for assuring the quality and performance of transdermal delivery systems and topical patches (collectively, TDS). The topics discussed are broadly divided into the evaluation of product quality and the evaluation of product performance; with the overall goal of the discussion to improve, advance and accelerate commercial development in the area of this complex controlled release dosage form.

  13. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the

  14. Diffusion of innovative agricultural production systems for sustainable development of small islands: A methodological approach based on the science of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Guiseppe; Butera, Federico M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to develop small islands, not only must a vital agricultural system be maintained, but the range of opportunities for tourism must be increased with respect to both the seaside and the environmental features of the rural landscape. As an alternative to the traditional and economically declining ones, many innovative production processes can be identified, but their success depends on their interaction with the physical, biological, economic and social environment. In order to identify the main nodes and the most critical interactions, so as to increase the probability of success of a new productive process, a methodological approach based on the science of complexity is proposed for the cultivation of capers ( Capparis spinosa L.) on the island of Pantelleria. The methodology encompasses the identification of actors and factors involved. the quantitative evaluation of their interactions with the different stages of the productive process, and a quasiquantitative evaluation of the probability that the particular action will be performed successfully. The study of “traditional,” “modernized,” and “modernized-sustainable” processes, shows that the modernized-sustainable process offers mutually reinforcing opportunities in terms of an integrated development of high-quality agricultural products and the enhancement of environmental features, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in a way that suits the development of Pantelleria. There is a high probability of failure, however, as a result of the large number of critical factors. Nevertheless, the present study indicates which activities will enhance the probability of successful innovation in the production process.

  15. Biophotolysis systems for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.K.; Adams, M.W.W.; Gisby, P.E.; Morris, P.; Hall, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    Model systems containing natural and synthetic catalysts were constructed for the production of H/sub 2/ from water using visible solar radiation as the energy source. The authors have investigated the use of aqueous systems with proflavine as the light activator and artificial electron donors for subsequent production of H/sub 2/ when coupled to electron mediators and hydrogenase (or Pt). The characteristics, relative merits and defects of these systems are discussed. 22 refs.

  16. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits.

    PubMed

    Gonzàlez, J; Gispert, M; Gil, M; Hviid, M; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E

    2014-12-01

    A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at m. gluteus medius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at m. longissimus or semimembranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus medius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good

  17. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  18. Developing a modified preservative efficacy testing approach as a predictive tool for the evaluation of preservative systems in liquid home care products under variable test conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Anne L; Bushman, Don; Lewis, Nathan; Faber, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can a formulator have confidence that a preservative system will perform as expected under adverse conditions? Extreme conditions that can lead to the development of "off odors" in the product can be a serious challenge for companies providing home care products in the global market. Formulation and stability testing occur under controlled parameters that simulate limited environmental conditions and microbial challenges are typically performed with a standard inoculum level. While this is an acceptable and dependable process, it does not necessarily assess how well a preservative system can perform under extreme environmental conditions or against unusually high levels of bacterial challenges. This is especially true when formulations are diluted and stored by the end-user. By modifying microbial challenge testing of a liquid dishwashing product to include unexpected dilution schemes, increased microbial assaults, and elevated temperatures, a pattern of preservative efficacy was established. The resulting approach proved to be a useful tool when developing use directions, recommended dilution levels, the overall surfactant system, preservative type, and storage restrictions.

  19. Twenty-first century vaccinomics innovation systems: capacity building in the global South and the role of Product Development Partnerships (PDPs).

    PubMed

    Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Upton, Mary

    2011-09-01

    The availability of sequence information from publicly available complete genomes and data intensive sciences, together with next-generation sequencing technologies offer substantial promise for innovation in vaccinology and global public health in the beginning of the 21st century. This article presents an innovation analysis for the nascent field of vaccinomics by describing one of the major challenges in this endeavor: the need for capacities in "vaccinomics innovation systems" to support the developing countries involved in the creation and testing of new vaccines. In particular, we discuss the need for understanding how institutional frameworks can enhance capacities as intrinsic to a systems approach to health technology development. We focus our attention on the global South, meaning the technically less advanced and developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This focus is timely and appropriate because the challenge for innovation in postgenomics medicine is markedly much greater in these regions where basic infrastructures are often underresourced and new or the anticipated institutional relationships can be fragile. Importantly, we examine the role of Product Development Partnerships (PDPs) as a 21st century organizational innovation that contributes to strengthening fragile institutions and capacity building. For vaccinomics innovation systems to stand the test of time in a context of global public health, local communities, knowledge, and cultures need to be collectively taken into account at all stages in programs for vaccinomics-guided vaccine development and delivery in the global South where the public health needs for rational vaccine development are urgent.

  20. Production of Heparin-Functionalized Hydrogels for the Development of Responsive and Controlled Growth Factor Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ting; Baldwin, Aaron; Yamaguchi, Nori; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2007-01-01

    Methods to assemble polymeric hydrogels on the basis of noncovalent protein-glycosaminoglycan interactions have been previously demonstrated by us and others and hold promise in the development of receptor-responsive hydrogel materials; improvements in the mechanical properties of such systems would broaden their utility. Thus, in situ crosslinkable and degradable heparin-containing hydrogels were designed for the binding and controlled release of growth factors. Specifically, maleimide-functionalized high molecular weight heparin (HMWH) was synthesized via straightforward chemical methods that permitted facile and controllable modification of carboxylates in HMWH with maleimide groups via control of catalyst and reaction conditions, as assessed via 1H NMR spectroscopy. These modified heparins were crosslinked into hydrogels via reaction with various thiol-functionalized PEGs. The gelation times and elastic moduli of the gels, as assessed through oscillatory rheometry, could be tuned by via control of the functionality of HMWH, the concentration of hydrogel, the identity of the PEG-based crosslinker, as well as the molar ratio between maleimide and thiol groups. The capability of the hydrogels to bind to growth factors was investigated with immunochemical assays. Preliminary studies indicate the controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) from these materials and suggest their broader use in the design of responsive materials. PMID:17582636

  1. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    PubMed

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors.

  2. Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

    1988-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

  3. Analysis of biomass production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mishoe, J.W.; Fluck, R.C.; Jones, J.W.; Lorber, M.N.; Peart, R.M.

    1983-06-01

    Methodology is presented to analyze biomass production systems using a modeling and simulation approach. To illustrate the concepts, example studies are presented for sugarcane, water hyacinth, and napier grass. Economics and energetic analysis are described using methane as the output.

  4. Purified silicon production system

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  5. Integrated Product Development and Networking. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.M.; Young, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Integrated Product Development and Networking study was to research the spacecraft manufacturing processes at TRW Space and Electronics Group, and generate recommendations regarding the implementation of an automated spacecraft assembly system. TRW detailed in the previous interim report the current {open_quotes}As-Is{close_quotes} process in relation to the flow and dissemination of production and logistics data. The reports focused on current spacecraft assembly programs being performed at TRW Redondo Beach, specifically on the Brilliants Eyes and GPALS programs. The report identified: (1) the functional organizations and their inter-relationships, (2) current electronic information support systems, and (3) related automation tools, procedures and practices. This Final Report details the recommendations related to the implementation for an automated spacecraft assembly system.

  6. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT4 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT4. GCT4 was planned as a 250-hour test run to continue characterization of the transport reactor using a blend of several Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: Operational Stability--Characterize reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal-feed rate, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids-circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. Secondary objectives included the following: Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. Effects of Reactor Conditions on Synthesis Gas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam/coal ratio, solids-circulation rate, and reactor temperature on CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, synthesis gas Lower Heating Value (LHV), carbon conversion, and cold and hot gas efficiencies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) Testing--Provide syngas in support of the DSRP commissioning. Loop Seal Operations--Optimize loop seal operations and investigate increases to previously achieved maximum solids-circulation rate.

  7. Full Scale Development and Initial Production of the Personnel/Casualty Decontamination System Skin Decontamination Kit (PCDS SDK)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    3 a. Foil Laminate Selection ............... .... 3 b. Applicator Pad Cevelopment ..... ........... 7 c. Polyester...of Initial 5,000 Prototype Kits . . . 19 a. Handle Production ................. 10 b. Applicator Pad Assembly .. .......... 10 c. Pad /Handle Assembly...handles, or heat-sealable surfaces were exposed. Furthermore, the Ambergardo XE-555 resin was filled between the non-woven pad and an occlusive, heat

  8. Computer-Aided Engineering and Documentation System (CAEDOS) Productivity Study, Director of Navy Laboratories Research and Development Centers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    CAE Survey Outline ........................... 21 D. Navy Laboratory CAD/CAM/CAE Survey Questionnaires .................... 23 E . Laboratory Profiles...87 F. Survey Questionnaire Responses ............................................ 89 G...reflecting on productivity as it relates to CAEDOS. Accordingly, it was decided that a questionnaire would be used to obtain individual opinions as to

  9. Developing and normalizing average corn crop water production functions across years and locations using a system model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop water production functions (CWPFs) are often expressed as crop yield vs. consumptive water use or irrigation water applied. CWPFs are helpful for optimizing management of limited water resources, but are site-specific and vary from year to year, especially when yield is expressed as a function ...

  10. Development of an Ultrasonic Phased Array System for Wellbore Integrity Evaluation and Near-Wellbore Fracture Network Mapping of Injection and Production Wells in Geothermal Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Almansouri, Hani; Foster, Benjamin; Kisner, Roger A; Polsky, Yarom; Bouman, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents our progress developing an ultrasound phased array system in combination with a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm to inspect the health of and characterize the composition of the near-wellbore region for geothermal reservoirs. The main goal for this system is to provide a near-wellbore in-situ characterization capability that will significantly improve wellbore integrity evaluation and near well-bore fracture network mapping. A more detailed image of the fracture network near the wellbore in particular will enable the selection of optimal locations for stimulation along the wellbore, provide critical data that can be used to improve stimulation design, and provide a means for measuring evolution of the fracture network to support long term management of reservoir operations. Development of such a measurement capability supports current hydrothermal operations as well as the successful demonstration of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The paper will include the design of the phased array system, the performance specifications, and characterization methodology. In addition, we will describe the MBIR forward model derived for the phased array system and the propagation of compressional waves through a pseudo-homogenous medium.

  11. Animal production systems in the industrialised world.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J T; Edwards, S; Noordhuizen, J; Gunnarsson, S

    2006-08-01

    The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow the animals to better express normal behaviour. The focus on food safety promotes systems with a high degree of biosecurity, often associated with an increase in herd size and self-containment. The globalisation of agricultural trade and increased competition also favours an increase in herd size and specialisation. These trends also lead to regions with livestock-dense areas, giving rise to environmental concerns. Therefore, good farming practice regulations and systems to provide a higher level of transparency, such as quality risk management programmes, are being developed.

  12. Evaluation of automated Wes system as an analytical and characterization tool to support monoclonal antibody drug product development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyu; Valdez, Anulfo; Chen, Yingchen

    2016-12-21

    Monitoring and evaluation of critical quality attributes (cQA) in monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are a regulatory requirement in pharmaceutical industry. High molecular weight (HMW) species are of critical importance due to the potential risk associated with immunogenicity. HMW species are typically monitored by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Although low molecular weight (LMW) species are also detected by SEC, low-resolution separation of LMW limits its capability to monitor mAb fragmentation. Recently, we have developed new methods for LMW characterization and evaluation based on the Wes instrument from ProteinSimple. The capillary western blot is based upon size-based separation in a capillary system, and detection by specific immunoprobing, following the separation. The capability of this method for characterization of mAb fragments were demonstrated. The characterization was achieved by probing two antibodies targeted to specific regions (Fc region or Fab region) of IgG1 protein. The specificity of these two antibodies was evaluated against F (ab') 2 and Fc/2 fragments generated from Ides enzyme treated IgG1 protein. The results showed the selected antibodies provide high specificity to F (ab') 2 and Fc/2 fragments. Fractions collected from SEC were used to evaluate this method. The detected fragments from SEC fractions were identified based on their estimated molecular weight and antibody detection. The result proved the capability of the capillary western blot as a characterization method for IgG1 fragments. In addition, with the specific detection to IgG1 and IgG4, the power of the capillary western blot to specifically characterize and evaluate individual IgG fragmentations in an IgG1 and IgG4 mixture was also demonstrated. When heat stressed samples were used, results showed method capability as stability indicating in IgG1 and IgG4 mixture samples. The stressed mixture samples were also evaluated by the total protein assay in which protein samples

  13. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  14. Development of Prototype Production ESR Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    4 3^ SCHEMATIC OF A STEEL FUNNEL MOLD ESR INGOT CASTING SET-UP 6 4. SCHEMATIC OF ESR HOLLOW INGOT MANUFACTURING SYSTEM 8 5. ESR HOLLOW INGOT...UP SLAG SKIN ESR INGOT IN GOT STOOL FIGURE 3. SCHEMATIC OTA STEEL FUNNEL MOLD (MOVES UPjESR INGOT CASTING SET UP Title: Development of...Prototype Production ESR Facilities Because the steel mold was heavy, a two-sided support and lift system was used. An x-ray molten metal scanning device

  15. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  16. Development of a continuous roll-to-roll processing system for mass production of plastic optical film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsun

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a highly effective method for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern based on a continuous roll-to-roll film extrusion and roller embossing process. In this study, a thin steel mold with a micro-circular hole array pattern is fabricated by photolithography and a wet chemical etching process. The thin steel mold was then wrapped onto a metal cylinder to form an embossing roller mold. During the roll-to-roll process operation, a thermoplastic raw material (polycarbonate grains) was put into the barrel of the plastic extruder with a flat T-die. Then, the molten polymer film was extruded and immediately pressed against the surface of the embossing roller mold. Under the proper processing conditions, the molten polymer will just partially fill the micro-circular holes of the mold and due to surface tension form a convex lens surface. A continuous plastic optical film with a microlens array pattern was obtained. Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of plastic microlens formation on the roll-to-roll process. Finally, the geometrical and optical properties of the fabricated plastic optical film were measured and proved satisfactory. This technique shows great potential for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern.

  17. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  18. Zinc subsea production system: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, J.M. )

    1994-04-01

    Exxon Co. U.S.A.'s Zinc development, in 1,460 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico, uses a subsea production system to produce gas to a host platform 6 miles away. The 10-slot subsea template, designed specifically to accommodate the soft soil conditions at the Zinc site, supports the non-through-flowline (non-TFL) wells, which are controlled by means of an electrohydraulic control system. This paper describes key features of the development.

  19. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development Task 8.3 - autothermal fuel reformer (ATR). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Autothermal fuel reforming (ATR) consists of reacting a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas or diesel with steam to produce a hydrogen-rich {open_quotes}reformed{close_quotes} fuel. This work has been designed to investigate the fuel reformation and the product gas combustion under gas turbine conditions. The hydrogen-rich gas has a high flammability with a wide range of combustion stability. Being lighter and more reactive than methane, the hydrogen-rich gas mixes readily with air and can be burned at low fuel/air ratios producing inherently low emissions. The reformed fuel also has a low ignition temperature which makes low temperature catalytic combustion possible. ATR can be designed for use with a variety of alternative fuels including heavy crudes, biomass and coal-derived fuels. When the steam required for fuel reforming is raised by using energy from the gas turbine exhaust, cycle efficiency is improved because of the steam and fuel chemically recuperating. Reformation of natural gas or diesel fuels to a homogeneous hydrogen-rich fuel has been demonstrated. Performance tests on screening various reforming catalysts and operating conditions were conducted on a batch-tube reactor. Producing over 70 percent of hydrogen (on a dry basis) in the product stream was obtained using natural gas as a feedstock. Hydrogen concentration is seen to increase with temperature but less rapidly above 1300{degrees}F. The percent reforming increases as the steam to carbon ratio is increased. Two basic groups of reforming catalysts, nickel - and platinum-basis, have been tested for the reforming activity.

  20. Method Development and Application to Determine Potential Plant Uptake of Antibiotics and Other Drugs in Irrigated Crop Production Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown the detection of pharmaceuticals in surface waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to develop methods, and apply them, to evaluate the potential for food chain transfer when pharmaceutical containing wastewaters are used for cr...

  1. Floating production systems planned for Italy, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    EMH has signed a contract to design, fabricate and install a permanent deepwater, gravity-based single-point mooring (SPM) system and floating oil storage facility in Societa Energio Montedison's (SEM) Vega field off Italy. The design of the system is described. The system is designed to accomodate production rates of 75,000 bpd. The oil will be loaded from the storage tanker into shuttle tankers which will take it to area refineries. The shuttle tankers can moor either in tandem or side-by-side for loading. Also described in this paper are three Nigerian offshore fields -- Akam, Adanga and Ebughu -- being developed by Ashland Oil. They will be brought onstream through the use of an integrated floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) system. Production from all three fields will be piped to a central manifold platform to which a tanker will be permanently moored via a soft-yoke mooring system.

  2. Development of large-scale production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for megajoule-scale laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficini, Gaelle; Campbell, Jack H.

    1996-08-01

    Nd-doped phosphate glasses are the preferred gain medium for high-peak-power lasers used for inertial confinement fusion research because they have excellent energy storage and extraction characteristics. In addition, these glasses can be manufactured defect-free in large sizes and a t relatively low cost. To meet the requirements of the future megajoule size lasers, advanced laser glass manufacturing methods are being developed that would enable laser glass to be continuously produced at the rate of several thousand large plates of glass per year. This represents more than a 10 to 100-fold improvement in the scale of the present manufacturing technology.

  3. Preparing Undergraduate Students for Work in Virtual Product Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavbi, Rdoman; Tavcar, Joze

    2005-01-01

    The development of innovative and competitive products and mastery of IT&T technologies are crucial for a company's long-term success in the global market. The main flag bearers for development are product developers, but it is questionable whether the existing systems are appropriate for the education of such professionals. For example, one…

  4. Developing Data System Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Byrnes, J. B.; Kobler, B.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of general computer systems for science data processing, staff members working on NASA's data systems would most often be hired as mathematicians. Computer engineering was very often filled by those with electrical engineering degrees. Today, the Goddard Space Flight Center has special position descriptions for data scientists or as they are more commonly called: data systems engineers. These staff members are required to have very diverse skills, hence the need for a generalized position description. There is always a need for data systems engineers to develop, maintain and operate the complex data systems for Earth and space science missions. Today's data systems engineers however are not just mathematicians, they are computer programmers, GIS experts, software engineers, visualization experts, etc... They represent many different degree fields. To put together distributed systems like the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System (EOSDIS), staff are required from many different fields. Sometimes, the skilled professional is not available and must be developed in-house. This paper will address the various skills and jobs for data systems engineers at NASA. Further it explores how to develop staff to become data scientists.

  5. Development of large scale production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for megajoule-scale laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ficini, G.; Campbell, J.H.

    1996-05-01

    Nd-doped phosphate glasses are the preferred gain medium for high-peak-power lasers used for Inertial Confinement Fusion research because they have excellent energy storage and extraction characteristics. In addition, these glasses can be manufactured defect-free in large sizes and at relatively low cost. To meet the requirements of the future mega-joule size lasers, advanced laser glass manufacturing methods are being developed that would enable laser glass to be continuously produced at the rate of several thousand large (790 x 440 x 44 mm{sup 3}) plates of glass per year. This represents more than a 10 to 100-fold improvement in the scale of the present manufacturing technology.

  6. Method development and application to determine potential plant uptake of antibiotics and other drugs in irrigated crop production systems.

    PubMed

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L; Sanchez, Charles A; Moy, Thomas; Kazemi, Reza

    2010-11-24

    Studies have shown the detection of emerging contaminants (ECs), of which pharmaceuticals are a subset, in surface waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to develop methods, and apply them, to evaluate the potential for food chain transfer when EC-containing waters are used for crop irrigation. Greenhouse experiments were performed in which select food crops were irrigated with water spiked with three antibiotics. Field experiments, at two different sites, were conducted. Select crops were irrigated with wastewater effluent known to contain ECs, EC-free well water, and Colorado River water containing trace-level ECs. The results of the greenhouse studies show the potential for uptake of one or more of the antibiotics evaluated, albeit at very low levels. In those food crops watered with wastewater effluent, only an industrial flavoring agent, N,N'-dimethylphenethylamine (DMPEA), was consistently found. None of the evaluated contaminants were found in crops irrigated with Colorado River water.

  7. Beam Instrument Development System

    SciTech Connect

    DOOLITTLE, LAWRENCE; HUANG, GANG; DU, QIANG; SERRANO, CARLOS

    2016-01-08

    Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.

  8. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  9. Design and development of a LabVIEW-based LED-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system with applications in non-destructive quality assessment of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Hamed; Nazeri, Majid; Mireei, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the demand for high quality agricultural products has been remarkably increased. Thus, it is important to use non-destructive methods for product quality monitoring. LED-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has proved its potential for nondestructive detection of some defects in agricultural products, such as tissue browning and bruising. Due to such defects, changes in the polyphenol and chlorophyll contents occur which can be considered as the visible marks of decreasing fruit quality. In the present work, a fluorescence spectrometer (spectrofluorometer) controlled by LabVIEW software was designed and developed. In this spectrometer, a consumer-grade webcam was used as an imaging sensor. The spectrometer was able to measure the fluorescence spectra directly from the fruit and vegetable surface in the desired regions. To do so, the spectrometer was equipped with a suitable fiber-optic probe. The hardware solution was based on data acquisition working on the USB platform and controlled by the application running on the PC. In this system, light emitting diodes with different wavelengths were used as the excitation sources for inducing fluorescence spectra of some famous fruits and vegetables.

  10. Biophotolysis systems for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. K.; Adams, M. W. W.; Morris, P.; Hall, D. O.; Gisby, P. E.

    Model systems containing natural and sythetic catalysts were constructed for the production of H2 from water using visible solar radiation as the energy source. Chloroplast membranes were used for light absorption and photodecomposition of water, ferredoxin, flavodoxin, cytochrome, viologen dyes, 'Jeevanu' particles or synthetic clusters containing Fe-Mo-S centers were used as electron transfer catalysts, and hydrogenase or PtO2 served as the proton activator. We have also investigated the use of aqueous systems with proflavine as the light activator and artificial electron donors for subsequent production of H2 when coupled to electron mediators and hydrogenase (or Pt). The characteristics, relative merits and defects of these systems are discussed.

  11. Remote systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R.; Schaefer, O.; Hussey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Potential space missions of the nineties and the next century require that we look at the broad category of remote systems as an important means to achieve cost-effective operations, exploration and colonization objectives. This paper addresses such missions, which can use remote systems technology as the basis for identifying required capabilities which must be provided. The relationship of the space-based tasks to similar tasks required for terrestrial applications is discussed. The development status of the required technology is assessed and major issues which must be addressed to meet future requirements are identified. This includes the proper mix of humans and machines, from pure teleoperation to full autonomy; the degree of worksite compatibility for a robotic system; and the required design parameters, such as degrees-of-freedom. Methods for resolution are discussed including analysis, graphical simulation and the use of laboratory test beds. Grumman experience in the application of these techniques to a variety of design issues are presented utilizing the Telerobotics Development Laboratory which includes a 17-DOF robot system, a variety of sensing elements, Deneb/IRIS graphics workstations and control stations. The use of task/worksite mockups, remote system development test beds and graphical analysis are discussed with examples of typical results such as estimates of task times, task feasibility and resulting recommendations for design changes. The relationship of this experience and lessons-learned to future development of remote systems is also discussed.

  12. Liga developer apparatus system

    DOEpatents

    Boehme, Dale R.; Bankert, Michelle A.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2003-01-01

    A system to fabricate precise, high aspect ratio polymeric molds by photolithograpic process is described. The molds for producing micro-scale parts from engineering materials by the LIGA process. The invention is a developer system for developing a PMMA photoresist having exposed patterns comprising features having both very small sizes, and very high aspect ratios. The developer system of the present invention comprises a developer tank, an intermediate rinse tank and a final rinse tank, each tank having a source of high frequency sonic agitation, temperature control, and continuous filtration. It has been found that by moving a patterned wafer, through a specific sequence of developer/rinse solutions, where an intermediate rinse solution completes development of those portions of the exposed resist left undeveloped after the development solution, by agitating the solutions with a source of high frequency sonic vibration, and by adjusting and closely controlling the temperatures and continuously filtering and recirculating these solutions, it is possible to maintain the kinetic dissolution of the exposed PMMA polymer as the rate limiting step.

