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Sample records for product variational formulation

  1. Sunscreen product formulation.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Paul R

    2006-01-01

    On the surface, sunscreen products are pretty simple. They consist of a delivery vehicle containing one or more sunscreen active ingredients. When applied to the skin, these sunscreen actives intercept solar ultraviolet (UV) rays before they can damage the underlying skin. However, while conceptually simple, a detailed analysis reveals that sunscreen formulations are quite complex, requiring careful selection of sunscreen active and vehicle components to control multiple performance and in-use parameters.Thus, to enable a better understanding and appreciation of sunscreen products, the typical steps in formulating a sunscreen product are described. Throughout this process, the key is to apply scientific principles together with a bit of formulation art to holistically create the best sunscreen product that meets the design targets--a sunscreen product that people will use regularly and properly.

  2. Variational formulation of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmello

    1991-01-01

    High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational basis of high-performance elements, with emphasis on those constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parametrized variational principles that provide a foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both are presented.

  3. New Variational Formulations of Hybrid Stress Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Sumihara, K.; Kang, D.

    1984-01-01

    In the variational formulations of finite elements by the Hu-Washizu and Hellinger-Reissner principles the stress equilibrium condition is maintained by the inclusion of internal displacements which function as the Lagrange multipliers for the constraints. These versions permit the use of natural coordinates and the relaxation of the equilibrium conditions and render considerable improvements in the assumed stress hybrid elements. These include the derivation of invariant hybrid elements which possess the ideal qualities such as minimum sensitivity to geometric distortions, minimum number of independent stress parameters, rank sufficient, and ability to represent constant strain states and bending moments. Another application is the formulation of semiLoof thin shell elements which can yield excellent results for many severe test cases because the rigid body nodes, the momentless membrane strains, and the inextensional bending modes are all represented.

  4. Variational formulation of the Gardner's restacking algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2004-04-26

    The incompressibility of the phase flow of Hamiltonian wave-plasma interactions restrains the class of realizable wave-driven transformations of the particle distribution. After the interaction, the distribution remains composed of the original phase-space elements, or local densities, which are only rearranged (''restacked'') by the wave. A variational formalism is developed to study the corresponding limitations on the energy and momentum transfer. A case of particular interest is a toroidal plasma immersed in a dc magnetic field. The restacking algorithm by Gardner [Phys. Fluids 6, 839 (1963)] is formulated precisely. The minimum energy state for a plasma with a given current is determined

  5. Variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, Alain J.; Tronci, Cesare

    2016-06-01

    The variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory based on Lagrange, Euler, and Euler-Poincaré variational principles are presented. Each variational principle yields a different approach to deriving guiding-center polarization and magnetization effects into the guiding-center Maxwell equations. The conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are also derived by Noether method, where the guiding-center stress tensor is now shown to be explicitly symmetric.

  6. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p < 0.05). Data of peroxide values were kept under the critical value reported for detection of organoleptic rancidity. Reported values of hedonic test showed that these dietetics pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers.

  7. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part II: Continuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Part I of this paper introduced a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems. This variational formulation extends Hamilton's principle to allow the inclusion of irreversible processes in the dynamics. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint given by the expression of entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. In Part II, we develop this formulation for the case of continuum systems by extending the setting of Part I to infinite dimensional nonholonomic Lagrangian systems. The variational formulation is naturally expressed in the material representation, while its spatial version is obtained via a nonholonomic Lagrangian reduction by symmetry. The theory is illustrated with the examples of a viscous heat conducting fluid and its multicomponent extension including chemical reactions and mass transfer.

  8. Progress in the Variational Multiscale Formulation of Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Oberai, Assad

    2007-11-01

    In the variational multiscale (VMS) formulation of large eddy simulation subgrid models are introduced in the variational (or weak) formulation of the Navier Stokes equations and a-priori scale separation is accomplished using projection operators to create coarse and fine scales. This separation also leads to two sets of evolution equations: one for the coarse scales and another for the fine scales. The coarse scale equations are solved numerically while the fine scale equations are solved analytically to obtain an expression for the fine scales in terms of the coarse scales and hence achieve closure. Till date, the VMS formulation has lead to accurate results in the simulation of canonical turbulent flow problems. It has been implemented using spectral, finite element and finite volume methods. In this talk, for the incompressible Navier Stokes equations, we willpresent some new ideas for modeling the fine scales within the context of the VMS formulation and discuss their impact on the coarse scale solution. We will present a simple residual-based approximation for the fine scales that accurately models the cross-stress term and demonstrate that when this term is append with an eddy viscosity model for the Reynolds stress, a new mixed-model is obtained. The application of these ideas will be illustrated through some simple numerical examples.

  9. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part I: Discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. This formulation is an extension of Hamilton's principle of classical mechanics that allows the inclusion of irreversible phenomena. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear phenomenological constraint given by the expression of the entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. From a mathematical point of view, our variational formulation may be regarded as a generalization to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle used in nonlinear nonholonomic mechanics, where the conventional Lagrange-d'Alembert principle cannot be applied since the nonlinear phenomenological constraint and its associated variational constraint must be treated separately. In our approach, to deal with the nonlinear nonholonomic constraint, we introduce a variable called the thermodynamic displacement associated to each irreversible process. This allows us to systematically define the corresponding variational constraint. In Part I, our variational theory is illustrated with various examples of discrete systems such as mechanical systems with friction, matter transfer, electric circuits, chemical reactions, and diffusion across membranes. In Part II of the present paper, we will extend our variational formulation of discrete systems to the case of continuum systems.

  10. Immunoglobulin: production, mechanisms of action and formulations

    PubMed Central

    Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago; Dinardo, Carla Luana

    2011-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin (Ig) began to be applied in the clinical practice with the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies. Quickly, applications of Ig increased, as its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions were elucidated. Currently, Ig is the most commonly used blood product. Ig is obtained by processing plasma; methods, in particular, techniques to reduce plasma viral loads have been evolving over the years and include: pasteurization, solvent/ detergent treatment, caprylic acid treatment and nanofiltration. These methods contribute to increased safety and quality of blood products. The mechanisms of action of Ig not only involve the blockade of Fc receptors of phagocytes, but also control complement pathways, idiotype-anti-idiotype dimer formation, blockage of superantigen binding to T cells, inhibition of dendritic cells and stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). There are several formulations of Ig available, each one with its own peculiar characteristics. In Brazil, there is stringent legislation regulating the quality of Ig. Only Ig products that completely fulfill the quality control criteria are released for use. These standards involve different tests from visual inspection to determination of anti-complementary activity. This paper will further review the history and current status of Ig, including its production and mechanisms of action. The formulations available in Brazil and also the criteria of quality control currently applied will be presented. PMID:23049343

  11. Variational formulation of macro-particle plasma simulation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B. A. Stamm, A. B.; Evstatiev, E. G.

    2014-05-15

    A variation formulation of macro-particle kinetic plasma models is discussed. In the electrostatic case, the use of symplectic integrators is investigated and found to offer advantages over typical generic methods. For the electromagnetic case, gauge invariance and momentum conservation are considered in detail. It is shown that, while the symmetries responsible for these conservation laws are broken in the presence of a spatial grid, the conservation laws hold in an average sense. The requirements for exact invariance are explored and it is shown that one viable option is to represent the potentials with a truncated Fourier basis.

  12. Partial differential equation transform - Variational formulation and Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-12-01

    Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform's controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The

  13. Partial differential equation transform — Variational formulation and Fourier analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform’s controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The

  14. New variational bounds on convective transport. I. Formulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobasco, Ian; Souza, Andre N.; Doering, Charles R.

    2016-11-01

    We study the maximal rate of scalar transport between parallel walls separated by distance h, by an incompressible fluid with scalar diffusion coefficient κ. Given velocity vector field u with intensity measured by the Péclet number Pe =h2 < | ∇ u |2 >1/2 / κ (where < . > is space-time average) the challenge is to determine the largest enhancement of wall-to-wall scalar flux over purely diffusive transport, i.e., the Nusselt number Nu . Variational formulations of the problem are presented and it is determined that Nu <= cPe 2 / 3 , where c is an absolute constant, as Pe -> ∞ . Moreover, this scaling for optimal transport-possibly modulo logarithmic corrections-is asymptotically sharp: admissible steady flows with Nu >=c' Pe 2 / 3 /[ log Pe ] 2 are constructed. The structure of (nearly) maximally transporting flow fields is discussed. Supported in part by National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship DGE-0813964, awards OISE-0967140, PHY-1205219, DMS-1311833, and DMS-1515161, and the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.

  15. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  16. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  17. Variation in nutrients formulated and nutrients supplied on 5 California dairies.

    PubMed

    Rossow, H A; Aly, S S

    2013-01-01

    Computer models used in ration formulation assume that nutrients supplied by a ration formulation are the same as the nutrients presented in front of the cow in the final ration. Deviations in nutrients due to feed management effects such as dry matter changes (i.e., rain), loading, mixing, and delivery errors are assumed to not affect delivery of nutrients to the cow and her resulting milk production. To estimate how feed management affects nutrients supplied to the cow and milk production, and determine if nutrients can serve as indexes of feed management practices, weekly total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for 4 pens (close-up cows, fresh cows, high-milk-producing, and low-milk-producing cows, if available) for 7 to 12 wk on 5 commercial California dairies. Differences among nutrient analyses from these samples and nutrients from the formulated rations were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk fat and milk protein percentages did not vary as much [coefficient of variation (CV) = 18 to 33%] as milk yield (kg; CV = 16 to 47 %) across all dairies and pens. Variability in nutrients delivered were highest for macronutrient fat (CV = 22%), lignin (CV = 15%), and ash (CV = 11%) percentages and micronutrients Fe (mg/kg; CV = 48%), Na (%; CV = 42%), and Zn (mg/kg; CV = 38%) for the milking pens across all dairies. Partitioning of the variability in random effects of nutrients delivered and intraclass correlation coefficients showed that variability in lignin percentage of TMR had the highest correlation with variability in milk yield and milk fat percentage, followed by fat and crude protein percentages. But, variability in ash, fat, and lignin percentages of total mixed ration had the highest correlation with variability in milk protein percentage. Therefore, lignin, fat, and ash may be the best indices of feed management to include effects of variability in nutrients on variability in milk yield, milk fat, and milk

  18. Variational formulation of covariant eikonal theory for vector waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.; Ye, H.; Hui, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The eikonal theory of wave propagation is developed by means of a Lorentz-covariant variational principle, involving functions defined on the natural eight-dimensional phase space of rays. The wave field is a four-vector representing the electromagnetic potential, while the medium is represented by an anisotropic, dispersive nonuniform dielectric tensor D/sup ..mu nu../(k,x). The eikonal expansion yields, to lowest order, the Hamiltonian ray equations, which define the Lagrangian manifold k(x), and the wave-action conservation law, which determines the wave-amplitude transport along the rays. The first-order contribution to the variational principle yields a concise expression for the transport of the polarization phase. The symmetry between k-space and x-space allows for a simple implementation of the Maslov transform, which avoids the difficulties of caustic singularities.

  19. Variational formulation of eikonal theory for vector waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.; Ye, H.; Hui, Y.

    1986-05-01

    The eikonal theory of wave propagation is developed by means of a Lorentz-covariant variational principle, involving functions defined on the natural eight-dimensional phase space of rays. The wave field is a four-vector representing the electromagnetic potential, while the medium is represented by an anisotropic, dispersive nonuniform dielectric tensor D/sup ..mu.. sup ..nu../(k,x). The eikonal expansion yields, to lowest order, the Hamiltonian ray equations, which define the Lagrangian manifold k(x), and the wave action conservation law, which determines the wave amplitude transport along the rays. The first-order contribution to the variational principle yields a concise expression for the transport of the polarization phase. The symmetry between k-space and x-space allows for a simple implementation of the Maslov transform, which avoids the difficulties of caustic singularities.

  20. Variational formulation of macroparticle models for electromagnetic plasma simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Stamm, Alexander B.; Shadwick, Bradley A.; Evstatiev, Evstati G.

    2014-06-01

    A variational method is used to derive a self-consistent macroparticle model for relativistic electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations. Extending earlier work, discretization of the electromagnetic Low Lagrangian is performed via a reduction of the phase-space distribution function onto a collection of finite-sized macroparticles of arbitrary shape and discretization of field quantities onto a spatial grid. This approach may be used with lab frame coordinates or moving window coordinates; the latter can greatly improve computational efficiency for studying some types of laser-plasma interactions. The primary advantage of the variational approach is the preservation of Lagrangian symmetries, which in our case leads tomore » energy conservation and thus avoids difficulties with grid heating. In addition, this approach decouples particle size from grid spacing and relaxes restrictions on particle shape, leading to low numerical noise. The variational approach also guarantees consistent approximations in the equations of motion and is amenable to higher order methods in both space and time. We restrict our attention to the 1.5-D case (one coordinate and two momenta). Lastly, simulations are performed with the new models and demonstrate energy conservation and low noise.« less

  1. Variational formulation of macroparticle models for electromagnetic plasma simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stamm, Alexander B.; Shadwick, Bradley A.; Evstatiev, Evstati G.

    2014-06-01

    A variational method is used to derive a self-consistent macroparticle model for relativistic electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations. Extending earlier work, discretization of the electromagnetic Low Lagrangian is performed via a reduction of the phase-space distribution function onto a collection of finite-sized macroparticles of arbitrary shape and discretization of field quantities onto a spatial grid. This approach may be used with lab frame coordinates or moving window coordinates; the latter can greatly improve computational efficiency for studying some types of laser-plasma interactions. The primary advantage of the variational approach is the preservation of Lagrangian symmetries, which in our case leads to energy conservation and thus avoids difficulties with grid heating. In addition, this approach decouples particle size from grid spacing and relaxes restrictions on particle shape, leading to low numerical noise. The variational approach also guarantees consistent approximations in the equations of motion and is amenable to higher order methods in both space and time. We restrict our attention to the 1.5-D case (one coordinate and two momenta). Lastly, simulations are performed with the new models and demonstrate energy conservation and low noise.

  2. A variational formulation for translation and assimilation of coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plu, M.

    2013-10-01

    The assimilation of observations from teledetected images in geophysical models requires one to develop algorithms that would account for the existence of coherent structures. In the context of variational data assimilation, a method is proposed to allow the background to be translated so as to fit structure positions deduced from images. Translation occurs as a first step before assimilating all the observations using a classical assimilation procedure with specific covariances for the translated background. A simple validation is proposed using a dynamical system based on the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in a regime prone to phase and amplitude errors. Assimilation of observations after background translation leads to better scores and a better representation of extremas than the method without translation.

  3. Ergodicity for Nonlinear Stochastic Equations in Variational Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barbu, Viorel Da Prato, Giuseppe

    2006-03-15

    This paper is concerned with nonlinear partial differential equations of the calculus of variation (see [13]) perturbed by noise. Well-posedness of the problem was proved by Pardoux in the seventies (see [14]), using monotonicity methods.The aim of the present work is to investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the corresponding transition semigroup P{sub t}. We show existence and, under suitable assumptions, uniqueness of an ergodic invariant measure {nu}. Moreover, we solve the Kolmogorov equation and prove the so-called 'identite du carre du champs'. This will be used to study the Sobolev space W{sup 1,2}(H,{nu}) and to obtain information on the domain of the infinitesimal generator of P{sub t}.

  4. Variation in amphibian response to two formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides.

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher; Gahl, Meghan; Thompson, Dean; Hao, Chunyan; Houlahan, Jeff

    2014-11-01

    Variation in toxicity among formulations and species makes it difficult to extrapolate results to all species and all formulations of herbicides. The authors exposed larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) from 4 populations to 2 glyphosate-based herbicides, Roundup Weed and Grass Control® and Roundup WeatherMax®. The 96-h median lethal concentration values for both formulations varied among the populations (Roundup Weed and Grass Control, 0.14 mg acid equivalents (a.e.)/L to 1.10 mg a.e./L; Roundup WeatherMax, 4.94 mg a.e./L to 8.26 mg a.e./L), demonstrating that toxicity varies among the formulations and that susceptibility may differ among populations.

  5. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  6. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  7. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  8. A variational justification of the assumed natural strain formulation of finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to study the assumed natural strain (ANS) formulation of finite elements from a variational standpoint. The study is based on two hybrid extensions of the Reissner-type functional that uses strains and displacements as independent fields. One of the forms is a genuine variational principle that contains an independent boundary traction field, whereas the other one represents a restricted variational principle. Two procedures for element level elimination of the strain field are discussed, and one of them is shown to be equivalent to the inclusion of incompatible displacement modes. Also, the 4-node C(exp 0) plate bending quadrilateral element is used to illustrate applications of this theory.

  9. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation Session 6: Vaccine &Adjuvant Formulation & Production 15-17 May 2013, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Fox, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    The Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation meeting aims to fill a critical gap in current vaccine development efforts by bringing together formulation scientists and immunologists to emphasize the importance of rational formulation design in order to optimize vaccine and adjuvant bioactivity, safety, and manufacturability. Session 6 on Vaccine and Adjuvant Formulation and Production provided three examples of this theme, with speakers emphasizing the need for extensive physicochemical characterization of adjuvant-antigen interactions, the rational formulation design of a CD8+ T cell-inducing adjuvant based on immunological principles, and the development and production of a rabies vaccine by a developing country manufacturer. Throughout the session, the practical importance of sound formulation and manufacturing design accompanied by analytical characterization was highlighted.

  10. Formulation of a Production Strategy for a Software Product Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    systems that compose the product line by defining those behaviors or aspects that are “in” and those behaviors or aspects that are “out” [Clements...Be standard. Seek out and use open standards. Participate in standards development so that you have maximum impact [ Hoyer 2006]. This strategy...Further, there needs to be a balance among the five forces so that no one force consumes a majority of the available resources. Feasibility can be judged

  11. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  15. Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Helically symmetric formulation, Casimir invariants, and equilibrium variational principles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2012-05-15

    The noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to construct variational principles for continuously symmetric equilibrium configurations of magnetized plasma, including flow. In particular, helical symmetry is considered, and results on axial and translational symmetries are retrieved as special cases of the helical configurations. The symmetry condition, which allows the description in terms of a magnetic flux function, is exploited to deduce a symmetric form of the noncanonical Poisson bracket of MHD. Casimir invariants are then obtained directly from the Poisson bracket. Equilibria are obtained from an energy-Casimir principle and reduced forms of this variational principle are obtained by the elimination of algebraic constraints.

  16. Mixed augmented variational formulation (MAVF) for lower hybrid full-wave calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Peysson, Y.; Roche, J. R.; Kirsch, C.; Mokrani, A.; Labrunie, S.; Bertrand, P.; Chatenet, J.-H.

    2009-11-26

    In the continuation of the works led in cylindrical geometry, a full toroidal description for an arbitrary poloidal cross-section of the plasma has been developed. For simulation purpose a mixed augmented variational formulation (MAVF), which is particularly well suited for solving Maxwell equations, is considered. The discretization of the MAVF is carried out using Taylor-Hood P2-iso-P1 finite elements. This formulation provide a natural implementation for parallel processing, a particularly important aspect when simulations for plasmas of large size must be considered. Details on the specific application of the MAVF to the LH problem are presented, as well as the structure of the corresponding matrices. A first application to a realistic small tokamak configuration is considered.

  17. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through...

  18. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through...

  19. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through...

  20. A variational formulation of electrostatics in a medium with spatially varying dielectric permittivity.

    PubMed

    Jadhao, Vikram; Solis, Francisco J; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2013-02-07

    In biological and synthetic materials, many important processes involve charges that are present in a medium with spatially varying dielectric permittivity. To accurately understand the role of electrostatic interactions in such systems, it is important to take into account the spatial dependence of the permittivity of the medium. However, due to the ensuing theoretical and computational challenges, this inhomogeneous dielectric response of the medium is often ignored or excessively simplified. We develop a variational formulation of electrostatics to accurately investigate systems that exhibit this inhomogeneous dielectric response. Our formulation is based on a true energy functional of the polarization charge density. The defining characteristic of a true energy functional is that at its minimum it evaluates to the actual value of the energy; this is a feature not found in many commonly used electrostatic functionals. We explore in detail the charged systems that exhibit sharp discontinuous change in dielectric permittivity, and we show that for this case our functional reduces to a functional of only the surface polarization charge density. We apply this reduced functional to study model problems for which analytical solutions are well known. We demonstrate, in addition, that the functional has many properties that make it ideal for use in molecular dynamics simulations.

  1. A mathematical formulation for interface-based modular product design with geometric and weight constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung-Woon Yoo, John

    2016-06-01

    Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.

  2. Standardization of the finished product: Habbe Irqun Nisa - A Unani anti-inflammatory formulation

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S. Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Shamsi, Shariq

    2012-01-01

    Background: Habb (Pill) is one of the important dosage forms of Unani system of medicine. A number of effective formulations are manufactured in form of Habb because of its various advantages. Out of these, Habbe Irqun Nisa (HI) is a popular anti-inflammatory formulation used in the treatment of Warame Mafasil (arthritis) and Irqun Nisa (sciatica). Nowadays, with increased incidence of these diseases many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are being used in their treatment. Owing to the adverse effects of these drugs, the use of herbal medicines is seen as a better alternative. The basic requirement for the development of Unani system of Medicine is the standardization of single and compound drugs. HI is mentioned in National Formulary of Unani Medicne and selected for the present study. Materials and Methods: HI was prepared manually with the powder of crude drugs, passed through sieve no. 100 and mixed with 1% w/w of gum acacia in mucilage form. It was then dried at 60°C for 90 min and then tested for its standardization on different physicochemical parameters, e.g. organoleptic properties, pH values, moisture content, ash values, friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The data evolved from this study will make it a validated product and will help in the quality control of other finished products in future research. PMID:23929993

  3. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  6. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  7. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  8. Recovering thermodynamic consistency of the antitrapping model: A variational phase-field formulation for alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Angbo; Mi, Yongli

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenological antitrapping phase-field model has attained much success in describing alloy solidification. The heuristically introduced antitrapping current enables removing artificial effects due to the use of large interfacial width. Nevertheless, such a model is not thermodynamically consistent and has not been fitted into a variational framework. Here we present two approaches to develop a variational phase-field model to describe patten formation in alloys. Following the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics we build in the cross-coupling between the phase transition rate and solute diffusion current. Our formulation not only naturally incorporates the antitrapping current but also predicts the conjugated mesoscopic solute drag effect. A more general form of the antitrapping current is obtained by thin-interface analysis. Benchmark simulations on isothermal dendrite growth are carried out to show the capability of our model to quantitatively characterize the interface evolution and solute profile even with a large interface width used. Importantly, our theory also provides general insights on how to obtain the genuine dynamic coupling between nonconserved and conserved order parameters. This leads to a thermodynamically consistent generalization of the celebrated model C proposed by Hohenberg and Halperin [Rev. Mod. Phys.0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.49.435 49, 435 (1977)].

  9. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  10. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  11. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  12. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  13. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  14. Proactive management of fermentation and formulation interactions to improve biocontrol product performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The key components of biocontrol product development; discovery, fermentation, and formulation, are interactively linked to each other and ultimately, to product performance. The fermentation environment can be managed to maximize the quantity and quality of biomass and bioproducts produced which, ...

  15. Novel delivery system for natural products: Nano-curcumin formulations

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Nedaeinia, Reza; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Nikdoust, Shima; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin is extracted from Curcuma longa and regulates the intracellular signal pathways which control the growth of cancerous cell, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis. Curcumin molecules have special intrinsic features that can target the intracellular enzymes, genome (DNA) and messengers (RNA). A wide range of studies have been conducted on the physicochemical traits and pharmacological effects of curcumin on different diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and even it has wound healing. Oral bioavailability of curcumin is rather poor, which would certainly put some boundaries in the employment of this drug. Materials and Methods: Bibliographical searches were performed using MEDLINE/ScienceDirect/OVID up to February 2015 using the following keywords (all fields): (“Curcumin” OR “Curcuma longa”) AND [(nanoparticles) OR (Nanomicelles) OR (micro emulsions) OR (liposome) OR (phospholipid). Results: Consequently, for any developments of curcumin in the future, analogues of curcumin that have better bioavailability or substitute formulations are needed crucially. Conclusion: These studies indicated that nanotechnology can formulate curcumin effectively, and this nano-formulated curcumin with a potent ability against various cancer cells, were represented to have better efficacy and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. PMID:27516979

  16. Variations in exopolysaccharide production by Rhizobium tropici.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Ann K; Wolfe, Lawrence G; Shrout, Joshua D

    2012-03-01

    Rhizobium tropici, a legume-symbiont soil bacterium, is known for its copious production of exopolysaccharide (EPS). Many aspects of this organism's growth and EPS production, however, remain uncharacterized, including the influence of environment and culturing conditions upon EPS. Here, we demonstrate that R. tropici EPS chemical composition and yield differ when grown with different substrates in a defined minimal medium in batch culture. Exopolysaccharide was quantified from R. tropici grown using arabinose, glucose, sucrose, mannitol, fructose, or glutamate as a sole carbon source. All tested substrates produced plenteous amounts of exopolysaccharide material. Variations in pH and carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio also resulted in assorted cell growth and exopolysaccharide production differences. We found that optimizing the C/N ratio has a greater impact upon R. tropici EPS production than upon R. tropici growth. A maximum EPS yield of 4.08 g/L was realized under optimized conditions, which is large even in comparison with other known rhizobia. We provide evidence that the chemical composition of R. tropici EPS can vary with changes to the growth environment. The composition of glucose-grown EPS contained rhamnose-linked residues that were not present in arabinose-grown EPS.

  17. HSCT Assessment Calculations with the AER 2-D Model: Sensitivities to Transport Formulation, PSC Formulation, Interannual Temperature Variation. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Jackman, Charles; Fleming, Eric; Considine, David; Kinnison, Douglas; Connell, Peter; Rotman, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The summary are: (1) Some chemical differences in background atmosphere are surprisingly large (NOY). (2) Differences in model transport explain a majority of the intertnodel differences in the absence of PSCs. (3) With PSCS, large differences exist in predicted O3 depletion between models with the same transport. (4) AER/LLNL model calculates more O3 depletion in NH than LLNL. (5) AER/GSFC model cannot match calculated O3 depletion of GSFC model in SH. and (6) Results sensitive to interannual temperature variations (at least in NH).

  18. Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. I. Variational formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-07-15

    A unified theoretical framework is presented for analyzing various branches of drift Alfvén waves and describing their linear and nonlinear behaviors, covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Nonlinear gyrokinetic quasineutrality condition and vorticity equation, derived for drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles in fusion plasmas, are cast in integral form, which is generally variational in the linear limit; and the corresponding gyrokinetic energy principle is obtained. Well known forms of the kinetic energy principle are readily recovered from this general formulation. Furthermore, it is possible to demonstrate that the general fishbone like dispersion relation, obtained within the present theoretical framework, provides a unified description of drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles as either Alfvén eigenmodes or energetic particle modes. The advantage of the present approach stands in its capability of extracting underlying linear and nonlinear physics as well as spatial and temporal scales of the considered fluctuation spectrum. For these reasons, this unified theoretical framework can help understanding experimental observations as well as numerical simulation and analytic results with different levels of approximation. Examples and applications are given in Paper II [F. Zonca and L. Chen, “Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. II. The general fishbone-like dispersion relation,” Phys. Plasmas 21, 072121 (2014)].

  19. Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. I. Variational formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-07-01

    A unified theoretical framework is presented for analyzing various branches of drift Alfvén waves and describing their linear and nonlinear behaviors, covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Nonlinear gyrokinetic quasineutrality condition and vorticity equation, derived for drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles in fusion plasmas, are cast in integral form, which is generally variational in the linear limit; and the corresponding gyrokinetic energy principle is obtained. Well known forms of the kinetic energy principle are readily recovered from this general formulation. Furthermore, it is possible to demonstrate that the general fishbone like dispersion relation, obtained within the present theoretical framework, provides a unified description of drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles as either Alfvén eigenmodes or energetic particle modes. The advantage of the present approach stands in its capability of extracting underlying linear and nonlinear physics as well as spatial and temporal scales of the considered fluctuation spectrum. For these reasons, this unified theoretical framework can help understanding experimental observations as well as numerical simulation and analytic results with different levels of approximation. Examples and applications are given in Paper II [F. Zonca and L. Chen, "Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. II. The general fishbone-like dispersion relation," Phys. Plasmas 21, 072121 (2014)].

  20. Studies on application of annatto (Bixa orellena L.) dye formulations in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Sathiya Mala, Kripanand; Prabhakara Rao, Pamidighantam; Prabhavathy, Manda Babu; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2015-02-01

    Annatto is often used to add color to dairy products such as butter, cheese, or puddings. In India usage of annatto is restricted to butter and cheese, however there are no tailor made formulations available to obtain standardized colour shades for the products. Hence a study was initiated to develop the appropriate annatto dye formulations and level of application in few dairy products (butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream). Dye extracted from annatto seeds was used for the preparation of water soluble potassium carbonate formulation (nor-bixin, 11.24 %), oil soluble formulation (1.35 % bixin) and an oil/water soluble propylene glycol formulation (PG formulation, 1.31 % bixin). Lovibond tintometer colour units of the commercial butter, cheese and biscuit cream samples were measured for standardizing the colour concentration in the experimental products. The present study evaluates the application and stability of these formulations in butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream. The products were evaluated for stability of colour and bixin during storage period. The oil/water soluble propylene glycol formulation was found to be tailor-made for all the dairy products studied though the standardized levels varied between 3.75 and 5.0 mg/kg for butter, 3.75 mg/kg for cheese, 5.0-400 mg/kg for biscuit cream, 12.25 and 25 mg/kg for paneer, 5.0-500 mg/kg for icing cream. Increasing concentration in the range of 30-500 mg/kg yielded products with light cream to orange shades, useful for decorating cakes. The average recovery of bixin from the products immediately after processing was 90-98 %. Significant changes (P ≤ 0.05) were noticed in the colour units and recovery of bixin in all the products during storage of 6 months.

  1. Solutol and cremophor products as new additives in suppository formulation.

    PubMed

    Berkó, Szilvia; Regdon, Géza; Erös, István

    2002-01-01

    Our research has a double purpose. On the one hand, doctors have expressed the need to formulate a rectal suppository dosage form from diuretic ethacrynic acid, which would add to the choice of treatment methods and thereby increase the possibilities of individual cure. On the other hand, the liberation and thereby the bioavailability of poorly-soluble ethacrynic acid needs to be enhanced, and for this purpose solubility-increasing additives new to rectal therapy were used. Solutol HS 15, Cremophor RH 40, and Cremophor RH 60 were used as additives in concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 10%. The quantity of drug released changed as a function of additive concentration. Depending on the acceptor phase, the best results were achieved with an additive concentration of 1-3%, which is related to the optimal additive quantity accumulated on the boundary surface.

  2. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  4. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  6. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  8. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  10. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1218.56 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  11. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1218.56 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1218.56 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  19. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  20. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  1. Variational formulation and stability analysis of a three dimensional superelastic model for shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Roberto; Pham, Kim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a variational framework for the three-dimensional macroscopic modelling of superelastic shape memory alloys in an isothermal setting. Phase transformation is accounted through a unique second order tensorial internal variable, acting as the transformation strain. Postulating the total strain energy density as the sum of a free energy and a dissipated energy, the model depends on two material scalar functions of the norm of the transformation strain and a material scalar constant. Appropriate calibration of these material functions allows to render a wide range of constitutive behaviours including stress-softening and stress-hardening. The quasi-static evolution problem of a domain is formulated in terms of two physical principles based on the total energy of the system: a stability criterion, which selects the local minima of the total energy, and an energy balance condition, which ensures the consistency of the evolution of the total energy with respect to the external loadings. The local phase transformation laws in terms of Kuhn-Tucker relations are deduced from the first-order stability condition and the energy balance condition. The response of the model is illustrated with a numerical traction-torsion test performed on a thin-walled cylinder. Evolutions of homogeneous states are given for proportional and non-proportional loadings. Influence of the stress-hardening/softening properties on the evolution of the transformation domain is emphasized. Finally, in view of an identification process, the issue of stability of homogeneous states in a multi-dimensional setting is answered based on the study of second-order derivative of the total energy. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions of stability are provided.

  2. Combustion Product Evaluation of Various Charge Sizes and Propellant Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Activity , Advanced Systems Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground, without whose help and cooperation this study could not have been performed...WC844 propellant were subjected to u rather detailed chemical analyses. A large number of trace chemical species, volatile organics and PAHs were...Sampling for PAH Analyses ....................... 18 3.3.8 Combustion Product Sampling From A Bore Evacuator, 155 mm Gun

  3. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performing microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.

  4. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performingmore » microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.« less

  5. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    PubMed Central

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry. PMID:24860803

  6. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design.

    PubMed

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  8. From a Nonlinear, Nonconvex Variational Problem to a Linear, Convex Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Egozcue, J. Meziat, R. Pedregal, P.

    2002-12-19

    We propose a general approach to deal with nonlinear, nonconvex variational problems based on a reformulation of the problem resulting in an optimization problem with linear cost functional and convex constraints. As a first step we explicitly explore these ideas to some one-dimensional variational problems and obtain specific conclusions of an analytical and numerical nature.

  9. Characterization of potential impurities and degradation products in electronic cigarette formulations and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Flora, Jason W; Meruva, Naren; Huang, Chorng B; Wilkinson, Celeste T; Ballentine, Regina; Smith, Donna C; Werley, Michael S; McKinney, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    E-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated. In addition, nicotine-related chemicals have been previously reported as potential e-cigarette formulation impurities. This study determined e-liquid formulation impurities and potentially harmful chemicals in aerosols of select commercial MarkTen(®) e-cigarettes manufactured by NuMark LLC. The potential hazard of the identified formulation impurities and aerosol chemicals was also estimated. E-cigarettes were machine puffed (4-s duration, 55-mL volume, 30-s intervals) to battery exhaustion to maximize aerosol collection. Aerosols analyzed for carbonyls were collected in 20-puff increments to account for analyte instability. Tobacco specific nitrosamines were measured at levels observed in pharmaceutical grade nicotine. Nicotine-related impurities in the e-cigarette formulations were below the identification and qualification thresholds proposed in ICH Guideline Q3B(R2). Levels of potentially harmful chemicals detected in the aerosols were determined to be below published occupational exposure limits.

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of interacting tunneling transport: variational grand potential, density functional formulation and nature of steady-state forces.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, P

    2012-10-24

    The standard formulation of tunneling transport rests on an open-boundary modeling. There, conserving approximations to nonequilibrium Green function or quantum statistical mechanics provide consistent but computational costly approaches; alternatively, the use of density-dependent ballistic-transport calculations (e.g., Lang 1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 5335), here denoted 'DBT', provides computationally efficient (approximate) atomistic characterizations of the electron behavior but has until now lacked a formal justification. This paper presents an exact, variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory for fully interacting tunneling and provides a rigorous foundation for frozen-nuclei DBT calculations as a lowest-order approximation to an exact nonequilibrium thermodynamic density functional evaluation. The theory starts from the complete electron nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and I identify the operator for the nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy which, generally, must be treated as an implicit solution of the fully interacting many-body dynamics. I demonstrate a minimal property of a functional for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic grand potential which thus uniquely identifies the solution as the exact nonequilibrium density matrix. I also show that the uniqueness-of-density proof from a closely related Lippmann-Schwinger collision density functional theory (Hyldgaard 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 165109) makes it possible to express the variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic description as a single-particle formulation based on universal electron-density functionals; the full nonequilibrium single-particle formulation improves the DBT method, for example, by a more refined account of Gibbs free energy effects. I illustrate a formal evaluation of the zero-temperature thermodynamic grand potential value which I find is closely related to the variation in the scattering phase shifts and hence to Friedel density oscillations. This paper also discusses the

  11. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of interacting tunneling transport: variational grand potential, density functional formulation and nature of steady-state forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyldgaard, P.

    2012-10-01

    The standard formulation of tunneling transport rests on an open-boundary modeling. There, conserving approximations to nonequilibrium Green function or quantum statistical mechanics provide consistent but computational costly approaches; alternatively, the use of density-dependent ballistic-transport calculations (e.g., Lang 1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 5335), here denoted ‘DBT’, provides computationally efficient (approximate) atomistic characterizations of the electron behavior but has until now lacked a formal justification. This paper presents an exact, variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory for fully interacting tunneling and provides a rigorous foundation for frozen-nuclei DBT calculations as a lowest-order approximation to an exact nonequilibrium thermodynamic density functional evaluation. The theory starts from the complete electron nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and I identify the operator for the nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy which, generally, must be treated as an implicit solution of the fully interacting many-body dynamics. I demonstrate a minimal property of a functional for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic grand potential which thus uniquely identifies the solution as the exact nonequilibrium density matrix. I also show that the uniqueness-of-density proof from a closely related Lippmann-Schwinger collision density functional theory (Hyldgaard 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 165109) makes it possible to express the variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic description as a single-particle formulation based on universal electron-density functionals; the full nonequilibrium single-particle formulation improves the DBT method, for example, by a more refined account of Gibbs free energy effects. I illustrate a formal evaluation of the zero-temperature thermodynamic grand potential value which I find is closely related to the variation in the scattering phase shifts and hence to Friedel density oscillations. This paper also discusses the

  12. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  17. The Production System's Formulation of Relative Clause Structures: Evidence from Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Dana; Lech, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the formulation of relative clauses with preposition and genitive pied-piping. Thirty child (5;9 to 8;4) and 30 adult Polish speakers were given an elicited production task and a grammaticality judgment task. Almost all of the children accepted preposition pied-piping, but only half of them produced it. We suggest that…

  18. Variational formulation of hybrid problems for fully 3-D transonic flow with shocks in rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Gao-Lian

    1991-01-01

    Based on previous research, the unified variable domain variational theory of hybrid problems for rotor flow is extended to fully 3-D transonic rotor flow with shocks, unifying and generalizing the direct and inverse problems. Three variational principles (VP) families were established. All unknown boundaries and flow discontinuities (such as shocks, free trailing vortex sheets) are successfully handled via functional variations with variable domain, converting almost all boundary and interface conditions, including the Rankine Hugoniot shock relations, into natural ones. This theory provides a series of novel ways for blade design or modification and a rigorous theoretical basis for finite element applications and also constitutes an important part of the optimal design theory of rotor bladings. Numerical solutions to subsonic flow by finite elements with self-adapting nodes given in Refs., show good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B.; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield. PMID:28099471

  20. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield.

  1. Current perspectives on stability of protein drug products during formulation, fill and finish operations.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Nitin; Rajan, Rahul S

    2008-01-01

    Commercialization of protein-based therapeutics is a challenging task in part due to the difficulties in maintaining protein solutions safe and efficacious throughout the drug product development process, storage, transportation and patient administration. Bulk drug substance goes through a series of formulation, fill and finish operations to provide the final dosage form in the desired formulation and container or delivery device. Different process parameters during each of these operations can affect the purity, activity and efficacy of the final product. Common protein degradation pathways and the various physical and chemical factors that can induce such reactions have been extensively studied for years. This review presents an overview of the various formulation-fill-finish operations with a focus on processing steps and conditions that can impact product quality. Various manufacturing operations including bulk freeze-thaw, formulation, filtration, filling, lyophilization, inspection, labeling, packaging, storage, transport and delivery have been reviewed. The article highlights our present day understanding of protein instability issues during biopharmaceutical manufacturing and provides guidance on process considerations that can help alleviate these concerns.

  2. Variational Formulation and Finite Element Implementation of Pagano’s Theory of Laminated Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-12

    that the plane of crosssection before bending remains plane and perpendicular to the midsurface of the plate during deformation. In addition, it is...assumed that the variation of lateral displacement through the thickness and the stress normal to the midsurface are negligible. A mathematical...frame used, the origin is located in the midsurface of the plate (x1-X2 axes) with x3 axis normal to this plane, but the range of X3 is limited to

  3. Modulation of fossil fuel production by global temperature variations, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, B.W.; Crosby, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The report includes the inverse modulation of global fossil production by variations in Northern Hemispheric temperatures. The present study incorporates recent revisions and extensions of the fuel production record and uses a much improved temperature record. The authors show that the new data are consistent with the predictions of the original Rust-Kirk model which they then extend to allow for time lag between variations in the temperature and the corresponding responses in fuel production. The modulation enters the new model through the convolution of a lagged averaging function with the temperature time-series. The authors also include explicit terms to account for the perturbations caused by the Great Depression and World War II. The final model accounts for 99.84% of the total variance in the production record. This modulation represents a feedback which is consistent with the carbon dioxide problem; climate change; fossil fuel production; global warming Gaia hypothesis; temperature variations.

  4. Assessment of the anti-Salmonella activity of commercial formulations of organic acid products.

    PubMed

    Wales, Andrew; McLaren, Ian; Rabie, André; Gosling, Rebecca J; Martelli, Francesca; Sayers, Robin; Davies, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Organic acid products are widely used in the UK poultry industry as feed or water additives. Claims for Salmonella control are made for some of these products, but there are few studies comparing the anti-Salmonella effect of the various products in tests that reflect field application. The present studies examined the effects of 13 commercial blends (four water products and nine feed products) on Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium strains. Initial screening, in nutrient broth, of all products with all strains revealed little variation between strains in respect of maximum inhibitory and bactericidal dilutions of each product. However, between the products there was wide and significant variation in the maximum inhibitory and bactericidal dilutions, spanning a 700-fold range in the case of bactericidal dilutions for feed-associated products. Further tests were performed, examining reductions in inoculated Salmonella numbers in various matrices (water, feed, soiled litter, crop and caecal contents) following the addition of the products at recommended inclusion rates. One product, incorporating formaldehyde in addition to organic acid, was consistently most active in all matrices, exceeding reductions associated with other products by 1 to 3 log units at most time points. Many products showed only modest anti-Salmonella activity, amounting to 0 or 1 log unit above negative controls at many time points, and the most active products were not the same in all matrices. Tap water appeared to enhance the ability of products to reduce Salmonella, in comparison with bottled mineral or river water.

  5. A Variational Formulation for the Finite Element Analysis of Sound Wave Propagation in a Spherical Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebiedzik, Catherine

    1995-01-01

    Development of design tools to furnish optimal acoustic environments for lightweight aircraft demands the ability to simulate the acoustic system on a workstation. In order to form an effective mathematical model of the phenomena at hand, we have begun by studying the propagation of acoustic waves inside closed spherical shells. Using a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction model based upon variational principles, we have written a finite element analysis program and are in the process of examining several test cases. Future investigations are planned to increase model accuracy by incorporating non-linear and viscous effects.

  6. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance.

  7. Final Report on the “ New Directions in the Variational Multiscale Formulation of Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence”

    SciTech Connect

    Assad A. Oberai

    2007-07-13

    The work performed as part of this grant may be described in the context of developing numerical methods for solving an abstract, nonlinear variational problem for which the straightforward Galerkin approximation on a space of reasonable dimension is inaccurate. Target applications include flows with turbulence and systems with shocks. With this in mind, an alternate finite dimensional problem is proposed in which a model term (with unknown parameters) is added to the Galerkin approximation to improve its performance. We have developed new formulations for this model term especially for turbulent flows and for systems with shocks. We have also developed a dynamic approach for evaluating the parameters that appear in this model term. We have conducted several numerical studies to confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  8. Variation of consumer contact with household products: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Weegels, M E; van Veen, M P

    2001-06-01

    Little information is available on product use by consumers, which severely hampers exposure estimation for consumer products. This article describes actual contact with several consumer products, specifically dishwashing detergents, cleaning products, and hair styling products. How and where products are handled, as well as the duration, frequency, and amount of use were studied by means of diaries, in-home observations, and measurements. This study addressed the question, "To what extent are frequency, duration, and amount of use associated?" Findings showed that there was a large intra- as well as interindividual variation in frequency, duration, and amount of use, with the interindividual variation being considerably larger. At the same time, results showed that, for a given activity, users tended to follow their own routine. Few relations were found among frequency, duration, and amount of use. It was concluded that among persons, frequency, duration, and amount of product act in practice as independent parameters. Diaries appear to be quite suitable for gaining insight into frequently used products. Observations of usage, recorded on video, were indispensable for obtaining particular information on product use. In addition, home visits enabled the collection of specific measurements. Although diaries and home visits are time-consuming, the combination provided insight into variation as well as relations among frequency, duration, and amount of use.

  9. Talc based exopolysaccharides formulation enhancing growth and production of Hellianthus annuus under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Arora, K

    2014-12-24

    Stress tolerating strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF07 possessing plant growth promoting activity was screened for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS production was monitored in the cell free culture supernatant (CFCS) and extracted EPS was further purified by thin layer chromatography. EPS producing cells were taken to design talc based formulation and its efficacy was checked on oilseed crop sunflower (Hellianthus annuus), under in vivo saline conditions (soil irrigated with 125 mM of saline water). Application of bioformulation significantly enhanced the yield and growth attributes of the plant in comparison to control (untreated seeds) under stress and non—stress conditions. Germination rate, plant length, dry weight and seed weight increased remarkably. The above findings suggest the application and benefits of utilizing EPS formulation in boosting early seedling emergence, enhancing plant growth parameters, increasing seed weight and mitigating stress in saline affected regions. Such bioformulation may enhance RAS/RT (Root Adhering Soil to Root Tissue ratio), texture of the soil, increase porosity, improve uptake of nutrients, and hence may be considered as commercially important formulation for renovation of stressed sites and enhancing plant growth.

  10. 'Guapo' (Myrosma cannifolia) starch: a natural product with potential use in cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Rincón, A M; Pérez, R M N; Reyes, A; Romero, A; Orfila, L; Padilla, F C

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the possible use of Myrosma cannifolia starch L.F. Maranthaceae ('Guapo'), as a raw material in heterogeneous systems or powdered cosmetic and pharmaceutical products formulation. The starch chemical and physical characteristics, physico-chemical properties, and rheological behaviour, previously studied, were considered. Flowing characteristics, particle size distribution, water absorption capacity at 25 degrees C (ambient temperature), and toxicity were assessed. Results showed that Myrosma starch complies with the USP and British pharmacopoeia, and presented a normal particle distribution. More than 25% of the granules had a diameter >23.81 mum and the average size of particles was >16.92 mum. When compared with talc, 'guapo' starch presented higher values for water absorption capacity and flowing characteristics. Starch showed negative local toxicity, and low acute toxicity in vitro on two human dermis cell types. The amylographic study and the difractograms suggest the possible use of this starch in heterogeneous systems. A facial transparent powder was formulated and some of its properties were determined by sensorial analysis. It was concluded that the M. cannifolia starch presents certain characteristics useful in the formulation of new powdered products.