  13. Plant production systems for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J; Howard, John A

    2003-12-01

    Plants offer an attractive alternative for the production and delivery of subunit vaccines. Various antigens have been expressed at sufficiently high levels in plants to render vaccine development practical. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that these plant-produced antigens can induce immunogenic responses and confer protection when delivered orally. Plant-based vaccines are relatively inexpensive to produce and production can be rapidly scaled up. There is also the potential for oral delivery of these vaccines, which can dramatically reduce distribution and delivery costs. Here we describe the technology to develop plant-based vaccines, review their advantages and discuss potential roadblocks and concerns over their commercialization. We also speculate on likely future developments with these vaccines and on their potential impact in the realms of human and animal health.

  14. A flexible search strategy for production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Pradip; Srinivasan, S.; Sundararaghavan, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    Most problems considered to be solvable by expert systems have very large search space. It is imperative to use efficient search strategy in expert system tools. Thus, OPS5 uses a kind of hill climbing which is very efficient. However, hill climbing is inadequate for many problems because it is one of the least dependable search strategies. In order to make the search efficient and adequate one can: (1) adopt best-first search instead of hill climbing, or (2) modify hill climbing with intelligent backtracking. The second alternative is adopted. It is implemented in a production system called PRO2 embedded in C running on UNIX. It is called hill tracking. It is a general purpose tool for developing expert systems. This is a rule based production system with an effective, intelligent and flexible backtracking control mechanism, which makes the system more dependable. The advantages and disadvantages of PRO2 are discussed.

  15. Energy Production Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy production systems is one of 15 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  16. Expert Systems Development Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    two volumes. Volume 1 is the Development Metodology and Volume 2 is an Evaluation Methodology containing methods for evaluation, validation and...system are written in an English -like language which almost anyone can understand. Thus programming in rule based systems can become "programming for...computers and others have little understanding about how computers work. The knowledge engineer must therefore be willing and able to teach the expert

  17. LANL receiver system development

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B.; Cooke, B.; Cafferty, M.; Olivas, N.

    1997-08-01

    The CALIOPE receiver system development at LANL is the story of two technologies. The first of these technologies consists of off-the-shelf mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) detectors and amplifiers. The vendor for this system is Kolmar Technologies. This system was fielded in the Tan Trailer I (TTI) in 1995 and will be referred to in this paper as GEN I. The second system consists of a MCT detector procured from Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) and an amplifier designed and built by LANL. This system was fielded in the Tan Trailer II (TTII) system at the NTS tests in 1996 and will be referred to as GEN II. The LANL CALIOPE experimental plan for 1996 was to improve the lidar system by progressing to a higher rep rate laser to perform many shots in a much shorter period of time. In keeping with this plan, the receiver team set a goal of developing a detector system that was background limited for the projected 100 nanosecond (ns) laser pulse. A set of detailed simulations of the DIAL lidar experiment was performed. From these runs, parameters such as optimal detector size, field of view of the receiver system, nominal laser return power, etc. were extracted. With this information, detector physics and amplifier electronic models were developed to obtain the required specifications for each of these components. These derived specs indicated that a substantial improvement over commercially available, off-the-shelf, amplifier and detector technologies would be needed to obtain the goals. To determine if the original GEN I detector was usable, the authors performed tests on a 100 micron square detector at cryogenic temperatures. The results of this test and others convinced them that an advanced detector was required. Eventually, a suitable detector was identified and a number of these single element detectors were procured from SBRC. These single element detectors were witness for the detector arrays built for another DOE project.

  18. Oxygen production System Models for Lunar ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) seeks to make human space exploration feasible; by using available resources from a planet or the moon to produce consumables, parts, and structures that otherwise would be brought from Earth. Producing these in situ reduces the mass of such that must be launched and doing so allows more payload mass' for each mission. The production of oxygen from lunar regolith, for life support and propellant, is one of the tasks being studied under ISRU. NASA is currently funding three processes that have shown technical merit for the production of oxygen from regolith: Molten Salt Electrolysis, Hydrogen Reduction of Ilmenite, and Carbothermal Reduction. The ISRU program is currently developing system models of, the , abovementioned processes to: (1) help NASA in the evaluation process to select the most cost-effective and efficient process for further prototype development, (2) identify key parameters, (3) optimize the oxygen production process, (4) provide estimates on energy and power requirements, mass and volume.of the system, oxygen production rate, mass of regolith required, mass of consumables, and other important parameters, and (5) integrate into the overall end-to-end ISRU system model, which could be integrated with mission architecture models. The oxygen production system model is divided into modules that represent unit operations (e.g., reactor, water electrolyzer, heat exchanger). Each module is modeled theoretically using Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), and will be validated using experimental data from on-going laboratory work. This modularity (plug-n-play) feature of each unit operation allows the use of the same model on different oxygen production systems simulations resulting in comparable results. In this presentation, preliminary results for mass, power, volume will be presented along with brief description of the oxygen production system model.

  19. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  20. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-05-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT3 of the Halliburton KBR transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT3. GCT3 was planned as a 250-hour test run to commission the loop seal and continue the characterization of the limits of operational parameter variations using a blend of several Powder River Basin coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: (1) Loop Seal Commissioning--Evaluate the operational stability of the loop seal with sand and limestone as a bed material at different solids circulation rates and establish a maximum solids circulation rate through the loop seal with the inert bed. (2) Loop Seal Operations--Evaluate the loop seal operational stability during coal feed operations and establish maximum solids circulation rate. Secondary objectives included the continuation of reactor characterization, including: (1) Operational Stability--Characterize the reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal feed, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. (2) Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. (3) Effects of Reactor Conditions on Syngas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam

  1. Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sary, Charisse; Gilstrap, Lewey; Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) provides an approach to developing expert system software. Because of the uncertainty associated with this process, an element of risk is involved. ESDM is designed to address the issue of risk and to acquire the information needed for this purpose in an evolutionary manner. ESDM presents a life cycle in which a prototype evolves through five stages of development. Each stage consists of five steps, leading to a prototype for that stage. Development may proceed to a conventional development methodology (CDM) at any time if enough has been learned about the problem to write requirements. ESDM produces requirements so that a product may be built with a CDM. ESDM is considered preliminary because is has not yet been applied to actual projects. It has been retrospectively evaluated by comparing the methods used in two ongoing expert system development projects that did not explicitly choose to use this methodology but which provided useful insights into actual expert system development practices and problems.

  2. Development of a Streptomyces venezuelae-based combinatorial biosynthetic system for the production of glycosylated derivatives of doxorubicin and its biosynthetic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Je Won; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Ban, Yeon Hee; Yoo, Young Ji; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Byung-Gee; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-07-01

    Doxorubicin, one of the most widely used anticancer drugs, is composed of a tetracyclic polyketide aglycone and l-daunosamine as a deoxysugar moiety, which acts as an important determinant of its biological activity. This is exemplified by the fewer side effects of semisynthetic epirubicin (4'-epi-doxorubicin). An efficient combinatorial biosynthetic system that can convert the exogenous aglycone ε-rhodomycinone into diverse glycosylated derivatives of doxorubicin or its biosynthetic intermediates, rhodomycin D and daunorubicin, was developed through the use of Streptomyces venezuelae mutants carrying plasmids that direct the biosynthesis of different nucleotide deoxysugars and their transfer onto aglycone, as well as the postglycosylation modifications. This system improved epirubicin production from ε-rhodomycinone by selecting a substrate flexible glycosyltransferase, AknS, which was able to transfer the unnatural sugar donors and a TDP-4-ketohexose reductase, AvrE, which efficiently supported the biosynthesis of TDP-4-epi-l-daunosamine. Furthermore, a range of doxorubicin analogs containing diverse deoxysugar moieties, seven of which are novel rhodomycin D derivatives, were generated. This provides new insights into the functions of deoxysugar biosynthetic enzymes and demonstrates the potential of the S. venezuelae-based combinatorial biosynthetic system as a simple biological tool for modifying structurally complex sugar moieties attached to anthracyclines as an alternative to chemical syntheses for improving anticancer agents.

  3. Systematic Product Development of Control and Diagnosis Functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Simundsson, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the scientific field of systematic product development a wide range of helpful methods, guidelines and tools were generated and published in recent years. Until now little special attention was given to design guidelines aiming at supporting product development engineers to design products that allow and support control or diagnosis functions. The general trend to ubiquitous computing and the first development steps towards cognitive systems as well as a general trend toward higher product safety, reliability and reduced total cost of ownership (TCO) in many engineering fields lead to a higher importance of control and diagnosis. In this paper a first attempt is made to formulate general valid guidelines how products can be developed in order to allow and to achieve effective and efficient control and diagnosis. The guidelines are elucidated on the example of an automated guided vehicle. One main concern of this paper is the integration of control and diagnosis functionalities into the development of complete systems which include mechanical, electrical and electronic subsystems. For the development of such systems the strategies, methods and tools of systematic product development have attracted significant attention during the last decades. Today, the functionality and safety of most products is to a large degree dependent on control and diagnosis functionalities. Still, there is comparatively little research concentrating on the integration of the development of these functionalities into the overall product development processes. The paper starts with a background describing Systematic Product Development. The second section deals with the product development of the sample product. The third part clarifies the notions monitoring, control and diagnosis. The following parts summarize some insights and formulate first hypotheses concerning control and diagnosis in Systematic Product Development.

  4. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  5. Improving laser system productivity through production line integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belforte, David A.

    1994-09-01

    Thousands of laser systems are employed profitably in a variety of industrial applications. These installations have proved successful for economic and technical reasons. And, in certain applications: ceramic scribing, resistor trimming, sheet metal cutting, and air foil drilling, for example, have become the industry standard. Most of these installations are free standing or, at best, part of an off-line manufacturing cell. Examples of laser systems fully integrated into a production line, where the laser process is synchronized with up and down stream manufacturing operation, are rare. The laser has been under utilized in its potential contribution to production line productivity. Current development in laser beam delivery: multiplexing, beam splitting and other distributed energy concepts make the laser an attractive option for just-in-time manufacturing operations. The reasons for this apparent neglect of the laser's full potential are reviewed in this paper, and suggestions for improvement of this situation are offered. Examples of fully integrated laser systems and their successful implementation are described and a forecast of changes in the way lasers contribute to improved productivity and profitability will be made.

  6. Modeling Sustainability in Product Development and Commercialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert C.; Rafinejad, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the framework of a model that integrates strategic product development decisions with the product's impact on future conditions of resources and the environment. The impact of a product on stocks of nonrenewable sources and sinks is linked in a feedback loop to the cost of manufacturing and using the product…

  7. Development of expression systems for the production of recombinant human serum albumin using the MOX promoter in Hansenula polymorpha DL-1.

    PubMed

    Kang, H A; Kang, W; Hong, W K; Kim, M W; Kim, J Y; Sohn, J H; Choi, E S; Choe, K B; Rhee, S K

    2001-09-01

    To optimize the secretory expression of recombinant human serum albumin (HSA) under the control of methanol oxidase (MOX) promoter in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha DL-1, we analyzed several parameters affecting the expression of HSA from the MOX promoter. Removal of the 5'-untranslated region derived from HSA cDNA in the expression cassette led to at least a fivefold improvement of HSA expression efficiency at the translational level. With the optimized expression cassette, the gene dosage effect on HSA expression was abolished and thus, a single copy of the expression vector integrated into the MOX locus became sufficient for the maximal expression of HSA. Northern blot analysis revealed that the levels of HSA transcript did not increase any further upon increasing copy number. The mox-disrupted (mox Delta) transformant was constructed, in which the genomic MOX gene was transplaced with the HSA expression cassette, to examine the effect of the methanol oxidase-deficient phenotype of the host on HSA expression. The mox Delta transformant showed higher levels of HSA production in shake-flask cultures than the MOX wild-type transformant, especially at low concentrations of methanol and a twofold higher specific HSA production rate in fed-batch fermentation with an abrupt induction mode. The native prepro signal sequence of HSA secreted in H. polymorpha was correctly processed and the mature recombinant protein had a pI value identical to that of the authentic HSA. Our results suggest that the H. polymorpha expression systems developed in this study are suitable for large-scale production of recombinant albumin.

  8. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented.

  9. Trauma system development.

    PubMed

    Lendrum, R A; Lockey, D J

    2013-01-01

    The word 'trauma' describes the disease entity resulting from physical injury. Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and deaths due to injury look set to increase. As early as the 1970s, it became evident that centralisation of resources and expertise could reduce the mortality rate from serious injury and that organisation of trauma care delivery into formal systems could improve outcome further. Internationally, trauma systems have evolved in various forms, with widespread reports of mortality and functional outcome benefits when major trauma management is delivered in this way. The management of major trauma in England is currently undergoing significant change. The London Trauma System began operating in April 2010 and others throughout England became operational this year. Similar systems exist internationally and continue to be developed. Anaesthetists have been and continue to be involved with all levels of trauma care delivery, from the provision of pre-hospital trauma and retrieval teams, through to chronic pain management and rehabilitation of patients back into society. This review examines the international development of major trauma care delivery and the components of a modern trauma system.

  10. Chemical production processes and systems

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  11. Chemical production processes and systems

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  12. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  13. Internal insulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an internal insulation system for cryogenic liquids is described. The insulation system is based on a gas layer concept in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer within a cellular core structure between the tank wall and the contained cryogen. In this work, a 1.8 meter diameter tank was insulated and tested with liquid hydrogen. Ability to withstand cycling of the aluminum tank wall to 450 K was a design and test condition.

  14. Developments and perspectives of photobioreactors for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Morweiser, Michael; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben; Posten, Clemens

    2010-07-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae requires efficient photobioreactors in order to meet the tight constraints of energy efficiency and economic profitability. Current cultivation systems are designed for high-value products rather than for mass production of cheap energy carriers. Future bioreactors will imply innovative solutions in terms of energy efficiency, light and gas transfer or attainable biomass concentration to lower the energy demand and cut down production costs. A new generation of highly developed reactor designs demonstrates the enormous potential of photobioreactors. However, a net energy production with microalgae remains challenging. Therefore, it is essential to review all aspects and production steps for optimization potential. This includes a custom process design according to production organism, desired product and production site. Moreover, the potential of microalgae to synthesize valuable products additionally to the energetic use can be integrated into a production concept as well as waste streams for carbon supply or temperature control.

  15. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  16. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  17. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  18. Pumpling system for oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Yamato, I.; Yamata, T.

    1984-05-29

    A pumping system for oil production comprises a hydraulic unit set on the ground and adapted to send out a pressure oil, and a pump unit set in an oil well and adapted to draw up crude oil therefrom. The pump unit comprises a pump cylinder, and a plunger reciprocatingly moved in the pump cylinder. The plunger is provided with a clearance formed between the outer circumferential surface of a lower end portion thereof and the inner circumferential surface of the pump cylinder. The pressure oil supplied from the hydraulic unit is ejected from the clearance along the inner surface of the pump cylinder into a cylinder chamber.

  19. Pumping system for oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Yamato, I.; Yamata, T.

    1984-05-29

    A pumping system for oil production comprises a hydraulic unit set on the ground and adapted to send out a pressure oil, and a pump unit set in an oil well and adapted to draw up crude oil therefrom. The pump unit comprises a pump cylinder, and a plunger reciprocatingly moved in the pump cylinder. The plunger is provided with a clearance formed between the outer circumferential surface of a lower end portion thereof and the inner circumferential surface of the pump cylinder. The pressure oil supplied from the hydraulic unit is ejected from the clearance along the inner surface of the pump cylinder into a cylinder chamber.

  20. Input management of production systems.

    PubMed

    Odum, E P

    1989-01-13

    Nonpoint sources of pollution, which are largely responsible for stressing regional and global life-supporting atmosphere, soil, and water, can only be reduced (and ultimately controlled) by input management that involves increasing the efficiency of production systems and reducing the inputs of environmentally damaging materials. Input management requires a major change, an about-face, in the approach to management of agriculture, power plants, and industries because the focus is on waste reduction and recycling rather than on waste disposal. For large-scale ecosystem-level situations a top-down hierarchical approach is suggested and illustrated by recent research in agroecology and landscape ecology.

  1. Production-perception relationships during speech development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Lucie; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Boe, Louis-Jean; Aubin, Jerome

    2005-04-01

    It has been shown that nonuniform growth of the supraglottal cavities, motor control development, and perceptual refinement shape the vowel systems during speech development. In this talk, we propose to investigate the role of perceptual constraints as a guide to the speakers task from birth to adulthood. Simulations with an articulatory-to-acoustic model, acoustic analyses of natural vowels, and results of perceptual tests provide evidence that the production-perception relationships evolve with age. At the perceptual level, results show that (i) linear combination of spectral peaks are good predictors of vowel targets, and (ii) focalization, defined as an acoustic pattern with close neighboring formants [J.-L. Schwartz, L.-J. Boe, N. Vallee, and C. Abry, J. Phonetics 25, 255-286 (1997)], is part of the speech task. At the production level, we propose that (i) frequently produced vowels in the baby's early sound inventory can in part be explained by perceptual templates, (ii) the achievement of these perceptual templates may require adaptive articulatory strategies for the child, compared with the adults, to cope with morphological differences. Results are discussed in the light of a perception for action control theory. [Work supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

  2. Traffic camera system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Toshi

    1997-04-01

    The intelligent transportation system has generated a strong need for the development of intelligent camera systems to meet the requirements of sophisticated applications, such as electronic toll collection (ETC), traffic violation detection and automatic parking lot control. In order to achieve the highest levels of accuracy in detection, these cameras must have high speed electronic shutters, high resolution, high frame rate, and communication capabilities. A progressive scan interline transfer CCD camera, with its high speed electronic shutter and resolution capabilities, provides the basic functions to meet the requirements of a traffic camera system. Unlike most industrial video imaging applications, traffic cameras must deal with harsh environmental conditions and an extremely wide range of light. Optical character recognition is a critical function of a modern traffic camera system, with detection and accuracy heavily dependent on the camera function. In order to operate under demanding conditions, communication and functional optimization is implemented to control cameras from a roadside computer. The camera operates with a shutter speed faster than 1/2000 sec. to capture highway traffic both day and night. Consequently camera gain, pedestal level, shutter speed and gamma functions are controlled by a look-up table containing various parameters based on environmental conditions, particularly lighting. Lighting conditions are studied carefully, to focus only on the critical license plate surface. A unique light sensor permits accurate reading under a variety of conditions, such as a sunny day, evening, twilight, storms, etc. These camera systems are being deployed successfully in major ETC projects throughout the world.

  3. Subsea production systems and the UMC experience

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.M.; Henery, D.

    1983-07-01

    The Underwater Manifold Center (UMC) project for the Central Cormorant field is the most advanced system of its kind and is unequalled in size, versatility, and sophistication. It incorporates a long list of pioneering technological features including reconnectable power couplers, satellite and template wells, remote Christmas tree and pipeline connections, long-distance chemical injection and TFL well-servicing capability, insulated pipelines, and a diverless maintenance system that uses a robot-like remote maintenance vehicle. In many respects the UMC is a symbol of recent advances in subsea production systems. Components and concepts developed for it will set a standard for and be applied to other subsea systems, and the UMC's performance, accordingly, will be watched closely by the industry, especially over the next few years. Beyond the technical realm, the UMC development has raised some broader strategic and economic issues of interest to those concerned with the development of subsea production systems in general. This article concentrates on a few of these issues to provide information and guidance based on the UMC project experiences: Why were subsea techniques used to develop the Central Cormorant field. How much did the UMC cost, and how can costs be reduced in the future. What was the single biggest concern of the project. What are the benefits and costs of satellite wells connected to the UMC. In what areas could the next UMC be improved. What key factors contributed to the project's success.

  4. CLIPS: The C language integrated production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are computer programs which emulate human expertise in well defined problem domains. The potential payoff from expert systems is high: valuable expertise can be captured and preserved, repetitive and/or mundane tasks requiring human expertise can be automated, and uniformity can be applied in decision making processes. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, developed at the Johnson Space Center, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 5,000 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as the basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  5. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    PubMed

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  6. Control and Diagnosis in Integrated Product Development - Observations during the Development of an AGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Simundsson, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the integration of control and diagnosis functionalities into the development of complete systems which include mechanical, electrical and electronic subsystems. For the development of such systems the strategies, methods and tools of integrated product development have attracted significant attention during the last decades. Today, it is generally observed that product development processes of complex systems can only be successful if the activities in the different domains are well connected and synchronised and if an ongoing communication is present - an ongoing communication spanning the technical domains and also including functions such as production planning, marketing/distribution, quality assurance, service and project planning. Obviously, numerous approaches to tackle this challenge are present in scientific literature and in industrial practice, as well. Today, the functionality and safety of most products is to a large degree dependent on control and diagnosis functionalities. Still, there is comparatively little research concentrating on the integration of the development of these functionalities into the overall product development processes. The main source of insight of the presented research is the product development process of an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) which is intended to be used on rough terrain. The paper starts with a background describing Integrated Product Development. The second section deals with the product development of the sample product. The third part summarizes some insights and formulates first hypotheses concerning control and diagnosis in Integrated Product Development.

  7. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  8. Simplified definition system: magnetic products fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.S.

    1981-06-01

    The Simplified Definition System, a product definition approach that differentiates between design and production agency manufacturing requirements, has been used in producing 50 types of magnetic products. This system was formed as a result of cooperative work and proposed modifications by engineers from Bendix Kansas City and Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque (SNLA) to reduce product costs. The system places responsibility for production-related requirements with a production agency, a procedure that has realized both direct and indirect cost savings. This report is a documentation of the system's description and projected savings on magnetic products.

  9. SIRU development. Volume 1: System development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, J. P.; Cooper, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A complete description of the development and initial evaluation of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) system is reported. System development documents the system mechanization with the analytic formulation for fault detection and isolation processing structure; the hardware redundancy design and the individual modularity features; the computational structure and facilities; and the initial subsystem evaluation results.

  10. Dynamics Analysis of Wind Energy Production Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, V. I.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the introduction experience and dynamics development of the world wind energy production. Calculated the amount of wind energy sources investments and the production capacity growth dynamics of the wind turbines. The studies have shown that the introduction dynamics of new wind energy sources is higher than any other energy source.

  11. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2003-07-01

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC12 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SW) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC12 began on May 16, 2003, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until May 24, 2003, when a scheduled outage occurred to allow maintenance crews to install the fuel cell test unit and modify the gas clean-up system. On June 18, 2003, the test run resumed when operations relit the start-up burner, and testing continued until the scheduled end of the run on July 14, 2003. TC12 had a total of 733 hours using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,850 F at pressures from 130 to 210 psig.

  12. Test Marketing in New Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klompmaker, Jay E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the role of test marketing in new product development, based on interviews with marketing executives. Attempts to clarify when a test market should be done, what its aims should be, and how it should be used. (JG)

  13. Development of Sand Production Evaluation Apparatus for Methane Hydrate Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakumoto, M.; Yoneda, J.; Tenma, N.; Katagiri, J.; Noda, S.

    2015-12-01

    As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we performed a study on sand production mechanism during methane gas production. In 2013, the first methane hydrate offshore production test was conducted in Japan, and it was recognized in the production of about 20000m3/day of methane gas from methane hydrate bearing sand sediment in deep marine sediment. In methane hydrate development, depressurization method has been proposed for gas extraction. This method is a method to reduce the bottom hole pressure by submersible pump lowering water level in the production well, and gas and water is recovered by methane hydrate dissociation at the in situ. At that time, a phenomenon that sand flows into the wells is feared. In actually, sand production phenomenon occurred after 6 days from production start in offshore production test. A mechanism of sand production has not yet been resolved in case of methane hydrate development. Therefore, we developed large scale laboratory test apparatus for the purpose of elucidation of the mechanism of sand production phenomenon. In this presentation, we introduce basic performance of this apparatus, and usefulness is made mention by representative test results.

  14. Enviromental Development Plan: special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This Environmental Development Plan includes the process steps and facilities necessary for the production of plutonium and tritium for Government needs and the production of some other radioactive materials that will be used for heat and radiation sources by domestic and international customers. The production reactors and the spent fuel processing plants and their effluents are discussed, but the defense wastes from them are treated in a separate EDP. The scope does not include transportation, decontamination and decommissioning, safeguards and security, or use of the SNM products.

  15. Development of an image converter of radical design. [employing solid state electronics towards the production of an advanced engineering model camera system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, E. L.; Farnsworth, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    A long term investigation of thin film sensors, monolithic photo-field effect transistors, and epitaxially diffused phototransistors and photodiodes to meet requirements to produce acceptable all solid state, electronically scanned imaging system, led to the production of an advanced engineering model camera which employs a 200,000 element phototransistor array (organized in a matrix of 400 rows by 500 columns) to secure resolution comparable to commercial television. The full investigation is described for the period July 1962 through July 1972, and covers the following broad topics in detail: (1) sensor monoliths; (2) fabrication technology; (3) functional theory; (4) system methodology; and (5) deployment profile. A summary of the work and conclusions are given, along with extensive schematic diagrams of the final solid state imaging system product.