  11. Optimization of a fermented soy product formulation with a kefir culture and fiber using a simplex-centroid mixture design.

    PubMed

    Baú, Tahis Regina; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize a fermented soy product formulation with kefir and soy, oat and wheat fibers and to evaluate the fiber and product characteristics. A simplex-centroid mixture design was used for the optimization. Soymilk, soy, oat and wheat fiber mixtures, sucrose and anti-foaming agent were used for the formulation, followed by thermal treatment, cooling and the addition of flavoring. Fermentation was performed at 25 °C with a kefir culture until a pH of 4.5 was obtained. The products were cooled, homogenized and stored for analysis. From the mathematical models and variables response surface and desirability an optimal fermented product was formulated containing 3% (w/w) soy fiber. Compared with the other formulations, soy fermented product with 3% soy fiber had the best acidity, viscosity, syneresis, firmness and Lactococcus lactis count.

  12. Relative toxicities of formulated glycol aircraft deicers and pure glycol products to duckweed (Lemna minor)

    SciTech Connect

    DuFresne, D.L.; Pillard, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene and propylene glycol deicers are commonly used at airports in the US and other countries to both remove snow and ice from aircraft, and to retard the accumulation of those materials. Snow and ice often pile up at airports during the winter and are then flushed into the storm sewer system during warmer temperatures or rainfall. Some of this water containing deicers may enter waterbodies without prior treatment, While previous studies have investigated the effects of deicers on aquatic animals and algae, data are not available on the effects on aquatic macrophytes, Glycol deicers were obtained in the formulated mixtures used on aircraft; pure ethylene and propylene glycol were obtained from Sigma{reg_sign}. Duckweed (Lemna minor) fronds were exposed to various concentrations of pure and formulated glycol mixtures. The number of fronds at test termination and chlorophyll concentration (measured using a spectrophotometer) were the measured endpoints. Based upon glycol concentration, the formulated products were more toxic than the pure material. These results are consistent with results seen in other animal and plant studies.

  13. Production and characterisation of mucoadhesive nanosuspensions for the formulation of bupravaquone.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C; Kayser, O; Müller, R H

    2001-02-19

    Bupravaquone is a new naphthoquinone antibiotic against Cryptosporidium parvum and other parasites. It has attracted interest for the treatment of C. parvum infections, because of the lack of a drug in the treatment of mostly AIDS patients. The bioavailability of bupravaquone is limited when given orally. To overcome the problem of the high elimination rate caused by diarrhoea, typical for C. parvum infections, bupravaquone was formulated as a mucoadhesive nanosuspension, i.e. combining the properties of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, in this case hydro gels, with nanosuspensions. In this study different polymers/hydro gels were employed to create a prolonged retention time for the drug in the infected gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The second step to improve the bioavailability of bupravaquone was the formulation as nanosuspension. Therefore various concentrations of bupravaquone with different surfactants were tested. The production of these nanosuspensions was carried out by high pressure homogenisation. In addition to the classical stepwise production, about a new one step production method is described.

  14. A Tensor Product Formulation of Strassen's Matrix Multiplication Algorithm with Memory Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, B.; Huang, C. -H.; Sadayappan, P.; ...

    1995-01-01

    In this article, we present a program generation strategy of Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithm using a programming methodology based on tensor product formulas. In this methodology, block recursive programs such as the fast Fourier Transforms and Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithm are expressed as algebraic formulas involving tensor products and other matrix operations. Such formulas can be systematically translated to high-performance parallel/vector codes for various architectures. In this article, we present a nonrecursive implementation of Strassen's algorithm for shared memory vector processors such as the Cray Y-MP. A previous implementation of Strassen's algorithm synthesized from tensor product formulas required workingmore » storage of size O(7 n ) for multiplying 2 n × 2 n matrices. We present a modified formulation in which the working storage requirement is reduced to O(4 n ). The modified formulation exhibits sufficient parallelism for efficient implementation on a shared memory multiprocessor. Performance results on a Cray Y-MP8/64 are presented.« less

  15. Validation of radiolabeling of drug formulations for aerosol deposition assessment of orally inhaled products.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Sunalene G; Chan, Hak-Kim; Haeussermann, Sabine; Kietzig, Claudius; Kuehl, Philip J; Newman, Stephen; Sommerer, Knut; Taylor, Glyn

    2012-12-01

    Radiolabeling of inhaler formulations for imaging studies is an indirect method of determining lung deposition and regional distribution of drug in human subjects. Hence, ensuring that the radiotracer and drug exhibit similar aerodynamic characteristics when aerosolized, and that addition of the radiotracer has not significantly altered the characteristics of the formulation, are critical steps in the development of a radiolabeling method. The validation phase should occur during development of the radiolabeling method, prior to commencement of in vivo studies. The validation process involves characterization of the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of drug in the reference formulation, and of both drug and radiotracer in the radiolabeled formulation, using multistage cascade impaction. We propose the adoption of acceptance criteria similar to those recommended by the EMA and ISAM/IPAC-RS for determination of therapeutic equivalence of orally inhaled products: (a) if only total lung deposition is being quantified, the fine particle fraction ratio of both radiolabeled drug and radiotracer to that of the reference drug should fall between 0.85 and 1.18, and (b) if regional lung deposition (e.g., outer and inner lung regions) is to be quantified, the ratio of both radiolabeled drug and radiotracer to reference drug on each impactor stage or group of stages should fall between 0.85 and 1.18. If impactor stages are grouped together, at least four separate groups should be provided. In addition, while conducting in vivo studies, measurement of the APSD of the inhaler used on each study day is recommended to check its suitability for use in man.

  16. Unexploited potential of some biotechnological techniques for biofertilizer production and formulation.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, N; Vassileva, M; Lopez, A; Martos, V; Reyes, A; Maksimovic, I; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Malusà, E

    2015-06-01

    The massive application of chemical fertilizers to support crop production has resulted in soil, water, and air pollution at a global scale. In the same time, this situation escalated consumers' concerns regarding quality and safety of food production which, due to increase of fertilizer prices, have provoked corresponding price increase of food products. It is widely accepted that the only solution is to boost exploitation of plant-beneficial microorganisms which in conditions of undisturbed soils play a key role in increasing the availability of minerals that otherwise are inaccessible to plants. This review paper is focused on the employment of microbial inoculants and their production and formulation. Special attention is given to biotechniques that are not fully exploited as tools for biofertilizer manufacturing such as microbial co-cultivation and co-immobilization. Another emerging area includes biotechnological production and combined usage of microorganisms/active natural compounds (biostimulants) such as plant extracts and exudates, compost extracts, and products like strigolactones, which improve not only plant growth and development but also plant-microbial interactions. The most important potential and novel strategies in this field are presented as well as the tendencies that will be developed in the near future.

  17. A variational formulation for vibro-acoustic analysis of a panel backed by an irregularly-bounded cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Hui; Qu, Yegao

    2016-07-01

    A weak form variational based method is developed to study the vibro-acoustic responses of coupled structural-acoustic system consisting of an irregular acoustic cavity with general wall impedance and a flexible panel subjected to arbitrary edge-supporting conditions. The structural and acoustical models of the coupled system are formulated on the basis of a modified variational method combined with multi-segment partitioning strategy. Meanwhile, the continuity constraints on the sub-segment interfaces are further incorporated into the system stiffness matrix by means of least-squares weighted residual method. Orthogonal polynomials, such as Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind, are employed as the wholly admissible unknown displacement and sound pressure field variables functions for separate components without meshing, and hence mapping the irregular physical domain into a square spectral domain is necessary. The effects of weighted parameter together with the number of truncated polynomial terms and divided partitions on the accuracy of present theoretical solutions are investigated. It is observed that applying this methodology, accurate and efficient predictions can be obtained for various types of coupled panel-cavity problems; and in weak or strong coupling cases for a panel surrounded by a light or heavy fluid, the inherent principle of velocity continuity on the panel-cavity contacting interface can all be handled satisfactorily. Key parametric studies concerning the influences of the geometrical properties as well as impedance boundary are performed. Finally, by performing the vibro-acoustic analyses of 3D car-like coupled miniature, we demonstrate that the present method seems to be an excellent way to obtain accurate mid-frequency solution with an acceptable CPU time.

  18. An Improved Formulation of Hybrid Model Predictive Control With Application to Production-Inventory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider an improved model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems described by mixed logical dynamical (MLD) models. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom parametrization that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on objective function weights (such as move suppression) traditionally used in MPC schemes. The controller formulation is motivated by the needs of non-traditional control applications that are suitably described by hybrid production-inventory systems. Two applications are considered in this paper: adaptive, time-varying interventions in behavioral health, and inventory management in supply chains under conditions of limited capacity. In the adaptive intervention application, a hypothetical intervention inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children, is examined. In the inventory management application, the ability of the algorithm to judiciously alter production capacity under conditions of varying demand is presented. These case studies demonstrate that MPC for hybrid systems can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions involving noise and uncertainty. PMID:24348004

  19. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  20. Variations in Physicochemical Properties of a Traditional Mercury-Based Nanopowder Formulation: Need for Standard Manufacturing Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, S. U.; Pemiah, B.; Rajan, K. S.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Sethuraman, S.; Krishnan, U. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rasasindura is a mercury-based nanopowder synthesized using natural products through mechanothermal processing. It has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial for various therapeutic purposes such as rejuvenation, treatment of syphilis and in genital disorders. Rasasindura is said to be composed of mercury, sulphur and organic moieties derived from the decoction of plant extracts used during its synthesis. There is little scientific understanding of the preparation process so far. Though metallic mercury is incorporated deliberately for therapeutic purposes, it certainly raises toxicity concerns. The lack of gold standards in manufacturing of such drugs leads to a variation in the chemical composition of the final product. The objective of the present study was to assess the physicochemical properties of Rasasindura samples of different batches purchased from different manufacturers and assess the extent of deviation and gauge its impact on human health. Modern characterization techniques were employed to analyze particle size and morphology, surface area, zeta potential, elemental composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and degradation. Average particle size of the samples observed through scanning electron microscope ranged from 5-100 nm. Mercury content was found to be between 84 and 89% from elemental analysis. Despite batch-to-batch and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variations in the physicochemical properties, all the samples contained mercury in the form of HgS. These differences in the physicochemical properties may ultimately impact its biological outcome. PMID:25593382

  1. Formulation of criteria for pollution control on cement products produced from solid wastes in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yu; Huang, Zechun; Wang, Qi

    2011-08-01

    The process of producing cement products from solid waste can increase the level of pollutants in the cement products. Therefore, it is very important to establish a pollution control standard for cement products to protect the environment and human health. This paper presents acceptance limits for the availability of heavy metals in cement products which have been produced from solid wastes and explains how the limits have been calculated. The approach and method used to formulate these criteria were based on EN 12920. The typical exposure scenarios used in this paper involve concrete being used for drinking water supply pipelines and concrete pavements and are based on an analysis of typical applications of cement in China, and the potential for contact with water. The parameters of a tank test which was based on NEN 7375 were set in accordance with the environmental conditions of typical scenarios in China. Mechanisms controlling the release of heavy metals in concrete and a model for that release were obtained using the leaching test. Finally, based on acceptance criteria for drinking water and groundwater quality in China, limit values for the availability of heavy metals in concrete were calculated.

  2. Environmental risk assessment for the galenical formulation of solid medicinal products at Roche Basle, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Corinne C; Dörr, Benno; Schlienger, Claude; Straubt, Jürg O

    2009-04-01

    An environmental risk assessment for losses to wastewater from galenical manufacturing at solid medicinal products at F. Hoffmann-La Roche in Basle, Switzerland, was performed based on an annual total materials balance. This balance resulted in a loss factor of 0.2% relative to the sum of all starting materials, which was later confirmed as valid by analysis for 1 specific active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The initial risk assessment for all 25 different APIs formulated resulted in no evident risk for the wastewater treatment plant, based on biodegradation no-effect data. However, based on acute ecotoxicity data, potential risk to the local receiving water, the River Rhine, was identified from 1 single API, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX). A refinement of the risk assessment for SMX, based on chronic ecotoxicity data, or the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), and documented sewage works degradability, or the predicted environmental concentration (PEC), led to a significant decrease of the initial PEC/PNEC ratio to well below 1. In view of this refinement, the final conclusion is that the galenical production investigated poses no significant risk to the environment.

  3. Centennial Scale Variations in Lake Productivity Linked to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englebrecht, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar variations on both decadal and centennial timescales have been associated with climate phenomena (van Loon et al., 2004; Hodell et al., 2001; White et al., 1997). The energy received by the Earth at the peak of the solar cycle increases by <0.1%; so the question has remained of how this could be amplified to produce an observable climate response. Recent modeling shows that the response of the Earth's climate system to the 11-year solar cycle may be amplified through stratosphere and ocean feedbacks and has the potential to impact climate variability on a multidecadal to centennial timescales (Meehl et al., 2009). Here, we report a 1000-year record of changes in the stratigraphy and carbon isotope composition of varved lake sediment from Isla Isabela (22°N, 106°W) in the subtropical northeast Pacific. Stable carbon isotopes and carbonate stratigraphy can be used to infer surface productivity in the lake. Our analysis shows variations in primary productivity on centennial timescales and suggests that solar activity may be an important component of Pacific climate variability. A possible response during solar maxima acts to keep the eastern equatorial Pacific cooler and drier than usual, producing conditions similar to a La Niña event. In the region around Isla Isabela peak solar years were characterized by decreased surface temperatures and suppressed precipitation (Meehl et al., 2009), which enhance productivity at Isabela (Kienel et al. 2011). In the future, we plan to analyze the data using advanced time series analysis techniques like the wavelets together with techniques to handle irregularly spaced time series data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-571672

  4. Herbicidal activity of formulated sorgoleone, a natural product of sorghum root exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allelochemical, sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum bicolor, was formulated as a wettable powder [WP] and evaluated as a natural herbicide on several weed and crop species under different growth conditions. Formulated sorgoleone suppressed germination and ...

  5. ESTIMATION OF THE RATE OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM SOLVENT-BASED INDOOR COATING MATERIALS BASED ON PRODUCT FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two computational methods are proposed for estimation of the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from solvent-based indoor coating materials based on the knowledge of product formulation. The first method utilizes two previously developed mass transfer models with ...

  6. Inclusion variations and calcium treatment optimization in pipeline steel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Hua; Wu, Hua-Jie; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Min

    2011-10-01

    SiCa line and SiCaBaFe alloy were injected into liquid pipeline steel at the end of LF refining as calcium treatment, and samples were taken from the ladles, mould, and slabs. Analysis of Ca content and inclusions shows that Ca content in steel decreases obviously in the following process after calcium treatment; the compositions, morphology, and sizes of inclusions also vary much in the production; primary inclusions in the ladles prior to calcium treatment are mainly Al2O3 inclusions, but they turn to fine irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 compound inclusions after the treatment, then become fine globular CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in the mould, and finally change to a few larger irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 complex inclusions in the slabs. Thermodynamic study reveals that inclusion variations are related with the preferential reactions among Ca, Al2O3, and S and the precipitation of S in CaO-Al2O3 inclusions with high sulfur capacity. New evaluation standards for calcium treatment in high-grade pipeline steel were put forward according to the inclusion variations and requirements of pipeline steel on inclusion controlling, and the calcium process was studied and optimized.

  7. Formulation and solution of the delayed gamma dose rate problem using the concept of effective delayed gamma production cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, S.L.; Ku, L.P.

    1989-06-01

    With appropriate approximations, the delayed gamma dose rate problem can be formulated in terms of the effective delayed gamma production cross section. The coupled neutron-delayed-gamma transport equations then take the same form as the coupled neutron-prompt-gamma transport equations and they can, therefore, be solved directly in the same manner. This eliminates the need for the tedious and error prone flux coupling step in conventional calculations. Mathematical formulation and solution algorithms are derived. The advantages of this method are illustrated by an example of its application in the solution of a practical design problem. 62 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Laudon, M; Tauman, R; Zisapel, N

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of nocturnal urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6SMT) in a large sample of healthy full-term infants (8 and 16 wk old) and assess whether the endogenous production of melatonin changes with season. 6SMT was assessed in urine samples extracted from disposable diapers removed from full-term, 8- (n = 317) and 16-wk-old (n = 93) infants over the nocturnal period (19:00-08:00 h). In addition, 6SMT was assessed in 8-wk-old (n = 35) healthy infants over the entire 24-h period. 6SMT was determined by an ELISA assay. 6SMT excretion at 8 wk of age exhibited diurnal variations with (mean +/- SD) 61 +/- 18% of the daily production excreted during the nocturnal period regardless of season. The nocturnal 6SMT values in the entire cohort (at 8 as well as 16 wk of age) were found to significantly depart from normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). A normal distribution was obtained using a natural base logarithmic (ln) transformation of the data. The normal range (2.5-97.5 percentile of the ln 6SMT excretion per night) was thus defined as 4.66-8.64 (106-5646 ng/night) for 8-wk-old and 5.19-9.67 (180-15,820 ng/night) for 16-wk-old infants. A significant effect of the month of birth on 6SMT production at the age of 8 wk was found (ANOVA, p < 0.002) with maximal levels produced by infants born in June (summer solstice) and minimal excretion in infants born in December (winter solstice). Short-photoperiod-born infants excreted on average about threefold less 6SMT compared with long-photoperiod-born infants (t test, p = 0. 01). The seasonal variations were no longer present at 16 wk of age. No effect of breast-feeding at the time of sampling on seasonality of 6SMT was found. Normal ranges for the nocturnal urinary excretion of 6SMT in full-term infants at 8 and 16 wk of age are defined. This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor

  9. Product consistency testing of West Valley Compositional Variation Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.M.; Marschman, S.C.; Piepel, G.F.; Whiting, G.K.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear waste glass produced by the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) must meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) as developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist WVDP in complying with WAPS, the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) used the Product Consistency Test (PCT) to evaluate 44 West Valley glasses that had previously been tested in FY 1987 and FY 1988. This report summarizes the results of the PCTs. The glasses tested, which were fabricated as sets of Compositional Variation Glasses for studies performed by the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at PNL during FY 1987 and FY 1988, were doped with Th and U and were variations of West Valley reference glasses. In addition, Approved Reference Material-1 (ARM-1) was used as a test standard (ARM-1 is supplied by the MCC). The PCT was originated at Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by C. M. Jantzen and N. R. Bibler (Jantzen and Bibler 1989). The test is a seven-day modified MCC-3 test that uses crushed glass in the size range -100 +200 mesh with deionized water in a Teflon container. There is no agitation during the PCT, and no attempt to include CO{sub 2} from the test environment. Based on B and Li release, the glasses performed about the same as in previous modified MCC-3 testing performed in FY 1987 and FY 1988 (Reimus et al. 1988). The modified MCC-3 tests performed by Reimus et al. were similar to the PCT containers and the exclusion of CO{sub 2} from the tests.

  10. Production and storage stability of formulated chicken nuggets using konjac flour and shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Akesowan, Adisak

    2016-10-01

    Formulated chicken nuggets which are low in fat and, high in dietary fiber and free from phosphate were developed by adding various levels of a konjac flour/xanthan gum (KF/XG) (3:1) mixture (0.2-1.5 %, w/w) and shiitake powder (SP) (1-4 %, w/w). A central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the influence of variables on the physical and sensory properties of nuggets and to optimize the formulated nugget formulation. The addition of the KF/XG mixture and SP was effective in improving nugget firmness and increasing hedonic scores for color, taste, flavor and overall acceptability. The nugget became darker with more SP was added. Optimal nuggets with 0.39 % KF/XG mixture and 1.84 % SP had reduced fat, higher dietary fiber and amino acids. After frozen (-18 ± 2 °C) storage, optimal formulated nuggets showed slower decreased in moisture, hardness and chewiness compared to standard nuggets. Konjac flour and SP also lowered lipid oxidation in frozen formulated nuggets. A slight change in sensory score was observed in both nuggets were microbiologically safe after frozen storage for 75 days.

  11. Impact of yeast starter formulations on the production of volatile compounds during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Romano, Patrizia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romaniello, Rossana; Zambuto, Marianna; Calabretti, Antonella; Capece, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The most diffused starter formulation in winemaking is actually represented by active dry yeast (ADY). Spray-drying has been reported as an appropriate preservation method for yeast and other micro-organisms. Despite the numerous advantages of this method, the high air temperatures used can negatively affect cell viability and the fermentative performance of dried cells. In the present study, 11 wine S. cerevisiae strains (both indigenous and commercial) were submitted to spray-drying; different process conditions were tested in order to select the conditions allowing the highest strain survival. The strains exhibited high variability for tolerance to spray-drying treatment. Selected strains were tested in fermentation at laboratory scale in different formulations (free fresh cells, free dried cells, immobilized fresh cells and immobilized dried cells), in order to assess the influence of starter formulation on fermentative fitness of strains and aromatic quality of wine. The analysis of volatile fraction in the experimental wines produced by selected strains in different formulations allowed identification of > 50 aromatic compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes). The results obtained showed that the starter formulation significantly influenced the content of volatile compounds. In particular, the wines obtained by strains in dried forms (as both free and immobilized cells) contained higher numbers of volatile compounds than wines obtained from fresh cells.

  12. Hunter screening design to understand the product variability of solid dispersion formulation of a peptide antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-11-18

    The focus of present research was to understand and control the variability of solid dispersion (SD) formulation of non-ribosomal peptide antibiotic, vancomycin (VCM). Hunter screening design was constructed using seven independent variables namely melting temperature (X1), congealing temperature (X2), mixing time (X3), type of capsule shell (X4), filling method (X5), molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG, X6) and surfactant type (X7), and responses measured were cumulative percentage of VCM released in 45 min (Y1) and potency (Y2). The SD formulations were prepared by melt-fusion method, and tested for dissolution, potency, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI). Statistically significant (p<0.05) effect of congealing temperature (X2), type of capsule shell (X4), filling method (X5), molecular weight of PEG (X6) was revealed on Y1, and R(2) of 0.992 was obtained between experimental and predicted value. None of the factors have statistically significant (p>0.05) influence on Y2. SEM, DSC and PXRD indicated crystalline nature of SD formulations. Homogeneity of SD formulations was shown by NIR-CI images. In summary, the quality of VCM SD formulations could be assured by controlling the critical factors during manufacturing.

  13. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Bagon, K R; Gough, T A

    1980-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of 304 seizures of illicit Cannabis products was determined using gas chromatography. This procedure results in the conversion of THC acid to THC itself and thus gives the total THC content of the material, which reflects its potency as experienced by the smokers. The study was carried out over three years, thus enabling comparisons to be made between THC levels from a given country of origin over this time span in addition to any variations between the countries. In the early part of the study, herbal cannabis from South East Asia was consistently the best quality and that from the Caribbean the poorest quality. In the third year of the study, the material from South East Asia was in general no richer in THC than material from other areas of the world. Cannabis resins normally had higher THC contents than most herbal material, but the highest levels were found in "hash oil" from the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent.

  14. A probabilistic model framework for evaluating year-to-year variation in crop productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokozawa, M.; Iizumi, T.; Tao, F.

    2008-12-01

    Most models describing the relation between crop productivity and weather condition have so far been focused on mean changes of crop yield. For keeping stable food supply against abnormal weather as well as climate change, evaluating the year-to-year variations in crop productivity rather than the mean changes is more essential. We here propose a new framework of probabilistic model based on Bayesian inference and Monte Carlo simulation. As an example, we firstly introduce a model on paddy rice production in Japan. It is called PRYSBI (Process- based Regional rice Yield Simulator with Bayesian Inference; Iizumi et al., 2008). The model structure is the same as that of SIMRIW, which was developed and used widely in Japan. The model includes three sub- models describing phenological development, biomass accumulation and maturing of rice crop. These processes are formulated to include response nature of rice plant to weather condition. This model inherently was developed to predict rice growth and yield at plot paddy scale. We applied it to evaluate the large scale rice production with keeping the same model structure. Alternatively, we assumed the parameters as stochastic variables. In order to let the model catch up actual yield at larger scale, model parameters were determined based on agricultural statistical data of each prefecture of Japan together with weather data averaged over the region. The posterior probability distribution functions (PDFs) of parameters included in the model were obtained using Bayesian inference. The MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) algorithm was conducted to numerically solve the Bayesian theorem. For evaluating the year-to-year changes in rice growth/yield under this framework, we firstly iterate simulations with set of parameter values sampled from the estimated posterior PDF of each parameter and then take the ensemble mean weighted with the posterior PDFs. We will also present another example for maize productivity in China. The

  15. Subvisible Particle Content, Formulation, and Dose of an Erythropoietin Peptide Mimetic Product Are Associated With Severe Adverse Postmarketing Events.

    PubMed

    Kotarek, Joseph; Stuart, Christine; De Paoli, Silvia H; Simak, Jan; Lin, Tsai-Lien; Gao, Yamei; Ovanesov, Mikhail; Liang, Yideng; Scott, Dorothy; Brown, Janice; Bai, Yun; Metcalfe, Dean D; Marszal, Ewa; Ragheb, Jack A

    2016-03-01

    Peginesatide (Omontys(®); Affymax, Inc., Cupertino, CA) was voluntarily withdrawn from the market less than a year after the product launch. Although clinical trials had demonstrated the drug to be safe and efficacious, 49 cases of anaphylaxis, including 7 fatalities, were reported not long after market introduction. Commercialization was initiated with a multiuse vial presentation, which differs in formulation from the single-use vial presentation used in phase 3 studies. Standard physical and chemical testing did not indicate any deviation from product specifications in either formulation. However, an analysis of subvisible particulates using nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow imaging revealed a significantly higher concentration of subvisible particles in the multiuse vial presentation linked to the hypersensitivity cases. Although it is unknown whether the elevated particulate content is causally related to these serious adverse events, this report illustrates the utility of characterizing subvisible particulates not captured by conventional light obscuration.

  16. Formulation of a Product Containing the Multifunctional Corrosion Inhibitor System DNBM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-22

    program, via consultation with microencapsulation -service suppliers, that the projected solvent-containing microcapsules , although theoretically feasible...with the microcapsules . A final microencapsulation sequence was performed to prepare sufficient microcapsules for formulation with MIL-P-23377 epoxy... Microencapsulation , Epoxy 01 03 Primers, Coatings. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Four quaternary ammonium

  17. Stated product formulation preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among women in the VOICE-D (MTN-003D) study

    PubMed Central

    Luecke, Ellen H; Cheng, Helen; Woeber, Kubashni; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda C; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires consistent and correct product use, thus a deeper understanding of women's stated product formulation preferences, and the correlates of those preferences, can help guide future research. VOICE-D (MTN-003D), a qualitative ancillary study conducted after the VOICE trial, retrospectively explored participants’ tablet and gel use, as well as their preferences for other potential PrEP product formulations. Methods We conducted an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from VOICE-D participants. During in-depth interviews, women were presented with pictures and descriptions of eight potential PrEP product formulations, including the oral tablet and vaginal gel tested in VOICE, and asked to discuss which product formulations they would prefer to use and why. Seven of the original product formulations displayed were combined into preferred product formulation categories based on exploratory factor and latent class analyses. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of these preferred product formulation categories. In-depth interviews with participants were conducted, coded, and analysed for themes related to product preference. Results Of the 68 female participants who completed in-depth interviews (22 South Africa, 24 Zimbabwe, 22 Uganda), median age was 28 (range 21–41), 81% were HIV negative, and 49% were married or living with a partner. Four preferred product formulation categories were identified via exploratory factor analysis: 1) oral tablets; 2) vaginal gel; 3) injectable, implant, or vaginal ring; and 4) vaginal film or suppository. A majority of women (81%) expressed a preference for product formulations included in category 3. Characteristics significantly associated with each preferred product category differed. Attributes described by participants as being important in a preferred product formulation included duration of activity, ease of use, route of

  18. Defined salt formulations for the growth of Salinispora tropica strain NPS21184 and the production of salinosporamide A (NPI-0052) and related analogs.

    PubMed

    Tsueng, Ginger; Teisan, Sy; Lam, Kin S

    2008-04-01

    Salinosporamide A (NPI-0052) is currently produced by a marine actinomycete, Salinispora tropica, via a saline fermentation process using a non-defined, commercially available synthetic sea salt, Instant Ocean. In order to control the consistency of the production of NPI-0052 and related analogs, two chemically defined salt formulations were developed to replace Instant Ocean. A chemically defined sodium-chloride-based salt formulation with similar sodium and chloride contents as in Instant Ocean was found to support higher production of NPI-0052 and a better metabolite production profile for downstream processing than Instant Ocean. A chemically defined sodium-sulfate-based salt formulation with low chloride concentration at 17 mM was found to support a similar NPI-0052 and metabolite production profile as Instant Ocean. The sodium-sulfate-based formulation is a robust formulation for large-scale production process due to its reduced corrosiveness in fermentation as compared with the saline fermentation utilizing Instant Ocean or the sodium-chloride-based salt formulation. The production of NPI-0052 in both chemically defined salt formulations was successfully scaled-up to a 42-l fermentor, indicating that these salt formulations can be used for large-scale manufacturing process.

  19. Matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC) simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals by hot-melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Boksa, Kevin; Otte, Andrew; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-09-01

    A novel method for the simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals, matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC), is presented. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) is used to create cocrystals by coprocessing the drug and coformer in the presence of a matrix material. Carbamazepine (CBZ), nicotinamide (NCT), and Soluplus were used as a model drug, coformer, and matrix, respectively. The MAC product containing 80:20 (w/w) cocrystal:matrix was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed for quantifying the efficiency of cocrystal formation. The MAC product was estimated to be 78% (w/w) cocrystal (theoretical 80%), with approximately 0.3% mixture of free (unreacted) CBZ and NCT, and 21.6% Soluplus (theoretical 20%) with the PLS model. A physical mixture (PM) of a reference cocrystal (RCC), prepared by precipitation from solution, and Soluplus resulted in faster dissolution relative to the pure RCC. However, the MAC product with the exact same composition resulted in considerably faster dissolution and higher maximum concentration (∼five-fold) than those of the PM. The MAC product consists of high-quality cocrystals embedded in a matrix. The processing aspect of MAC plays a major role on the faster dissolution observed. The MAC approach offers a scalable process, suitable for the continuous manufacturing and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals.

  20. Effect of once daily and twice daily sustained release theophylline formulations on daytime variation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M.; Olivieri, M.; Lampronti, G.; Bonazza, L.; Biasin, C.; Nacci, P.; Talamini, G.; Lo, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies evaluating spirometric values and symptoms have shown that once daily theophylline administered in the evening produces greater stabilisation of the airway function in asthmatic patients than the prototype theophylline given twice a day. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on bronchial responsiveness to methacholine of an ultrasustained release theophylline formulation (Diffumal-24, Malesci, Florence, Italy) administered once a day, a sustained release theophylline formulation (Theo-Dur, Recordati, Milan, Italy) administered twice a day, and placebo. METHODS: The study was performed in 12 adult patients with asthma using a randomised, double blind, three phase, cross-over design. Each phase lasted seven days and was followed or preceded by at least three days of theophylline washout. Diffumal-24 was administered once a day at 20.00 hours whereas Theo-Dur was given twice a day at 08.00 hours and 20.00 hours. In each patient the total daily dose of theophylline was the same during both phases. The dose of the two active preparations was titrated to individual needs before the beginning of the study and then given in divided or once daily doses. At 08.00, 14.00, and 20.00 hours on day 7 of each phase serum theophylline concentrations were measured and spirometric tests (FEV1) and bronchial challenge with methacholine were also performed. RESULTS: When the administration of Diffumal-24 was compared with that of Theo-Dur, a higher serum theophylline concentration of the former was seen in the morning whereas at 20.00 hours the reverse was true. Compared with placebo, at 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 improved FEV1 whereas Theo-Dur did not (difference between treatments 0.29 1, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). At 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 decreased bronchial sensitivity to methacholine, expressed as a natural logarithm of PD20, to a greater extent than Theo-Dur (difference between treatments 0.54 log units, 95% CI 0.016 to 1.08). The morning

  1. Formulation and evaluation of a montelukast sodium orally disintegrating tablet with a similar dissolution profile as the marketed product.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Feng, Tingting; Li, Yong; Du, Bin; Weng, Weiyu

    2017-03-01

    A major challenge of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) development is predicting its bioequivalence to its corresponding marketed product. Therefore, comparing ODT dissolution profiles to those of the corresponding marketed product is very important. The objective of this study was to develop a 5.2-mg montelukast sodium (MS) ODT with a similar dissolution profile to that of the marketed chewable tablet. Dissolution profiles were examined in different media to screen each formulation. We found that MS dissolution from ODTs in acidic medium heavily depended on manufacturing methods. All MS ODTs prepared using direct compression rapidly disintegrated in acidic medium. However, dispersed MS powders aggregated into sticky masses, resulting in slow dissolution. In contrast, MS ODTs prepared using wet granulation had much faster dissolution rates in acidic medium with no obvious aggregation. Additionally, the optimized formulation, prepared using wet granulation, displayed similar dissolution profiles to the marketed reference in all four types of media examined (f2 > 50). The in vitro disintegration time of the optimized ODT was 9.5 ± 2.4 s, which meets FDA requirements. In conclusion, the wet granulation preparation method of MS ODTs resulted in a product with equivalent dissolution profiles as those of the marketed product.

  2. Interactions between the stratum corneum and topically applied products: regulatory, instrumental and formulation issues with focus on moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M

    2014-09-01

    Virtually everyone in Europe will use at least one cosmetic product every day. The extensive use of cosmetics and results from measurements of quality of life in patients with skin diseases demonstrate the importance of a healthy skin. The skin is not only a barrier against desiccation and intrusion of harmful materials, but also an organ of social communication, where dry, scaly, rough stratum corneum is unappealing to touch, inducing anxiety and depression. Knowledge about the skin biochemistry and the use of noninvasive instruments facilitate the development of topical products and quantification of their effects. The presentation of the products and mode of action determine the regulatory demands and the approval process, as they can fall into different regulatory entities, such as cosmetics, medicinal products, medical devices and as other chemical products. The majority of the topical products on the market are regulated as cosmetics. For example, facial skin care and daily moisturizing routines are frequently used. However, despite visible relief of dryness symptoms, some products are reported to result in deterioration of the skin barrier function. New clinical outcomes show important clinical differences between formulations and the relapse of eczema. In a worst case scenario, treatment with a moisturizing cream may increase the risks of eczema and asthma. In the present overview, product presentations and mode of actions are reflected against the regulatory demands in Europe. The regulations are continuously revisited and new guidelines are being implemented, such as the new cosmetic regulation with advice on testing and responsible marketing.

  3. Quality by design in formulation and process development for a freeze-dried, small molecule parenteral product: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mockus, Linas N; Paul, Timothy W; Pease, Nathan A; Harper, Nancy J; Basu, Prabir K; Oslos, Elizabeth A; Sacha, Gregory A; Kuu, Wei Y; Hardwick, Lisa M; Karty, Jacquelyn J; Pikal, Michael J; Hee, Eun; Khan, Mansoor A; Nail, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    A case study has been developed to illustrate one way of incorporating a Quality by Design approach into formulation and process development for a small molecule, freeze-dried parenteral product. Sodium ethacrynate was chosen as the model compound. Principal degradation products of sodium ethacrynate result from hydrolysis of the unsaturated ketone in aqueous solution, and dimer formation from a Diels-Alder condensation in the freeze-dried solid state. When the drug crystallizes in a frozen solution, the eutectic melting temperature is above -5°C. Crystallization in the frozen system is affected by pH in the range of pH 6-8 and buffer concentration in the range of 5-50 mM, where higher pH and lower buffer concentration favor crystallization. Physical state of the drug is critical to solid state stability, given the relative instability of amorphous drug. Stability was shown to vary considerably over the ranges of pH and buffer concentration examined, and vial-to-vial variability in degree of crystallinity is a potential concern. The formulation design space was constructed in terms of pH and drug concentration, and assuming a constant 5 mM concentration of buffer. The process design space is constructed to take into account limitations on the process imposed by the product and by equipment capability.

  4. Impact of Different Elastomer Formulations on Moisture Permeation through Stoppers Used for Lyophilized Products Stored under Humid Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Jun; Maeda, Terutoshi; Kuboniwa, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of moisture permeability of different elastomer formulation stoppers, which had different moisture absorption abilities, on the increase of moisture content inside lyophilized vials during long-term storage under humid conditions. Two different elastomer formulation stoppers (high-moisture and low-moisture uptake stoppers) were compared. The increased amount of moisture content inside lyophilized vials fitted with high-moisture stoppers was higher than those fitted with low-moisture stoppers during the early stage of storage. However, this trend was reversed during the later stage of storage. Our data show that the moisture increase inside the lyophilized vials at the early stage was caused by moisture transfer from the stoppers, whereas the later moisture increase was caused by external moisture permeation through the stoppers. Results indicate that the difference in the moisture uptake profile inside the lyophilized vials at each period of storage was caused by the moisture absorption ability and moisture permeation ability of the two elastomer formulation stoppers. In terms of long-term storage stability under humid conditions, our data indicate that external moisture permeating through the stopper into the lyophilized vial during the late stage was the more important factor. In addition, the increase in moisture content at the early stage was controlled by stopper drying time. Furthermore, stopper drying time did not have an effect on moisture permeation at the late stage. Moisture permeation during the storage period appears to be dependent on the different elastomer formulations of the stoppers. The moisture permeation of different elastomer stoppers was an important factor in terms of the increased moisture content inside the lyophilized vials during the late stage of long-term storage under humid conditions. For lyophilized products stored at room temperature, the moisture permeation ability of the

  5. Variational and perturbative formulations of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy with mean-field embedding and its analytical gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    Conventional quantum chemical solvation theories are based on the mean-field embedding approximation. That is, the electronic wavefunction is calculated in the presence of the mean field of the environment. In this paper a direct quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) analog of such a mean-field theory is formulated based on variational and perturbative frameworks. In the variational framework, an appropriate QM/MM free energy functional is defined and is minimized in terms of the trial wavefunction that best approximates the true QM wavefunction in a statistically averaged sense. Analytical free energy gradient is obtained, which takes the form of the gradient of effective QM energy calculated in the averaged MM potential. In the perturbative framework, the above variational procedure is shown to be equivalent to the first-order expansion of the QM energy (in the exact free energy expression) about the self-consistent reference field. This helps understand the relation between the variational procedure and the exact QM/MM free energy as well as existing QM/MM theories. Based on this, several ways are discussed for evaluating non-mean-field effects (i.e., statistical fluctuations of the QM wavefunction) that are neglected in the mean-field calculation. As an illustration, the method is applied to an SN2 Menshutkin reaction in water, NH3+CH3Cl→NH3CH3++Cl-, for which free energy profiles are obtained at the Hartree-Fock, MP2, B3LYP, and BHHLYP levels by integrating the free energy gradient. Non-mean-field effects are evaluated to be <0.5 kcal/mol using a Gaussian fluctuation model for the environment, which suggests that those effects are rather small for the present reaction in water.

  6. Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    Suggestions for studying the topic of variation of individuals and objects (balls) to help develop elementary school students' measurement, comparison, classification, evaluation, and data collection and recording skills are made. General suggestions of variables that can be investigated are made for the study of human variation. Twelve specific…

  7. Napping-Ultra Flash Profile as a Tool for Category Identification and Subsequent Model System Formulation of Caramel Corn Products.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Emily; Schmidt, Shelly; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-07-01

    In a novel approach to formulation, the flash descriptive profiling technique Napping-Ultra Flash Profile (Napping-UFP) was used to characterize a wide range of commercial caramel corn products. The objectives were to identify product categories, develop model systems based on product categories, and correlate analytical parameters with sensory terms generated through the Napping-UFP exercise. In one 2 h session, 12 panelists participated in 4 Napping-UFP exercises, describing and grouping, on a 43×56 cm paper sheet, 12 commercial caramel corn samples by degree of similarity, globally and in terms of aroma-by-mouth, texture, and taste. The coordinates of each sample's placement on the paper sheet and descriptive terms generated by the panelists were used to conduct Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) and hierarchical clustering of the samples. Strong trends in the clustering of samples across the 4 Napping-UFP exercises resulted in the determination of 3 overarching types of commercial caramel corn: "small-scale dark" (typified by burnt, rich caramel corn), "large-scale light" (typified by light and buttery caramel corn), and "large-scale dark" (typified by sweet and molasses-like caramel corn). Representative samples that best exemplified the properties of each category were used as guides in the formulation of 3 model systems that represent the spread of commercial caramel corn products. Analytical testing of the commercial products, including aw measurement, moisture content determination, and thermal characterization via differential scanning calorimetry, were conducted and results related to sensory descriptors using Spearman's correlation.

  8. Proactive Management of Fermentation and Formulation Interactions to Improve Biocontrol Product Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The key components of biocontrol product development—discovery, fermentation, and formulation—are interactively linked to each other and ultimately to product performance. To identify biocontrol agents suited for commercial development, our discovery programs utilize a cumulative ranking system tha...

  9. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Crowley, John W; Katz, Richard F; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2015-03-13

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between oceans and continents, causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with consequences for the melting of Earth's interior. Using Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations as a forcing function, theoretical models of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that include melt transport predict temporal variations in crustal thickness of hundreds of meters. New bathymetry from the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows statistically significant spectral energy near the Milankovitch periods of 23, 41, and 100 thousand years, which is consistent with model predictions. These results suggest that abyssal hills, one of the most common bathymetric features on Earth, record the magmatic response to changes in sea level. The models and data support a link between glacial cycles at the surface and mantle melting at depth, recorded in the bathymetric fabric of the sea floor.

  10. Investigation of sorbic acid volatile degradation products in pharmaceutical formulations using static headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yarramraju, Sitaramaraju; Akurathi, Vamsidhar; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2007-06-28

    An analytical method that allows simultaneous analysis of sorbic acid and its degradation products was developed using static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). AT-Aquawax-DA, the capillary column used, showed good selectivity and separation towards sorbic acid and its degradation products. Sorbic acid degradation was investigated in both acidic and aqueous media at room and elevated temperatures. In total 12 sorbic acid degradation products were found, 8 of which could be characterized. The method was investigated for its accuracy towards estimation of degradation products. Using the HS-GC method different batches of pharmaceutical preparations such as cold cream, cetomacrogol cream and vaseline were investigated for sorbic acid degradation products which were estimated by applying the standard addition method. Acetaldehyde was found to be the major degradation product. The other identified degradation products were: acetone; 2-methylfuran; crotonaldehyde; alfa-angelicalactone; 2-acetyl, 5-methylfuran; toluene and 2,5-dimethylfuran. Both mass spectrometeric (MS) and flame ionization detection (FID) were used. The qualitative investigation was done on HS-GC-MS and the quantitative work on HS-GC-FID.

  11. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A; Li, Yue

    2016-05-31

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2-71.2% during 1982-2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms.

  12. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W.; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A.; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2–71.2% during 1982–2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms.

  13. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W.; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A.; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2–71.2% during 1982–2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms. PMID:27243565

  14. Formulation of a Traditionally Used Polyherbal Product for Burn Healing and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Its Phenolic Contents

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Shirin; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, plants have been considered as powerful agents for treatment of disorders regarding to their traditional use. In Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), plants have a special role in the treatment of various diseases. Burns with their devastating outcomes have been discussed in ITM as well. In the present study, a polyherbal ointment (PHO), retrieved from ITM, was formulated for burn healing and it’s HPTLC fingerprint was prepared. Aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals (4.85%, 4.85% and 33%, respectively) were added to white beeswax, eucerin and white petrolatum as ointment base. In addition to the microbiological tests, physical stability and rheological behavior of the product were assessed. Fingerprinting of phytochemical constituents of PHO was performed by using silica gel plates and toluene: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (60:40:1) and ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (100:11:11:10) as mobile phases. The results showed that PHO was stable towards physical changes and successfully passed microbiological tests. Moreover, PHO exhibited plastic behavior which is in favor of a topical burn product. In addition, HPTLC fingerprinting of PHO demonstrated the presence of several phenolic constituents corresponding to the plant extracts. Regarding to the role of phenolic compounds in wound healing process, PHO could be an appropriate candidate for burn healing with respect to its traditional use in ITM. Moreover, HPTLC fingerprinting could be utilized as an applicable method for quality control of the prepared formulation. PMID:27610150

  15. Formulation of a Traditionally Used Polyherbal Product for Burn Healing and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Its Phenolic Contents.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, Shirin; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, plants have been considered as powerful agents for treatment of disorders regarding to their traditional use. In Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), plants have a special role in the treatment of various diseases. Burns with their devastating outcomes have been discussed in ITM as well. In the present study, a polyherbal ointment (PHO), retrieved from ITM, was formulated for burn healing and it's HPTLC fingerprint was prepared. Aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals (4.85%, 4.85% and 33%, respectively) were added to white beeswax, eucerin and white petrolatum as ointment base. In addition to the microbiological tests, physical stability and rheological behavior of the product were assessed. Fingerprinting of phytochemical constituents of PHO was performed by using silica gel plates and toluene: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (60:40:1) and ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (100:11:11:10) as mobile phases. The results showed that PHO was stable towards physical changes and successfully passed microbiological tests. Moreover, PHO exhibited plastic behavior which is in favor of a topical burn product. In addition, HPTLC fingerprinting of PHO demonstrated the presence of several phenolic constituents corresponding to the plant extracts. Regarding to the role of phenolic compounds in wound healing process, PHO could be an appropriate candidate for burn healing with respect to its traditional use in ITM. Moreover, HPTLC fingerprinting could be utilized as an applicable method for quality control of the prepared formulation.