  16. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-04-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC15 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Power Generation, Inc. (SPG) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC15 began on April 19, 2004, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier startup burner. The Transport Gasifier was shutdown on April 29, 2004, accumulating 200 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. About 91 hours of the test run occurred during oxygen-blown operations. Another 6 hours of the test run was in enriched-air mode. The remainder of the test run, approximately 103 hours, took place during air-blown operations. The highest operating temperature in the gasifier mixing zone mostly varied from 1,800 to 1,850 F. The gasifier exit pressure ran between 200 and 230 psig during air-blown operations and between 110 and 150 psig in oxygen-enhanced air operations.

  17. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgård, Markus J

    2017-03-16

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains for biofuels and -chemicals.

  18. Developing a formulary for enteral nutrition products.

    PubMed

    Hopefl, A W; Herrmann, V M

    1982-09-01

    A formulary for enteral nutrition products was developed at a university hospital. Advice was solicited from clinical dietetics and the medical staff. Reported important product variables were osmolality, caloric density, protein content and source, fat content and source, freedom from lactose, and, for oral supplements, available flavors. Data were also obtained from manufacturers regarding the composition of their products. Products were categorized as follows: liquid supplemental feedings, high calorie supplemental feedings, isotonic tube feedings, high caloric/high nitrogen tube feedings, high nitrogen tube feedings, and blenderized tube feedings. Bids were solicited in April 1981 (and annually thereafter) from manufacturers of the classified enteral nutrition products, and a contract was signed with the manufacturer in each category submitting the lowest bid. In contrast with previous experience, there was no loss from outdated products during the first year of the formulary. Categorizing enteral nutrition products into therapeutic categories appears to be a workable method to limit the number of products used in a hospital, thereby potentially decreasing inventory, waste, and hospital costs. The descriptive category titles also may encourage rational use of these products without promoting allegiance to a particular company or product.

  19. Integration of rapid prototyping into product development

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is a vertically multi-disciplined research and development laboratory with a long history of designing and developing d electro-mechanical products in the national interest. Integrating new technologies into the prototyping phase of our development cycle is necessary to reduce the cycle time from initial design to finished product. The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with relative speed and production-like quality. Issues of accuracy, feature definition, and surface finish continue to drive research and development of these processes. Sandia uses Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal product development efforts. The primary use of SL and SLS is to produce patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured using SL and SLS with a focus on application, accuracy, surface and feature definition.

  20. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  1. Developing communications requirements for Agile Product Realization

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.

    1994-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken the Agile Product Realization for Innovative electroMEchanical Devices (A-PRIMED) pilot project to develop and implement technologies for agile design and manufacturing of electrochemical components. Emphasis on information-driven processes, concurrent engineering and multi-functional team communications makes computer-supported cooperative work critical to achieving significantly faster product development cycles. This report describes analyses conducted in developing communications requirements and a communications plan that addresses the unique communications demands of an agile enterprise.

  2. Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadid, A.; Lin, W.; Ascoli, E.; Barson, S.; Sindir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial products operate in a dynamic flow environment and the aerodynamically generated noise has become a very important factor in the design of these products. In light of the importance in characterizing this dynamic environment, Rocketdyne has initiated a multiyear effort to develop an advanced general-purpose Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System (CAAS) to address these issues. This system will provide a high fidelity predictive capability for aeroacoustic design and analysis. The numerical platform is able to provide high temporal and spatial accuracy that is required for aeroacoustic calculations through the development of a high order spectral element numerical algorithm. The analysis system is integrated with well-established CAE tools, such as a graphical user interface (GUI) through PATRAN, to provide cost-effective access to all of the necessary tools. These include preprocessing (geometry import, grid generation and boundary condition specification), code set up (problem specification, user parameter definition, etc.), and postprocessing. The purpose of the present paper is to assess the feasibility of such a system and to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm through numerical examples. Computations of vortex shedding noise were carried out in the context of a two-dimensional low Mach number turbulent flow past a square cylinder. The computational aeroacoustic approach that is used in CAAS relies on coupling a base flow solver to the acoustic solver throughout a computational cycle. The unsteady fluid motion, which is responsible for both the generation and propagation of acoustic waves, is calculated using a high order flow solver. The results of the flow field are then passed to the acoustic solver through an interpolator to map the field values into the acoustic grid. The acoustic field, which is governed by the linearized Euler equations, is then calculated using the flow results computed

  3. Criteria Assessment Model for Sustainable Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    The instability in today's market and the ever increasing and emerging demands for mass customized and hybrid products by customers, are driving companies and decision makers to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their product development process. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points in product development. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. This has led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. In this paper, a new integrated design concept evaluation based on fuzzy-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) is presented, and it also attempts to incorporate sustainability practices in assessing the criteria. Prior to Fuzzy-TOPSIS, a new scale of “Weighting criteria” for survey process is developed to quantify the evaluation criteria. This method will help engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable product development. Case example from industry is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the new integrated method provides an alternative to existing methods of design concept evaluation.

  4. Medical Countermeasure Product Development - Alternatives Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Health Departments of Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Consortium seeks to develop MedCM including drugs, vaccines...Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Consortium seeks to develop MedCM including drugs, vaccines and diagnostics to assist...been very little incentive for the biotechnology /medical technology community to focus on MedCM product development. This was because the focus of

  5. Develop Systems for Manufacturing 100,000,000 Doses of an Emergency Pharmaceutical (e.g. Vaccine or Monoclonal Antibody) Within 2 Months of Product Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-08

    protein production. At Genencor, we have developed strains of Aspergillus niger var. awamori, which demonstrate improved secretion of foreign proteins...2000. Characterization of the kexin-like maturase of Aspergillus niger . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:363-368 Jefferis, R., J. Lund, and J. D. Pound...N., Gieswein C., Park M., Wang H. 2004. Characterization of humanized antibodies secreted by Aspergillus niger . Appl Environ Microbiol. 70:2567

  6. Embedded systems engineering for products and services design.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Tareq Z; Karwowski, Waldemar; Soares, Marcelo M

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) professionals strive to develop new techniques to enhance the value of contributions to multidisciplinary smart product design teams. Products and services designers challenge themselves to search beyond the traditional design concept of addressing the physical, social, and cognitive factors. This paper covers the application of embedded user-centered systems engineering design practices into work processes based on the ISO 13407 framework [20] to support smart systems and services design and development. As practitioners collaborate to investigate alternative smart product designs, they concentrate on creating valuable products which will enhance positive interaction. This paper capitalizes on the need to follow a user-centered SE approach to smart products design [4, 22]. Products and systems intelligence should embrace a positive approach to user-centered design while improving our understanding of usable value-adding, experience and extending our knowledge of what inspires others to design enjoyable services and products.

  7. Developing Technology Products - A Physicist's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burka, Michael

    2014-03-01

    There are many physicists working in the industrial sector. We rarely have the word physicist in our job title; we are far more commonly called engineers or scientists. But, we are physicists, and we succeed because our training in physics has given us the habits of mind and the technical skills that one needs to solve complex technical challenges. This talk will explore the transition from physics research to technology product development using examples from my own career, first as a postdoctoral fellow and research scientist on the LIGO project, and then developing products in the spectroscopy, telecommunications, and medical device industries. Approaches to identifying and pursuing opportunities in industry will be discussed.

  8. Development of a quarterly referral productivity report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cai; Sandoval, Alex; Hicks, Katrina N; Edwards, Tim J; Green, Lyle D

    2007-10-11

    The Office of Physician Relations at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) has developed a dynamic referral productivity reporting tool for its Multidisciplinary Care Centers (MCC). The tool leverages information within the institution's Enterprise Information Warehouse (EIW) using business intelligent software Hyperion Intelligent Explorer Suite 8.3. the referral productivity reports are intended to provide each MCC with detailed referral and registration data outlining how, and from where, patients arrive here for treatment. The reports supports operational and strategic initiatives aimed at improving referral processes and market related program development.

  9. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  10. Floating production systems in a ``new economic regime``

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksen, K.; D`Souza, R.B.; Wilson, A.J.S.; Johansson, O.

    1995-12-31

    Except for a short period before, during and after the Gulf War, the oil prices have been depressed for 8--10 years. This has forced industry to be profitable at these low oil price levels. Since 1975 various floating production systems have been evaluated and used as field development solutions around the world. As technical challenges have been overcome, floating production systems have become leading contenders for traditional and deepwater field developments in this new economic regime. There are many types of Floating production systems. A few examples are--the semisubmersible Floating Production System (FPS), the monohull Floating Production, Storage and Offloading system (FPSO), the Spar Buoy and the Deep Draft Floater. As the FPS and FPSO represent proven technology and are leading contenders for several field developments in both the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, this paper will concentrate on these concepts.

  11. Intelligent pumping system developed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The oil field's first intelligent rod pumping system designed specifically to reduce the cost of pumping oil wells now is a reality. As a plus benefit, the system (called Liftronic) is compact and quiet. The new system combines an efficient mechanical design with a computer control system to reduce pumping costs. The unit stands less than 8 ft high, or approx. one-fourth the height of a comparable beam unit. It also mounts directly on the wellhead. The entire system can be concealed behind a fence or enclosed within a small building to make it a more attractive neighbor in residential, commercial, or recreational areas. It is useful also for agricultural areas where overhead irrigation systems restrict the use of many oil field pumping systems.

  12. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOICE, JOHN,; AND OTHERS

    ONE-HUNDRED MANUFACTURERS EXPRESSED INTEREST IN BIDDING FOR A SYSTEM ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION CALLED SCSD OR SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT TO THE FIRST CALIFORNIA COMMISSION ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS. TWENTY-TWO BUILDINGS COMPRISED THE PROJECT. THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DEVELOP AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF STANDARD SCHOOL BUILDING COMPONENTS…

  13. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  14. The USAF Systems Command and R and D productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchainger, V.

    1985-01-01

    The United States Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) is charged with the development and acquisition of aerospace technology systems. Much of that activity is concerned with space systems development, acquisition, and operations. Heavy emphasis is being placed on productivity in organizational and process functions which will keep aerospace systems on the leading edge of technology, with plans extending capability into the future. The productivity emphasis ranges from people-oriented activities to resource and technological functions which support national aerospace objectives. The AFSC space-related missions is discussed as a special area of productivity efforts.

  15. Career Development: A Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavenski, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a comprehensive career development system implemented by Coca-Cola USA. The system's objectives are (1) to promote from within, (2) to develop talent for the future, (3) to make managers responsible for development efforts, and (4) to make individuals ultimately responsible for their development. (CH)

  16. Exploration Medical System Technical Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, K.; Middour, C.; Cerro, J.; Burba, T.; Hanson, A.; Reilly, J.; Mindock, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element systems engineering goals include defining the technical system needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars. This past year, scenarios captured in the medical system concept of operations laid the foundation for systems engineering technical development work. The systems engineering team analyzed scenario content to identify interactions between the medical system, crewmembers, the exploration vehicle, and the ground system. This enabled the definition of functions the medical system must provide and interfaces to crewmembers and other systems. These analyses additionally lead to the development of a conceptual medical system architecture. The work supports the ExMC community-wide understanding of the functional exploration needs to be met by the medical system, the subsequent development of medical system requirements, and the system verification and validation approach utilizing terrestrial analogs and precursor exploration missions.

  17. Development of a novel recessive genetic male sterility system for hybrid seed production in maize and other cross-pollinating crops.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongzhong; Fox, Tim W; Trimnell, Mary R; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Rui-Ji; Cigan, A Mark; Huffman, Gary A; Garnaat, Carl W; Hershey, Howard; Albertsen, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel hybridization platform that utilizes nuclear male sterility to produce hybrids in maize and other cross-pollinating crops. A key component of this platform is a process termed Seed Production Technology (SPT). This process incorporates a transgenic SPT maintainer line capable of propagating nontransgenic nuclear male-sterile lines for use as female parents in hybrid production. The maize SPT maintainer line is a homozygous recessive male sterile transformed with a SPT construct containing (i) a complementary wild-type male fertility gene to restore fertility, (ii) an α-amylase gene to disrupt pollination and (iii) a seed colour marker gene. The sporophytic wild-type allele complements the recessive mutation, enabling the development of pollen grains, all of which carry the recessive allele but with only half carrying the SPT transgenes. Pollen grains with the SPT transgenes exhibit starch depletion resulting from expression of α-amylase and are unable to germinate. Pollen grains that do not carry the SPT transgenes are nontransgenic and are able to fertilize homozygous mutant plants, resulting in nontransgenic male-sterile progeny for use as female parents. Because transgenic SPT maintainer seeds express a red fluorescent protein, they can be detected and efficiently separated from seeds that do not contain the SPT transgenes by mechanical colour sorting. The SPT process has the potential to replace current approaches to pollen control in commercial maize hybrid seed production. It also has important applications for other cross-pollinating crops where it can unlock the potential for greater hybrid productivity through expanding the parental germplasm pool.

  18. Development of Cotton-Based Nonwovens Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article briefly describes the planned or projected developments of cotton-based nonwoven products, using state-of-the art technologies and equipment that now, after the devastating hurricane Katrina, have been made available for research at the Southern Regional Reserach Center. Although we sti...

  19. Increasing Sales by Developing Production Consortiums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; Russo, Robert

    Intended to help rehabilitation facility administrators increase organizational income from manufacturing and/or contracted service sources, this document provides a decision-making model for the development of a production consortium. The document consists of five chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 defines the consortium concept, explains…

  20. Developing Interim Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caetta, J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the recent challenges in the aerospace industry has been to smoothly transition operations-oriented computer systems to meet increasing demands on smaller budgets. Sometimes the best solution is not affordable, but the current situation is equally untenable.

  1. SuperB Simulation Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, L.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Del Prete, D.; Di Simone, A.; Donvito, G.; Fella, A.; Franchini, P.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Paolini, A.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a peak luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1. The SuperB Computing group is working on developing a simulation production framework capable to satisfy the experiment needs. It provides access to distributed resources in order to support both the detector design definition and its performance evaluation studies. During last year the framework has evolved from the point of view of job workflow, Grid services interfaces and technologies adoption. A complete code refactoring and sub-component language porting now permits the framework to sustain distributed production involving resources from two continents and Grid Flavors. In this paper we will report a complete description of the production system status of the art, its evolution and its integration with Grid services; in particular, we will focus on the utilization of new Grid component features as in LB and WMS version 3. Results from the last official SuperB production cycle will be reported.

  2. Learner developed materials: an empowering product.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R E; Comings, J P

    1994-01-01

    Freire used very specific materials in culture circles to support an empowering process that allowed learners to define the content and outcome of their own learning. However, the materials themselves were carefully crafted and developed by Freire and his co-workers. This article focuses on an extension of Freire's problem-posing educational methods to include participant involvement in the development and production of their own learning materials. Four linked case examples, one in literacy and three in health education, illustrate the process of participatory materials development and we discuss some issues for facilitators and learners. The production process can be an empowering experience and the product stands as testimony to the participants as self-conscious agents and critical thinkers capable of transforming their world. The resultant materials, geared to a particular locale and reflective of the people and language in the community, can provide a powerful model for those who may not have been involved in the process, but who can identify with the friends and neighbors who developed the materials. Participatory materials development is suggested as a supplement to problem-posing educational experiences and is particularly well suited for community programs.

  3. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Kimpland, Robert Herbert

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  4. A high cell density transient transfection system for therapeutic protein expression based on a CHO GS-knockout cell line: process development and product quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rajendra, Yashas; Hougland, Maria D; Alam, Riazul; Morehead, Teresa A; Barnard, Gavin C

    2015-05-01

    Transient gene expression (TGE) is a rapid method for the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. While the volumetric productivity of TGE has improved significantly over the past decade, most methods involve extensive cell line engineering and plasmid vector optimization in addition to long fed batch cultures lasting up to 21 days. Our colleagues have recently reported the development of a CHO K1SV GS-KO host cell line. By creating a bi-allelic glutamine synthetase knock out of the original CHOK1SV host cell line, they were able to improve the efficiency of generating high producing stable CHO lines for drug product manufacturing. We developed a TGE method using the same CHO K1SV GS-KO host cell line without any further cell line engineering. We also refrained from performing plasmid vector engineering. Our objective was to setup a TGE process to mimic protein quality attributes obtained from stable CHO cell line. Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated transfections were performed at high cell density (4 × 10(6) cells/mL) followed by immediate growth arrest at 32 °C for 7 days. Optimizing DNA and PEI concentrations proved to be important. Interestingly, found the direct transfection method (where DNA and PEI were added sequentially) to be superior to the more common indirect method (where DNA and PEI are first pre-complexed). Moreover, the addition of a single feed solution and a polar solvent (N,N dimethylacetamide) significantly increased product titers. The scalability of process from 2 mL to 2 L was demonstrated using multiple proteins and multiple expression volumes. Using this simple, short, 7-day TGE process, we were able to successfully produce 54 unique proteins in a fraction of the time that would have been required to produce the respective stable CHO cell lines. The list of 54 unique proteins includes mAbs, bispecific antibodies, and Fc-fusion proteins. Antibody titers of up to 350 mg/L were achieved with the simple 7-day process. Titers

  5. Series Bosch System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Evans, Christopher; Mansell, Matt; Swickrath, Michael

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SOA) carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology for the International Space Station produces methane as a byproduct. This methane is subsequently vented overboard. The associated loss of hydrogen ultimately reduces the mass of oxygen that can be recovered from CO2 in a closed-loop life support system. As an alternative to SOA CO2 reduction technology, NASA is exploring a Series-Bosch system capable of reducing CO2 with hydrogen to form water and solid carbon. This results in 100% theoretical recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. In the past, Bosch-based technology did not trade favorably against SOA technology due to a high power demand, low reaction efficiencies, concerns with carbon containment, and large resupply requirements necessary to replace expended catalyst cartridges. An alternative approach to Bosch technology, labeled "Series-Bosch," employs a new system design with optimized multi-stage reactors and a membrane-based separation and recycle capability. Multi-physics modeling of the first stage reactor, along with chemical process modeling of the integrated system, has resulted in a design with potential to trade significantly better than previous Bosch technology. The modeling process and resulting system architecture selection are discussed.

  6. Methanol production method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Michael J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  7. Ethanol production method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  8. Microarray Genomic Systems Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    test system for rapid species identification in addition to the oligonucleotide fingerprint. The test organisms for this work were Bacillus bacteria...comparisons. Results: Different species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus bacteria, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus produce qualitatively...of Bacillus bacteria were “hotter” (red) than the Escherichia coli strains (blue), which suggested gene expressions at these features were greater

  9. User Experience Evaluation Methods in Product Development (UXEM'09)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roto, Virpi; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa; Law, Effie; Vermeeren, Arnold

    High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of product development in mature consumer markets [1]. Although the term UX originated from industry and is a widely used term also in academia, the tools for managing UX in product development are still inadequate. A prerequisite for designing delightful UX in an industrial setting is to understand both the requirements tied to the pragmatic level of functionality and interaction and the requirements pertaining to the hedonic level of personal human needs, which motivate product use [2]. Understanding these requirements helps managers set UX targets for product development. The next phase in a good user-centered design process is to iteratively design and evaluate prototypes [3]. Evaluation is critical for systematically improving UX. In many approaches to UX, evaluation basically needs to be postponed until the product is fully or at least almost fully functional. However, in an industrial setting, it is very expensive to find the UX failures only at this phase of product development. Thus, product development managers and developers have a strong need to conduct UX evaluation as early as possible, well before all the parts affecting the holistic experience are available. Different types of products require evaluation on different granularity and maturity levels of a prototype. For example, due to its multi-user characteristic, a community service or an enterprise resource planning system requires a broader scope of UX evaluation than a microwave oven or a word processor that is meant for a single user at a time. Before systematic UX evaluation can be taken into practice, practical, lightweight UX evaluation methods suitable for different types of products and different phases of product readiness are needed. A considerable amount of UX research is still about the conceptual frameworks and models for user experience [4]. Besides, applying existing usability evaluation methods (UEMs) without

  10. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  11. Guidelines for Cost-Effective Training Product Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awotua-Efebo, Ebi Bio

    1984-01-01

    Presents guidelines for cost effective product development for training managers charged with quality control of products and training specialists who design materials. Discusses phases of educational product development--diagnosis, design, development, and evaluation. (MBR)

  12. Developing seamless shaped woven medical products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K; Seyam, A M

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the cutting and sewing process is utilized to produce medical products with tailored shape, which leads to a number of adverse consequences due to seams. These drawbacks have prompted us to undertake research to develop new methods by which seamless tubular woven products with inherent shape could be produced. The methods could potentially lead to the design and production of seamless shaped textiles that might be used in a wide variety of medical applications. Three variables were tested, specifically yarn shrinkage, weave designs, and thread density. A variety of samples were woven using different combinations of these variables to create structures with different shrinkage properties. Upon finishing in a solution containing a surfactant and soda ash, the structures experience different degrees of shrinkage resulting in desired shapes. Length and width dimensions of each sample were taken before and after finishing. The change in sample shape due to differential shrinkage in terms of yarn shrinkage, weave, and thread density is reported.

  13. Cover crops in vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount of work and inputs, and if not properly managed could have detrimental effects on soil and the environment. Practices such as intensive tillage, increased herbicide use, ...

  14. Arcjet system integration development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafran, Sidney

    1994-03-01

    Compatibility between an arcjet propulsion system and a communications satellite was verified by testing a Government-furnished, 1.4 kW hydrazine arcjet system with the FLTSATCOM qualification model satellite in a 9.1-meter (30-foot) diameter thermal-vacuum test chamber. Background pressure was maintained at 10(exp -5) torr during arcjet operation by cryopumping the thruster exhaust with an array of 5 K liquid helium cooled panels. Power for the arcjet system was obtained from the FLTSATCOM battery simulator. Spacecraft telemetry was monitored during each thruster firing period. No changes in telemetry data attributable to arcjet operation were detected in any of the tests. Electromagnetic compatibility data obtained included radiated emission measurements, conducted emission measurements, and cable coupling measurements. Significant noise was observed at lower frequencies. Above 500 MHz, radiated emissions were generally within limits, indicating that communication links at S-band and higher frequencies will not be affected. Other test data taken with a diagnostic array of calorimeters, radiometers, witness plates, and a residual gas analyzer evidenced compatible operation, and added to the data base for arcjet system integration. Two test series were conducted. The first series only included the arcjet and diagnostic array operating at approximately 0.1 torr background pressure. The second series added the qualification model spacecraft, a solar panel, and the helium cryopanels. Tests were conducted at 0.1 torr and 10(exp-5) torr. The arcjet thruster was canted 20 degrees relative to the solar panel axis, typical of the configuration used for stationkeeping thrusters on geosynchronous communications satellites.

  15. Arcjet system integration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, Sidney

    1994-01-01

    Compatibility between an arcjet propulsion system and a communications satellite was verified by testing a Government-furnished, 1.4 kW hydrazine arcjet system with the FLTSATCOM qualification model satellite in a 9.1-meter (30-foot) diameter thermal-vacuum test chamber. Background pressure was maintained at 10(exp -5) torr during arcjet operation by cryopumping the thruster exhaust with an array of 5 K liquid helium cooled panels. Power for the arcjet system was obtained from the FLTSATCOM battery simulator. Spacecraft telemetry was monitored during each thruster firing period. No changes in telemetry data attributable to arcjet operation were detected in any of the tests. Electromagnetic compatibility data obtained included radiated emission measurements, conducted emission measurements, and cable coupling measurements. Significant noise was observed at lower frequencies. Above 500 MHz, radiated emissions were generally within limits, indicating that communication links at S-band and higher frequencies will not be affected. Other test data taken with a diagnostic array of calorimeters, radiometers, witness plates, and a residual gas analyzer evidenced compatible operation, and added to the data base for arcjet system integration. Two test series were conducted. The first series only included the arcjet and diagnostic array operating at approximately 0.1 torr background pressure. The second series added the qualification model spacecraft, a solar panel, and the helium cryopanels. Tests were conducted at 0.1 torr and 10(exp-5) torr. The arcjet thruster was canted 20 degrees relative to the solar panel axis, typical of the configuration used for stationkeeping thrusters on geosynchronous communications satellites.

  16. Decisions on new product development under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Liu, Li-Chen; Ho, Jyh-Wen

    2015-04-01

    In an intensively competitive market, developing a new product has become a valuable strategy for companies to establish their market positions and enhance their competitive advantages. Therefore, it is essential to effectively manage the process of new product development (NPD). However, since various problems may arise in NPD projects, managers should set up some milestones and subsequently construct evaluative mechanisms to assess their feasibility. This paper employed the approach of Bayesian decision analysis to deal with the two crucial uncertainties for NPD, which are the future market share and the responses of competitors. The proposed decision process can provide a systematic analytical procedure to determine whether an NPD project should be continued or not under the consideration of whether effective usage is being made of the organisational resources. Accordingly, the proposed decision model can assist the managers in effectively addressing the NPD issue under the competitive market.

  17. Model of the Product Development Lifecycle.

    SciTech Connect

    He, Sunny L.; Roe, Natalie H.; Wood, Evan; Nachtigal, Noel M.; Helms, Jovana

    2015-10-01

    While the increased use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf information technology equipment has presented opportunities for improved cost effectiveness and flexibility, the corresponding loss of control over the product's development creates unique vulnerabilities and security concerns. Of particular interest is the possibility of a supply chain attack. A comprehensive model for the lifecycle of hardware and software products is proposed based on a survey of existing literature from academic, government, and industry sources. Seven major lifecycle stages are identified and defined: (1) Requirements, (2) Design, (3) Manufacturing for hardware and Development for software, (4) Testing, (5) Distribution, (6) Use and Maintenance, and (7) Disposal. The model is then applied to examine the risk of attacks at various stages of the lifecycle.

  18. AGT 100 automotive gas turbine system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E. G.

    1982-01-01

    General Motors is developing an automotive gas turbine system that can be an alternate powerplant for future automobiles. Work sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA Lewis Research Center is emphasizing small component aerodynamics and high-temperature structural ceramics. Reliability requirements of the AGT 100 turbine system include chemical and structural ceramic component stability in the gas turbine environment. The power train system, its configuration and schedule are presented, and its performance tested. The aerodynamic component development is reviewed with discussions on the compressor, turbine, regenerator, interturbine duct and scroll, and combustor. Ceramic component development is also reviewed, and production cost and required capital investment are taken into consideration.

  19. Partitioning in parallel processing of production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oflazer, K.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents research on certain issues related to parallel processing of production systems. It first presents a parallel production system interpreter that has been implemented on a four-processor multiprocessor. This parallel interpreter is based on Forgy's OPS5 interpreter and exploits production-level parallelism in production systems. Runs on the multiprocessor system indicate that it is possible to obtain speed-up of around 1.7 in the match computation for certain production systems when productions are split into three sets that are processed in parallel. The next issue addressed is that of partitioning a set of rules to processors in a parallel interpreter with production-level parallelism, and the extent of additional improvement in performance. The partitioning problem is formulated and an algorithm for approximate solutions is presented. The thesis next presents a parallel processing scheme for OPS5 production systems that allows some redundancy in the match computation. This redundancy enables the processing of a production to be divided into units of medium granularity each of which can be processed in parallel. Subsequently, a parallel processor architecture for implementing the parallel processing algorithm is presented.

  20. Scalability in Production System Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    production, consider, once again, Figure 2..3. The first condition is satisfied if there exists a student who is taking the programming languages course. The...second condition is satisfied if there exists no student in the programming language course whose score is higher than the score of the student...inter-condition constraint is specified by the common variable, that is, <score>. The third condition is satisfied if there exists an advisor in the

  1. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  2. Development of laser transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiawu; Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Jiandong; Zhang, Xinming

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses a light transfer system of therapeutic machine using carbon-dioxide laser. This system is based on imitating human being arm motion principle, consists of optical cardans mainly and can move in three-D space freely. Through it carbon-dioxide laser (which wavelength is 10.6 micrometer) is reflected, focused or diverged and transferred to the different therapeutic part of body to realize the purpose of cutting operation, gasification, cauterization and irradiation. This system includes an indicating system using He-Ne laser, by which carbon-dioxide laser can arrive therapeutic part accurately. This system possesses some advantages e.g. an accurate transfer, large moving range, small power consumption, high power density and easy operation. At present the occupancy in home market of this kind laser transfer system products is over 95%. Some products have been exported to other countries.

  3. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  4. Microreactor Development for Martian In-Situ Propellant Production

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Jamie D.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Hu, Jianli; Sanders, J.; Baird, S.

    2007-01-30

    The second part of the Martian In-situ Propellant Production (MIPPS) system reviews the development of the Sabatier Reactor (SR). The microchannel SR had integrated cooling channels as well as reaction channels. It was <100cc in volume. The reactor utilized a proprietary catalyst. When operated at 400oC 70-80% CO2 conversion was achieved which enabled ~0.0125 kg CH4/hr production, or 1/8th the target mission. The modular design of the microchannel reactors would enable simple scale up to full scale production for the proposed mission.

  5. Training Systems Product Group (TSPG)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-19

    Jul 06 – Sep 10 Company: LMA Date Delivered: 2003 (First WST to Keesler AFB) Additional Information Main program requirements -- Production of the...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER...2, Predator, JSF, F-15, F-16, F-22, C-17, C-130J, KC- 10 , E-3, KC-135, KC-X, JCA, MH- 53, TH-1H, T-1, JTCTRS (JTAC) Science and Technology for

  6. System for thermochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.W.; Galloway, T.R.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1981-05-22

    Method and apparatus are described for joule boosting a SO/sub 3/ decomposer using electrical instead of thermal energy to heat the reactants of the high temperature SO/sub 3/ decomposition step of a thermochemical hydrogen production process driven by a tandem mirror reactor. Joule boosting the decomposer to a sufficiently high temperature from a lower temperature heat source eliminates the need for expensive catalysts and reduces the temperature and consequent materials requirements for the reactor blanket. A particular decomposer design utilizes electrically heated silicon carbide rods, at a temperature of 1250/sup 0/K, to decompose a cross flow of SO/sub 3/ gas.

  7. High bovine blastocyst development in a static in vitro production system using SOFaa medium supplemented with sodium citrate and myo-inositol with or without serum-proteins.

    PubMed

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Schmidt, M H; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1999-09-01

    We describe a bovine embryo culture system that supports repeatable high development in the presence of serum or BSA as well as under defined conditions in the absence of those components. In the first experiment, embryo development in SOF with amino acids (SOFaa), sodium citrate (SOFaac) and myo-inositol (SOFaaci) and with BSA or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was compared with that in a M199 granulosa cell co-culture (M199 co-culture). Subsequently, development and cell numbers of blastocysts cultured under defined conditions in SOFaaci with PVA (SOFaaci-PVA), or under undefined conditions in SOFaaci with 5% cow serum (SOFaaci-CS) or M199 co-culture were compared. The repeatability of culture results in SOFaaci-CS was checked by weekly replicates (n = 30) spread over 11 months. The viability of embryos developed in SOFaaci-PVA was estimated by transfer of morphologically good blastocysts (n = 10) to synchronized recipients. In the second experiment, the effect of omitting CS or BSA from IVM and IVM-IVF on subsequent embryo development in SOFaaci-PVA or in SOFaaci-CS was investigated. Blastocyst development in SOFaa-PVA, SOFaac-PVA, SOFaa-BSA and M199 was 16 +/- 3b, 23 +/- 2ab, 30 +/- 8a and 36 +/- 7a%, respectively (Pab < 0.05). Additional inclusion of myoinositol resulted in 42 +/- 1a% blastocysts in SOFaaci-PVA vs 19 +/- 3b% in SOFaac-PVA, 47 +/- 7a% in SOFaac-BSA, and 36 +/- 7a% in M199 co-culture, respectively (Pab < 0.01). In 30 replicates, the average cleavage and blastocyst rates of oocytes in SOFaaci-CS were 87 +/- 4 and 49 +/- 5%, respectively. Five normal calves were produced after transfer of 10 blastocysts developed in defined culture medium (i.e., SOFaaci-PVA). Defined IVM or IVM-IVF (i.e., in absence of CS and BSA) reduced cleavage rates (83 +/- 3 and 55 +/- 3% vs 90 +/- 1% in presence of CS; P < 0.01). Subsequent embryo development in SOFaaci-CS was not affected in either of these defined conditions. However, cleavage and blastocyst rates under completely

  8. C-11 cyanide production system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-01-13

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2 is provided, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sup.4 , the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900 .degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60%H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  9. Product development of FGD recovered magnesium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.; Babu, M.; Smith, K.J.

    1999-07-01

    The ThioClear FGD processes developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) produce a high brightness gypsum and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) by-product. Both originate as white precipitates from a solution of magnesium sulfate. The use of magnesium-enhanced lime avoids the mineral impurities from direct neutralization when using pulverized limestone rock. White, pure FGD synthetic gypsum can be used to produce higher value products such as mineral fillers and industrial plasters. This paper focuses on the product development of the Mg(OH){sub 2} by-product. Commercial Mg(OH){sub 2} sells at over $200/Ton for a variety of uses, most of which is wastewater treatment and a feedstock to make magnesium chemicals and refractories. Beneficial uses in the power plant are pH control of acidic coal pile stormwater runoff and bottom ash quench water. A future use being explored is injection into coal fired boilers to neutralize sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) to prevent stack gas opacity related emission problems and minimize air preheater corrosion and fouling. The objective of this project is to improve the purity and solids content of the by-product after it is separated from the gypsum. Several options were investigated to convert it into a more marketable or usable form. Test results and economic evaluations are reported during the different process steps needed to improve the product quality: (1) dissolving or washing out the gypsum impurity; (2) thickening the washed solids and using the overflow for makeup water within the FGD water balance; (3) finding the best means to dewater the washed, thickened slurry; and (4) repulp the dewatered cake into a stabilized slurry or dry it to powder. Flash drying the dewatered cake is compared to spray drying the thickened slurry. FGD Mg(OH){sub 2} is shown to have equal reactivity as an acid neutralization reagent on a Mg(OH){sub 2} molar basis to commercial Mg(OH){sub 2} products and other alkaline reagents. Its use for pH control

  10. Defense mechanisms of the respiratory system and aerosol production systems.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Yarmus, Lonny; Spyratos, Dionysios; Secen, Nevena; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Huang, Haidong; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    Aerosolized therapies have been used in everyday clinical practice for decades. Experimentation with different delivery systems have led to the creation of aerosolized insulin, antibiotics, gene therapy and chemotherapy. Several of these therapies are already clinically available while others are being investigated in active clinical trials. The main factors affecting the efficiency and safety of the aerosolized therapies are the production of the aerosol, distribution/deposition of the aerosol throughout the lung parenchyma, respiratory defense mechanisms and tissue/pharmaceutical molecule interactions. Current methods of aerosol production and distribution will be presented along with an overview of the respiratory defense mechanisms. In addition, methods of aerosol evaluation in conjunction with a future perspective of the potential development of aerosol therapies will be presented.

  11. Considerations for sustainable influenza vaccine production in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nannei, Claudia; Chadwick, Christopher; Fatima, Hiba; Goldin, Shoshanna; Grubo, Myriam; Ganim, Alexandra

    2016-10-26

    Through its Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the United States Department of Health and Human Services has produced a checklist to support policy-makers and influenza vaccine manufacturers in identifying key technological, political, financial, and logistical issues affecting the sustainability of influenza vaccine production. This checklist highlights actions in five key areas that are beneficial for establishing successful local vaccine manufacturing. These five areas comprise: (1) the policy environment and health-care systems; (2) surveillance systems and influenza evidence; (3) product development and manufacturing; (4) product approval and regulation; and (5) communication to support influenza vaccination. Incorporating the checklist into national vaccine production programmes has identified the policy gaps and next steps for countries involved in GAP's Technology Transfer Initiative. Lessons learnt from country experiences provide context and insight that complement the checklist's goal of simplifying the complexities of influenza prevention, preparedness, and vaccine manufacturing.

  12. Increased central nervous system production of extracellular matrix components and development of hydrocephalus in transgenic mice overexpressing transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed Central

    Wyss-Coray, T.; Feng, L.; Masliah, E.; Ruppe, M. D.; Lee, H. S.; Toggas, S. M.; Rockenstein, E. M.; Mucke, L.

    1995-01-01

    A number of important neurological diseases, including HIV-1 encephalitis, Alzheimer's disease, and brain trauma, are associated with increased cerebral expression of the multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). To determine whether overexpression of TGF-beta 1 within the central nervous system (CNS) can contribute to the development of neuropathological alterations, a bioactive form of TGF-beta 1 was expressed in astrocytes of transgenic mice. Transgenic mice with high levels of cerebral TGF-beta 1 expression developed a severe communicating hydrocephalus, seizures, motor incoordination, and early runting. While unmanipulated heterozygous transgenic mice from a low expressor line showed no such alterations, increasing TGF-beta 1 expression in this line by injury-induced astroglial activation or generation of homozygous offspring did result in the abnormal phenotype. Notably, astroglial overexpression of TGF-beta 1 consistently induced a strong upmodulation of the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and fibronectin in the CNS, particularly in the vicinity of TGF-beta 1-expressing perivascular astrocytes, but was not associated with obvious CNS infiltration by hematogenous cells. While low levels of extracellular matrix protein expression may assist in CNS wound repair and regeneration, excessive extracellular matrix deposition could result in the development of hydrocephalus. As an effective inducer of extracellular matrix components, TGF-beta 1 may also contribute to the development of other neuropathological alterations, eg, the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7604885

  13. Development of a Rhodobacter capsulatus self-reporting model system for optimizing light-dependent, [FeFe]-hydrogenase-driven H2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Wecker, Matt S. A.; Beaton, Stephen E.; Chado, Robert A.; Ghirardi, Maria L.

    2016-08-17

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus normally photoproduces H2 as a by-product of its nitrogenase-catalyzed nitrogen-fixing activity. Such H2 production, however, is expensive from a metabolic perspective, requiring nearly four times as many photons as the equivalent algal hydrogenase-based system. Here we report the insertion of a Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its three attendant hydrogenase assembly proteins into an R. capsulatus strain lacking its native uptake hydrogenase. Further, this strain is modified to fluoresce upon sensing H2. The resulting strain photoproduces H2 and self-reports its own H2 production through fluorescence. Furthermore, this model system represents a unique method of developing hydrogenase-based H2 production in R. capsulatus, may serve as a powerful system for in vivo directed evolution of hydrogenases and hydrogenase-associated genes, and provides a means of screening for increased metabolic production of H2.

  14. Managing Risk in Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaoli, Marilyn M.; And Others

    Stanford University's use of a risk assessment methodology to improve the management of systems development projects is discussed. After examining the concepts of hazard, peril, and risk as they relate to the system development process, three ways to assess risk are covered: size, structure, and technology. The overall objective for Stanford…

  15. The star system: A production engineering approach to STS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angier, R. C.; Swartz, L. D.; Wilson, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    A fundamental change to the way Space Transportation System flight preparation is done is documented. It involves (1) systematic restructuring the Space Transportation System flight preparation task, to minimize its R&D content; (2) development of the Space Transportation Automated Reconfiguration (STAR) system to structure and support the remaining work flow. STAR is an integrated software system providing automation and quality control mechanisms necessary to create a production-like process. This approach was implemented using tools and methodology developed by IBM under NASA contract, to produce payload flight data requirements. It offers increased product quality, reduced cost per flight, and greater responsiveness to change.

  16. Direct-execution architecture for production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, W.E.; Merritt, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the artificial intelligence and robotics community a style of programming called event- or data-driven programming is widely used. Data-driven programs execute on a production system interpreter that is usually written in the list programming language LISP. The major inefficiencies of production systems are due to conventional computer architectures (designed for procedural programming) and the inefficiencies of LISP implementations. In this paper the authors explore the issues surrounding the design of a direct-execution architecture for production systems that might overcome some of these inefficiencies. 14 references.

  17. How Reuse Influences Productivity in Object-Oriented Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio L.

    1997-01-01

    Although reuse is assumed to be especially valuable in building high quality software as well as in Object Oriented (OO) development, limited empirical evidence connects reuse with productivity and quality gains. The author's eight system study begins to define such benefits in an OO framework, most notably in terms of reduce defect density and rework as well as in increased productivity.

  18. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…

  19. Vanguard industrial linear accelerator rapid product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harroun, Jim

    1994-07-01

    Siemens' ability to take the VanguardTM Industrial Linear Accelerator from the development stage to the market place in less than two years is described. Emphasis is on the development process, from the business plan through the shipment of the first commercial sale. Included are discussions on the evolution of the marketing specifications, with emphasis on imaging system requirements, as well as flexibility for expansion into other markets. Requirements used to create the engineering specifications, how they were incorporated into the design, and lessons learned from the demonstration system are covered. Some real-life examples of unanticipated problems are presented, as well as how they were resolved, including some discussion of the special problems encountered in developing a user interface and a training program for an international customer.

  20. Demonstration of a System Development Environment

    PubMed Central

    Blum, B. I.

    1985-01-01

    This demonstration illustrates how modern development environments can be used to improve the process of designing and implementing information systems. Following a brief introduction to the topic of application generation, automatic programming, and software environments, one product — TEDIUM* — will be demonstrated.

  1. Airborne Turbulence Warning System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a system by which aircraft pilots will be warned of turbulence. This networked system of in situ sensors will be mounted on various aircraft all of which are linked through a ground based parabolic antenna. As its end result, this system will attempt to reduce the number of accidents arising from turbulence.

  2. Production systems--an example from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, José Bento Sterman; Felício, Pedro Eduardo de

    2010-02-01

    Important information about the Brazilian agribusiness, population and economy are presented in this paper, as well as details of beef production, market, industry and production system, to inform people involved in meat industry about details on demography, production, economy and production systems of a country that is the largest player in beef exports in the world and that uses, mostly, Bos indicus based bovine population, reared under pasture conditions, for meat production purposes. Herd size, genetic evaluation programs, quantity of beef produced and market is informed, with figures about the global and major players' production. Some discussion related to environmental concerns, methane emission and carbon fixation is also presented, as well as meat quality. Meat quality of fed animals is also compared with beef from animals that are raised in pasture conditions.

  3. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in

  4. PATH's approach to product introduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Harner-Jay, Claudia; Sherris, Jacqueline

    2008-12-01

    Health interventions developed for wealthy nations are difficult to introduce in developing countries due to a lack of sufficient technological, financial, political, or infrastructural resources. Increasingly, however, product developers are creating new technologies that meet the needs of low-resource settings. Experience has shown that many activities must be undertaken to prepare health systems to accept and embrace new, improved, or under-utilized health technologies. This article describes three health technologies--a diagnostic test for vitamin A deficiency, new cervical cancer vaccines, and the vaccine vial monitor--that PATH, a global health organization, has helped advance for developing-country markets.

  5. New approaches to launch vehicle system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, A. D.; Matzenauer, J. O.

    1990-02-01

    DOD and NASA seek launch capabilities that are more dependable and flexible in operation and which increase vehicle cargo lift capabilities. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) has been developing new approaches to system design and operation which promise increased operational capabilities at reduced costs. The joint ALS program is addressing these goals of reduced launch costs, efficient and flexible launch operations, and enhanced industrial productivity. The new approaches to space launch capability, development, and operation established by the ALS program are summarized. Modular, simplified designs reduce complexity, labor, and costs. Total quality management principles are being applied to build in quality from inception, match system capabilities to user needs, and achieve new economies.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUBILITY PRODUCT VISUALIZATION TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Turner; A.T. Pauli; J.F. Schabron

    2004-05-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed software for the visualization of data acquired from solubility tests. The work was performed in conjunction with AB Nynas Petroleum, Nynashamn, Sweden who participated as the corporate cosponsor for this Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) task. Efforts in this project were split between software development and solubility test development. The Microsoft Windows-compatible software developed inputs up to three solubility data sets, calculates the parameters for six solid body types to fit the data, and interactively displays the results in three dimensions. Several infrared spectroscopy techniques have been examined for potential use in determining bitumen solubility in various solvents. Reflectance, time-averaged absorbance, and transmittance techniques were applied to bitumen samples in single and binary solvent systems. None of the techniques were found to have wide applicability.

  7. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    Advanced fuel cell active components have been developed and scaled up from laboratory scale to commercial scale. Full width components of both the stabilized nickel cathodes and the low chrome anodes have been successfully cast on M-C Power's production tape caster. An improved design for a fuel cell separator plate has been developed. The improved design meets the goals of lower cost and manufacturing simplicity, and addresses performance issues of the current commercial area plate. The engineering that the Bechtel Corporation has completed for the MCFC power plant includes a site design, a preliminary site layout, a Process Flow Diagram, and specification for the procurement of some of the major equipment items. Raw materials for anode and cathode components were ordered and received during the first half of 1993. Tape casting of anodes was started in late summer and continued through August. In addition to the technical progress mentioned above, an environment assessment was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). As a result, the PDT has received a categorical exclusion from the Air Pollution Control District permit requirements. The PDT is configured to demonstrate the viability of natural gas-fueled MCFC for the production of electricity and thermal energy in an environmentally benign manner for use in commercial and industrial applications.

  9. Technical developments of OTEC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trenka, A.R.; Thomas, A.; Vega, L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology Program seeks to develop the technology of converting the ocean's vast energy resource into usable forms to the point where industry can assess its potential, commercial utility. The current focus in the program is on the utilization of open-cycle OTEC to produce electricity. The open-cycle OTEC process is one of the few alternative energy options which provides the potential for baseload-carrying capability. This paper provides a very brief overview of the program activities and focuses on results recently obtained from the program's experimental facility designed to allow testing of OC-OTEC subsystems under actual operating conditions utilizing seawater. The facility, referred to as the Seacoast Test Facility (STF), is currently composed of a Heat and Mass Transfer Scoping Test Apparatus (HMTSTA) being supplied by up to 1600 gallons per minute of warm seawater and 1000 gallons per minute of cold seawater. Researchers have obtained experimental data on the performance of evaporators and surface condensers. Also, information on mist elimination and deaeration processes have been obtained. Plans call for modification to the HMTSTA to accommodate the addition of direct-contact condensers. Summary results will be discussed addressing recent studies, by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), of corrosion and biofouling of aluminum alloy surface condensers. Also discussed is the production of desalinated seawater using an open-cycle OTEC process. Finally to be discussed will be recent developments in OTEC turbines and an assessment of seawater supply systems required for OTEC. A brief overview of the program's future plans also will be presented. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Experience in the development and introduction of a full scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit at Mosenergo TETs-27 heat and electric power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kopsov, A. Ya.; Sviderskii, A. G.; Bilenko, V. A.; Dobrev, E. N.; Ukolov, S. V.; Zhezherya, D. A.; Plotnikov, D. V.; Shavochkin, I. A.; Manevskaya, O. A.; Asoskov, O. G.

    2009-03-15

    This is a description of experience in the development and introduction of a full-scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit of station No. 3 at the TETs-27 heat and electric power station of JSC 'Mosenergo' based on the latest, fourth generation program package SPPA-T3000, which is being used for the first time in Russia for steam-gas units. The fundamental technical solutions for the structure of the process control system are described, along with the features of the algorithms for control of the main engineering equipment in electric power plants based on the PGU-450.

  11. An automated system for production of 89Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, A. L.; Schweitzer, G. D.; Lawrence, L. A.; Madrid, E.; Lapi, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed an automated system for routine production of 89Zr. This system has automated a separation process from the literature that uses a hydroxamate resin column to purify 89Zr from an 89Y target. We have designed this system to give production personnel control over every step in the process through an easy to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that also gives step-by-step instructions for the process. This system is currently transitioning from its testing phase at low activities, so further testing and improvements are planned to increase product recovery and to improve the consistency of its product. To date production runs on the order of 10 mCi of 89Zr have been tested, and effective specific activities of 545 mCi/μmol and radionuclidic purity greater than 99.99% have been achieved.

  12. A Two-Component Alkyne Metathesis Catalyst System with an Improved Substrate Scope and Functional Group Tolerance: Development and Applications to Natural Product Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schaubach, Sebastian; Gebauer, Konrad; Ungeheuer, Felix; Hoffmeister, Laura; Ilg, Marina K; Wirtz, Conny; Fürstner, Alois

    2016-06-13

    Although molybdenum alkylidyne complexes such as 1 endowed with triarylsilanolate ligands are excellent catalysts for alkyne metathesis, they can encounter limitations when (multiple) protic sites are present in a given substrate and/or when forcing conditions are necessary. In such cases, a catalyst formed in situ upon mixing of the trisamidomolybenum alkylidyne complex 3 and the readily available trisilanol derivatives 8 or 11 shows significantly better performance. This two-component system worked well for a series of model compounds comprising primary, secondary or phenolic -OH groups, as well as for a set of challenging (bis)propargylic substrates. Its remarkable efficiency is also evident from applications to the total syntheses of manshurolide, a highly strained sesquiterpene lactone with kinase inhibitory activity, and the structurally demanding immunosuppressive cyclodiyne ivorenolide A; in either case, the standard catalyst 1 largely failed to effect the critical macrocyclization, whereas the two-component system was fully operative. A study directed toward the quinolizidine alkaloid lythrancepine I features yet another instructive example, in that a triyne substrate was metathesized with the help of 3/11 such that two of the triple bonds participated in ring closure, while the third one passed uncompromised. As a spin-off of this project, a much improved ruthenium catalyst for the redox isomerization of propargyl alcohols to the corresponding enones was developed.