  16. Variation in Extrafloral Nectary Productivity Influences the Ant Foraging.

    PubMed

    Lange, Denise; Calixto, Eduardo Soares; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar is the main food source offered by plants to predatory ants in most land environments. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) to plant defense against herbivores, the influence of EFNs secretory activity pattern on predatory ants remains yet not fully understood. Here, we verified the relation between the extrafloral nectar production of a plant community in Cerrado in different times of the day, and its attractiveness to ants. The extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of seven plant species showed higher productivity overnight. Ant abundance was higher in times of large extrafloral nectar production, however, there was no positive relation between ant richness on plants and EFNs productivity. There was temporal resource partitioning among ant species, and it indicates strong resource competition. The nectar productivity varied among plant species and time of the day, and it influenced the visitation patterns of ants. Therefore, EFNs are a key ant-plant interaction driver in the studied system.

  17. Variation in Extrafloral Nectary Productivity Influences the Ant Foraging

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar is the main food source offered by plants to predatory ants in most land environments. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) to plant defense against herbivores, the influence of EFNs secretory activity pattern on predatory ants remains yet not fully understood. Here, we verified the relation between the extrafloral nectar production of a plant community in Cerrado in different times of the day, and its attractiveness to ants. The extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of seven plant species showed higher productivity overnight. Ant abundance was higher in times of large extrafloral nectar production, however, there was no positive relation between ant richness on plants and EFNs productivity. There was temporal resource partitioning among ant species, and it indicates strong resource competition. The nectar productivity varied among plant species and time of the day, and it influenced the visitation patterns of ants. Therefore, EFNs are a key ant-plant interaction driver in the studied system. PMID:28046069

  18. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R. F.; Crowley, J. W.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between the oceans and continents, causing long-wavelength changes of static pressure in the upper mantle. Previous work has shown that subaerial, glaciated volcanoes respond to these changes with variation in eruption rates (Jull & McKenzie 1996, Huybers & Langmuir 2009), and has suggested that the magmatic flux at mid-ocean ridges may vary with changes in sea-level (Huybers & Langmuir 2009, Lund & Asimow 2011). The latter is speculative, however, because previous theory has assumed highly simplified melt transport and neglected the dependence of the ridge thermal structure on spreading rate. Moreover, it remains a challenge to connect model predictions of variations arising from sea-level change with sea-floor observations. Here we present results from a theoretical model of a mid-ocean ridge based on conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and composition for two phases (magma & mantle) and two thermodynamic components (enriched & depleted) (Katz 2008, 2010). The model is driven by imposed variations in the static pressure within the mantle. We consider both the geochemically inferred record of past sea-level variation, as well as simpler harmonic and instantaneous variations. The output of these models is compared with observations of bathymetry at ridges that are undisturbed by off-axis volcanism. The comparison is preliminary but suggests that some abyssal hills on the sea-floor are, at least in part, the result of glacial cycles. To understand the simulation results in more detail, we develop analytical solutions for a reduced-complexity model. This model is derived according to the idea that the melting induced by sea-level changes can be thought of as a small perturbation to a steady-state system. We obtain a Green's function solution for crustal thickness as a function of sea-level change with the associated dependencies on geophysical parameters of the magma/mantle system. We show that this solution captures much of the

  19. PRN 2008-1: Notice to Manufacturers, Producers, Formulators, and Registrants of Pesticide Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice presents EPA's guidance on optional environmental hazard label language for certain non-restricted use pesticide products intended for outdoor residential use. It clarifies language on how the user can avoid environmental contamination.

  20. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2013-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of four phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First, we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production ((is)approximately 50%, the equivalent of 20 PgC·y1). Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed approximately 20% ((is) approximately 7 PgC·y1) of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10% ((is) approximately 4 PgC·y1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in the high latitudes ((is) greater than 40 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4% (1-2 PgC·y1). We assessed the effects of climate variability on group-specific primary production using global (i.e., Multivariate El Niño Index, MEI) and "regional" climate indices (e.g., Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p (is) less than 0.05) between the MEI and the group-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatoms/cyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect

  1. [Thermostability testing of iron(II) sulphate for formulation of drug product].

    PubMed

    Laczkovich, Orsolya; Révész, Piroska; Pallagi, Edina; Eros, István

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the experimental study was to determine which iron(II) sulphate form, the monohydrate or the heptahydrate, is more suitable for formulation of a retard dosage form with melt technology, and to control the suitable compound from a thermostability aspect according to the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization). Iron(II) sulphate is susceptible to oxidation and a rise in temperature increases the rate of this redox change. The presence of Fe3+ is definitely harmful in the case of enteral administration. First, the activation energy of the oxidation process was quantified for both iron(II) sulphate forms. It was found that the monohydrate is oxidized four times more slowly than the monohydrate form. It follows from this that the monohydrate well resists short-lived high temperature. The thermostability tests on the monohydrate showed that samples, stored at high temperature and high relative humidity for a long time, oxidized only slowly. On the basis of all these findings, the monohydrate form may be suggested for melt technology.

  2. Advanced stable lipid-based formulations for a patient-centric product design.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karin; Saurugger, Eva-Maria; Kienberger, Diana; Lopes, Diogo; Haack, Detlev; Köberle, Martin; Stehr, Michael; Lochmann, Dirk; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2016-01-30

    Multiparticulate dosage forms are a recent strategy to meet the special needs of children, elderly people and patients suffering from dysphagia. Our study presents a novel and cost-efficient approach for the manufacturing of a taste-masked multiparticulate system with a stable immediate release profile by applying lipid-based excipients in a solvent-free hot melt coating process. The thermosensitive N-acetylcysteine (N-ac) was used as model drug and hot-melt coated with a mixture of tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. A predictive in vitro method for the evaluation of the taste masking efficiency was developed based on the deprotonation of the carboxyl group of N-ac and the decline of pH, responsible for the unpleasant sour taste of the compound. The method was confirmed using in vivo studies. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering experiments revealed polymorphic transformation and its dependency on transformation time, temperature and emulsifier concentration. During the process, the coating was transformed almost completely into the stable β-polymorph, leading to an unaltered dissolution profile during storage. A statistical design was conducted that revealed the critical process parameters affecting the taste masking efficiency and drug release. This study shows the successful application of solvent-free hot-melt coating in the development of a taste-masked and stable formulation.

  3. Use of diets formulated for summer water temperatures in pond production of hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  4. Product formulations using recycled tire crumb rubber. Final report/project accomplishments summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this project was to combine crumb rubber and synthetic fiber obtained from scrap tires with thermoplastic polymers and convert these materials into commercially useful, high-value products. A specific goal was to use these materials for roofing, while remaining cognizance of other potential applications.

  5. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  6. Isolation, identification, and synthesis of two oxidative degradation products of olanzapine (LY170053) in solid oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Baertschi, Steven W; Brunner, Heiko; Bunnell, Charles A; Cooke, Gary G; Diseroad, Benjamin; Dorman, Douglas E; Jansen, Patrick J; Kemp, Craig A J; Maple, Steven R; McCune, Karen A; Speakman, Jeffrey L

    2008-02-01

    Two impurities found in both stressed and aged solid-state formulations of olanzapine have been identified as (Z)-1,3-dihydro-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-(2-oxopropylidene)-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one (1) and (Z)-1-[1,2-dihydro-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-thioxo-3H-1,5-benzodiazepin-3-ylidene]propan-2-one (2). The structures indicate that the two impurities are degradation products resulting from oxidation of the thiophene ring of olanzapine. The impurities were isolated by preparative HPLC from a thermally stressed formulation, and characterized by UV, IR, MS, and NMR. A synthetic preparation of compounds 1 and 2 by reaction of olanzapine with the singlet oxygen mimic 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) is presented. The structure of 2 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. A degradation pathway for the formation of 1 and 2 is proposed.

  7. PR notice 87-6. Notice to manufacturers, formulators, procedures, and registrants of pesticide products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces certain policies designed to reduce the potential for adverse effects from the use of pesticide products containing toxic inert ingredients. The agency is encouraging the use of the least toxic inert ingredient available and requiring the development of data necessary to determine the conditions of safe use of products containing toxic inert ingredients. In support of these policies, the Agency has categorized inert ingredients according to toxicity.

  8. Coherent States for Kronecker Products of Non Compact Groups: Formulation and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambah, Bindu A.; Agarwal, Girish S.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce and study the properties of a class of coherent states for the group SU(1,1) X SU(1,1) and derive explicit expressions for these using the Clebsch-Gordan algebra for the SU(1,1) group. We restrict ourselves to the discrete series representations of SU(1,1). These are the generalization of the 'Barut Girardello' coherent states to the Kronecker Product of two non-compact groups. The resolution of the identity and the analytic phase space representation of these states is presented. This phase space representation is based on the basis of products of 'pair coherent states' rather than the standard number state canonical basis. We discuss the utility of the resulting 'bi-pair coherent states' in the context of four-mode interactions in quantum optics.

  9. Contracting Strategy Formulation for Production Competition in Major Weapon Systems Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    PRODUCTION SOURCES -- 31 1. Form, Fit, and Function--------------------- 32 2. Technical Data Package----------------------- 33 I. 3. Leader - Follower ------------------------------ 34...Function (F), (2) Technical Data Package (TDP), (3) Leader - Follower , (4) Licensing, and (5) Contractor Teaming. [Ref. l:p. 5-31 These methodologies are not...3. Leader - Follower The Leader - Follower technique establishes a second source through direct contractor-to-contractor transfer of technical data [Ref

  10. Dynamic Oligopolistic Market Equilibrium Problems with Production Excesses: A Variational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, Annamaria; Mauro, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    This paper is devoted to study, through a variational approach, the behaviour and the equilibrium conditions for a noncooperative oligopolistic market when production excesses occur. Then, existence and continuity results are shown.

  11. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  12. Randomized two-way cross-over bioequivalence study of two amoxicillin formulations and inter-ethnicity pharmacokinetic variation in healthy Malay volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations.

  13. Optimization of corn, rice and buckwheat formulations for gluten-free wafer production.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ismail Sait; Yildiz, Onder; Meral, Raciye

    2016-07-01

    Gluten-free baked products for celiac sufferers are essential for healthy living. Cereals having gluten such as wheat and rye must be removed from the diet for the clinical and histological improvement. The variety of gluten-free foods should be offered for the sufferers. In the study, gluten-free wafer formulas were optimized using corn, rice and buckwheat flours, xanthan and guar gum blend as an alternative product for celiac sufferers. Wafer sheet attributes and textural properties were investigated. Considering all wafer sheet properties in gluten-free formulas, better results were obtained by using 163.5% water, 0.5% guar and 0.1% xanthan in corn formula; 173.3% water, 0.45% guar and 0.15% xanthan gum in rice formula; 176% water, 0.1% guar and 0.5% xanthan gum in buckwheat formula. Average desirability values in gluten-free formulas were between 0.86 and 0.91 indicating they had similar visual and textural profiles to control sheet made with wheat flour.

  14. Characterization of Rocket Propellant Combustion Products. Chemical Characterization and Computer Modeling of the Exhaust Products from Four Propellant Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-31

    Fractions as a Function of Exit/Throat Area Ratios Com position Q ............................................... 43 20 Effect of ± 5% Shift in Heat of...Constituents in ASCF Chamber .................................. 49 23 Effect of Choice Gaseous Equation of State on Computed Mole Fractions for Composition...health hazards from weapons combustion products, to include rockets and missiles, became evident, Research to elucidate significant health effects of

  15. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce.

  16. Can exploiting natural genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis contribute to increasing rice productivity? A simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Rice productivity can be limited by available photosynthetic assimilates from leaves. However, the lack of significant correlation between crop yield and leaf photosynthetic rate (A) is noted frequently. Engineering for improved leaf photosynthesis has been argued to yield little increase in crop productivity because of complicated constraints and feedback mechanisms when moving up from leaf to crop level. Here we examined the extent to which natural genetic variation in A can contribute to increasing rice productivity. Using the mechanistic model GECROS, we analysed the impact of genetic variation in A on crop biomass production, based on the quantitative trait loci for various photosynthetic components within a rice introgression line population. We showed that genetic variation in A of 25% can be scaled up equally to crop level, resulting in an increase in biomass of 22-29% across different locations and years. This was probably because the genetic variation in A resulted not only from Rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase)-limited photosynthesis but also from electron transport-limited photosynthesis; as a result, photosynthetic rates could be improved for both light-saturated and light-limited leaves in the canopy. Rice productivity could be significantly improved by mining the natural variation in existing germ-plasm, especially the variation in parameters determining light-limited photosynthesis.

  17. New product development with the innovative biomolecular sublingual immunotherapy formulations for the management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Frati, Franco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Scala, Enrico; Ridolo, Erminia; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Makrì, Eleni; Pajno, Giovanni; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2014-01-01

    The molecular allergy technique, currently defined as component-resolved diagnosis, significantly improved the diagnosis of allergy, allowing for differentiation between molecules actually responsible for clinical symptoms (genuine sensitizers) and those simply cross-reacting or shared by several sources (panallergens), thus influencing the appropriate management of a patient's allergy. This also concerns allergen immunotherapy (AIT), which may be prescribed more precisely based on the component-resolved diagnosis results. However, the advance in diagnosis needs to be mirrored in AIT. According to consensus documents and to expectations of specialists, therapy should be based on standardized extracts containing measured amounts of the clinically relevant molecules, ie, the major allergens. The new generation of extracts for sublingual immunotherapy fulfills these requirements and are thus defined as biomolecular (BM). BM refers to natural extracts with a defined content of major allergens in micrograms. All Staloral BM products are indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma. The effectiveness of AIT is related to its ability to modify the immunological response of allergic subjects. The 5-grass and house dust mite extracts were evaluated addressing the T helper 1, T helper 2, and T helper 3 cells by polymerase chain reaction array on mRNA extracted from Waldeyer's ring tissue (adenoids). Sublingual immunotherapy with a defined content of major allergens in micrograms induced a strong downregulation of genes involved in T helper 2 and T helper 1 activation and function, allowing the definition of the immunologic effect as "bio-homeostatic". This clinical and immunological model must be implemented with respect to other allergens, thus expanding the application of a treatment with a unique disease-modifying capacity.

  18. Topographic Variation and Methane Production in Siberian Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, J.; Kuhn, M. A.; Dunn, S.; Spawn, S.; Schade, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the fate of soil carbon when permafrost soils begin to thaw is critical for predicting the impact of permafrost thaw on global climate change. Microbial metabolism of soil carbon can produce carbon dioxide or methane, depending on soil conditions, and which pathway dominates has great significance for the strength of climate feedbacks since methane is a much more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. In Arctic ecosystems, methane production from upland environments is not well understood and generally assumed to be low because conditions there are generally not favorable for methanogenesis. Small changes in topography, however, can lead to great heterogeneity in soil conditions at small scales that may lead to higher methane flux than generally recognized. In this study, we investigated patterns in methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in in surface waters of 15 small ponds in the Kolyma River watershed in Northeast Siberia. The ponds were distributed across a topographic gradient from upland tundra high in the landscape to low-lying ponds in the floodplain of the Kolyma River. In addition, we used chambers to measured methane fluxes from a variety of topographic depressions that ranged from pools to moss-dominated saturated soils lacking surface water, to dry soils dominated by sedges. Dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations in ponds showed no trend down the topographic gradient while methane concentrations decreased downslope. The decrease in methane production may be the result of a switch from green moss to brown moss, which may act as a host for methanotrophic bacteria. Ponds with green moss had significantly higher concentrations of methane than the ponds with brown moss. In addition, we found significantly higher methane fluxes from pools and saturated soils then from drier soils, which showed very low fluxes. These results suggest that upland tundra may be a significant source of methane, and that methane fluxes are driven

  19. Endospore production allows using spray-drying as a possible formulation system of the biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis CPA-8.

    PubMed

    Yánez-Mendizabal, V; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Cañamás, T; Teixidó, N

    2012-04-01

    The role of endospore production by Bacillus subtilis CPA-8 on survival during spray-drying was investigated by comparison with a non-spore-forming biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2. Endospore formation promoted heat resistance in CPA-8 depending on growth time (72 h cultures were more resistant than 24 h ones). The survival of CPA-8 and CPA-2 after spray-drying was determined after being grown in optimised media for 24 and 72 h. Spray-dried 72 h CPA-8 had the best survival (32%), while CPA-2 viability was less than 2%. CPA-8 survival directly related with its ability to produce endospores. Spray-dried CPA-8 reduced Monilinia fructicola conidia germination similarly to fresh cells, demonstrating that spray-drying did not adversely affect biocontrol efficacy. Endospore production thus improves CPA-8 resistance to spray-drying. These results can provide a reliable basis for optimising of the spray-drying formulation process for CPA-8 and other microorganisms.

  20. Bioequivalence in dogs of a meloxicam formulation administered as a transmucosal oral mist with an orally administered pioneer suspension product.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Cheng, Z; Keefe, T J; Weich, E; Bryd, J; Cedergren, R; Cozzi, E

    2013-02-01

    A mucosal mist formulation of meloxicam, administered as a spray into the mouth (test article), was compared for bioequivalence to a pioneer meloxicam suspension for oral administration (reference article). Pharmacokinetic profiles and average bioequivalence were investigated in 20 dogs. The study design comprised a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment cross-over design, with maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under plasma concentration-time curve to last sampling time (AUC(last)) used as pivotal bioequivalence variables. Bioequivalence of the products was confirmed, based on relative ratios of geometric mean concentrations (and 90% confidence intervals within the range 0.80-1.25) for C(max) of 101.9 (97.99-106.0) and for AUC(last) of 97.24 (94.44-100.1). The initial absorption of meloxicam was more rapid for the test article, despite virtually identical C(max) values for the two products. Mean elimination half-lives were 29.6 h (test article) and 30.0 h (reference article). The meloxicam plasma concentration-time profiles were considered in relation to published data on the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 isoenzymes by meloxicam.

  1. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    PubMed

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  2. Enhanced ethanol production from pomelo peel waste by integrated hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Cao, Ming; Guo, Hong; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2014-05-21

    Pomelo peel is an abundant pectin-rich biomass waste in China and has the potential to serve as a source of fuels and chemicals. This study reports a promising way to deal with pomelo peel waste and to utilize it as raw material for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). An integrated strategy, incorporating hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation, was further developed to enhance the ethanol production. The results show that hydrothermal treatment (120 °C, 15 min) could significantly reduce the use of cellulase (from 7 to 3.8 FPU g(-1)) and pectinase (from 20 to 10 U g(-1)). A multienzyme complex, which consists of cellulase, pectinase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase, was also proven to be effective to improve the hydrolysis of pretreated pomelo peel, leading to higher concentrations of fermentative sugars (36 vs 14 g L(-1)) and galacturonic acid (23 vs 9 g L(-1)) than those with the use of a single enzyme. Furthermore, to increase the final ethanol concentration, fed-batch operation by adding fresh substrate was employed in the SSF process. A final solid loading of 25% (w/v), which is achieved by adding 15% fresh substrate to the SSF system at an initial solid loading of 10%, produced 36 g L(-1) ethanol product in good yield (73.5%). The ethanol concentration is about 1.73-fold that at the maximum solid loading of 14% for batch operation, whereas both of them have a closed ethanol yield. The results indicate that the use of the fed-batch mode could alleviate the decrease in ethanol yield at high solid loading, which is caused by significant mass transfer limitation and increased inhibition of toxic compounds in the SSF process. The integrated strategy demonstrated in this work could open a new avenue for dealing with pectin-rich biomass wastes and utilization of the wastes to produce ethanol.

  3. Centennial-scale variations in diatom productivity off Peru over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Sophie; Crosta, Xavier; Schneider, Ralph; Blanz, Thomas; Ther, Olivier; Martinez, Philippe; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The Peruvian coastal upwelling is one of the most productive systems in the global ocean, with important impacts on the carbon cycle. Primary productivity there displays strong variations at the inter-annual to decadal timescales. However, down-core investigations rarely reach sufficient temporal resolution to assess the response of productivity to climatic variations at these timescales beyond the instrumental and historical periods. We here analyzed diatom assemblages, sea-surface temperatures, nitrogen and organic carbon contents on a laminated sediment core from the Peruvian continental shelf to trace variations in regional productivity over the last 3000 years. Our record provides evidence for different climatic and oceanic conditions with more humid and less productive conditions older than 2500 Cal years BP and drier and more productive conditions younger than 2500 Cal years BP. The last 2500 years also present much stronger centennial-scale variability with the occurrence of six intervals with higher total diatom abundances and stronger percentages in upwelling-related diatom species, representative of intensified productivity, congruent to lower percentages in benthic diatoms, indicative of reduced rainfall. These six periods were synchronous to intervals of enhanced Walker circulation, suggesting a strong imprint of the Pacific zonal circulation on productivity variations off Peru. Our record also demonstrates that SSTs did not vary in phase with productivity, arguing against the idea of regional SSTs controlled by the upwelling intensity, but were rather in agreement to SST records off southern Chile, suggesting that Peruvian SSTs variations were largely controlled by oceanic currents at southern high latitudes.

  4. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory.

  5. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    PubMed

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  6. Formulation and quality control of semi-solid containing harmless bacteria by-products: chronic wounds pro-healing activity.

    PubMed

    Sesto Cabral, Maria Eugenia; Ramos, Alberto Nicolas; Macedo, Alexandre Jose; Trentin, Danielle S; Treter, Janine; Manzo, Ruben H; Valdez, Juan Carlos

    2014-07-08

    Abstract Chronic wounds are those that remain in a chronic inflammatory state and fail to follow normal healing process. Infection is one of the most important causes of chronicity. A frequent pathogen isolated from chronic infections is Pseudomonas aeruginosa; refractory to therapy and host immune attack in its biofilm phenotype. Lactobacillus plantarum cultures supernatants (LAPS) interfere with its pathogenic capacity. In addition, LAPS showed bacteriostatic and bactericide properties and is neither cytotoxic nor an inductor of necrosis-apoptosis. LAPSs chemical composition was determined; allowing us to propose a correlation between its constituents and their biological activity. This article shows a pharmaceutical dosage form designed by using LAPS as an API with pro-healing activity and its quality control. Pharmacotechnical and anti-microbial assays were adapted to demonstrate that the vehicle used does not modify LAPS activities. Selected formulation (F100) showed fair mechanical and technological properties. From the in vitro release assays was found an adequate release from the carrier matrix and maintains its anti-pathogenic activity for 6 months. We propose F100 for chronic wounds treatment. The use of harmless bacteria by-products, such as LAPS, to antagonize infectious pathogens that have ability to form biofilm is an efficient and economic approach to treat infected chronic wounds.

  7. Eye irritation of low-irritant cosmetic formulations: correlation of in vitro results with clinical data and product composition.