  13. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system and production of herbicide-resistant transgenic plants in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-08-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits.

  14. Operational development of small plant growth systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken on the first phase of an empricial effort in the development of small plant growth chambers for production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are discussed. The overall effort is visualized as providing the underpinning of practical experience in handling of plant systems in space which will provide major support for future efforts in planning, design, and construction of plant-based (phytomechanical) systems for support of human habitation in space. The assumptions underlying the effort hold that large scale phytomechanical habitability support systems for future space stations must evolve from the simple to the complex. The highly complex final systems will be developed from the accumulated experience and data gathered from repetitive tests and trials of fragments or subsystems of the whole in an operational mode. These developing system components will, meanwhile, serve a useful operational function in providing psychological support and diversion for the crews.

  15. Development of Waste Reduction System of Wastewater Treatment Process Using a Moss: Production of Useful Materials from Remainder of a Moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumihisa, Kobayashi

    Landfill leachate pollution presents a serious environmental problem. It would be valuable to develop a sustainable method, one that is inexpensive and requires little energy, to eliminate the pollution and dispose of the waste. In a previous study, we reported the results of a leachate treatment for landfills in which we relied on the moss, Scopelophia cataractae, to support a sustainable method of waste reduction. In this study, for the development of a waste reduction system of landfill leachate treatment, we attempted to produce zinc as useful metal and ethanol as fuel from the remainder of moss after wastewater treatment. Steam explosions, which were used as physicochemical pretreatments to expose the raw material to saturated steam under high pressure and temperature, were used to pretreat the moss. By electrolysis, zinc recovered, and the maximum zinc recovery after wastewater treatment was 0.504 at 2.0 MPa steam pressure (211 °C) and 5 min steaming time. After that time, by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using a Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 0.42 g dm-3 of the maximum ethanol concentration was produced from 10 g dm-3 of exploded moss at 2.5 MPa steam pressure (223 °C) and 1 min steaming time.

  16. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  17. Biomass Production System (BPS) plant growth unit.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Crabb, T M

    2000-01-01

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses its own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive.

  18. Rolls-Royce implementing new production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    An advanced, integrated manufacturing systems system is being implemented in Rolls-Royce production facilities in order to cut unit production costs by reducing lead times, manning levels and inventories. The topics discussed include the program outline, planned subcontracting, the machining operation that includes isothermal forming of wide-chord hollow blades, carbon fiber production of subsystems including thrust reversers, continuous dress creep feed grinding, the directionally solidified casting facility that can produce single-crystal blades without modification to the casting furnaces, and a robot machining line.

  19. Instructional Systems Development Model for Interactive Videodisc Training Delivery Systems. Volume I. Hardware, Software, and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    and production, as well as the relative merit of videotaae versus film -based production. Each of the steps involved in disc develop- ment is outlined...VAP Systems . . . . . . . . . . 86 Film -Based Videodisc Authoring and Production Systems . . 86 Authoring . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. 86...65 13. Media flow chart-- film ............ 66 14. Major steps of videodisc production . . . . .. 67 15. An example of a format grid for a

  20. Geographic information system development in the CARETS project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, William B.; Fegeas, Robin G.; Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1977-01-01

    Experience in the development of a geographic information system to support the CARETS project has confirmed the considerable advantages that may accrue by paralleling the system development with a rational and balanced system production effort which permits the integration of the education and training of users with interim deliverable products to them. Those advantages include support for a long-term staff plan that recognizes substantial staff changes through system development and implementation, a fiscal plan that provides continuity in resources necessary for total system development, and a feedback system which allows the user to communicate his experiences in using the system. Thus far balance between system development and system production has not been achieved because of continuing large-scale spatial data processing requirements coupled with strong and insistent demands from users for immediately deliverable products from the system. That imbalance has refocussed staffing and fiscal plans from long-term system development to short- and near-term production requirements, continuously extends total system development time, and increases the possibility that later system development may reduce the usefulness of current interim products.

  1. RBSE: Product development team research activity deliverables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GHG Functions and Extensions to be added to the NASA Electronic Library System (NELS) 1.1 product are described. These functions will implement the 'output request' capability within the Object Browser. The functions will be implemented in two parts. The first part is a code to be added to the Object Browser (X version) to implement menus allowing the user to request that objects be copied to specific media, or that objects be downloaded to the user's system following a specific protocol, or that the object be printed to one of the printers attached to the host system. The second part is shell scripts which support the various menu selections. Additional scripts to support functions within the GHG shell (X version) will also be created along with the X version of the GHG Shell as initial capability for the 27 Mar. prototype. The scripts will be composed of C shell routines that will accept parameters (primary file pathways). Certain limitations in functionality will invoke Mail instead of Oracle Mail since that has yet to be delivered and the NELS invocation will default to the X-Windows version instead of the ASCII version.

  2. A product-service system approach to telehealth application design.

    PubMed

    Flores-Vaquero, Paul; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Hutabarat, Windo; Turner, Chris

    2016-06-01

    A considerable proportion of current point-of-care devices do not offer a wide enough set of capabilities if they are to function in any telehealth system. There is a need for intermediate devices that lie between healthcare devices and service networks. The development of an application is suggested that allows for a smartphone to take the role of an intermediate device. This research seeks to identify the telehealth service requirements for long-term condition management using a product-service system approach. The use of product-service system has proven to be a suitable methodology for the design and development of telehealth smartphone applications.

  3. Considerations in the early development of biosimilar products.

    PubMed

    Li, Edward C; Abbas, Richat; Jacobs, Ira A; Yin, Donghua

    2015-05-01

    The widespread use and patent expiration of many biologics have led to global interest in development of biosimilar products. Because the manufacture of biologics, including biosimilars, is a complex process involving living systems, the development of a biosimilar is more rigorous than the development of a generic small molecule drug. Several regulatory agencies have established or are proposing guidelines that recommend a stepwise process to ensure the efficacy and safety of a biosimilar are highly similar to the reference product. This article also explores the early clinical phase of biosimilar development, which is particularly important to resolving any uncertainties that might remain following in vitro and in vivo evaluations and to enable a selective and targeted approach to Phase III clinical efficacy and safety investigation.

  4. Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.

    1989-03-21

    It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums

  5. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  6. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  7. Firmware Development Improves System Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Most manufacturing processes require physical pointwise positioning of the components or tools from one location to another. Typical mechanical systems utilize either stop-and-go or fixed feed-rate procession to accomplish the task. The first approach achieves positional accuracy but prolongs overall time and increases wear on the mechanical system. The second approach sustains the throughput but compromises positional accuracy. A computer firmware approach has been developed to optimize this point wise mechanism by utilizing programmable interrupt controls to synchronize engineering processes 'on the fly'. This principle has been implemented in an eddy current imaging system to demonstrate the improvement. Software programs were developed that enable a mechanical controller card to transmit interrupts to a system controller as a trigger signal to initiate an eddy current data acquisition routine. The advantages are: (1) optimized manufacturing processes, (2) increased throughput of the system, (3) improved positional accuracy, and (4) reduced wear and tear on the mechanical system.

  8. Integrable systems on semidirect product Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capriotti, S.; Montani, H.

    2014-05-01

    We study integrable systems on the semidirect product of a Lie group and its Lie algebra as the representation space of the adjoint action. Regarding the tangent bundle of a Lie group as phase space endowed with this semidirect product Lie group structure, we construct a class of symplectic submanifolds equipped with a Dirac bracket on which integrable systems (in the Adler-Kostant-Symes sense) are naturally built through collective dynamics. In doing so, we address other issues such as factorization, Poisson-Lie structures and dressing actions. We show that the procedure becomes recursive for some particular Hamilton functions, giving rise to a tower of nested integrable systems.

  9. Parallel machine architecture for production rule systems

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Jr., John D.; Butler, Philip L.

    1989-01-01

    A parallel processing system for production rule programs utilizes a host processor for storing production rule right hand sides (RHS) and a plurality of rule processors for storing left hand sides (LHS). The rule processors operate in parallel in the recognize phase of the system recognize -Act Cycle to match their respective LHS's against a stored list of working memory elements (WME) in order to find a self consistent set of WME's. The list of WME is dynamically varied during the Act phase of the system in which the host executes or fires rule RHS's for those rules for which a self-consistent set has been found by the rule processors. The host transmits instructions for creating or deleting working memory elements as dictated by the rule firings until the rule processors are unable to find any further self-consistent working memory element sets at which time the production rule system is halted.

  10. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  11. Development of a stereofluoroscopy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    A technique of 3-D video imaging, was developed for use on manned missions for observation and control of remote manipulators. An improved medical diagnostic fluoroscope with a stereo, real-time output was also developed. An explanation of how this system works, and recommendations for future work in this area are presented.

  12. Development of Vocational Training Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    The EUROTECNET program was implemented to develop and improve vocational training policies and systems to meet the challenges of change in the economic and social situation through the development of innovative responses and actions. Each Member State of the European Community was asked to identify one issue of strategic and critical importance to…

  13. Multipurpose simulation systems for regional development forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Kostina, N.I.

    1995-09-01

    We examine the development of automaton-modeling multipurpose simulation systems as an efficient form of simulation software for MIS. Such systems constitute a single problem-oriented package of applications based on a general simulation model, which is equipped with a task source language, interaction tools, file management tools, and an output document editor. The simulation models are described by the method of probabilistic-automaton modeling, which ensures standard representation of models and standardization of the modeling algorithm. Examples of such systems include the demographic forecasting system DEPROG, the VOKON system for assessing the quality of consumer services in terms of free time, and the SONET system for servicing partially accessible customers. The development of computer-aided systems for production and economic control is now moving to the second state, namely operationalization of optimization and forecasting problems, whose solution may account for the main economic effect of MIS. Computation and information problems, which were the main focus of the first stage of MIS development, are thus acquiring the role of a source of information for optimization and forecasting problems in addition to their direct contribution to preparation and analysis of current production and economic information.

  14. Systematic Approach to the Development, Evolution, and Effectiveness of Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Margie Jeffs; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2011-06-01

    Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDT) are a key component of any systems engineering (SE) application, but since they are formed primarily from technical considerations, many IPDTs are far less productive than they otherwise could be. By recognizing specific personality types and skill sets, a random group of 'technical' individuals can be structured to become a highly effective team capable of delivering much more than the sum of its members.

  15. Production Facility System Reliability Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Crystal Buchanan; Klein, Steven Karl

    2015-10-06

    This document describes the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) modeling of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) design for the Closed Loop Helium Cooling System (CLHCS) planned for the NorthStar accelerator-based 99Mo production facility. The current analysis incorporates a conceptual helium recovery system, beam diagnostics, and prototype control system into the reliability analysis. The results from the 1000 hr blower test are addressed.

  16. Expression systems for heterologous production of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Parachin, Nádia Skorupa; Mulder, Kelly Cristina; Viana, Antônio Américo Barbosa; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) consist of molecules that act on the defense systems of numerous organisms toward multiple pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. These compounds have become extremely significant due to the increasing resistance of microorganisms to common antibiotics. However, the low quantity of peptides obtained from direct purification is, to date, still a remarkable bottleneck for scientific and industrial research development. Therefore, this review describes the main heterologous systems currently used for AMP production, including bacteria, fungi and plants, and also the related strategies for reaching greater functional peptide production. The main difficulties of each system are also described in order to provide some directions for AMP production. In summary, data revised here indicate that large-scale production of AMPs can be obtained using biotechnological tools, and the products may be applied in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in agribusiness.

  17. Innovative production system goes in off Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, M.; Barnes, J. |

    1995-07-17

    The phased field development of the Lion and Panthere fields, offshore the Ivory Coast, includes a small floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) tanker with minimal processing capability as an early oil production system (EPS). For the long-term production scheme, the FPSO will be replaced by a converted jack up mobile offshore production system (MOPS) with full process equipment. The development also includes guyed-caisson well platforms, pipeline export for natural gas to fuel an onshore power plant, and a floating storage and offloading (FSO) tanker for oil export. Pipeline export for oil is a future possibility. This array of innovative strategies and techniques seldom has been brought together in a single project. The paper describes the development plan, early oil, jack up MOPS, and transport and installation.

  18. Conception of Self-Construction Production Scheduling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hai; Zhang, Xuerui; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Fujimura, Shigeru

    With the high speed innovation of information technology, many production scheduling systems have been developed. However, a lot of customization according to individual production environment is required, and then a large investment for development and maintenance is indispensable. Therefore now the direction to construct scheduling systems should be changed. The final objective of this research aims at developing a system which is built by it extracting the scheduling technique automatically through the daily production scheduling work, so that an investment will be reduced. This extraction mechanism should be applied for various production processes for the interoperability. Using the master information extracted by the system, production scheduling operators can be supported to accelerate the production scheduling work easily and accurately without any restriction of scheduling operations. By installing this extraction mechanism, it is easy to introduce scheduling system without a lot of expense for customization. In this paper, at first a model for expressing a scheduling problem is proposed. Then the guideline to extract the scheduling information and use the extracted information is shown and some applied functions are also proposed based on it.

  19. Development of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity.

  20. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  1. Contrail Tracking and ARM Data Product Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, David P.; Russell, James, III

    2005-01-01

    A contrail tracking system was developed to help in the assessment of the effect of commercial jet contrails on the Earth's radiative budget. The tracking system was built by combining meteorological data from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) numerical weather prediction model with commercial air traffic flight track data and satellite imagery. A statistical contrail-forecasting model was created a combination of surface-based contrail observations and numerical weather analyses and forecasts. This model allows predictions of widespread contrail occurrences for contrail research on either a real-time basis or for long-term time scales. Satellite-derived cirrus cloud properties in polluted and unpolluted regions were compared to determine the impact of air traffic on cirrus.

  2. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last.

  3. Developing a Continuous Improvement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    conducted that demonstrated that certi- fied organizations using quality standards produce better products or services than non-certified ones. Advantages... quality to process quality . There are several organizational process standards available. But the most popular one is ISO 9001, which is the interna...tionally recognized series of standards for an effective quality conformance system, with over a million certified organiza- tions worldwide. Other

  4. Managing the Development of Information Products: An Experiential Learning Strategy for Product Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, T. M.

    2002-01-01

    Maintains that technical communicators can retain their place on product development teams by re-engineering project environments. Describes an experiential learning strategy in project management to help technical communicators work with other information technology (IT) practitioners. Examines the solutions the teams produced for three projects…

  5. Telerobotic work system: Concept development and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The basic concept of a telerobotic work system (TWS) consists of two dexterous manipulator arms controlled from a remote station. The term telerobotic describes a system that is a combination of teleoperator control and robotic operation. Work represents the function of producing physical changes. System describes the integration of components and subsystems to effectively accomplish the needed mission. Telerobotics reduces exposure to hazards for flight crewmembers and increases their productivity. The requirements for the TWS are derived from both the mission needs and the functional capabilities of existing hardware and software to meet those needs. The development of the TWS is discussed.

  6. Chinese vaccine products go global: vaccine development and quality control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    Through the continuous efforts of several generations, China has become one of the few countries in the world that is capable of independently addressing all the requirements by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Regulatory science is applied to continuously improve the vaccine regulatory system. Passing the prequalification by WHO has allowed Chinese vaccine products to go global. Chinese vaccine products not only secure disease prevention and control domestically but also serve the needs for international public health. This article describes the history of Chinese vaccine development, the current situation of Chinese vaccine industry and its contribution to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We also share our experience of national quality control and vaccine regulation during the past decades. China's experience in vaccine development and quality control can benefit other countries and regions worldwide, including the developing countries.

  7. The 2GCHAS: A high productivity software development environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, Larry

    1986-01-01

    To the user, the most visible feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is its very powerful user interface. To the programmer, TAE's user interface, proc concept, standardized interface definitions, and hierarchy search provide a set of tools for rapidly prototyping or developing production software. The 2GCHAS (Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System) project has extended and enhanced these mechanisms, creating a powerful and high productivity programming environment where the 2GCHAS development environment is 2GCHAS itself and where a sustained rate for certified, documented, and tested software above 30 delivered source instructions per programmer day has been achieved. The 2GCHAS environment is not limited to helicopter analysis, but is applicable to other disciplines where software development is important.

  8. In vitro meat production system: why and how?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Thind, Sukhcharanjit Singh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2015-12-01

    Due to the nutritional importance and the sustained popularity of meat as a foodstuff, the livestock production sector has been expanding incessantly. This exponential growth of livestock meat sector poses a gigantic challenge to the sustainability of food production system. A new technological breakthrough is being contemplated to develop a substitute for livestock meat. The idea is to grow meat in a culture in the lab and manipulate its composition selectively. This paper aims to discuss the concept of In Vitro Meat production system, articulate the underlying technology and analyse the context of its implications, as proposed by several scientists and stakeholders. The challenges facing this emerging technology have also been discussed.

  9. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Product Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, S. L.; Suggs, R. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Product Generation System (GPGS) is introduced and described. GPGS is a set of computer programs developed and maintained at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center and is designed to generate meteorological data products using visible and infrared measurements from the GOES-East Imager and Sounder instruments. The products that are produced by GPGS are skin temperature, total precipitable water, cloud top pressure, cloud albedo, surface albedo, and surface insolation. A robust cloud mask is also generated. The retrieval methodology for each product is described to include algorithm descriptions and required inputs and outputs for the programs. Validation is supplied where applicable.

  10. Systems Engineering Metrics: Organizational Complexity and Product Quality Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative organizational complexity and product quality models applicable to performance metrics for NASA-MSFC's Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory (SAIL) missions and objectives are presented. An intensive research effort focuses on the synergistic combination of stochastic process modeling, nodal and spatial decomposition techniques, organizational and computational complexity, systems science and metrics, chaos, and proprietary statistical tools for accelerated risk assessment. This is followed by the development of a preliminary model, which is uniquely applicable and robust for quantitative purposes. Exercise of the preliminary model using a generic system hierarchy and the AXAF-I architectural hierarchy is provided. The Kendall test for positive dependence provides an initial verification and validation of the model. Finally, the research and development of the innovation is revisited, prior to peer review. This research and development effort results in near-term, measurable SAIL organizational and product quality methodologies, enhanced organizational risk assessment and evolutionary modeling results, and 91 improved statistical quantification of SAIL productivity interests.

  11. Production systems need negation as failure

    SciTech Connect

    Phan Minh Dung; Mancarella, P.

    1996-12-31

    We study action rule based systems with two forms of negation, namely classical negation and {open_quotes}negation as failure to find a course of actions{close_quotes}. We show by several examples that adding negation as failure to such systems increase their expressiveness, in the sense that real life problems can be represented in a natural and simple way. Then, we address the problem of providing a formal declarative semantics to these extended systems, by adopting an argumentation based approach, which has been shown to be a simple unifying framework for understanding the declarative semantics of various nonmonotonic formalisms. In this way, we naturally define the grounded (well-founded), stable and preferred semantics for production systems with negation as failure. Next, we characterize the class of stratified production systems, which enjoy the properties that the above mentioned semantics coincide and that negation as failure can be computed by a simple bottom-up operator.

  12. Functionality of probiotics - potential for product development.

    PubMed

    Dekker, James; Collett, Michael; Prasad, Jaya; Gopal, Pramod

    2007-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly accepted by consumers that live lactic acid bacteria do exert health benefits when eaten. In addition, it is also becoming recognised that not all probiotic bacteria are equal. It is now no longer just a question of providing sufficient numbers of viable bacteria in a product; industry must also provide proof of efficacy for each strain. In the early 1990s, Fonterra embarked on a programme to develop proprietary probiotic strains, and as a result, commercialised two strains, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. Over the past decade, Fonterra has developed a significant body of peerreviewed published reports around these strains, including studies showing safety in animal and human trials, protection against pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, modulation of human and animal immune markers at realistic dose rates, and efficacy in human clinical trials. Based on this work, HN019 and HN001 have been applied to several functional foods both by Fonterra (under the DR10 and DR20 brands, respectively) and by third parties (e.g. under the HOWARU brand by Danisco). While the 'gold standard' of proof of efficacy is a phase III clinical trial, ethical considerations as well as expense preclude the use of clinical trials as screening tools for probiotics. Therefore, biomarkers have to be employed to identify strains with probiotic utility, and to define the different positive health benefits of existing probiotic strains. However, as the mechanisms by which most probiotic bacteria exert their health benefits remain unclear, the question of which biomarkers accurately reflect efficacy in vivo remains unresolved. With recent technological advances, and the shift toward probiotics targeted to specific conditions, researchers are beginning to tease out how probiotic bacteria work, and it is this knowledge that will inform biomarker development and improve the ability to offer the market safe

  13. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  14. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, Harold M.; Chen, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  15. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  16. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  17. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 4: Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implementation plan which is presented was developed to provide the means for the successful implementation of the automated production control system. There are three factors which the implementation plan encompasses: detailed planning; phased implementation; and user involvement. The plan is detailed to the task level in terms of necessary activities as the system is developed, refined, installed, and tested. These tasks are scheduled, on a preliminary basis, over a two-and-one-half-year time frame.

  18. The Future of Product Line Development at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's software production in the light of a product line similar to a commercial product line. The authors propose to identify, investigate, evaluate and apply product-line engineering techniques to NASA's product lines in order to improve the timeliness, robustness and effectiveness of these future systems.

  19. Automated systems to identify relevant documents in product risk management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Product risk management involves critical assessment of the risks and benefits of health products circulating in the market. One of the important sources of safety information is the primary literature, especially for newer products which regulatory authorities have relatively little experience with. Although the primary literature provides vast and diverse information, only a small proportion of which is useful for product risk assessment work. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using text mining to automate the identification of useful articles, which will reduce the time taken for literature search and hence improving work efficiency. In this study, term-frequency inverse document-frequency values were computed for predictors extracted from the titles and abstracts of articles related to three tumour necrosis factors-alpha blockers. A general automated system was developed using only general predictors and was tested for its generalizability using articles related to four other drug classes. Several specific automated systems were developed using both general and specific predictors and training sets of different sizes in order to determine the minimum number of articles required for developing such systems. Results The general automated system had an area under the curve value of 0.731 and was able to rank 34.6% and 46.2% of the total number of 'useful' articles among the first 10% and 20% of the articles presented to the evaluators when tested on the generalizability set. However, its use may be limited by the subjective definition of useful articles. For the specific automated system, it was found that only 20 articles were required to develop a specific automated system with a prediction performance (AUC 0.748) that was better than that of general automated system. Conclusions Specific automated systems can be developed rapidly and avoid problems caused by subjective definition of useful articles. Thus the efficiency of

  20. Final Report - Development of New Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Technology to Recover High Valued Products from Chemical Plant and Refinery Waste Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Ludwig

    2004-06-14

    Project Objective was to extend pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology into previously under-exploited applications such as polyolefin production vent gas recovery and H2 recovery from refinery waste gases containing significant amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, aromatics, or H2S.

  1. Productivity changes in OECD healthcare systems: bias-corrected Malmquist productivity approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younhee; Oh, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Minah

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates productivity changes in the healthcare systems of 30 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries over the 2002-2012 periods. The bootstrapped Malmquist approach is used to estimate bias-corrected indices of healthcare performance in productivity, efficiency and technology by modifying the original distance functions. Two inputs (health expenditure and school life expectancy) and two outputs (life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rate) are used to calculate productivity growth. There are no perceptible trends in productivity changes over the 2002-2012 periods, but positive productivity improvement has been noticed for most OECD countries. The result also informs considerable variations in annual productivity scores across the countries. Average annual productivity growth is evenly yielded by efficiency and technical changes, but both changes run somewhat differently across the years. The results of this study assert that policy reforms in OECD countries have improved productivity growth in healthcare systems over the past decade. Countries that lag behind in productivity growth should benchmark peer countries' practices to increase performance by prioritizing an achievable trajectory based on socioeconomic conditions. For example, relatively inefficient countries in this study indicate higher income inequality, corresponding to inequality and health outcomes studies. Although income inequality and globalization are not direct measures to estimate healthcare productivity in this study, these issues could be latent factors to explain cross-country healthcare productivity for future research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to

  3. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  4. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  5. Development of a nitrogen generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Marshall, R. D.; Powell, J. D., III; Schubert, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    An eight-stage nitrogen generation module was developed. The design integrated a hydrazine catalytic dissociator, three ammonia dissociation stages and four palladium/silver hydrogen separator stages. Alternating ammonia dissociation and hydrogen separation stages are used to remove hydrogen and ammonia formed in the dissociation of hydrazine which results in negligible ammonia and hydrogen concentrations in the product nitrogen stream. An engineering breadboard nitrogen supply subsystem was also developed. It was developed as an integratable subsystem for a central spacecraft air revitalization system. The subsystem consists of the hydrazine storage and feed mechanism, the nitrogen generation module, the peripheral mechanical and electrical components required to control and monitor subsystem performance, and the instrumentation required to interface with other subsystems of an air revitalization system. The breadboard nitrogen supply subsystem was integrated and tested with a one-person capacity experimental air revitalization system. The integration, checkout and testing was successfully accomplished.

  6. Development of Constellation's Launch Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lougheed, Kirk D.; Peaden, Cary J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program's Launch Control System (LCS) development effort at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It provides a brief history of some preceding efforts to provide launch control and ground processing systems for other NASA programs, and some lessons learned from those experiences. It then provides high level descriptions of the LCS mission, objectives, organization, architecture, and progress. It discusses some of our development tenets, including our use of standards based design and use of off-the-shelf products whenever possible, incremental development cycles, and highly reliable, available, and supportable enterprise class system servers. It concludes with some new lessons learned and our plans for the future.

  7. Production Testing Of Electro-Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, S. L.

    1982-12-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company builds a variety of Electra-Optical Systems within its Manufacturing Division in El Segundo, California. The magnitude of the testing function within the manufacturing cycle of these systems, whether they are a Laser Fire Control System, a Thermal Imaging System, or some type of dedicated electronics, is almost beyond measure. Whereas testing was once quite simple, today's more complex products demand more complex test strategies. In our typical manufacturing cycle, there are at least nine (9) separate areas in which testing related to the product (end-item) may be performed. In this paper, an overview of these test areas will be discussed along with same of the considerations that are necessary for a logical manufacturing test strategy.

  8. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the spring of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I developed a system health and status display for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of the servers, gateways, network switches, and firewalls used in the firing room.

  9. Cost Analysis of a Concentrator Photovoltaic Hydrogen Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J. R.; McConnell, R. D.; Mosleh, M.

    2005-08-01

    The development of efficient, renewable methods of producing hydrogen are essential for the success of the hydrogen economy. Since the feedstock for electrolysis is water, there are no harmful pollutants emitted during the use of the fuel. Furthermore, it has become evident that concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems have a number of unique attributes that could shortcut the development process, and increase the efficiency of hydrogen production to a point where economics will then drive the commercial development to mass scale.

  10. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  11. Systems Biology of Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Bunk, Boyke; Fürch, Tobias; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter

    Over the last two decades the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was systematically developed to a useful alternative protein production host. Multiple vector systems for high yield intra- and extracellular protein production were constructed. Strong inducible promoters were combined with DNA sequences for optimised ribosome binding sites, various leader peptides for protein export and N- as well as C-terminal affinity tags for affinity chromatographic purification of the desired protein. High cell density cultivation and recombinant protein production were successfully tested. For further system biology based control and optimisation of the production process the genomes of two B. megaterium strains were completely elucidated, DNA arrays designed, proteome, fluxome and metabolome analyses performed and all data integrated using the bioinformatics platform MEGABAC. Now, solid theoretical and experimental bases for primary modeling attempts of the production process are available.

  12. 21 CFR 601.21 - Products under development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Products under development. 601.21 Section 601.21...) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.21 Products under development. A biological product undergoing development, but not yet ready for a biologics license, may be shipped or otherwise delivered from one...

  13. 15 CFR 12.3 - Development of voluntary product standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of voluntary product... AND LABELING § 12.3 Development of voluntary product standards. (a) Invitation to participate in the development of a voluntary product standard. Whenever the Secretary publishes a final determination of...

  14. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  15. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  16. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall... shall incorporate such evaluation throughout product design, development, and fabrication, as early...

  17. [Transgenic plants as medicine production systems].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y

    1997-10-01

    Transgenic plants are emerging as an important system for the expression of many recombinant proteins, especially those intended for therapeutic purpose. The production of foreign proteins in plants has several advantages. In terms of required equipment and cost, mass production in plants is far easier to achieve than techniques involving animal cells. Successful production of several proteins in plants, including human serum albumin, haemoglobin, monoclonal antibodies, viral antigens (vaccines), enkephalin, and trichosanthin, has been reported. Particularly, the demonstration that vaccine antigens can be produced in plants in their native, immunogenic forms opens exciting possibilities for the "bio-farming" of vaccines. If the antigens are orally active, food-based "edible vaccines" could allow economical production. In this review, I will discuss the progress that has been made by several groups in what is now an expanding area of medicine research that utilizes transgenic plants.

  18. Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.

  19. Carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on global warming has become an important national and international concern. Dairy production systems along with all other types of animal agriculture are recognized as a source of GHG. Although little information exists on the net GHG emiss...

  20. Assessing carbon footprints of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The farm-gate carbon footprint of milk quantifies the net greenhouse gas emissions of a dairy production system. Published values vary widely depending upon farm management practices and the calculation method used. Standard procedures for calculating the carbon footprint of milk are now established...

  1. Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.; Medley, G. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The first objective of this project is to develop a user-friendly, PC, foam drilling computer model, FOAM, which will accurately predict frictional pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocity, foam quality, and other drilling variables. The model will allow operating and service companies to accurately predict pressures and flow rates required at the surface and downhole to efficiently drill oil and gas wells with foam systems. The second objective of this project is to develop a lightweight drilling fluid that utilizes hollow glass spheres to reduce the density of the fluid and allow drilling underbalanced in low-pressure reservoirs. Since the resulting fluid will be incompressible, hydraulics calculations are greatly simplified, and expensive air compressors and booster pumps are eliminated. This lightweight fluid will also eliminate corrosion and downhole fire problems encountered with aerated fluids. Many tight-gas reservoirs in the US are attractive targets for underbalanced drilling because they are located in hard-rock country where tight, low-permeability formations compound the effect of formation damage encountered with conventional drilling fluids.

  2. Entropy Production in Convective Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersing, Nele; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Exploring hydrothermal reservoirs requires reliable estimates of subsurface temperatures to delineate favorable locations of boreholes. It is therefore of fundamental and practical importance to understand the thermodynamic behavior of the system in order to predict its performance with numerical studies. To this end, the thermodynamic measure of entropy production is considered as a useful abstraction tool to characterize the convective state of a system since it accounts for dissipative heat processes and gives insight into the system's average behavior in a statistical sense. Solving the underlying conservation principles of a convective hydrothermal system is sensitive to initial conditions and boundary conditions which in turn are prone to uncertain knowledge in subsurface parameters. There exist multiple numerical solutions to the mathematical description of a convective system and the prediction becomes even more challenging as the vigor of convection increases. Thus, the variety of possible modes contained in such highly non-linear problems needs to be quantified. A synthetic study is carried out to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a finite porous layer heated from below. Various two-dimensional models are created such that their corresponding Rayleigh numbers lie in a range from the sub-critical linear to the supercritical non-linear regime, that is purely conductive to convection-dominated systems. Entropy production is found to describe the transient evolution of convective processes fairly well and can be used to identify thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, varying the aspect ratio for each Rayleigh number shows that the variety of realized convection modes increases with both larger aspect ratio and higher Rayleigh number. This phenomenon is also reflected by an enlarged spread of entropy production for the realized modes. Consequently, the Rayleigh number can be correlated to the magnitude of entropy production. In cases of moderate

  3. Development of a system of innovative insulated building blocks under energy related inventions grant. Quarterly progress report, ThermaLock Products, Inc., October 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-04-05

    Progress is reported on research pertaining to insulated building blocks. Areas covered include coursing, the development of a stuffing machine, block fabrication, designs for earthquake testing, and sound tests.

  4. Advances in ethanol production using immobilized cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Margaritis, A.; Merchant, F.J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The application of immobilized cell systems for the production of ethanol has resulted in substantial improvements in the efficiency of the process when compared to the traditional free cell system. In this review, the various methods of cell immobilization employed in ethanol production systems have been described in detail. Their salient features, performance characteristics, advantages and limitations have been critically assessed. More recently, these immobilized cell systems have also been employed for the production of ethanol from non-conventional feedstocks such as Jerusalem artichoke extracts, cheese whey, cellulose, cellobiose and xylose. Ethanol production by immobilized yeast and bacterial cells has been attempted in various bioreactor types. Although most of these studies have been carried out using laboratory scale prototype bioreactors, it appears that only fluidized bed, horizontally packed bed bioreactors and tower fermenters may find application on scale-up. Several studies have indicated that upon immobilization, yeast cells performing ethanol fermentation exhibit more favourable physiological and metabolic properties. This, in addition to substantial improvements in ethanol productivities by immobilized cell systems, is indicative of the fact that future developments in the production of ethanol and alcoholic beverages will be directed towards the use of immobilized cell systems. 291 references.

  5. DRS uncooled VOx infrared detector development and production status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Hess, Cory

    2010-04-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past decade on uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) technology development and production capacity at DRS as well as other domestic and overseas suppliers. This resulted in the proliferation of uncooled IR detectors in commercial and military markets. The uncooled detectors are widely used in firefighting, surveillance, industrial process monitoring, machine vision, and medical applications. In the military arena, uncooled detectors are fielded among diverse systems such as weapon sights, driver enhancement viewers, helmet-mounted sights, airborne and ground surveillance sensors including UAVs and robot vehicles. Pixel dimensions have continually decreased with an increase in pixel performance. This paper presents an overview of the DRS 25- and 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled VOx detector technology development and production status. The DRS uncooled FPA products include 320x240 and 640x480 arrays while the larger 1024x768 17-micron pitch array is at engineering prototype quantities. Current production of the 25-micron pitch 320x240 and 640x480 arrays exceeds 5,000 units per month, supporting U.S. military systems such as Army thermal weapon sights (TWS) and driver vision enhancers (DVE). Next generation systems are moving towards the 17-micron pixel pitch detectors. Advancement in small pixel technology has enabled the 17-micron pitch detectors performance to surpass their 25-micron pitch counterparts. To meet future production demand of the 17-micron pitch UFPAs, DRS has made significant investment in production infrastructure to upgrade its tools. These investments include a new DUV stepper, coater, and plasma etcher plus improvements in its manufacturing techniques to enhance yield. These advanced tools reduce the minimum line width in production below 0.35μm and are now being used to manufacture the 17-micron 320x240 and 640x480 arrays. To further technology development, DRS continues to engage in R&D activities

  6. Constructed wetlands as biofuel production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Xu; Chang, Jie; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Shi, Yan; Xue, Hui; Peng, Changhui; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-03-01

    Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Progress has been made in reducing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and nitrogen fertilizer consumption through biofuel production. Here we advocate an alternative approach that efficiently produces cellulosic biofuel and greatly reduces GHG emissions using waste nitrogen through wastewater treatment with constructed wetlands in China. Our combined experimental and literature data demonstrate that the net life-cycle energy output of constructed wetlands is higher than that of corn, soybean, switchgrass, low-input high-diversity grassland and algae systems. Energy output from existing constructed wetlands is ~237% of the input for biofuel production and can be enhanced through optimizing the nitrogen supply, hydrologic flow patterns and plant species selection. Assuming that all waste nitrogen in China could be used by constructed wetlands, biofuel production can account for 6.7% of national gasoline consumption. We also find that constructed wetlands have a greater GHG reduction than the existing biofuel production systems in a full life-cycle analysis. This alternative approach is worth pursuing because of its great potential for straightforward operation, its economic competitiveness and many ecological benefits.

  7. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  8. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. The developmental dynamics of marmoset monkey vocal production.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, D Y; Fenley, A R; Teramoto, Y; Narayanan, D Z; Borjon, J I; Holmes, P; Ghazanfar, A A

    2015-08-14

    Human vocal development occurs through two parallel interactive processes that transform infant cries into more mature vocalizations, such as cooing sounds and babbling. First, natural categories of sounds change as the vocal apparatus matures. Second, parental vocal feedback sensitizes infants to certain features of those sounds, and the sounds are modified accordingly. Paradoxically, our closest living ancestors, nonhuman primates, are thought to undergo few or no production-related acoustic changes during development, and any such changes are thought to be impervious to social feedback. Using early and dense sampling, quantitative tracking of acoustic changes, and biomechanical modeling, we showed that vocalizations in infant marmoset monkeys undergo dramatic changes that cannot be solely attributed to simple consequences of growth. Using parental interaction experiments, we found that contingent parental feedback influences the rate of vocal development. These findings overturn decades-old ideas about primate vocalizations and show that marmoset monkeys are a compelling model system for early vocal development in humans.

  9. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  10. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level.

  11. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

  12. Mobile munitions assessment system development

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, L.C.; Watts, K.D.; Jorgensen, C.L.

    1996-05-01

    The United States has been involved in the development, testing, storage and disposal of chemical weapons since World War I. As a result, there are numerous sites which contain the presence of chemical warfare materiel. This materiel is in the form of buried surplus munitions, munitions that did not detonate during testing and other forms. These items pose a significant human health and environmental hazard and must be disposed of properly. The US Army was tasked by the Department of Defense with the remediation of all non-stockpile chemical warfare materiel. To help comply with this tasking, the Army Project Manager for Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel is sponsoring the development of a Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS). The system is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Dugway Proving Ground. The purpose of the system is to inspect suspect munitions and containers, identify the fill, evaluate the fuzing and firing train and analyze samples from the surrounding area to determine if chemical warfare materiel is present. The information gained from the application of the MMAS and other systems is intended to be used to establish the best method to handle and dispose of a given munition and its contents.

  13. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1983-05-24

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  14. GCS support/development system configuration document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.

    1990-01-01

    The software programming environment used in the development of Guidance and Control Software (GCS) implementations used in a software error studies experiment conducted by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the NASA-Langley is described. The Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines are fulfilled, and requirements for document number 9 in which the hardware, software, and processes used to develop and maintain the software for the GCS project are described. The software programming environment for GCS largely consists of tools that are included in Digital Equipment Corporations software layered product library or are a part of the VAX/VMS baseline system.

  15. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, Harold M.; Chen, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  16. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1981-09-24

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  17. Consumer product safety: A systems problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The manufacturer, tester, retailer, consumer, repairer disposer, trade and professional associations, national and international standards bodies, and governments in several roles are all involved in consumer product safety. A preliminary analysis, drawing on system safety techniques, is utilized to distinguish the inter-relations of these many groups and the responsibilities that they are or could take for product safety, including the slow accident hazards as well as the more commonly discussed fast accident hazards. The importance of interactive computer aided information flow among these groups is particularly stressed.

  18. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  19. Control System for Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlman, Inga

    2008-10-01

    Ecological sustainability presupposes that a global human population acts in such ways, that their total impact on the biosphere, together with nature's reactions, keeps the biosphere sufficient for sustaining generations to come. Human conduct is ultimately controlled by means of law. The problem can be summed up as: Controlling system—Population—Sustainable ecosystems This paper discusses two interlinked issues: a) the social scientific need for systems theory in the context of achieving and maintaining sustainable development and b) how theory of anticipatory modelling and computing can be applied when constructing and applying societal controlling systems for ecological sustainability with as much local democracy and economic efficiency as possible.

  20. Fluidic hydrogen detector production prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, G. W.; Wright, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen gas sensor that can replace catalytic combustion sensors used to detect leaks in the liquid hydrogen transfer systems at Kennedy Space Center was developed. A fluidic sensor concept, based on the principle that the frequency of a fluidic oscillator is proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of its operating fluid, was utilized. To minimize sensitivity to pressure and temperature fluctuations, and to make the sensor specific for hydrogen, two oscillators are used. One oscillator operates on sample gas containing hydrogen, while the other operates on sample gas with the hydrogen converted to steam. The conversion is accomplished with a small catalytic converter. The frequency difference is taken, and the hydrogen concentration computed with a simple digital processing circuit. The output from the sensor is an analog signal proportional to hydrogen content. The sensor is shown to be accurate and insensitive to severe environmental disturbances. It is also specific for hydrogen, even with large helium concentrations in the sample gas.

  1. Human productivity in space and systems costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. H.

    Human productivity during assembly operations in-orbit is dependent on limits set by fatigue, metabolic rates, learning, and assembly techniques. In order to quantify these effects, tests were conducted in the NASA MSFC Neutral Buoyancy Simulator, in the NASA KC-135 in parabolic flight, and in space with the EASE program during the Shuttle Atlantis mission 61-B. A separate program attempted to relate productivity to system costs. Because of the surprisingly high productivity which had been demonstrated in orbit, it was shown that assembly operations would have only a small effect on system costs at the present level of launch costs. The results of these continuing studies have been reported in a recent paper(1). They will be briefly summarized here and the results updated to include additional cost elements and to examine the effects of reductions in transportation costs, resulting from advances in technology and from increased demand, on system costs. It is shown that, as launch costs are reduced, the assembly costs could become an increasingly important component of the total system costs.

  2. Transition From NASA Space Communication Systems to Commerical Communication Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghazvinian, Farzad; Lindsey, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Transitioning from twenty-five years of space communication system architecting, engineering and development to creating and marketing of commercial communication system hardware and software products is no simple task for small, high-tech system engineering companies whose major source of revenue has been the U.S. Government. Yet, many small businesses are faced with this onerous and perplexing task. The purpose of this talk/paper is to present one small business (LinCom) approach to taking advantage of the systems engineering expertise and knowledge captured in physical neural networks and simulation software by supporting numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, TDRSS, Space Station, DCSC, Milstar, etc. The innovative ingredients needed for a systems house to transition to a wireless communication system products house that supports personal communication services and networks (PCS and PCN) development in a global economy will be discussed. Efficient methods for using past government sponsored space system research and development to transition to VLSI communication chip set products will be presented along with notions of how synergy between government and industry can be maintained to benefit both parties.

  3. Challenges in inhaled product development and opportunities for open innovation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Ben; Asgharian, Bahman; Dailey, Lea Ann; Ferguson, Douglas; Gerde, Per; Gumbleton, Mark; Gustavsson, Lena; Hardy, Colin; Hassall, David; Jones, Rhys; Lock, Ruth; Maas, Janet; McGovern, Tim; Pitcairn, Gary R; Somers, Graham; Wolff, Ron K

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry, safety and the efficacy of drugs in the lungs are critical factors in the development of inhaled medicines. This article considers the challenges in each of these areas with reference to current industry practices for developing inhaled products, and suggests collaborative scientific approaches to address these challenges. The portfolio of molecules requiring delivery by inhalation has expanded rapidly to include novel drugs for lung disease, combination therapies, biopharmaceuticals and candidates for systemic delivery via the lung. For these drugs to be developed as inhaled medicines, a better understanding of their fate in the lungs and how this might be modified is required. Harmonized approaches based on 'best practice' are advocated for dosimetry and safety studies; this would provide coherent data to help product developers and regulatory agencies differentiate new inhaled drug products. To date, there are limited reports describing full temporal relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) measurements. A better understanding of pulmonary PK and PK/PD relationships would help mitigate the risk of not engaging successfully or persistently with the drug target as well as identifying the potential for drug accumulation in the lung or excessive systemic exposure. Recommendations are made for (i) better industry-academia-regulatory co-operation, (ii) sharing of pre-competitive data, and (iii) open innovation through collaborative research in key topics such as lung deposition, drug solubility and dissolution in lung fluid, adaptive responses in safety studies, biomarker development and validation, the role of transporters in pulmonary drug disposition, target localisation within the lung and the determinants of local efficacy following inhaled drug administration.

  4. Knowledge systems for sustainable development

    PubMed Central

    Cash, David W.; Clark, William C.; Alcock, Frank; Dickson, Nancy M.; Eckley, Noelle; Guston, David H.; Jäger, Jill; Mitchell, Ronald B.

    2003-01-01

    The challenge of meeting human development needs while protecting the earth's life support systems confronts scientists, technologists, policy makers, and communities from local to global levels. Many believe that science and technology (S&T) must play a more central role in sustainable development, yet little systematic scholarship exists on how to create institutions that effectively harness S&T for sustainability. This study suggests that efforts to mobilize S&T for sustainability are more likely to be effective when they manage boundaries between knowledge and action in ways that simultaneously enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the information they produce. Effective systems apply a variety of institutional mechanisms that facilitate communication, translation and mediation across boundaries. PMID:12777623

  5. Energy saving system using by-product hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Hirofumi; Yamarnoto, Hirotaka; Ganke, Toshihiko; Satake, Ichirou; Nogi, Toshihide; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    The authors in conjunction with Shikoku Electric Power and Toagosei have been developing a new energy saving system using by-product hydrogen assisted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AISI) of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) since 1993. The main unit of the system is a 100-kW class phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) utilizing by-product hydrogen. The development technology of this hydrogen PAFC system include the following items; (1) recycling technology for using unreacted exhaust hydrogen at the anode outlet (2) safe processing technology of exhaust hydrogen. The system was constructed at the Tokushima plant of Toagosei and has operated from December 1996. The total operating time reached over 3000 h as of June 1997. The demonstration test will be conducted from 1996 through FY 1998.

  6. Inserting Agility in System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature...1,700 individuals and 71 countries, found Scrum and eXtreme Programming to be the most widely followed method- ologies (VersionOne, 2007). Other...University http://www.dau.mil 259 Defense ARJ, July 2012, Vol. 19 No. 3 : 249–264 Scrum Scrum is a framework used for project management, which is

  7. Systems Biology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides Production

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications, and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However, only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover, a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore, a systems-based approach constitutes an important step toward understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism, and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan, and dextran. PMID:26734603

  8. Remote Arrhythmia Monitoring System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liszka, Kathy J.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is taking a step forward with the efforts of team members from the NASA Glenn Research Center, the MetroHealth campus of Case Western University, and the University of Akron. The Arrhythmia Monitoring System is a completed, working test bed developed at Glenn that collects real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a mobile or homebound patient, combines these signals with global positioning system (GPS) location data, and transmits them to a remote station for display and monitoring. Approximately 300,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks, which are arrhythmia cases. However, not all patients identified at risk for arrhythmias can be monitored continuously because of technological and economical limitations. Such patients, who are at moderate risk of arrhythmias, would benefit from technology that would permit long-term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment. Embedded Web Technology developed at Glenn to remotely command and collect data from embedded systems using Web technology is the catalyst for this new telemetry system (ref. 1). In the end-to-end system architecture, ECG signals are collected from a patient using an event recorder and are transmitted to a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) using Bluetooth, a short-range wireless technology. The PDA concurrently tracks the patient's location via a connection to a GPS receiver. A long distance link is established via a standard Internet connection over a 2.5-generation Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS)1 cellular, wireless infrastructure. Then, the digital signal is transmitted to a call center for monitoring by medical professionals.

  9. MCFC integrated system in a biodiesel production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, F.; Freni, S.; Galvagno, A.; Chiodo, V.

    2011-03-01

    The continuous increasing in biodiesel production by transesterification process is leading to an excess of glycerol production as a byproduct. The utilization of this huge amount of glycerol appears as a not easy solvable problem and thus several authors have proposed alternative ways. The integration of the main production process with a glycerol feed molten carbonate fuel cells bottoming cycle, to satisfy plant energy requirements, seems to be one of the most promising one. The proposed paper reports the main results obtained by authors in the framework of an investigation on a possible use of glycerol as energy sources for a real pilot plant for biodiesel production. An overall evaluation of worldwide biodiesel production plants was made and especially about the production capacity in European Union in the last decade. To make a more detailed study, authors were taken into account a real production plant. After a preliminary step, purported to plant mass and energy flows determination, authors considered the integration of a bottoming cycle based on: (i) steam reforming of glycerol for syn-gas production; (ii) molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) system supplied by syn-gas for heat and electricity production. A mathematical model, based on experimental data, has been developed to calculate mass and energy balances for the proposed plant lay-out as well as plant energy efficiency enhancement has been determined. Results have evidenced the feasibility of this process and demonstrated that plant integrated with bottoming cycle can reach a very high level of energy self-production.

  10. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Khaselev, O.; Bansal, A.; Kocha, S.; Turner, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    With an eye towards developing a photoelectrochemical system for hydrogen production using sunlight as the only energy input, two types of systems were studied, both involving multijunction devices. One set of cells consisted of a-Si triple junctions and the other a GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs tandem cell combination. Additional investigations were carried out on semiconductor surface modifications to move semiconductor band edges to more favorable energetic positions.