    PubMed

    Debbasch, Caroline; Ebenhahn, Catherine; Dami, Nadia; Pericoi, Marc; Van den Berghe, Christine; Cottin, Martine; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2005-01-01

    Alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test, such as the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) or the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) tests, are currently used to evaluate the irritant potential of cosmetic or consumer products. Although, for strong irritants, the results of these tests correlate well with those of the Draize test, they appear to be less suited to identify mild irritants. In order to improve the sensitivity of alternative eye irritation tests, we developed a novel method that uses a human corneal epithelial cell line (CEPI), and the endpoints of cytotoxicity and IL-8 release. Twelve make-up removers were assessed by the HET-CAM, BCOP and CEPI tests, as well as in a clinical in-use test under ophthalmological control after their application to the external eye lid. In addition, we investigated the impact of osmolality and raw material composition on in vitro and clinical results and compared the in vitro results with those of clinical studies. Overall, although HET-CAM results were unrelated to eye discomfort and adverse clinical signs, they correlated mainly with the presence and concentration of surfactants in the test articles. BCOP scores were unrelated to clinical signs, but related mainly to glycol and sodium lactate content and concentration in the test articles. Cytotoxicity in CEPI mainly correlated with presence and concentrations of surfactants, and IL-8 release to clinical signs and/or glycol and sodium lactate concentrations. Overall, IL-8 release appeared to be the most sensitive and reliable endpoint to predict human eye tolerance to mildly irritant products. Although our results suggest that the IL-8 assay appears to be a promising screen for borderline-irritant formulations, further experiments are required to confirm and validate these preliminary results.

  8. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of an effective pH balanced topical antimicrobial product containing tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Biju, S S; Ahuja, A; Khar, R K; Chaudhry, R

    2005-03-01

    The effect of pH on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil formulations was studied. Microemulsions, liposomal dispersions, multiple emulsions and a colloidal bed of sterile clay were formulated using 5% w/w of tea tree oil. A number of formulations were prepared at various pH values (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0). Thermal stability studies showed that the formulations were stable for more than eight months. Agar dilution tests showed MICs of 1.0% v/v S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In the broth dilution test, MBC of the oil for P. acnes was 0.5% v/v. MIC and MBC values were comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that tea tree oil retained its activity in the above-mentioned formulations. The microbiological evaluation showed that the formulations containing 5% w/w tea tree oil had a maximum effect at pH 5.5.

  10. Further studies on the modulation of fossil fuel production by global temperature variations

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, B.W.; Crosby, F.J. )

    1994-01-01

    This study extends the earlier work of Rust and Kirk (1982) on the inverse modulation of global fossil fuel production by variations in Northern Hemispheric temperatures. Recent revisions and extensions of the fuel production record are incorporated and a much improved temperature record in used. The new data are consistent with the predictions of the original Rust-Kirk model which is extended to allow for time lags between variations in the temperature and the corresponding responses in fuel production. The modulation enters the new model through the convolution of a lagged averaging function with the temperature time-series. Explicit terms account for the perturbations caused by the Great Depression and World War II. The final model accounts for 99.84% of the total variance in the production record. The temperature modulation produces variations of as much as 30% in the total production. This modulation represents a feedback which is consistent with the predictions of the Gaia hypothesis for a planetary greenhouse temperature control. The new model calculates 20-y fuel production predictions for three temperature scenarios which hopefully bracket the possibilities for temperature behavior during that time.

  11. An Application of Variational Theory to an Integrated Walrasian Model of Exchange, Consumption and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, M. B.; Milasi, M.; Vitanza, C.

    2010-09-01

    An existence result of a Walrasian equilibrium for an integrated model of exchange, consumption and production is obtained. The equilibrium model is characterized in terms of a suitable generalized quasi-variational inequality; so the existence result comes from an original technique which takes into account tools of convex and set-valued analysis.

  12. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  13. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Pureswaran, Deepa S; Sullivan, Brian T; Ayres, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  14. Explaining maximum variation in productivity requires phylogenetic diversity and single functional traits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Xinxin; Song, Feifan; Zhou, Shurong; Cadotte, Marc W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-01-01

    Many community experiments have shown a positive relationship between plant biodiversity and community productivity, with biodiversity measured in multiple ways based on taxonomy, function, and phylogeny. Whether these different measures of biodiversity and their interactions explain variation in productivity in natural assemblages has rarely been tested. In a removal experiment using natural alpine assemblages in the Tibetan Plateau, we manipulated species richness and functional diversity to examine how different measures of biodiversity predict aboveground biomass production. We combined different biodiversity measures (functional, phylogenetic, richness, evenness) in generalized linear models to determine which combinations provided the most parsimonious explanations of variation in biomass production. Although multivariate functional diversity indices alone consistently explained more variation in productivity than other single measures, phylogenetic diversity and plant height represented the most parsimonious combination. In natural assemblages, single metrics alone cannot fully explain ecosystem function. Instead, a combination of phylogenetic diversity and traits with weak or no phylogenetic signal is required to explain the effects of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function.

  15. Formulation of a Commercial Biosurfactant for Application as a Dispersant of Petroleum and By-Products Spilled in Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Bruno G.; Brito, Juliana G. M.; Brasileiro, Pedro P. F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills in oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harm the coastal populations of affected areas. It is therefore fundamental to develop treatment strategies for such spills. Currently, chemical dispersants have been used during oil spills, although these agents have been increasingly restricted due to their toxic potential. Thus, the aim of the present study was to formulate a biodegradable commercial biosurfactant for application as a dispersant. Biosurfactants are scientifically known biomolecules produced by microorganisms capable of allowing water-oil interaction. Thus, a biosurfactant was produced by the yeast Candida bombicola URM 3718 cultivated in industrial waste and formulated with the addition of a potassium sorbate preservative for fractionated sterilization (tyndallization) and the combination of fluent vaporization with the preservative. After formulation, samples were stored for 120 days, followed by surface tension, emulsification and oil dispersant tests in sea water. The results were promising for the biosurfactant formulated with the preservative, which demonstrated stability and an absence of toxicity in experiments with a marine indicator. The commercial biosurfactant was tested at different pH values, temperatures and in the presence of salt, demonstrating potential industrial application at a cost compatible with the environmental field. The formulation process developed in this research was patented in the Brazilian National Intellectual Property Institute (patent number BR1020140179631). PMID:27803697

  16. Modelling natural grass production and its spatio-temporal variations in a semiarid Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Susanne; Lozano-Parra, Javier; Maneta-López, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Natural grasses are found in semiarid rangelands with disperse tree cover of part of the Iberian Peninsula and constitute a resource with high ecologic and economic value worth, being an important source of food for livestock, playing a significant role in the hydrologic cycle, controlling the soil thermal regime, and are a key factor in reducing soil erosion and degradation. However, increasing pressure on the resources, changes in land use as well as possible climate variations threaten the sustainability of natural grasses. Despite of their importance, the spatio-temporal variations of pasture production over whole watersheds are poorly known. In this sense, previous studies by other authors have indicated its dependence on a balance of positive and negative effects brought about by the main limiting factors: water, light, nutrients and space. Nevertheless, the specific weight of each factor is not clear because they are highly variable due to climate characteristics and the structure of these agroforestry systems. We have used a physical spatially-distributed ecohydrologic model to investigate the specific weight of factors that contribute to pasture production in a semiarid watershed of 99.5 ha in western Spain. This model couples a two layer (canopy and understory) vertical local closure energy balance scheme, a hydrologic model and a carbon uptake and vegetation growth component, and it was run using a synthetic daily climate dataset generated by a stochastic weather generator, which reproduced the range of climatic variations observed under mediterranean current climate. The modelling results reproduced satisfactorily the seasonality effects of climate as precipitation and temperatures, as well as annual and inter-annual variations of pasture production. Spatial variations of pasture production were largely controlled by topographic and tree effects, showing medium-low values depending of considered areas. These low values require introduction of feed to

  17. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  18. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  19. An enumerative technique for modeling wind power variations in production costing

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.R.; Graham, M.S.

    1997-04-01

    Production cost, generation expansion, and reliability models are used extensively by utilities in the planning process. Most models do not provide adequate means for representing the full range of potential variation in wind power plants. In order to properly account for expected variation in wind-generated electricity with these models, the authors describe an enumerated probabilistic approach that is performed outside the production cost model, compare it with a reduced enumerated approach, and present some selected utility results. The technique can be applied to any model, and can considerably reduce the number of model runs as compared to the full enumerated approach. They use both a load duration curve model and a chronological model to measure wind plant capacity credit, and also present some other selected results.

  20. Submerged Culture of a Mycelial Formulation of a Bioherbicidal Strain of Myrothecium verrucaria with Mitigated Mycotoxin Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361390) was shown to be highly efficacious in controlling the exotic invasive weed kudzu. The mycelium can be rapidly (48 h) produced in several media including soy flour-cornmeal medium. HPLC analyses revealed that the mycelial formu...

  1. Solar neutrino production of long-lived isotopes and secular variations in the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.; Cowan, G.A.

    1980-11-21

    Long-lived isotopes produced in the earth's crust by solar neutrinos may provide a method of probing secular variations in the rate of energy production in the sun's core. Only one isotope, calcium-41, appears to be suitable from the dual standpoints of reliable nuclear physics and manageable backgrounds. The proposed measurement also may be interesting in view of recent evidence for neutrino oscillations.

  2. Application of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Product Life Cycle Management. A Case Study with a Carbidopa-Levodopa Extended-Release Formulation.

    PubMed

    Modi, Nishit B

    2017-01-24

    Increasing costs in discovering and developing new molecular entities and the continuing debate on limited company pipelines mean that pharmaceutical companies are under significant pressure to maximize the value of approved products. Life cycle management in the context of drug development comprises activities to maximize the effective life of a product. Life cycle approaches can involve new formulations, new routes of delivery, new indications or expansion of the population for whom the product is indicated, or development of combination products. Life cycle management may provide an opportunity to improve upon the current product through enhanced efficacy or reduced side effects and could expand the therapeutic market for the product. Successful life cycle management may include the potential for superior efficacy, improved tolerability, or a better prescriber or patient acceptance. Unlike generic products where bioequivalence to an innovator product may be sufficient for drug approval, life cycle management typically requires a series of studies to characterize the value of the product. This review summarizes key considerations in identifying product candidates that may be suitable for life cycle management and discusses the application of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in developing new products using a life cycle management approach. Examples and a case study to illustrate how pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics contributed to the selection of dosing regimens, demonstration of an improved therapeutic effect, or regulatory approval of an improved product label are presented.

  3. Comparison of hydrophilic variation and bioethanol production of furfural residues after delignification pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingxi; Tang, Yong; Xing, Yang; Zhang, Weiming; Shang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Furfural residue (FR) is a waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol production from FR after delignification was compared. Hydrophilic variation was measured by conductometric titration to detect the relationship between hydrophilicity and bioethanol production. It was found that ethanol yield increased as delignification enhanced, and it reached up to 75.6% of theoretical yield for samples with 8.7% lignin. The amount of by-products decreased as delignification increased. New inflection points appeared in conductometric titration curves of samples that were partially delignified, but they vanished in the curves of the highly delignified samples. Total charges and carboxyl levels increased after slight delignification, and they decreased upon further delignification. These phenomena suggested some new hydrophilic groups were formed during pretreated delignification, which would be beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, some newly formed groups may act as toxicant to the yeast during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

  4. Seasonal variation of chemical composition and biomethane production from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-09-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum, an abundant Irish brown seaweed, shows significant seasonal variation in chemical composition and biogas production. The polyphenol content is shown to be a more important factor in biogas production than ash content. High polyphenol content in summer months adversely affected biogas production; suggesting two potential harvest dates, March and October. A. nodosum harvested in October showed a relatively low level of polyphenols (2% of TS) and ash (23% of volatile solids), and exhibited a specific methane yield of 215LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 44% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per wet weight of 47m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in October, which is 2.9 times higher than the lowest value (16m(3)CH4t(-1)), obtained in December. The gross energy yield of A. nodosum based on the optimal biogas production can achieve 116GJha(-1)yr(-1) in October.

  5. Variation of Evaporation Across a Corn-Soybean Production Region in Central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J. L.; Kustas, W. P.

    2003-12-01

    Evaporation from production corn-soybean surfaces is often assumed to be uniform across a regional extent such as the Upper Midwest in the U.S.; however, there are few direct measurements of the spatial and temporal variation of evaporation to support this assumption. During a soil moisture remote sensing study in the summer of 2002 (SMEX02), fourteen energy balance stations complete with net radiometers, soil heat flux plates, a three-dimensional sonic anemometer, and fast response CO2-H2O sensors (eddy covariance) were deployed across an 25-kilometer corn-soybean production watershed in central Iowa south of Ames, Iowa. Data were collected beginning in mid-May through August and summarized into half-hourly and daily intervals. Two intercomparisons of all eddy covariance systems were conducted, one prior to the SMEX02 study (May 2002) over an alfalfa field and one after the study over a grass surface in August (2002). The coefficient of variation among the eddy covariance instruments was less than 7%. Latent heat flux values among corn and soybean fields that were greater than 7% were considered to be real differences in evaporation among fields. Diurnal differences in net radiation and latent heat fluxes were evident among both corn and soybean fields and when seasonal totals were evaluated the differences persisted. Variation in latent heat flux among corn and soybeans was attributed to soil type, water availability and spatial variation of precipitation across the watershed. The results from fourteen eddy covariance stations provide a measure of the spatial variation in latent heat flux across a region that is considered to be relatively homogenous. This information will aid in evaluating regional evaporation models.

  6. The steady-state serum concentration of genistein aglycone is affected by formulation: a bioequivalence study of bone products.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandra; Burnett, Bruce P; Polito, Francesca; Russo, Silvia; D'Anna, Rosario; Pillai, Lakshmi; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Levy, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    An FDA-regulated, prescription medical food (Fosteum; 27 mg natural genistein, 200 IU cholecalciferol, 20 mg citrated zinc bisglycinate (4 mg elemental zinc) per capsule) and an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement (Citracal Plus Bone Density Builder; 27 mg synthetic genistein, 600 mg elemental calcium (calcium citrate), 400 IU vitamin D3, 50 mg magnesium, 7.5 mg zinc, 1 mg copper, 75 μ g molybdenum, 250 μ g boron per two tablets) were compared to a clinically proven bone formulation (27 mg natural genistein, 400 IU cholecalciferol, 500 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) per tablet; the Squadrito formulation) in an 8-day steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 30) randomized to receive 54 mg of genistein per day. Trough serum samples were obtained before the final dose on the morning of the ninth day followed by sampling at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hrs. Total serum genistein, after β -glucuronidase/sulfatase digestion, was measured by time-resolved fluorometric assay. Maximal time (Tmax), concentration (Cmax), half-life (T1/2), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined for genistein in each formulation. Fosteum and the Squadrito study formulation were equivalent for genistein Tmax (2 hrs), Cmax (0.7 μM), T1/2 (18 ± 6.9 versus 21 ± 4.9 hrs), and AUC (9221 ± 413 versus 9818 ± 1370 ng·hr/mL). The OTC supplement's synthetically derived genistein, however, showed altered Tmax (6 hrs), Cmax (0.57 μ M), T1/2 (8.3 ± 1.9 hrs), and AUC (6474 ± 287 ng·hr/mL). Differences in uptake may be due to multiple ingredients in the OTC supplement which interfere with genistein absorption.

  7. Uncertainties in the production of p nuclei in massive stars obtained from Monte Carlo variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, T.; Nishimura, N.; Hirschi, R.; Cescutti, G.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Heger, A.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear data uncertainties in the production of p nuclei in massive stars have been quantified in a Monte Carlo procedure. Bespoke temperature-dependent uncertainties were assigned to different types of reactions involving nuclei from Fe to Bi. Their simultaneous impact was studied in post-processing explosive trajectories for three different stellar models. It was found that the grid of mass zones in the model of a 25 M⊙ star, which is widely used for investigations of p nucleosynthesis, is too crude to properly resolve the detailed temperature changes required for describing the production of p nuclei. Using models with finer grids for 15 and 25 M⊙ stars with initial solar metallicity, it was found that most of the production uncertainties introduced by nuclear reaction uncertainties are smaller than a factor of 2. Since a large number of rates were varied at the same time in the Monte Carlo procedure, possible cancellation effects of several uncertainties could be taken into account. Key rates were identified for each p nucleus, which provide the dominant contribution to the production uncertainty. These key rates were found by examining correlations between rate variations and resulting abundance changes. This method is superior to studying flow patterns, especially when the flows are complex, and to individual, sequential variation of a few rates.

  8. Advanced protein formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that protein product development is far more challenging than that for small-molecule drugs. The major challenges include inherent sensitivity to different types of stresses during the drug product manufacturing process, high rate of physical and chemical degradation during long-term storage, and enhanced aggregation and/or viscosity at high protein concentrations. In the past decade, many novel formulation concepts and technologies have been or are being developed to address these product development challenges for proteins. These concepts and technologies include use of uncommon/combination of formulation stabilizers, conjugation or fusion with potential stabilizers, site-specific mutagenesis, and preparation of nontraditional types of dosage forms—semiaqueous solutions, nonfreeze-dried solid formulations, suspensions, and other emerging concepts. No one technology appears to be mature, ideal, and/or adequate to address all the challenges. These gaps will likely remain in the foreseeable future and need significant efforts for ultimate resolution. PMID:25858529

  9. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures.

  10. Inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α and NO production in mouse macrophage and inflammatory response in rat animal models by a novel Ayurvedic formulation, BV-9238.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debendranath; Chaskar, Sunetra; Athavale, Nitin; Chitre, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic crippling disease, where protein-based tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors show significant relief, but with potentially fatal side effects. A need for a safe, oral, cost-effective small molecule or phyto-pharmaceutical is warranted. BV-9238 is an Ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing specialized standardized extracts of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa. The anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 were evaluated for inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated, RAW 264.7, mouse macrophage cell line. BV-9238 reduced TNF-α and NO production, without any cytotoxic effects. Subsequently, the formulation was tested in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) and carrageenan-induced paw edema (CPE) rat animal models. AIA was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant intra-dermally in the paw, and BV-9238 and controls were administered orally for 21 days. Arthritic scores in AIA study and inflamed paw volume in CPE study were significantly reduced upon treatment with BV-9238. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 are due to its inhibition of TNF-α, and NO, and this formulation shows promise as an alternate therapy for inflammatory disorders where TNF-α and NO play important roles.

  11. Model-based evaluation of similarity in pharmacokinetics of two formulations of the blood-derived plasma product c1 esterase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Ron J; Budde, Ilona Kleine; Sprengers, Paul F W; Levi, M; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2012-02-01

    A novel formulation of C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate, a plasma product used in the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE), was studied in a clinical trial for similarity in pharmacokinetics (PK) compared with the reference product. Direct trial data were limited given the availability of patients, and therefore a modeling approach was used to study similarity. Type I error of the study was evaluated using simulations based on retrospective data. A population PK modeling analysis was performed on data from the trial. Analysis of variance was carried out on results of a noncompartmental PK analysis (NCA) of the clinical data. Simulations showed that type I error was inflated to 62% (P < .05) when bioequivalence criteria (confidence intervals within 80%-125%) were adhered to strictly. In the clinical trial, 13 HAE patients were evaluable. The population PK analysis showed no significant differences in PK parameters, whereas confidence intervals for all parameters were within 80% to 125%. The relative differences in area under the curve, incremental recovery, and mean residence time estimated using NCA were all close to 1. The novel formulation showed similar PK characteristics to the original formulation. The model-based approach showed that strict criteria for PK comparison could not be applied in this analysis.

  12. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Rooney, William L; Mullet, John E

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance.

  13. Inter- and intra-annual variations of clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liming; Liu, Jane; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Wang, Rong; Sprintsin, Michael; Zheng, Ting; Ryu, Youngryel; Pisek, Jan; Gonsamo, Alemu; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Clumping index quantifies the level of foliage aggregation, relative to a random distribution, and is a key structural parameter of plant canopies and is widely used in ecological and meteorological models. In this study, the inter- and intra-annual variations in clumping index values, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product, are investigated at six forest sites, including conifer forests, a mixed deciduous forest and an oak-savanna system. We find that the clumping index displays large seasonal variation, particularly for the deciduous sites, with the magnitude in clumping index values at each site comparable on an intra-annual basis, and the seasonality of clumping index well captured after noise removal. For broadleaved and mixed forest sites, minimum clumping index values are usually found during the season when leaf area index is at its maximum. The magnitude of MODIS clumping index is validated by ground data collected from 17 sites. Validation shows that the MODIS clumping index can explain 75% of variance in measured values (bias = 0.03 and rmse = 0.08), although with a narrower amplitude in variation. This study suggests that the MODIS BRDF product has the potential to produce good seasonal trajectories of clumping index values, but with an improved estimation of background reflectance.

  14. Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, Winifred

    2005-04-01

    In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  15. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance. PMID:26323882

  16. Variation with semilunar periodicity of plasma steroid hormone production in the mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Hong, Wanshu; Chen, Shixi; Zhang, Qiyong

    2008-02-01

    Variation in the production of the plasma steroid hormones E(2), 17alpha-OHP and T in females and T and 11-KT in males, was investigated in the mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris during the spawning season. Females with oocytes at the vitellogenic stage (GSI 5.97-6.86%) and mature males with GSI of 0.255-0.288% were collected at intervals of 3-4 days within the two complete semilunar cycles from May 31 to June 30, 2006. The results showed that variations in the levels of plasma steroid hormones were synchronized obviously with semilunar periodicity in both females and males. Each steroid hormone level exhibited two cycles, each cycle with a peak. In females, the first peaks in plasma E(2), 17alpha-OHP and T levels were observed 3 days after the first lunar quarter, and the second ones, 4 days after the last lunar quarter. In males, the first peaks of plasma T and 11-KT levels occurred 3 days after the first lunar quarter, and the second ones, at the last lunar quarter. The fact that, in the present study, changes in the levels of plasma steroid hormones were synchronized with semilunar periodicity, although the fish were at the same stages of gonadal development, suggests that variation of plasma steroid hormones is basically regulated by biological rhythms (Zeitgebers), and that tidal movement (with its semilunar periodicity) is the major environmental factor stimulating steroid hormone production in B. pectinirostris.

  17. Variations in Amazon forest productivity correlated with foliar nutrients and modelled rates of photosynthetic carbon supply.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Lina M; Patiño, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Weedon, Graham P; Sitch, Stephen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dolman, A J; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R; Baker, Timothy R; Almeida, Samuel; Higuchi, Niro; Lloyd, Jon

    2011-11-27

    The rate of above-ground woody biomass production, W(P), in some western Amazon forests exceeds those in the east by a factor of 2 or more. Underlying causes may include climate, soil nutrient limitations and species composition. In this modelling paper, we explore the implications of allowing key nutrients such as N and P to constrain the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, and also we examine the relationship between modelled rates of photosynthesis and the observed gradients in W(P). We use a model with current understanding of the underpinning biochemical processes as affected by nutrient availability to assess: (i) the degree to which observed spatial variations in foliar [N] and [P] across Amazonia affect stand-level photosynthesis; and (ii) how these variations in forest photosynthetic carbon acquisition relate to the observed geographical patterns of stem growth across the Amazon Basin. We find nutrient availability to exert a strong effect on photosynthetic carbon gain across the Basin and to be a likely important contributor to the observed gradient in W(P). Phosphorus emerges as more important than nitrogen in accounting for the observed variations in productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of future tropical forests under a changing climate.

  18. SEBAL For Detecting Spatial Variation Of Water Productivity For Wheat In The Yaqui Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, S. J.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C. J.