  11. ITER Plasma Control System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snipes, Joseph; ITER PCS Design Team

    2015-11-01

    The development of the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) continues with the preliminary design phase for 1st plasma and early plasma operation in H/He up to Ip = 15 MA in L-mode. The design is being developed through a contract between the ITER Organization and a consortium of plasma control experts from EU and US fusion laboratories, which is expected to be completed in time for a design review at the end of 2016. This design phase concentrates on breakdown including early ECH power and magnetic control of the poloidal field null, plasma current, shape, and position. Basic kinetic control of the heating (ECH, ICH, NBI) and fueling systems is also included. Disruption prediction, mitigation, and maintaining stable operation are also included because of the high magnetic and kinetic stored energy present already for early plasma operation. Support functions for error field topology and equilibrium reconstruction are also required. All of the control functions also must be integrated into an architecture that will be capable of the required complexity of all ITER scenarios. A database is also being developed to collect and manage PCS functional requirements from operational scenarios that were defined in the Conceptual Design with links to proposed event handling strategies and control algorithms for initial basic control functions. A brief status of the PCS development will be presented together with a proposed schedule for design phases up to DT operation.

  12. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  13. Development of Human System Integration at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McGuire, Kerry; Thompson, Shelby; Vos, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    , HSI must be considered early in the requirements development phase of system design and acquisition. This will provide the best opportunity to maximize return on investment (ROI) and system performance. HSI requirements must be developed in conjunction with capability ]based requirements generation through functional. HSI requirements will drive HSI metrics and embed HSI issues within the system design. After a system is designed, implementation of HSI oversights can be very expensive. An HSI program should be included as an integral part of a total system approach to vehicle and habitat development. This would include, but not limited to, workstation design, D&C development, volumetric analysis, training, operations, and human -robotic interaction. HSI is a necessary process for Human Space Flight programs to meet the Agency Human ]System standards and thus mitigate human risks to acceptable levels. NASA has been involved in HSI planning, procedures development, process, and implementation for many years, and has been building several internal and publicly accessible products to facilitate HSI fs inclusion in the NASA Systems Engineering Lifecycle. Some of these products include: NASA STD 3001 Volumes 1 and 2, Human Integration Design Handbook, NASA HSI Implementation Plan, NASA HSI Implementation Plan Templates, NASA HSI Implementation Handbook, and a 2 ]hour short course on HSI delivered as part of the NASA Space and Life Sciences Directorate Academy. These products have been created leveraging industry best practices and lessons learned from other Federal Government agencies.

  14. Development of a full-length human protein production pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Justin; Petritis, Brianne; Sau, Sujay; Rauf, Femina; Gaskin, Michael; Ober-Reynolds, Benjamin; Mineyev, Irina; Magee, Mitch; Chaput, John; Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    There are many proteomic applications that require large collections of purified protein, but parallel production of large numbers of different proteins remains a very challenging task. To help meet the needs of the scientific community, we have developed a human protein production pipeline. Using high-throughput (HT) methods, we transferred the genes of 31 full-length proteins into three expression vectors, and expressed the collection as N-terminal HaloTag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and two commercial cell-free (CF) systems, wheat germ extract (WGE) and HeLa cell extract (HCE). Expression was assessed by labeling the fusion proteins specifically and covalently with a fluorescent HaloTag ligand and detecting its fluorescence on a LabChip® GX microfluidic capillary gel electrophoresis instrument. This automated, HT assay provided both qualitative and quantitative assessment of recombinant protein. E. coli was only capable of expressing 20% of the test collection in the supernatant fraction with ≥20 μg yields, whereas CF systems had ≥83% success rates. We purified expressed proteins using an automated HaloTag purification method. We purified 20, 33, and 42% of the test collection from E. coli, WGE, and HCE, respectively, with yields ≥1 μg and ≥90% purity. Based on these observations, we have developed a triage strategy for producing full-length human proteins in these three expression systems. PMID:24806540

  15. GOES-R AWG product processing system framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, S.; Wolf, Walter; Li, A.; Yu, T.; Garcia, R.; Martin, G.; Liu, X.; Straka, W.; Fan, M.; Schiffer, E.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-11-01

    NOAA/NESDIS/STAR has designed, developed, and implemented the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R Series (GOES-R) Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Product Processing System Framework. The Framework enabled the development and testing of the Level 2 Advance Baseline Imager (ABI) and the GOES-R Lightning Mapper (GLM) products within a single system. Fifty-six GOES-R ABI algorithms and one GLM algorithm have been integrated and run within the framework with product precedence. The Framework has been modified to be a plug-and-play system with the scientific algorithms. To enable the plug-and-play capabilities, the fifty-seven ABI and GLM algorithms were adjusted such that any data required by the algorithm is brought into the algorithm through function calls. These modifications allowed an algorithm to be developed either within the Framework or within the scientist's offline research system. This approach provided both the algorithm developers and algorithm integrators the ability to work on the same software since the algorithm may be "dropped" into both systems resulting in simple algorithm rollbacks. The design features and the current status of the framework will be discussed.

  16. Genetically engineered plants in the product development pipeline in India

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Ranjini; Pande, Hem

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology. It is the first comprehensive overview of the R&D pipeline for GE crops in India. PMID:26954729

  17. Genetically engineered plants in the product development pipeline in India.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Ranjini; Pande, Hem

    2016-01-02

    In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology. It is the first comprehensive overview of the R&D pipeline for GE crops in India.

  18. Enhanced Schwinger pair production in many-centre systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillion-Gourdeau, François; Lorin, Emmanuel; Bandrauk, André D.

    2013-09-01

    Electron-positron pair production is considered for many-centre systems with multiple bare nuclei immersed in a constant electric field. It is shown that there are two distinct regimes where the pair production rate is enhanced. At small interatomic distance, the effective charge of the nuclei approaches the critical charge where the ground state dives into the negative continuum. This facilitates the transition from the negative to the positive energy states, which in turn increases the pair production rate. At larger atomic distance, the enhancement is due to the crossing of resonances and the pair production proceeds by the resonantly enhanced pair production mechanism. These processes are studied within a simple one-dimensional model. A numerical method is developed to evaluate the transmission coefficient in relativistic quantum mechanics, which is required in the calculation of the pair production rate. The latter is evaluated for systems with many (up to five) nuclei. It is shown that the production rate for many-centre systems can reach a few orders of magnitude above Schwinger’s tunnelling result in a static field.

  19. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  20. Poultry blood from slaughterhouses: development of a biopreservation system to improve microbiological quality prior to transforming blood into by-products.

    PubMed

    Zbrun, M V; Frizzo, L S; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Sequeira, G J; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rossler, E; Berisvil, A; Romero Scharpen, A; Signorini, M L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with specific additives as a Biopreservation System (BS) for poultry blood during its storage in slaughterhouses. The BS consisted of two LAB (Enterococcus faecalis DSPV 008SA or Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 032SA) with 4 additives (lactose 2 g/l, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, ammonium citrate 0.4 g/l and NaCl 1 g/l). After 24 h storage at 30ºC, lower counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were evident in blood treated with the BS than in untreated blood. The ability of LAB to prevent haemolysis was evident. A decrease in pH was associated with control of spoilage microorganisms but it needed to be regulated to prevent coagulation of proteins. On the basis of these results it is recommended to supplement blood with a BS to avoid undesirable changes during blood storage before processing.

  1. NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

  2. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  3. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsalus, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  4. Deepwater production systems for the Bay of Campeche

    SciTech Connect

    Heideman, J.C.; Finn, L.D.; Hansen, R.L.; Santala, M.J.; Vyas, Y.K.; Wong, P.C.; Pontigo, F.A.

    1994-12-31

    Deepwater production systems are considered for the 300--500 m water depth range in the Bay of Campeche. In comparison with the northern Gulf of Mexico, the physical environment is found to have similar seafloor soils; similar winter storms; no Loop Current; less severe hurricanes; and weak earthquake-induced groundmotions. Oil reservoirs are expected to be larger than those in the northern Gulf, and well flow rates greater. Under these conditions, and based on industry experience in various offshore oil provinces, steel piled jackets, compliant piled towers, tension leg platforms, and floating production systems, alone or in connection with subsea production systems, are all judged to be technically viable candidates for full-field development with permanent structures.

  5. Cold Fusion Production and Decay of Neutron-Deficient Isotopes of Dubnium and Development of Extraction Systems for Group V Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn M.

    2008-07-31

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070$+1100\\atop{-760}$ pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660$+450\\atop{-370}$ pb was measured at 22.0 ± 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the 209Bi(50Ti,n)258Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480$+1730\\atop{-1370}$ pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.6 MeV. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier. The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid and mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments was to find a system that demonstrates selectivity among the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z = 105). Experiments with niobium and tantalum were performed with carrier (10-6 M), carrier free (10-10 M) and trace (10-16 M) concentrations of metal using hydrochloric acid solution with concentrations ranging from 1 - 11 M. The extraction of niobium and tantalum from mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by HDEHP and BEHP as a function of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration was also investigated. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of niobium and tantalum under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms. The 74Se(18O,p3n)88gNb excitation function was measured to determine the best energy for producing the 88Nb used in chemistry experiments. A maximum cross section of 495 +- 5 mb was observed at an 18O energy of 74.0 Me

  6. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  7. Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

  8. Issues and concerns in nanotech product development and its commercialization.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Kakkar, Vandita; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Yadav, Monika; Singh, Mandeep; Sharma, Ikksheta

    2014-11-10

    The revolutionary and ubiquitous nature of nanotechnology has fetched it a considerable attention in the past few decades. Even though its enablement and application to various sectors including pharmaceutical drug development is increasing with the enormous government aided funding for nanotechnology-based products, however the parallel commercialization of these systems has not picked up a similar impetus. The technology however does address the unmet needs of pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their solubility, bioavailability or toxicity profiles as observed from the wide array of high-quality research publications appearing in various scientific journals and magazines. Based on our decade-long experience in the field of nanotech-based drug delivery systems and extensive literature survey, we perceive that the major hiccups to the marketing of these nanotechnology products can be categorized as 1) inadequate regulatory framework; 2) lack of support and acceptance by the public, practicing physician, and industry; 3) developmental considerations like scalability, reproducibility, characterization, quality control, and suitable translation; 4) toxicological issues and safety profiles; 5) lack of available multidisciplinary platforms; and, 6) poor intellectual property protection. The present review dwells on these issues elaborating the trends followed by the industry, regulatory role of the USFDA and their implication, and the challenges set forth for a successful translation of these products from the lab and different clinical phases to the market.

  9. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  10. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  11. An integrative modeling framework to evaluate the productivity and sustainability of biofuel crop production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X; Izaurralde, R. C.; Manowitz, D.; West, T. O.; Thomson, A. M.; Post, Wilfred M; Bandaru, Vara Prasad; Nichols, Jeff; Williams, J.

    2010-10-01

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: (1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, (2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and (3) an evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a nine-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to (1) simulate biofuel crop production, (2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and (3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  12. An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

    2010-09-08

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  13. Automatic Production Planning System to Achieve Flexible Direct Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Tsumaya, Akira; Arai, Eiji

    For shortening of production lead-time, it is needed to eliminate time and efforts for process and operation planning after product design. However, a conventional NC machine tool has no autonomy and intelligence to achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing”. Because CL data and cutting parameters for machining operation have to be determined precisely in process and operation planning. In this study, in order to realize an autonomous and intelligent machine tool, the digital copy milling system which allows to generate tool paths during machining operation, and the trouble free machining strategy which allows to adapt cutting parameters, have been developed. And, an automatic process and operation planning system has been developed to integrate with the functions mentioned. This planning system works on commercial CAD software, and a prototype of autonomous and intelligent machine tool can achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing” which does not require any effort to prepare an NC program.

  14. Development and Testing of the VAHIRR Radar Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe III; Miller, Juli; Charnasky, Debbie; Gillen, Robert; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Hood, Doris; McNamara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) and Flight Rules (FR) are used for launches and landings at government and commercial spaceports. They are designed to avoid natural and triggered lightning strikes to space vehicles, which can endanger the vehicle, payload, and general public. The previous LLCC and FR were shown to be overly restrictive, potentially leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. A radar algorithm called Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), along with new LLCC and FR for anvil clouds, were developed using data collected by the Airborne Field Mill II research program. VAHIRR is calculated at every horizontal position in the coverage area of the radar and can be displayed similar to a two-dimensional derived reflectivity product, such as composite reflectivity or echo tops. It is the arithmetic product of two quantities not currently generated by the Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D): a volume average of the reflectivity measured in dBZ and the average cloud thickness based on the average echo top height and base height. This presentation will describe the VAHIRR algorithm, and then explain how the VAHIRR radar product was implemented and tested on a clone of the National Weather Service's (NWS) Open Radar Product Generator (ORPG-clone). The VAHIRR radar product was then incorporated into the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), to make it more convenient for weather forecasters to utilize. Finally, the reliability of the VAHIRR radar product was tested with real-time level II radar data from the WSR-88D NWS Melbourne radar.

  15. Case for real-time systems development - Quo vadis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, Dona M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper focuses on the distinctive issues of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) products for the development of real-time systems. CASE technologies and associated standardization efforts are evolving from sets of conflicting interests. The majority of case products are intended for use in the development of management information systems. CASE products to support the development of large, complex real-time systems must provide additional capabilities. Generic concerns include the quality of the implementation of the required method for the phase of the system's development and whether the vendor is stable and committed to evolving the products in parallel with nonproprietary standards. The CASE market is undergoing considerable consolidation. The paper describes the major forces, cooperating entities, and remaining uncertainties that need to be weighed in near-term CASE procurements to limit risk of loss of investment in project time, trianing, and money.

  16. Design of petroleum products terminal wastewater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum products terminals, used in conjunction with transportation operations to accomplish the flow of products from their source in refineries down to the consumers, are relatively simple facilities comprising product storage, the means for connecting storage to transportation operations, and other operations to support those functions. Although wastewater generation at terminals is relatively minor, increasingly strict regulation of wastewater from even minor sources is making it more critical that terminal wastewater handling, treatment, and disposal be understood and optimized to ensure that effective wastewater treatment is accomplished at reasonable cost. Anticipating the increased demands on terminal wastewater handling, the API Marketing Terminal Effluent Task Force has sponsored a number of studies to characterize wastewater at terminals and to develop practical means for treating the water. In addition, the Task Force sponsored Texaco`s writing of the report on which this paper is based, API 4602, Minimization, Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters. This paper highlights some of the key recommendations in the report, which are: (1) begin characterizing the terminal`s tank bottoms water flow and quality as soon as possible; (2) determine the optimum wastewater disposal option; (3) for most situations, segregate stormwater from contaminated water; (4) if wastewater is treated, use a collection tank to equalize the flow and concentration of tank bottoms water; (5) if wastewater is hauled off to a disposal company, consider removing benzene first; and (6) minimize the use of detergents in the terminal.

  17. Perinatal development of circadian melatonin production in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Zeman, M; Gwinner, E; Herichová, I; Lamosová, D; Kost'ál, L

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the situation in mammals, in which circadian melatonin production by the pineal gland does not begin until some time after birth, the development of pineal gland rhythmicity is an embryonic event in the precocial domestic fowl. A distinct melatonin rhythm was found in 19-d-old chick embryos maintained under light:dark (LD) 16:8. No significant variation in melatonin levels was detected in embryos exposed to LD 8:16. The melatonin rhythm in the pineal gland and plasma of chick embryos incubated for 18 d in LD 12:12 persisted for 2 d in constant darkness indicating that melatonin production is under circadian control at least from the end of embryonic life. A 1-d exposure to a LD cycle during the first postembryonic day was sufficient to entrain the melatonin rhythm, and previous embryonic exposure to either LD or constant darkness (DD) neither modified this rapid synchronization nor did it affect the melatonin pattern during the two subsequent days in DD. It is suggested that, in contrast to the situation in mammals, the avian embryo has evolved its own early circadian melatonin-producing system because, as a consequence of its extrauterine development, it cannot use the system of its mother.

  18. An assessment on hydrogen production using central receiver solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgen, C.; Bilgen, E.

    An assessment is presented on hydrogen production using a dedicated central receiver solar system concept coupled to two types of hydrogen producing processes, electrolysis and thermochemical. The study on solar electrolytic hydrogen was carried out using solar electricity and four different electrolytic technologies, namely, industrial unipolar 1980 and 1983 technologies, industrial bipolar and solid polymer electrolyte technology. The thermochemical process was the sulphur/iodine cycle, which is being developed by General Atomic Co. Systems, which is capable of producing about one-million GJ hydrogen per year, was developed at the conceptual level, and site specific computations were carried out. A general mathematical model was developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the central receiver system coupled directly to the chemical plant. Cost models were developed for each subsystem based on the database published in the literature. Levelized and delevelized costs of solar hydrogen were then computed.

  19. Co-existence of agricultural production systems.

    PubMed

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism.

  20. ISRU System Model Tool: From Excavation to Oxygen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Linne, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    In the late 80's, conceptual designs for an in situ oxygen production plant were documented in a study by Eagle Engineering [1]. In the "Summary of Findings" of this study, it is clearly pointed out that: "reported process mass and power estimates lack a consistent basis to allow comparison." The study goes on to say: "A study to produce a set of process mass, power, and volume requirements on a consistent basis is recommended." Today, approximately twenty years later, as humans plan to return to the moon and venture beyond, the need for flexible up-to-date models of the oxygen extraction production process has become even more clear. Multiple processes for the production of oxygen from lunar regolith are being investigated by NASA, academia, and industry. Three processes that have shown technical merit are molten regolith electrolysis, hydrogen reduction, and carbothermal reduction. These processes have been selected by NASA as the basis for the development of the ISRU System Model Tool (ISMT). In working to develop up-to-date system models for these processes NASA hopes to accomplish the following: (1) help in the evaluation process to select the most cost-effective and efficient process for further prototype development, (2) identify key parameters, (3) optimize the excavation and oxygen production processes, and (4) provide estimates on energy and power requirements, mass and volume of the system, oxygen production rate, mass of regolith required, mass of consumables, and other important parameters. Also, as confidence and high fidelity is achieved with each component's model, new techniques and processes can be introduced and analyzed at a fraction of the cost of traditional hardware development and test approaches. A first generation ISRU System Model Tool has been used to provide inputs to the Lunar Architecture Team studies.

  1. Optical Strain Measurement System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of physical phenomena affecting the durability of SSME components require measurement systems operational in hostile environments. The need for such instrumentation caused the definition and operation of an optical strain measurement system. This optical strain measurement system based on the speckle shift method is being developed. This is a noncontact, automatic method of measuring surface strain in one dimension that corrects for error due to rigid body motion. It provides a gauge length of 1 to 2 mm and allows the region of interest on the test specimen to be mapped point by point. The output is a graphics map of the points inspected on the specimen; data points is stored in quasi-real time. This is the first phase of a multiphase effort in optical strain measurement. The speckle pattern created by the test specimen is interpreted as high order interference fringes resulting from a random diffraction grating, being the natural surface roughness of the specimen. Strain induced on the specimen causes a change in spacing of the surface roughness, which in turn shifts the position of the interference pattern (speckles).

  2. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Research and Development Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of a workshop designed to provide a base for initiating a program of research and development of controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) are summarized. Included are an evaluation of a ground based manned demonstration as a milestone in CELSS development, and a discussion of development requirements for a successful ground based CELSS demonstration. Research recommendations are presented concerning the following topics: nutrition and food processing, food production, waste processing, systems engineering and modelling, and ecology-systems safety.

  3. High Productivity Computing Systems and Competitiveness Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    innovation tool. “The economy in the U.S. is the biggest not because we have the most productive workers, but because we dig holes with backhoes not shovels...cost of doing business that’s viewed as “an enormous hole in the pocket book,” said Daniel Wolgemuth, Senior Vice President/Chief Information Officer... Waters Thomas Mitretek Systems Inc. Lee T. Todd, Jr. University of Kentucky Peter J. Ungaro Cray Inc. Steven L. VanAusdle Walla Walla Community College

  4. Multimedia contents production system (MM-CPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roser, Miguel; Villegas, Paulo; Simon, Maria; Hernandez-Gil, J. F.; Aguado, Isidro

    1996-01-01

    A present characterized by deep worldwide changes, and a future where social relations and behaviors are going to undergo a substantial change need new telecommunications services in order to allow people to get closer, facilitate their daily tasks and place at their disposal multimedia information to be accessed anywhere and at any time. These new services are very dependent on the contents to be included in the applications. The purpose of this paper is to describe an universal MM contents production system (MM-CPS), which allows the generation of coded data files suitable to be included in MM-servers.

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  6. Electromagnetic methods for development and production: State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Alumbaugh, D.

    1997-10-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) methods, long used for borehole logging as a formation evaluation tool in developed oil fields, are rarely applied in surface or crosshole configurations or applied in cased wells. This is largely due to the high levels of cultural noise and the preponderance of steel well casing. However, recent experimental success with crosshole EM systems for water and steam flood monitoring using fiberglass cased wells has shown promise in applying these techniques to development and production (D & P) problems. This paper describes technological solutions that will allow for successful application of EM techniques in oil fields, despite surface noise and steel casing. First an example sites the application of long offset logging to map resistivity structure away from the borehole. Next, a successful application of crosshole EM where one of the wells is steel cased is described. The potential application of earth`s field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to map fluid saturation at large distances from the boreholes is also discussed.

  7. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding.

  8. Evaluation Strategies as a Function of Product Development Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Robert J.; Wright, William J.

    There are issues in evaluation and stages of product development that demand the use of experimental or quasi-experimental designs. To counteract criticism of evaluation efforts, an approach to the examination of the multiple issues involved in curriculum product evaluation across the usual developmental cycle of educational products was…

  9. Commandments for a Productive Development Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    orderly rows of desks, and surrounded by private, closed offices for supervisory personnel. At about the same time, the Henry Miller Company approached...The result, the Henry Miller Action Office system, appeared in the mid-60s. The approach started with a large open area, sectioned to give workers

  10. System for the production of plasma

    DOEpatents

    Bakken, George S.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention provides a system for the production of a plasma by concentrating and focusing a laser beam on the plasma-forming material with a lightfocusing member which comprises a parabolic axicon in conjunction with a coaxial conical mirror. The apex of the conical mirror faces away from the focus of the parabolic axicon such that the conical mirror serves to produce a virtual line source along the axis of the cone. Consequently, irradiation from a laser parallel to the axis toward the apex of the conical mirror will be concentrated at the focus of the parabolic axicon, impinging upon the plasma-forming material there introduced to produce a plasma. The system is adaptable to irradiation of a target pellet introduced at the focus of the parabolic axicon and offers an advantage in that the target pellet can be irradiated with a high degree of radial and spherical symmetry.

  11. Product Development in Higher Education Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Mark; Howcroft, Barry; Fairless, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: During the last 20 years or so the changing environment in which universities operate has meant that commensurately more emphasis has been placed on marketing principles. In light of this emphasis, it is perhaps a little surprising that relatively little attention has been directed towards the processes by which universities develop their…

  12. Star product, discrete Wigner functions, and spin-system tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, P.; Andreev, V. A.; Isar, A.; Man'ko, V. I.; Man'ko, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    We develop the star-product formalism for spin states and consider different methods for constructing operator systems forming sets of dequantizers and quantizers, establishing a relation between them. We study the physical meaning of the operator symbols related to them. Quantum tomograms can also serve as operator symbols. We show that the possibility to express discrete Wigner functions in terms of measurable quantities follows because these functions can be related to quantum tomograms. We investigate the physical meaning of tomograms and spin-system tomogram symbols, which they acquire in the framework of the star-product formalism. We study the structure of the sum kernels, which can be used to express the operator symbols, calculated using different sets of dequantizers and also arising in calculating the star product of operator symbols, in terms of one another.

  13. Developments in the production of mucosal antibodies in plants.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Smales, C Mark; Schillberg, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Schiermeyer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant mucosal antibodies represent attractive target molecules for the development of next generation biopharmaceuticals for passive immunization against various infectious diseases and treatment of patients suffering from mucosal antibody deficiencies. As these polymeric antibodies require complex post-translational modifications and correct subunit assembly, they are considered as difficult-to-produce recombinant proteins. Beside the traditional, mammalian-based production platforms, plants are emerging as alternative expression hosts for this type of complex macromolecule. Plant cells are able to produce high-quality mucosal antibodies as shown by the successful expression of the secretory immunoglobulins A (IgA) and M (IgM) in various antibody formats in different plant species including tobacco and its close relative Nicotiana benthamiana, maize, tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. Importantly for biotherapeutic application, transgenic plants are capable of synthesizing functional IgA and IgM molecules with biological activity and safety profiles comparable with their native mammalian counterparts. This article reviews the structure and function of mucosal IgA and IgM antibodies and summarizes the current knowledge of their production and processing in plant host systems. Specific emphasis is given to consideration of intracellular transport processes as these affect assembly of the mature immunoglobulins, their secretion rates, proteolysis/degradation and glycosylation patterns. Furthermore, this review provides an outline of glycoengineering efforts that have been undertaken so far to produce antibodies with homogenous human-like glycan decoration. We believe that the continued development of our understanding of the plant cellular machinery related to the heterologous expression of immunoglobulins will further improve the production levels, quality and control of post-translational modifications that are 'human-like' from plant systems and enhance the

  14. Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  15. Developing Novel Antimicrobial and Antiviral Textile Products.