    2006-08-01

    Although the use of water productivity is gaining importance for evaluating good management practices, there is no standardized framework that aids the calculations. A methodology has been developed to quantify spatial variation of crop yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water productivity (WPET) using the SEBAL algorithm and high and low resolution satellite images. SEBAL estimated ET was validated over a wheat dominated area in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico and proved to be accurate. Estimated average wheat yields of 5.5 ton ha-1 were well within the range of measured yields reported in the literature. Area average WPET was 1.37 kg m-3 and could be considered high compared to other irrigated systems around the world It is concluded that the proposed methodology is accurate and that better knowledge of the spatial variation of WP provides valuable information for regional water managers to seek local solutions for boosting the productivity of agricultural water use by means of sharing and exchanging good management practices.

  19. The Steady-State Serum Concentration of Genistein Aglycone Is Affected by Formulation: A Bioequivalence Study of Bone Products

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandra; Burnett, Bruce P.; Polito, Francesca; Russo, Silvia; D'Anna, Rosario; Pillai, Lakshmi; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Levy, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    An FDA-regulated, prescription medical food (Fosteum; 27 mg natural genistein, 200 IU cholecalciferol, 20 mg citrated zinc bisglycinate (4 mg elemental zinc) per capsule) and an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement (Citracal Plus Bone Density Builder; 27 mg synthetic genistein, 600 mg elemental calcium (calcium citrate), 400 IU vitamin D3, 50 mg magnesium, 7.5 mg zinc, 1 mg copper, 75 μg molybdenum, 250 μg boron per two tablets) were compared to a clinically proven bone formulation (27 mg natural genistein, 400 IU cholecalciferol, 500 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) per tablet; the Squadrito formulation) in an 8-day steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 30) randomized to receive 54 mg of genistein per day. Trough serum samples were obtained before the final dose on the morning of the ninth day followed by sampling at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hrs. Total serum genistein, after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase digestion, was measured by time-resolved fluorometric assay. Maximal time (Tmax), concentration (Cmax), half-life (T1/2), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined for genistein in each formulation. Fosteum and the Squadrito study formulation were equivalent for genistein Tmax (2 hrs), Cmax (0.7 μM), T1/2 (18 ± 6.9 versus 21 ± 4.9 hrs), and AUC (9221 ± 413 versus 9818 ± 1370 ng·hr/mL). The OTC supplement's synthetically derived genistein, however, showed altered Tmax (6 hrs), Cmax (0.57 μM), T1/2 (8.3 ± 1.9 hrs), and AUC (6474 ± 287 ng·hr/mL). Differences in uptake may be due to multiple ingredients in the OTC supplement which interfere with genistein absorption. PMID:23484100

  20. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  1. Nitric oxide production by haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martínez, Juan Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as an important physiological modulator, with evidence of its role as a signalling molecule throughout the whole phylogenetic scale. In marine molluscs, it intervenes in processes related to the immune function of haemocytes. The presented results indicate that basal NO production by haemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations, with summer values statistically higher than those of winter. The presence of IL-2 increased NO production in winter. In summer, incubating the haemocytes with TNF-alpha for 6h slightly increased NO production. LPS, TGF-beta1 or PDGF did not induce significant effects on NO production by the haemocytes. Immunoblotting experiments detected two proteins that bind to vertebrate iNOS and eNOS antibodies, with different seasonal expression: the protein that binds to anti-iNOS antibody was expressed throughout the year, whereas the anti-eNOS antibody bound with a protein that was only detected in winter. IL-2 is suggested to start a signalling system dependent on the seasonal presence of winter protein. Such a system would activate the enzyme, thus favouring the higher NO production detected in winter.

  2. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses.

  3. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses. PMID:26070163

  4. Long-term variations in dust production in R Coronae Borealis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Mattei, Janet A.

    1993-01-01

    Several searches for periodicities in the historical visible light curves of RCB stars have found that the intervals between declines are random. This paper reexamines 70 declines of R Coronae Borealis since 1853 using one homogeneous data set, the AAVSO light curve. In this data set, pairs of consecutive declines also show a random distribution of intervals. However, if the sequence of declines is examined, there are semiperiodic variations between times of high- and low-decline activity on a time scale of a few years. Near-IR photometry of RCB stars indicates that there are large semiperiodic variations in the amount of dust being produced which have similar time scales. Possible interpretations of a semiperiodic variation in dust formation rates in RCB stars are presented. One is a magnetic activity cycle resulting in 'spots' on the star over which dust formation takes place. Such a magnetic activity cycle is similar to the solar cycle. Another is the changes in the period and amplitude of the pulsations over several years affecting the efficiency of dust production.

  5. Investigation of sulphur isotope variation due to different processes applied during uranium ore concentrate production.

    PubMed

    Krajkó, Judit; Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Konings, Rudy

    The applicability and limitations of sulphur isotope ratio as a nuclear forensic signature have been studied. The typically applied leaching methods in uranium mining processes were simulated for five uranium ore samples and the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratios were measured. The sulphur isotope ratio variation during uranium ore concentrate (UOC) production was also followed using two real-life sample sets obtained from industrial UOC production facilities. Once the major source of sulphur is revealed, its appropriate application for origin assessment can be established. Our results confirm the previous assumption that process reagents have a significant effect on the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratio, thus the sulphur isotope ratio is in most cases a process-related signature.

  6. Holocene millennial-scale productivity variations in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incarbona, Alessandro; di Stefano, Enrico; Patti, Bernardo; Pelosi, Nicola; Bonomo, Sergio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Rodolfo; Tranchida, Giorgio; Zgozi, Salem; Bonanno, Angelo

    2008-09-01

    The calcareous nannofossil assemblages of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 963D from the central Mediterranean Sea have been investigated to document oceanographic changes in surface waters. The studied site is located in an area sensitive to large-scale atmospheric and climatic systems and to high- and low-latitude climate connection. It is characterized by a high sedimentation rate (the achieved mean sampling resolution is <70 years) that allowed the Sicily Channel environmental changes to be examined in great detail over the last 12 ka BP. We focused on the species Florisphaera profunda that lives in the lower photic zone. Its distribution pattern shows repeated abundance fluctuations of about 10-15%. Such variations could be related to different primary production levels, given that the study of the distribution of this species on the Sicily Channel seafloor demonstrates the significant correlation to productivity changes as provided by satellite imagery. Productivity variations were quantitatively estimated and were interpreted on the basis of the relocation of the nutricline within the photic zone, led by the dynamics of the summer thermocline. Productivity changes were compared with oceanographic, atmospheric, and cosmogenic nuclide proxies. The good match with Holocene master records, as with ice-rafted detritus in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the near-1500-year periodicity suggest that the Sicily Channel environment responded to worldwide climate anomalies. Enhanced Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, which has been reported as one of the most important forcing mechanisms for Holocene coolings in previous Mediterranean studies, had a remarkable impact on the water column dynamics of the Sicily Channel.

  7. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S.; Malhi, Y.; Zutta, B.; Buermann, W.; Anderson, L. O.; Araujo, A. M.; Phillips, O. L.; Peacock, J.; Ter Steege, H.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; Baker, T.; Arroyo, L.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D.; Pitman, N.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Laurance, W.; Ramírez, H. A.

    2009-06-01

    Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent) model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  8. Improving simulated Amazon forest biomass and productivity by including spatial variation in biophysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanho, A. D. A.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Malhi, Y.; Galbraith, D.; Quesada, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models forced with spatially homogeneous biophysical parameters are capable of producing average productivity and biomass values for the Amazon basin forest biome that are close to the observed estimates, but these models are unable to reproduce observed spatial variability. Recent observational studies have shown substantial regional spatial variability of above-ground productivity and biomass across the Amazon basin, which is believed to be primarily driven by a combination of soil physical and chemical properties. In this study, spatial heterogeneity of vegetation properties is added to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) land surface model, and the simulated productivity and biomass of the Amazon basin are compared to observations from undisturbed forest. The maximum RuBiCo carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the woody biomass residence time (τw) were found to be the most important properties determining the modeled spatial variation of above-ground woody net primary productivity and biomass, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of these properties may lead to simulated spatial variability of 1.8 times in the woody net primary productivity (NPPw) and 2.8 times in the woody above-ground biomass (AGBw). The coefficient of correlation between the modeled and observed woody productivity improved from 0.10 with homogeneous parameters to 0.73 with spatially heterogeneous parameters, while the coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed woody above-ground biomass improved from 0.33 to 0.88. The results from our analyses with the IBIS dynamic vegetation model demonstrated that using single values for key ecological parameters in the tropical forest biome severely limits simulation accuracy. Clearer understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that drive the spatial variability of carbon allocation, τw and Vcmax is necessary to achieve further improvements to simulation accuracy.

  9. Prediction of Seasonal Climate-induced Variations in Global Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are therefore exposed to variations in yields, production, and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of major food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We assessed the reliability of hindcasts (i.e., retrospective forecasts for the past) of crop yield loss relative to the previous year for two lead times. Pre-season yield predictions employ climatic forecasts and have lead times of approximately 3 to 5 months for providing information regarding variations in yields for the coming cropping season. Within-season yield predictions use climatic forecasts with lead times of 1 to 3 months. Pre-season predictions can be of value to national governments and commercial concerns, complemented by subsequent updates from within-season predictions. The latter incorporate information on the most recent climatic data for the upcoming period of reproductive growth. In addition to such predictions, hindcasts using observations from satellites were performed to demonstrate the upper limit of the reliability of crop forecasting.

  10. Development and validation of a reverse phase HPLC method for the determination of caprylic acid in formulations of therapeutic immunoglobulins and its application to antivenom production.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Meneses, Fabricio; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    A novel method of high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection for the quantification of caprylic acid in formulations of therapeutic immunoglobulins was developed and validated. Samples have interfering proteins that were removed by ultrafiltration in a centrifugal filter unit of 10 kDa nominal molecular weight limit. Then, compounds present in ultrafiltrates were separated on an Eclipse XDB-C8 5 microm column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.), using a mixture of acetonitrile-water (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The UV detection was performed at 210 nm. The method was found to be precise and accurate, with a linearity range from 400 microg/mL to 600 microg/mL (r=0.9948). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 13.46 microg/mL and 44.85 microg/mL, respectively. To illustrate the usefulness of the method in the in-process and final quality control for production of therapeutic immunoglobulin formulations, permeates obtained from the industrial diafiltration step in the manufacture of equine-derived snake antivenoms and ten batches of finished product were analyzed.

  11. Critical processing parameters of carbon dioxide spray drying for the production of dried protein formulations: A study with myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Nuchuchua, O; Every, H A; Jiskoot, W

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain fundamental insight into protein destabilization induced by supercritical CO2 spray drying processing parameters. Myoglobin was used as a model protein (5mg/ml with 50mg/ml trehalose in 10mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.2). The solution was exposed to sub- and supercritical CO2 conditions (65-130bar and 25-50°C), and CO2 spray drying under those conditions. The heme binding of myoglobin was determined by UV/Vis, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, while myoglobin aggregation was studied by using size-exclusion chromatography and flow imaging microscopy. It was found that pressure and temperature alone did not influence myoglobin's integrity. However, when pressurized CO2 was introduced into myoglobin solutions at any condition, the pH of the myoglobin formulation shifted to about 5 (measured after depressurization), resulting in heme binding destabilization and aggregation of myoglobin. When exposed to CO2, these degradation processes were enhanced by increasing temperature. Heme binding destabilization and myoglobin aggregation were also seen after CO2 spray drying, and to a greater extent. Moreover, the CO2 spray drying induced the partial loss of heme. In conclusion, pressurized CO2 destabilizes the myoglobin, leading to heme loss and protein aggregation upon spray drying.

  12. The Development of Expanded Snack Product Made from Pumpkin Flour-Corn Grits: Effect of Extrusion Conditions and Formulations on Physical Characteristics and Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Md Nor, Norfezah; Carr, Alistair; Hardacre, Allan; Brennan, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extruding corn grits with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pumpkin flour. Snacks made from 100% corn grits were used as control products for this work. The effect of formulation and screw speeds of 250 rpm and 350 rpm on torque and specific mechanical energy (SME, kWh/kg), physical characteristics (expansion ratio, bulk density, true density and hardness) and the microstructure of the snacks were studied. Increasing the screw speed resulted in a decrease of torque for all formulations. When pumpkin flour was added the specific mechanical energy (SME) decreased by approximately 45%. Increasing the percentage of pumpkin flour at the higher screw speed resulted in a harder texture for the extruded products. X-ray tomography of pumpkin flour-corn grit snacks showed that increased levels of pumpkin flour decreased both the bubble area and bubble size. However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in bubble wall thickness were measured. By understanding the conditions during extrusion, desirable nutritional characteristics can be incorporated while maximizing expansion to make a product with low bulk density, a fine bubble structure and acceptable organoleptic properties. PMID:28239106

  13. The Development of Expanded Snack Product Made from Pumpkin Flour-Corn Grits: Effect of Extrusion Conditions and Formulations on Physical Characteristics and Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Nor, Norfezah Md; Carr, Alistair; Hardacre, Allan; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-05-14

    Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extruding corn grits with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pumpkin flour. Snacks made from 100% corn grits were used as control products for this work. The effect of formulation and screw speeds of 250 rpm and 350 rpm on torque and specific mechanical energy (SME, kWh/kg), physical characteristics (expansion ratio, bulk density, true density and hardness) and the microstructure of the snacks were studied. Increasing the screw speed resulted in a decrease of torque for all formulations. When pumpkin flour was added the specific mechanical energy (SME) decreased by approximately 45%. Increasing the percentage of pumpkin flour at the higher screw speed resulted in a harder texture for the extruded products. X-ray tomography of pumpkin flour-corn grit snacks showed that increased levels of pumpkin flour decreased both the bubble area and bubble size. However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in bubble wall thickness were measured. By understanding the conditions during extrusion, desirable nutritional characteristics can be incorporated while maximizing expansion to make a product with low bulk density, a fine bubble structure and acceptable organoleptic properties.

  14. Seasonal variation of the satellite-derived phytoplankton primary production in the Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, A. B.; Sheberstov, S. V.; Gagarin, V. I.; Khlebopashev, P. V.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal variation of the integrated primary production (IPP) and surface chlorophyll (Chl0) in different regions of the Kara Sea was studied from satellite data obtained by the MODIS-Aqua colour scanner and averaged for 2003-2015. The minimum variation of Chl0 concentration during the growing season (from April to October) was 1.5 times in southwestern region and 2 times in the northern region of the sea. It was found that the Chl0 concentration increased slightly in all regions by the end of the growing season. The maximum IPP value recorded in June coincided with the peak level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and maximum river discharge. The IPP value varied in a wider range compared with the Chl0 concentration. The ratio of the maximum and minimum monthly average IPP values varied from 8.9 times in Southwestern region to 11.7 times in the Northern region of the sea. The average increase in the Chl0 concentration was 1.7 times (from 0.78 mg/m3 in April to 1.29 mg/m3 in October). The IPP value varied by a factor of 10.7 (from 26 mg C/m2 per day in October to 279 mg C/m2 per day in June). The article also discusses the influence of water column stratification, the concentration of nutrients, the PAR level, and river discharge on the seasonal IPP dynamics in the Kara Sea.

  15. [Variation trends of natural vegetation net primary productivity in China under climate change scenario].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-sheng; Wu, Shao-hong; Yin, Yun-he

    2011-04-01

    Based on the widely used Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ) for climate change study, and according to the features of natural environment in China, the operation mechanism of the model was adjusted, and the parameters were modified. With the modified LPJ model and taking 1961-1990 as baseline period, the responses of natural vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) in China to climate change in 1991-2080 were simulated under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) B2 scenario. In 1961-1990, the total NPP of natural vegetation in China was about 3.06 Pg C a(-1); in 1961-2080, the total NPP showed a fluctuant decreasing trend, with an accelerated decreasing rate. Under the condition of slight precipitation change, the increase of mean air temperature would have definite adverse impact on the NPP. Spatially, the NPP decreased from southeast coast to northwest inland, and this pattern would have less variation under climate change. In eastern China with higher NPP, especially in Northeast China, east of North China, and Loess Plateau, the NPP would mainly have a decreasing trend; while in western China with lower NPP, especially in the Tibetan Plateau and Tarim Basin, the NPP would be increased. With the intensive climate change, such a variation trend of NPP would be more obvious.

  16. Relevance of variation in use of terminology to define generic pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2015-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the use of generic drug policies to foster competition in the pharmaceutical sector, reduce drug prices, and increase access to therapeutic drugs. However, little is known about how countries implement these policies. This article describes different terminology adopted by national regulatory authorities to define generic versus proprietary drug products in developing countries, including those in Latin America, and challenges that arise in their application of WHO guidelines, such as labeling issues. The author concludes that variation in generics terminology in these countries is a result of institutional context (i.e., the public sector setting as well as the body of laws and regulations that exists in the country) and policy legacies, such as intellectual property regimes, and highlights the need for further analysis of pharmaceutical regulations to improve understanding of the barriers and political implications of generic drug policies.

  17. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products--Part II.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Johncock, S I; Taylor, B J; Wyles, L T

    1982-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents of 220 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1979-1981 have been determined by gas chromatography. During that period there was a general increase in the quality of both cannabis and cannabis resin, but with wide variations in THC contents both within and between countries. Some very high quality samples of cannabis, cannabis resin and cannabis oil from the Indian sub-continent have been analysed. There have been considerable changes in the number of fresh samples from several countries, compared with the previous survey. Fresh cannabis oil samples were very rare during the period covered by this survey.

  18. [Investigation of variation of the production of biological and chemical compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Hajdú, Z; Veres, K; Máthé, I; Németh, E; Pluhár, Z; Bernáth, J

    1998-05-01

    Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae family) has been cultivated in Central Europe for a long time. This essential oil containing species serves not only as spice but in many countries including Hungary, it is used as a folk medicine against certain respiratory diseases. Despite this fact, little is known about the variation of its productivity under Central European climatic conditions. The cultivated populations of hyssop can be characterised by a significant heterogenity. In the course of its breeding the uniformity of flower colour (e.g. blue form), and increase in the oil content are the main achievable purposes. The purpose of this work was to investigate both the variability of strains of different crigin and the time-dependent variations of its production parameters. The optimum of phytomass was obtained at the beginning of July. The essential oil content as well as compounds of the non volatile fractions were also investigated. The non volatile fractions for rosmarinic, caffeic acids were analysed mainly by TLC and densitometry. Both compounds were present in all samples and they are suitable for the characterisation of the plant. The essential oils were gained with Water Steam Distillation (WSD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with CO2. The oils were analysed by GC, GC-MS techniques. In the essential oil composition of the populations studied significant heterogenity could be observed. In the case of applying SFE extraction the oil composition is more uniform, similarly to the obtained by WSD adding hexane. The heterogenity can be experienced in the offsprings, too. If only the main four components (beta-pinene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone) are regarded, among the offsprings clear and mixed lines alike can be found. Results of these experiments justify the necessity and usefulness of selection which is going on.

  19. DNA-based methodologies for the quantification of live and dead cells in formulated biocontrol products based on Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2.

    PubMed

    Soto-Muñoz, Lourdes; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Solsona, Cristina; Teixidó, Neus

    2015-10-01

    Pantoea agglomerans strain CPA-2 is an effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against the major postharvest pathogens present on pome and citrus fruits. Dehydration, such as freeze-drying, spray-drying and fluidized bed drying is one of the best ways to formulate BCAs. In this work, the survival of CPA-2 cells after formulation was determined by dilution plating and molecular methods as qPCR alone and combined with a sample pretreatment with a propidium monoazide dye (PMA-qPCR) and they were used to calculate treatment concentrations in efficacy trials on postharvest oranges. Furthermore, no significant differences in CPA-2 survival were observed as determined by dilution plating and PMA-qPCR after both the freeze drying and fluidized bed drying processes; however, an interesting significant difference was observed in the spray dried product comparing all quantitative methods. A difference of 0.48 and 2.17 log10 CFU or cells g/dw was observed among PMA-qPCR with qPCR and dilution plating, respectively. According to our study, dilution plating was shown to be an unreliable tool for monitoring the survival of CPA-2 after spray drying. In contrast, the combination of PMA and qPCR enabled a quick and unequivocal methodology to enumerate viable and VBNC CPA-2 cells under stress-dried conditions. Efficacy trials showed that, after 3 days, spray drying formulation rehydrated with 10% non-fat skimmed milk (NFSM) was as effective as fresh cells to control Penicillium digitatum in oranges.

  20. The mechanisms of orbital and suborbital-scale productivity variations in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Beaufort, L.; Vidal, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) is known to exhibit high seasonal, interannual (ENSO-like) and longer-term climatic variability with possible worldwide consequences, however, the origin of the suborbital-scale changes in the region is still enigmatic. The centennial to millennial scale variations in the foraminiferal-based MAT-derived SST, productivity index (FP index estimated as the total faunal portion of the three productivity-related planktic foraminiferal species) and coccolithophore-based quantitative productivity record are investigated over MIS 3 and three glacial-interglacial terminations in the IMAGES Core MD02-2529 off Costa Rica (8°12.5' N, 84° 07.5' W, w.d. 1619 m). The stratigraphic framework over three climatic cycles is based on the benthic d 18O record performed on C. wuellerstorfi, and on the published time-scale for last 90 ka (Leduc et al. 2007). The results of the study provide new insight on the mechanisms of productivity variations in the EEP. FP index and total planktic foraminiferal abundance increase concurrently with the previously established salinity raise (Leduc et al.2007) at six H-events (from H-6 to H-1) and at the Younger Dryas relative to the adjacent values. SST record does not show any consistent positive or negative correlation with H-events. The longer-lasting events of enhanced FP index values associate with all three terminations, whereas SST and the total portion of foraminiferal oligotrophic species increase by the end of terminations. The recurrent increase in bioproductivity during H-events may be interpreted in terms of intensified nutrients supply at the core site. At present, bioproductivity at site MD02-2529 is influenced by the seasonal cycle and associated shifts of the Costa Rica Dome and by propagation of eddies and filaments from the nearby coastal upwellings in the Panama Bight and Gulf of Papagayo with the Ekman drift. As these seasonal upwellings are known to be driven by coastal wind jets associated

  1. Contribution of Phenological and Physiological Variations on Northern Vegetation Productivity Changes over Last Three Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenology and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of gross primary productivity (GPP) of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts of phenology and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we investigate 1) how vegetation phenology and physiological status (maximum photosynthesis) are evolved over last three decades and 2) how such components (phenology and physiological status) contribute on inter-annual variation of the GPP during the last three decades. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed (GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies), NDVI3g (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index 3rd generation) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)) to extract larger scale phenology metrics (growing season start, end and duration); and productivity (i.e., growing season integrated vegetation index, GSIVI) to answer these questions. For evaluation purpose, we also introduced field-measured phenology and productivity datasets (e.g., FLUXNET) and possible remotely-sensed and modeled metrics at continental and regional scales. From this investigation, we found that onset of the growing season has advanced by 1.61 days per decade and the growing season end has delayed by 0.67 days per decade over the circumpolar region. This asymmetric extension of growing season results in a longer growing-season trend (2.96 days per decade) and widespread increasing vegetation-productivity trend (2.96 GSIVI per decade) over Northern land. However, the regionally-diverged phenology shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity, inter-annual variability and trend. We quantified that about 50 percent, 13 percent and 6.5 percent of Northern land's inter-annual variability are dominantly controlled by the onset of the growing season, the end of the growing season and the maximum

  2. An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitoring the effect of supercooling on lyophilization product and process parameters of model monoclonal antibody formulations.