    PubMed

    Iyigundogdu, Zeynep Ustaoglu; Demir, Okan; Asutay, Ayla Burcin; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2017-03-01

    In conjunction with an increasing public awareness of infectious diseases, the textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. In the current study, sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan are applied to cotton fabrics in order to gain antimicrobial and antiviral properties for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of textiles treated with 3 % sodium pentaborate pentahydrate, 0.03 % triclosan, and 7 % Glucapon has been investigated against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Moreover, modified cotton fabrics were tested against adenovirus type 5 and poliovirus type 1. According to the test results, the modified textile goods attained very good antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan solution-treated textiles can be considered in the development of antimicrobial and antiviral textile finishes.

  16. Tropical wetlands: productive but leaky systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael; Saunders, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    River systems play an integral role in the global carbon cycle by connecting the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the oceans. Extensive tropical wetland systems, such as those found in the Amazon region, have been shown to export significant amounts of carbon to river waters as dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be transported and emitted hundreds of km downstream. The assessment of both regional and global carbon budgets could therefore be improved by quantifying these lateral carbon fluxes, especially from highly productive temporarily or permanently flooded areas where substantial CO2 evasion from inland waters can occur. The Nile is the longest river in the world and the headwaters are located in the extensive Papyrus dominated wetlands in central Africa that are associated with Lake Victoria. From its source the White Nile flows northwards through wetlands in Uganda and Sudan before it joins the Blue Nile. Papyrus wetlands have been shown to be some of the most productive global ecosystems, with recorded rates of aerial net primary productivity of up to 3.09 kg C m-2 yr-1. In addition, where anaerobic conditions occur they also accumulate large amounts of carbon in the form of peat, and under these circumstances they represent a significant carbon sink. However, as water moves through these wetlands and is exchanged with surrounding rivers and lakes significant quantities of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon as well as suspended particulate organic matter are exported, which are either released further downstream by degassing, decomposition or deposition. We describe here our attempts to constrain the carbon cycle of wetlands at the Nile headwaters and provide more information on the regional scale carbon budget.

  17. Tropical Wetlands: Productive but Leaky Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.

    2014-12-01

    River systems play an integral role in the global carbon cycle by connecting the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the oceans. Extensive tropical wetland systems, such as those found in the Amazon region, have been shown to export significant amounts of carbon to river waters as dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be transported and emitted hundreds of km downstream. The assessment of both regional and global carbon budgets could therefore be improved by quantifying these lateral carbon fluxes, especially from highly productive temporarily or permanently flooded areas where substantial CO2 evasion from inland waters can occur. The Nile is the longest river in the world and the headwaters are located in the extensive Papyrus dominated wetlands in central Africa that are associated with Lake Victoria. From its source the White Nile flows northwards through wetlands in Uganda and Sudan before it joins the Blue Nile. Papyrus wetlands have been shown to be some of the most productive global ecosystems, with recorded rates of aerial net primary productivity of up to 3.09 kg C m-2 yr-1. In addition, where anaerobic conditions occur they also accumulate large amounts of carbon in the form of peat, and under these circumstances they represent a significant carbon sink. However, as water moves through these wetlands and is exchanged with surrounding rivers and lakes significant quantities of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon as well as suspended particulate organic matter are exported, which are either released further downstream by degassing, decomposition or deposition. We describe here our attempts to constrain the carbon cycle of wetlands at the Nile headwaters and provide more information on the regional scale carbon budget.

  18. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part...

  19. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part...

  20. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of...

  1. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part...

  2. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of equipment and services covered by this part...

  3. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of...

  4. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of...

  5. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  6. SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LEE,Y.Y.; LOCKEY,R.; MI,J.; NEHRING,T.; PAI,C.; TSOUPAS,N.; TUOZZOLO,J.; WARBURTON,D.; WEI,J.; RUST,K.; CUTLER,R.

    2003-06-15

    The SNS Extraction Fast Kicker System is a very high power, high repetition rate pulsed power system. It was design and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system will consist of fourteen identical high voltage, high current modulators, and their auxiliary control and charging systems. The modulators will drive fourteen extraction magnet sections located inside of the SNS accumulator ring. The required kicker field rise time is 200 ns, a pulse flattop of 700 ns, a pulse repetition rate of 60 pulse-per-second. A 2500 Ampere per modulator output is required to reach the extraction kicker magnetic field strength. This design features a Blumlein Pulse-Forming-Network based topology, a low beam impedance termination, a fast current switching thyratron, and low inductance capacitor banks. It has a maximum charging voltage of 50kV, an open circuit output of 100kV, and a designed maximum pulsed current output of 4kA per modulator. The overall system output will be multiple GVA with 60 Pulse-per-second repetition rate. A prototype modulator has been successfully built and tested well above the SNS requirement. The modulator system production is in progress.

  7. [Application of systems biology and synthetic biology in strain improvement for biofuel production].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu; Li, Yin

    2010-07-01

    Biofuels are renewable and environmentally friendly, but high production cost makes them economically not competitive, and the development of robust strains is thus one of the prerequisites. In this article, strain improvement studies based on the information from systems biology studies are reviewed, with a focus on their applications on stress tolerance improvement. Furthermore, the contribution of systems biology, synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in strain development for biofuel production is discussed, with an expectation for developing more robust strains for biofuel production.

  8. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity.

  9. Radarsat Geophysical Processor System: Data Products, Formats, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerin, B. L.; Gens, R.; Baker, E.

    2003-12-01

    Radarsat Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) is designed to generate products that provide estimates of sea ice motion, deformation and sea ice thickness. The system uses Radarsat-1 ScanSAR Wide B (SWB) imagery acquired over the last six years over the entire Arctic Ocean. At the beginning of each winter season a regular grid with a default spacing of 10 km is initialized that defines the freeze up ice condition. With changing ice condition this regular grid distorts in shape and location. The distorted Langrangian grid is stored as an RGPS data product that reflects the ice condition at a particular time. In the past, RGPS products have been used to study processes operating at the scale of the entire Arctic Ocean. We are looking into the use of the RGPS data in a more refined grid, so that the product could also be used for studying smaller regions of interest. We have converted the specific binary format of the RGPS product to the more popular ARC/INFO polygon coverage format used by a wider research community. Finally, we have developed a visualization tool that will allow the user to drape the RGPS product containing ice attribute information over the corresponding synthetic aperture radar images and view a series of images showing change in ice condition over time.

  10. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  11. Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

    2012-12-01

    Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

  12. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  13. Application of the suggestion system in the improvement of the production process and product quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołaś, H.; Mazur, A.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    The elaboration is a case study and the research was carried out in the company Alco-Mot Ltd., which employs 120 people. The company specializes in the production of lead poles for industrial and traction batteries using gravity casting. The elements embedded in the cast are manufactured on a machining centre, which provides the stability of the process and of the dimensions of the product as well as a very short production time. As a result of observation and analysis the authors have developed a concept for the implementation of a dynamic suggestion system in ALCO-MOT, including, among others, a standard for actions in the implementation of the suggestion system, as well as clear guidelines for the processing and presentation of the activities undertaken in the time between the establishment of the concept (suggestions) and the benefits analysis after the proposed solutions have been implemented. The authors also present how suggestions proposed by ALCO-MOT staff contributed to the improvement of the processes of production and quality control. Employees offered more than 30 suggestions, of which more than a half are being implemented now and further actions are being prepared for implementation. The authors will present the results of improvements in, for example, tool replacement time, scrap reduction. The authors will present how kaizen can improve the production and quality control processes. They will present how the production and quality control processes looked before and after the implementation of employee suggestions.

  14. Development of cell therapy medicinal products by academic institutes.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Sofieke; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Herberts, Carla; Lowdell, Mark; Hildebrandt, Martin; Zandvliet, Maarten; Meij, Pauline

    2016-08-01

    In the rapidly evolving fields of cellular immunotherapy, gene therapy and regenerative medicine, a wide range of promising cell therapy medicinal products are in clinical development. Most products originate from academic research and are explored in early exploratory clinical trials. However, the success rate toward approval for regular patient care is disappointingly low. In this paper, we define strengths and hurdles applying to the development of cell therapy medicinal products in academic institutes, and analyze why only a few promising cell therapies have reached late-stage clinical development. Subsequently, we provide recommendations to stakeholders involved in development of cell therapies to exploit their potential clinical benefit.

  15. Instructional Systems Development Model for Interactive Videodisc Training Delivery Systems. Volume I: Hardware, Software and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunderson, C. Victor; And Others

    Developed for use by army authors, this report provides information to assist in the step-by-step production of interactive videodisc training delivery systems (VTDS). The first of three volumes describes the hardware and software for VTDS, as well as videodisc authoring and production systems (VAPS). The range of capabilities of consumer-model…

  16. Developing A Large-Scale, Collaborative, Productive Geoscience Education Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Ledley, T. S.; Macdonald, H.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the geoscience education community has grown substantially and developed broad and deep capacity for collaboration and dissemination of ideas. While this community is best viewed as emergent from complex interactions among changing educational needs and opportunities, we highlight the role of several large projects in the development of a network within this community. In the 1990s, three NSF projects came together to build a robust web infrastructure to support the production and dissemination of on-line resources: On The Cutting Edge (OTCE), Earth Exploration Toolbook, and Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience. Along with the contemporaneous Digital Library for Earth System Education, these projects engaged geoscience educators nationwide in exploring professional development experiences that produced lasting on-line resources, collaborative authoring of resources, and models for web-based support for geoscience teaching. As a result, a culture developed in the 2000s in which geoscience educators anticipated that resources for geoscience teaching would be shared broadly and that collaborative authoring would be productive and engaging. By this time, a diverse set of examples demonstrated the power of the web infrastructure in supporting collaboration, dissemination and professional development . Building on this foundation, more recent work has expanded both the size of the network and the scope of its work. Many large research projects initiated collaborations to disseminate resources supporting educational use of their data. Research results from the rapidly expanding geoscience education research community were integrated into the Pedagogies in Action website and OTCE. Projects engaged faculty across the nation in large-scale data collection and educational research. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network and OTCE engaged community members in reviewing the expanding body of on-line resources. Building Strong

  17. Drug development from natural products: exploiting synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun; Panek, D; Zeitler, H; Vetter, H; Wagner, H

    2010-03-01

    Drug development in phytomedicine has been focused in the past on the discovery and analysis of new structures from natural products. The search aimed at the determination of the single "active principle" in plants, based on the assumption that a plant has one or a few ingredients which determine its therapeutic effects. But traditional systems of medicines like Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine or the European phytotherapy generally assume that a synergy of all ingredients of the plants will bring about the maximum of therapeutic efficacy. This approach has for long been impossible to investigate since adequate methods to standardize complex plant mixtures as well as to rationalize complex mode of actions were lacking. The introduction of high throughput technologies provides the opportunity to determine profiles of plants and to systematically explore the mode of action of combinatory drug regimes. The present review highlights the concept of synergy and gives examples of synergistic effects of plant constituents. It elaborates on how the high throughput technologies can be used in drug development from natural products with the aim of creating evidence-based plant medications in prevention and treatment of different diseases in the form of new single treatments or new combinatory drug regimes while exploiting synergy-effects.

  18. The medical officer's role in critical illness insurance product development.

    PubMed

    Keymer, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Critical illness insurance is a new (to the US), medically sophisticated insurance product that is tantalizing some US insurers. Few have brought a product to market, but many opine that a US breakthrough is in the offing. Would you rise to the challenge and craft an opportunity to participate in the development of a new product concept? How do medical officers bring value to the product development world? Do medical officers belong in the domain of product actuaries and consultants who bring new product ideas to life? Dr. Jan von Overbeck and I presented a workshop at the 2004 AAIM meeting to discuss the role of the medical officer in the development and evaluation of critical illness insurance. This article summarizes that discussion for the Journal's readers.

  19. Dynamic Gate Product and Artifact Generation from System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Maddalena; Delp, Christopher; Bindschadler, Duane; Sarrel, Marc; Wollaeger, Ryan; Lam, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is gaining acceptance as a way to formalize systems engineering practice through the use of models. The traditional method of producing and managing a plethora of disjointed documents and presentations ("Power-Point Engineering") has proven both costly and limiting as a means to manage the complex and sophisticated specifications of modern space systems. We have developed a tool and method to produce sophisticated artifacts as views and by-products of integrated models, allowing us to minimize the practice of "Power-Point Engineering" from model-based projects and demonstrate the ability of MBSE to work within and supersede traditional engineering practices. This paper describes how we have created and successfully used model-based document generation techniques to extract paper artifacts from complex SysML and UML models in support of successful project reviews. Use of formal SysML and UML models for architecture and system design enables production of review documents, textual artifacts, and analyses that are consistent with one-another and require virtually no labor-intensive maintenance across small-scale design changes and multiple authors. This effort thus enables approaches that focus more on rigorous engineering work and less on "PowerPoint engineering" and production of paper-based documents or their "office-productivity" file equivalents.

  20. Citrus production systems to survive greening: economic thresholds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced Production Systems (APS) and Open Hydroponic Systems (OHS) are proposed strategies for citrus production that could increase early production and sustain production at higher levels through perhaps the first 15 years of grove life. Higher tree densities, automated irrigation, and intensive ...

  1. Integrated Design - A Set of Competences and Skills Required by Systems and Product Architects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, Andreas

    The role of Systems and Product Architects is increasingly important for the development of modern products and services that are sustainable, innovative, and successful. This paper shows that competences in integration in product and systems design have to be a key part of these architect's competence profiles. Capitalizing on results from extensive research in the optimization of product development, it points out that the integration of all stakeholders from the earliest development phases is a fundamental need to be able to take into account all requirements and constraints imposed on both hardware and software products and systems. It draws the conclusion that the key stakeholders in product and system development processes need to have skills that enable this way of doing integrated development.

  2. National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products sets forth a vision for ensuring that the federal regulatory system is prepared to efficiently assess the risks, if any, of the future products of biotechnology.

  3. MEMS product engineering using fabrication process development tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, K.; Schmidt, T.; Ortloff, D.; Popp, J.; Wagener, A.; Brück, R.

    2008-12-01

    The development of MEMS devices differs substantially from product engineering methods used in more traditional industries. The approach is characterized by a close customer involvement and product specific fabrication processes. A large number interdependencies between device design on the one hand and manufacturing process development on the other hand make product engineering in the MEMS area a rather tedious and complicated task. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive customer-oriented MEMS product engineering methodology. Both MEMS design and fabrication process development are analyzed with regard to procedures and interfaces used in order to develop an appropriate CAD support either in terms of existing tools or by specifying individual tools to be implemented. The manufacturing process development is part of this holistic approach and is supported by a CAD environment for the management and the design of thin-film MEMS fabrication processes. This environment has been developed by the authors and became recently commercially available.

  4. The Effects of Development Team Skill on Software Product Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development team skill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the team skill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development team skill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics

  5. Engineering analysis of potential photosynthetic bacterial hydrogen-production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M. E.

    1982-06-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) are capable of generating hydrogen from organics in effluents from food processing, pulp and paper, and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Hydrogen evolution takes place under light in the absence of air. The rate of hydrogen production is expected to range between 300 to 600 scf of hydrogen per 1000 galloons of waste stream treated per hour. This hydrogen production system has been demonstrated at a bench-scale level and is ready for engineering development. A conceptual design for a PSB hydrogen production system is described. The system is expected to be sited adjacent to a waste stream source which will be pretreated by fermentation and pH adjustment, innoculated with bacteria, and then passed into the reactor. The reactor effluent can either be discharged into a rapid infiltration system, an irrigation ditch, and/or recycled back into the reactor. Several potential reactor designs have been developed, analyzed, and costed. A large covered pond appears to be the most economical design approach.

  6. Between Product Development and Mass Production: Tensions as Triggers for Concept-Level Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalonen, Meri; Ristimäki, Päivi; Toiviainen, Hanna; Pulkkis, Anneli; Lohtander, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze learning in organizational transformations by focusing on concept-level tensions faced in two young companies, which were searching for a reorientation of activity with a production network between innovative product development and efficient mass production. Design/methodology/approach: An intervention-based…

  7. The Mediterranean Forecasting System: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonani, Marina; Oddo, Paolo; Korres, Gerasimos; Clementi, Emanuela; Dobricic, Srdjan; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Jenny; Guarnieri, Antonio; Romaniello, Vito; Girardi, Giacomo; Grandi, Alessandro; Bonaduce, Antonio; Pinardi, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments of the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre of the EU-Copernicus marine service, the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS), are presented. MFS provides forecast, analysis and reanalysis for the physical and biogeochemical parameters of the Mediterranean Sea. The different components of the system are continuously updated in order to provide to the users the best available product. This work is focus on the physical component of the system. The physical core of MFS is composed by an ocean general circulation model (NEMO) coupled with a spectral wave model (Wave Watch-III). The NEMO model provides to WW-III surface currents and SST fields, while WW-III returns back to NEMO the neutral component of the surface drag coefficient. Satellite Sea Level Anomaly observations and in-situ T & S vertical profiles are assimilated into this system using a variational assimilation scheme based on 3DVAR (Dobricic, 2008) . Sensitive experiments have been performed in order to assess the impact of the assimilation of the latest available SLA missions, Altika and Cryosat together with the long term available mission of Jason2. The results show a significant improvement of the MFS skill due to the multi-mission along track assimilation. The primitive equations module has been recently upgraded with the introduction of the atmospheric pressure term and a new, explicit, numerical scheme has been adopted to solve the barotropic component of the equations of motion. The SLA satellite observations for data assimilation have been consequently modified in order to account for the new atmospheric pressure term introduced in the equations. This new system has been evaluated using tide gauge coastal buoys and the satellite along track data. The quality of the SSH has improved significantly while a minor impact has been observed on the other state variables (temperature, salinity and currents). Experiments with a higher resolution NWP (numerical weather prediction

  8. Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Armin; Brönstrup, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2013. In addition to their prominent role in basic biological and chemical research, natural products are a rich source of commercial products for the pharmaceutical and other industries. Industrial natural product chemistry is of fundamental importance for successful product development, as the vast majority (ca. 80%) of commercial drugs derived from natural products require synthetic efforts, either to enable economical access to bulk material, and/or to optimize drug properties through structural modifications. This review aims to illustrate issues on the pathway from lead to product, and how they have been successfully addressed by modern natural product chemistry. It is focused on natural products of current relevance that are, or are intended to be, used as pharmaceuticals.

  9. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the summer of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays and support applications at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I created control scripts using the Application Control Language (ACL) to analyze the health and status of Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This application provides a system health and status display I created with summarized data for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of KGCS subsystems.

  10. Modeling of a Hydrogenic Pellet Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachman, J. W.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Nellis, G. F.

    2010-04-01

    Solid hydrogenic pellets are used as fuel for fusion energy machines like the ITER device. This paper discusses the numerical modeling of a Pellet Production System (PPS) that is used to generate these pellets. The PPS utilizes a source of supercritical helium to provide the cooling that is necessary to precool, liquefy, and solidify hydrogenic material that is ultimately extruded and cut into fuel pellets. The specific components within the PPS include a pre-cooling heat exchanger, a liquefier, and a twin-screw solidifying extruder. This paper presents numerical models of each component. These numerical models are used as design tools to predict the performance of the respective devices. The performance of the PPS is dominated by the heat transfer coefficient and viscous dissipation associated with the solidifying hydrogenic fluid in the twin-screw extruder. This observation motivates experimental efforts aimed at precise measurement of these quantities.

  11. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  12. Expert systems for automated maintenance of a Mars oxygen production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Ho, Ming-Tsang

    1989-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for maintaining autonomous operation of a Mars oxygen production system. Normal operation conditions and failure modes according to certain desired criteria are tested and identified. Several schemes for failure detection and isolation using forward chaining, backward chaining, knowledge-based and rule-based are devised to perform several housekeeping functions. These functions include self-health checkout, an emergency shut down program, fault detection and conventional control activities. An effort was made to derive the dynamic model of the system using Bond-Graph technique in order to develop the model-based failure detection and isolation scheme by estimation method. Finally, computer simulations and experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the expert system and a preliminary reliability analysis for the oxygen production system is also provided.

  13. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  14. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  15. Development of a Web-based financial application System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. R.; Ibrahimy, M. I.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ferdaus, M. M.; Khan, M. N. H.; Mostafa, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper describes a technique to develop a web based financial system, following latest technology and business needs. In the development of web based application, the user friendliness and technology both are very important. It is used ASP .NET MVC 4 platform and SQL 2008 server for development of web based financial system. It shows the technique for the entry system and report monitoring of the application is user friendly. This paper also highlights the critical situations of development, which will help to develop the quality product.

  16. Performance of the NEC production high energy implantation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, G. A.; Klody, G. M.; Loger, R. L.

    1987-04-01

    MeV ion implantation systems are now being used on a production basis, providing beam energies in the range from 200 keV to 4 MeV. Interest and demand for such systems has increased since the first system went on-line in May 1983. At present, eight systems have been sold with a maximum beam energy capability of 4 MeV for use in the production environment. Production machines are now available providing beam energies as high as 8 MeV. These systems are capable of providing a wide range of ion species without the use of toxic gases. Present beam current and beam species capabilities will be presented. In addition, we describe new techniques for measuring dose uniformity from MeV implants [W.A. Keenan, Prometrix Corp., 3255 Scott Blvd., Bldg. 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054-3077, USA] and present results of uniformity and particulate measurements. We describe MeV implanter developments, including a new wafer handler.

  17. Optimal pattern distributions in Rete-based production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Stephen L.

    1994-01-01

    Since its introduction into the AI community in the early 1980's, the Rete algorithm has been widely used. This algorithm has formed the basis for many AI tools, including NASA's CLIPS. One drawback of Rete-based implementation, however, is that the network structures used internally by the Rete algorithm make it sensitive to the arrangement of individual patterns within rules. Thus while rules may be more or less arbitrarily placed within source files, the distribution of individual patterns within these rules can significantly affect the overall system performance. Some heuristics have been proposed to optimize pattern placement, however, these suggestions can be conflicting. This paper describes a systematic effort to measure the effect of pattern distribution on production system performance. An overview of the Rete algorithm is presented to provide context. A description of the methods used to explore the pattern ordering problem area are presented, using internal production system metrics such as the number of partial matches, and coarse-grained operating system data such as memory usage and time. The results of this study should be of interest to those developing and optimizing software for Rete-based production systems.

  18. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  19. Natural product derived insecticides: discovery and development of spinetoram.

    PubMed

    Galm, Ute; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-03-01

    This review highlights the importance of natural product research and industrial microbiology for product development in the agricultural industry, based on examples from Dow AgroSciences. It provides an overview of the discovery and development of spinetoram, a semisynthetic insecticide derived by a combination of a genetic block in a specific O-methylation of the rhamnose moiety of spinosad coupled with neural network-based QSAR and synthetic chemistry. It also emphasizes the key role that new technologies and multidisciplinary approaches play in the development of current spinetoram production strains.

  20. Fluidized bed charcoal particle production system

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.

    1985-04-09

    A fluidized bed charcoal particle production system, including apparatus and method, wherein pieces of combustible waste, such as sawdust, fragments of wood, etc., are continuously disposed within a fluidized bed of a pyrolytic vessel. Preferably, the fluidized bed is caused to reach operating temperatures by use of an external pre-heater. The fluidized bed is situated above an air delivery system at the bottom of the vessel, which supports pyrolysis within the fluidized bed. Charcoal particles are thus formed within the bed from the combustible waste and are lifted from the bed and placed in suspension above the bed by forced air passing upwardly through the bed. The suspended charcoal particles and the gaseous medium in which the particles are suspended are displaced from the vessel into a cyclone mechanism where the charcoal particles are separated. The separated charcoal particles are quenched with water to terminate all further charcoal oxidation. The remaining off-gas is burned and, preferably, the heat therefrom used to generate steam, kiln dry lumber, etc. Preferably, the bed material is continuously recirculated and purified by removing tramp material.