    PubMed

    Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles.

  3. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  4. Productivity of US Forests: Regional Sensitivity to Variation in Soil Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, J. M.; Coops, N. C.; Waring, R. H.

    2006-05-01

    The rates that forests accumulate biomass regionally differ substantially based on the environment and the frequency of disturbance. These dynamics significantly affect the terrestrial carbon balance globally. Since 2000, NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) has provided 1km spatial resolution estimates of 8-day gross and annual net primary production (GPP and NPP). MODIS productivity is computed as a simple function of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and a regionally assigned light-use conversion efficiency that is reduced if temperature or atmospheric vapor pressure deficits are suboptimal. We evaluated the extent that the MODIS productivity estimates might be improved if spatial information on soil water (ASW) storage capacity and soil fertility were available for forested areas across the USA. To accomplish this comparison we parameterized a forest growth model, 3-PGS (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth using Satellite data), which is similar to the MODIS model in operation, but also includes an explicit water balance and a direct link between soil fertility and light-use efficiency. The 3-PGS model was initially run with STATSGO-derived soils information provided by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis was expanded to include variation in ASW storage capacity of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mm. Annual 3-PGS estimates of NPP for forests across the USA are highly sensitive to limited ASW (<200mm), reducing estimates by up to 60%, as opposed to increasing the ASW capacity (>200mm), which yields an average increase in NPP of 30%. Changing ASW has more influence on forest GPP in the west, where summer drought is prevalent. Generally, productivity estimates from MODIS and 3-PGS were similar across most of the eastern US. However, the MODIS model consistently overestimated mid-summer GPP values in the west because of its insufficient drought constraints.

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  6. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  7. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K.; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. PMID:26203001

  8. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-10

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  9. Allometric scaling of production and life-history variation in vascular plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enquist, Brian J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Charnov, Eric L.; Brown, James H.

    1999-10-01

    A prominent feature of comparative life histories is the well documented negative correlation between growth rate and life span. Patterns of resource allocation during growth and reproduction reflect life-history differences between species. This is particularly striking in tropical forests, where tree species can differ greatly in their rates of growth and ages of maturity but still attain similar canopy sizes. Here we provide a theoretical framework for relating life-history variables to rates of production, dM/dt, where M is above-ground mass and t is time. As metabolic rate limits production as an individual grows, dM/dt ~ M3/4. Incorporating interspecific variation in resource allocation to wood density, we derive a universal growth law that quantitatively fits data for a large sample of tropical tree species with diverse life histories. Combined with evolutionary life-history theory, the growth law also predicts several qualitative features of tree demography and reproduction. This framework also provides a general quantitative answer to why relative growth rate (1/M)(dM/df) decreases with increasing plant size (~M-1/4) and how it varies with differing allocation strategies.

  10. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy. PMID:28281668

  11. Targeted Application of Human Genetic Variation Can Improve Red Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Giani, Felix C; Fiorini, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ludwig, Leif S; Salem, Rany M; Jobaliya, Chintan D; Regan, Stephanie N; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Liang, Ge; Steinberg-Shemer, Orna; Guo, Michael H; Esko, Tõnu; Tong, Wei; Brugnara, Carlo; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Weiss, Mitchell J; Zon, Leonard I; Chou, Stella T; French, Deborah L; Musunuru, Kiran; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-01-07

    Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo. Targeted suppression of SH2B3 in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells enhanced the maturation and overall yield of in-vitro-derived RBCs. Moreover, inactivation of SH2B3 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells allowed enhanced erythroid cell expansion with preserved differentiation. Our findings therefore highlight the potential for combining human genome variation studies with genome editing approaches to improve cell and tissue production for regenerative medicine.

  12. Marginal Lands Gross Primary Production Dominate Atmospheric CO2 Interannual Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlström, A.; Raupach, M. R.; Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Smith, B.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1960s terrestrial ecosystems have acted as a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2, sequestering about one quarter of anthropogenic emissions in an average year. Variations in this land carbon sink are also responsible for most of the large interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While most evidence places the majority of the sink in highly productive forests and at high latitudes experiencing warmer and longer growing seasons, the location and the processes governing the interannual variations are still not well characterised. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that the long-term trend and the variability in the land CO2 sink are respectively dominated by geographically distinct regions: the sink by highly productive lands, mainly forests, and the variability by semi-arid or "marginal" lands where vegetation activity is strongly limited by water and therefore responds strongly to climate variability. Using novel analysis methods and data from both upscaled flux-tower measurements and a dynamic global vegetation model, we show that (1) the interannual variability in the terrestrial CO2 sink arises mainly from variability in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP); (2) most of the interannual variability in GPP arises in tropical and subtropical marginal lands, where negative anomalies are driven mainly by warm, dry conditions and positive anomalies by cool, wet conditions; (3) the variability in the GPP of high-latitude marginal lands (tundra and shrublands) is instead controlled by temperature and light, with warm bright conditions resulting in positive anomalies. The influence of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) on the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations is mediated primarily through climatic effects on GPP in marginal lands, with opposite signs in subtropical and higher-latitude regions. Our results show that the land sink of CO2 (dominated by forests) and its interannual variability (dominated by marginal lands) are

  13. Potential use of secondary products of the agri-food industry for topical formulations and comparative analysis of antioxidant activity of grape leaf polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Roger Remy; Dresch, Maria Terezinha Kreinecker; Biegelmeyer, Renata; Argenta, Débora Fretes; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha

    2017-04-13

    The aim of the present study was to develop a phytocosmetic using Vitis waste by-products, for use as a topical formulation for skin protection against ultraviolet radiation damage. The study also evaluates the free radical scavenger activity of the crude extracts of dried leaves of Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca, as well as the anthocyanins, flavonoid fraction and isolated compounds. Next, release and permeation studies of hydrogels were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Flavonoid acted more intensively in TRAP and conjugated dienes antioxidant assays, whereas anthocyanins had higher antioxidant activity in hydroxyl and nitric oxide assay. Only quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (5) was released from hydrogels, and the flavonoid retention in porcine ear skin after eight hours of permeation was below of limit of quantification for this compound. The polyphenols present in Vitis are capable of absorbing UV and visible light, justifying their potential as sunscreens for the development of a phytocosmetic.

  14. Variation of effective elastic thickness and melt production along the Deccan Reunion hotspot track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Singh, B.; Phipps Morgan, J.

    2007-12-01

    We estimate the effective elastic thickness (Te) along the Deccan-Reunion hotspot track using admittance analysis of seafloor topography and the free-air gravity field, both corrected for the thermal effects of a cooling lithosphere. Our results reveal that the volcanic edifices (Saya de Malha Bank, Chagos-Maldives-Laccadives Ridge) formed in the first 30 Myr after the Deccan volcanism [˜ 65 Myr], on lithosphere with Te values of 4 ± 2 km, while the younger volcanic edifices on the African plate (Reunion, Mauritius, Nazareth Bank) were emplaced on lithosphere with Te values of 17 ± 9 km. These estimates suggest that the hotspot volcanism occurred on juvenile lithosphere in the first 30 Myr, implying that the mid-ocean ridge remained near the hotspot for ˜ 30 Myr. In contrast, in the last 30 Myr volcanism occurred on aged lithosphere in an intraplate setting, which might indicate that the mid-ocean ridge migrated rapidly to the north after the African plate moved over the hotspot. This conclusion of a rapid shift from plume-influenced mid-ocean ridge (MOR) volcanism to intraplate plume volcanism is supported by geochemical (major and trace element) interpretations of data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 115. An estimate of the melt-production rate shows a striking increase in the small Te region relative to the large Te region of the hotspot track, which suggest a strong interrelation between Te and melt production. However, there is also variation of melt emplacement rates within the region of low Te that may be due to unknown changes in the rates of plate motions or somewhat episodic melt production.

  15. Variations in triple isotope composition of dissolved oxygen and primary production in a subtropical reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurikova, Hana; Guha, Tania; Abe, Osamu; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Wang, Chung-Ho; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Lakes and reservoirs play an important role in the carbon cycle, and therefore monitoring their metabolic rates is essential. The triple oxygen-isotope anomaly of dissolved O2 [17Δ = ln(1+δ17O) - 0.518 × ln(1 + δ18O)] offers a new, in situ, perspective on primary production, yet little is known about 17Δ from freshwater systems. We investigated the 17Δ together with the oxygen : argon ratio [Δ(O2 / Ar)] in the subtropical Feitsui Reservoir in Taiwan from June 2014 to July 2015. Here, we present the seasonal variations in 17Δ, GP (gross production), NP (net production) and the NP / GP (net to gross ratio) in association with environmental parameters. The 17Δ varied with depth and season, with values ranging between 26 and 205 per meg. The GP rates were observed to be higher (702 ± 107 mg C m-2 d-1) in winter than those (303 ± 66 mg C m-2 d-1) recorded during the summer. The overall averaged GP was 220 g C m-2 yr-1 and NP was -3 g C m-2 yr-1, implying the reservoir was net heterotrophic on an annual basis. This is due to negative NP rates from October to February (-198 ± 78 mg C m-2 d-1). Comparisons between GP rates obtained from the isotope mass balance approach and 14C bottle incubation method (14C-GP) showed consistent values on the same order of magnitude with a GP / 14C-GP ratio of 1.2 ± 1.1. Finally we noted that, although typhoon occurrences were scarce, higher than average 17Δ values and GP rates were recorded after typhoon events.

  16. Formulation of yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content by using a Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Conte, Amalia; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lonigro, S Lisa; Padalino, Lucia; Pontonio, Erica; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2017-04-15

    A Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product (Bio21B), obtained after strain growth (14h) in a wheat flour-based medium, was applied in the bread-making process as taste enhancer, in order to obtain a yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content (20% and 50%) with respect to a reference bread (REF) not containing the fermentation product. Sensory analysis indicated that the Bio21B bread with salt reduced by 50% had a pleasant taste similar to the salt-containing bread (REF). l-Glutamate and total free amino acid content did not differ between REF and Bio21B breads, while the acids lactic, acetic, phenyllactic, 4-OH-phenyllactic and indole-3-lactic were present only in Bio21B breads. Moreover, the presence of several umami (uridine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate, adenosine, and guanosine) and kokumi (γ-l-glutamyl-l-valine) taste-related molecules was ascertained both in REF and in Bio21B breads. Therefore, a possible role of the acidic molecules in compensating the negative perception of salt reduction can be hypothesized.

  17. Odour characteristics of seafood flavour formulations produced with fish by-products incorporating EPA, DHA and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Peinado, I; Miles, W; Koutsidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Thermal degradation of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids was investigated. As a novelty, EPA, DHA or fish oil (FO) were incorporated as ω-fatty acid sources into model systems containing fish powder produced via Maillard reactions. Aroma composition of the resulting products was determined and complemented with sensory evaluation. Heating of the oils led to a fast decrease of both, EPA and DHA, and to the development of characteristic volatile compounds including hexanal, 2,4-heptadienal and 4-heptenal, the most abundant being (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal (132±44-329±122μmol/g). EPA and DHA addition to the model systems increased the concentration of these characteristic volatile compounds. However, it did not have a considerable impact on the development of characteristic Maillard reaction products, such as pyrazines and some aldehydes. Finally, the results of the sensory evaluation illustrated that panellists would chose samples fortified with FO as the ones with a more pleasant aroma.

  18. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  19. Isolation, Identification, and Characterisation of Degradation Products and the Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Method for the Estimation of Impurities in the Tolterodine Tartrate Formulation.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Lakkireddy; Himaja, Malipeddi; Vasudev, Rudraraju

    2015-01-01

    A short and sensitive stability-indicating gradient RP-UPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of process-related impurities and degradation products of tolterodine tartrate in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was developed by using the Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH shield RP18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) column with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A and B at a detection wavelength of 210 nm. During the stress study, the degradation products of tolterodine tartrate were well-resolved from tolterodine and its impurities and the mass balances were found to be satisfactory in all the stress conditions, thus proving the stability-indicating capability of the method. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness. During the stability (40°C/75% RH, 3 months) analysis of the drug product, one unknown impurity was detected by the above stability-indicating method. The unknown impurity was isolated by preparative HPLC and subjected to mass and NMR studies. Based on the spectral data, the unknown impurity was characterised as 2-(3-amino-1-phenylpropyl)-4-methylphenol (des-N,N-diisopropyl tolterodine). Structural elucidation of the impurity by spectral data is discussed in detail.

  20. Formulation and Evaluation of New Glimepiride Sublingual Tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Madhagi, Wafa; Abdulbari Albarakani, Ahmed; Khaled Alhag, Abobakr; Ahmed Saeed, Zakaria; Mansour Noman, Nahlah; Mohamed, Khaldon

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucosal delivery of drugs promotes rapid absorption and high bioavailability, with a subsequent immediate onset of pharmacological effect. However, many oral mucosal deliveries are compromised by the possibility of the patient swallowing the active substance before it has been released and absorbed locally into the systemic circulation. The aim of this research was to introduce a new glimepiride formula for sublingual administration and rapid drug absorption that can be used in an emergency. The new sublingual formulation was prepared after five trials to prepare the suitable formulation. Two accepted formulations of the new sublingual product were prepared, but one of them with disintegration time of 1.45 min and searching for preferred formulation, the binder, is changed with Flulac and starch slurry to prepare formula with disintegration time of 21 seconds that supports the aim of research to be used in an emergency. The five formulations were done, after adjusting to the binder as Flulac and aerosil with disintegration time of 21 seconds and accepted hardness as well as the weight variation. The assay of a new product (subglimepiride) is 103% which is a promising result, confirming that the formula succeeded. The new product (subglimepiride) is accepted in most quality control tests and it is ready for marketing.

  1. Formulation and Evaluation of New Glimepiride Sublingual Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Abdulbari Albarakani, Ahmed; Khaled Alhag, Abobakr; Ahmed Saeed, Zakaria; Mansour Noman, Nahlah; Mohamed, Khaldon

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucosal delivery of drugs promotes rapid absorption and high bioavailability, with a subsequent immediate onset of pharmacological effect. However, many oral mucosal deliveries are compromised by the possibility of the patient swallowing the active substance before it has been released and absorbed locally into the systemic circulation. The aim of this research was to introduce a new glimepiride formula for sublingual administration and rapid drug absorption that can be used in an emergency. The new sublingual formulation was prepared after five trials to prepare the suitable formulation. Two accepted formulations of the new sublingual product were prepared, but one of them with disintegration time of 1.45 min and searching for preferred formulation, the binder, is changed with Flulac and starch slurry to prepare formula with disintegration time of 21 seconds that supports the aim of research to be used in an emergency. The five formulations were done, after adjusting to the binder as Flulac and aerosil with disintegration time of 21 seconds and accepted hardness as well as the weight variation. The assay of a new product (subglimepiride) is 103% which is a promising result, confirming that the formula succeeded. The new product (subglimepiride) is accepted in most quality control tests and it is ready for marketing. PMID:28261517

  2. Regulation of the diurnal variation of the cold productivity of an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyshchaeva, O.; Kakabaev, A.; Redzhepov, G.

    The paper examines various modes of operation of an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system, which make it possible to extend the operation of the system, which make it possible to extend the operation of the system to periods when there is no sunlight. It is shown that the diurnal variation of cold productivity can be determined through the establishment of the time variation of the water content of the solution. Cold-productivity plots are presented for characteristic modes of operation of the system. Consideration is given to the mode of operation where the period of operation of the refrigeration part coincides with the period of sunlight.

  3. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    1.The objective was to identify the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in annual production (PA) and turnover (production/biomass) ratio (P/BA) of resident brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Rio Esva (Cantabrian Mountains, Asturias, north-western Spain). We examined annual production (total production of all age-classes over a year) (PA) and turnover (P/BA) ratios, in relation to year-class production (production over the entire life time of a year-class) (PT) and turnover (P/BT) ratio, over 14years at a total of 12 sites along the length of four contrasting tributaries. In addition, we explored whether the importance of recruitment and site depth for spatial and temporal variations in year-class production (PT), elucidated in previous studies, extends to annual production. 2.Large spatial (among sites) and temporal (among years) variation in annual production (range 1.9-40.3gm-2 per year) and P/BA ratio (range 0.76-2.4per year) typified these populations, values reported here including all the variation reported globally for salmonids streams inhabited by one or several species. 3.Despite substantial differences among streams and sites in all production attributes, when all data were pooled, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios were tightly linked. Annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) were similar but not identical, i.e. PT=0.94 PA, whereas the P/BT ratios were 4+P/BA ratios. 4.Recruitment (Rc) and mean annual density (NA) were major density-dependent drivers of production and their relationships were described by simple mathematical models. While year-class production (PT) was determined (R2=70.1%) by recruitment (Rc), annual production (PA) was determined (R2=60.3%) by mean annual density (NA). In turn, variation in recruitment explained R2=55.2% of variation in year-class P/BT ratios, the latter attaining an asymptote at P/BT=6 at progressively higher levels of recruitment

  4. Study of non-thermal photon production under different scenarios in solar flares. 1: Scenarios and formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the overall phenomenology involved in solar flares, it is necessary to understand their individual manifestation before building a corresponding description of the global phenomenon. Here the concern is with the production of X and gamma rays in solar flares. Flares are initiated very often within the closed magnetic field configurations of active centers. According (2) when beta = kinetic energy density/magnetic energy density approximately 0.2, the magnetic trap configuration is destructed within the time scale of the impulsive phase of flares ( 100 s). A first particle acceleration stage occurs during this phase as indicated by impulsive microwave and hard X-rays bursts. In some flare events, when the field strength beta is very high, the broken field lines may close again, such that later, in the course of the flash and main phases more hot plasma of very high conductivity is created, and so, the field and frozen plasma expand outward, as the kinetic pressure inside the closed loops increases. The magnetically trapped particles excite strong Alfven wave turbulence of small transverse scale.

  5. Variation in Alkaloid Production from Genetically Diverse Lolium Accessions Infected with Epichloë Species.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph R; Pratley, James E; Mace, Wade J; Weston, Leslie A

    2015-12-09

    Widespread infection of Epichloë occultans in annual ryegrass in Australia suggests that infection provides its weedy host, Lolium rigidum, some ecological advantage. Initial studies determined the distribution and profiles of known Epichloë alkaloids (epoxy-janthitrems, ergovaline, lolines, lolitrem B, and peramine) in plant extracts using a combination of GC-FID and HPLC techniques utilizing a single accession of Australian L. rigidum. However, the lolines N-acetylnorloline (NANL) and N-formylloline (NFL) were the only alkaloids detected and were highly concentrated in the immature inflorescences of mature plants. Additional glasshouse studies subjected a wide range of Australian L. rigidum haplotypes and international annual Lolium accessions to a suite of analyses to determine alkaloid levels and profiles. Again, NFL and NANL were the key lolines produced, with NFL consistently predominating. Considerable variation in alkaloid production was found both within and between biotypes and accessions evaluated under identical conditions, at the same maturation stage and on the same tissue type. The pyrrolopyrazine alkaloid peramine was also present in 8 out of 17 Australian biotypes of L. rigidum and 7 out of 33 international accessions infected with Epichloë spp.; the highest peramine concentrations were observed in seed extracts from L. rigidum collected from Australia. This study represents the first report of alkaloids from a geographically diverse collection of annual ryegrass germplasm infected with Epichloë spp. when grown under identical controlled conditions.

  6. Seasonal variation of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in influents, effluents and sludge from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in southern California was studied in winter and summer. All 14 compounds were detected in influent samples from the five WWTPs except for estrone. Paracetamol, naproxen and ibuprofen were the dominant compounds, with mean concentrations of 41.7, 35.7 and 22.3 μg/L, respectively. The treatment removal efficiency for most compounds was more than 90% and concentrations in the effluents were relatively low. Seasonal variation of the compounds' concentration in the wastewater was significant: the total concentration of each compound in the wastewater was higher in winter than in summer, which is attributed to more human consumption of pharmaceuticals during winter and faster degradation of the compounds in summer. The highest concentrations of triclosan and octylphenol were detected in sewage sludge, with mean concentrations of 1505 and 1179 ng/g, respectively. Risk quotients (RQs), expressed as the ratios of environmental concentrations and the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), were less than unity for all the compounds except for estrone in the effluents, indicating no immediate ecological risk is expected. However, RQs were higher than unity for 2 EDCs (estrone and octylphenol) and carbamazepine in sludge samples, indicating a significant ecotoxicological risk to human health. Therefore, appropriate treatment of sewage sludge is required before its application.

  7. Variational filtering.

    PubMed

    Friston, K J

    2008-07-01

    This note presents a simple Bayesian filtering scheme, using variational calculus, for inference on the hidden states of dynamic systems. Variational filtering is a stochastic scheme that propagates particles over a changing variational energy landscape, such that their sample density approximates the conditional density of hidden and states and inputs. The key innovation, on which variational filtering rests, is a formulation in generalised coordinates of motion. This renders the scheme much simpler and more versatile than existing approaches, such as those based on particle filtering. We demonstrate variational filtering using simulated and real data from hemodynamic systems studied in neuroimaging and provide comparative evaluations using particle filtering and the fixed-form homologue of variational filtering, namely dynamic expectation maximisation.

  8. Permeation of topically applied caffeine from a food by-product in cosmetic formulations: Is nanoscale in vitro approach an option?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Ana Catarina; Nunes, Claudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, M Helena; Reis, Salette; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-11-20

    The aim of the present work was to develop and evaluate the potential of nanostructured lipid carriers associated with caffeine extracted from Coffee Silverskin (NLC-CS), a food by-product, as a new possible topical therapy of cellulitis. Caffeine gain increasing research interest due to their cosmetic potential, particularly in gynoid lipodystrophy, commonly known as cellulite. NLC-CS were prepared via double emulsion technique using polysorbate 60 as surfactant and characterized for their morphology, particle size, zeta potential, association encapsulation and stability. The in vitro skin permeation studies were performed on Franz diffusion cells using pig skin ear as permeation membrane and the optimized formulation was compared with a hydroalcoholic solution of Coffee silverskin (CS) extract. NLC-CS were within the nanosized range (≈200nm), with a low polydispersity index (<0.25) and zeta potential values around -30Mv, presenting storage stability up to 180days at 25°C/65% relative humidity (RH) and 40°C/75% RH. The association efficiency (AE) of caffeine was about 30% at production time and after storage period. Cryo-SEM images confirmed the spherical shape of NLC-CS. The in vitro skin permeation study demonstrated that NLC-CS had a similar skin permeation profile when compared to caffeine in CS extract.

  9. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  10. Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

    2013-05-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative

  11. Does lowering evening rectal temperature to morning levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William R; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Giacomoni, Magali; Robertson, Colin M; Burniston, Jatin G; Waterhouse, James M; Edwards, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral, and central factors and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether decreasing evening resting rectal temperatures to morning values, by immersion in a water tank, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to morning values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 1.3 yrs; body mass, 80.1 ± 7.8 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) completed the study, which was approved by the local ethics committee of the university. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed three sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up on a cycle ergometer at 150 W) and then a further session at 17:30 h but preceded by an immersion in cold water (~16.5 °C) to lower rectal temperature (Trec) to morning values. During each trial, three measures of grip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and three measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric dynamometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Trec, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal comfort (TC) were also measured after the subjects had reclined for 30 min at the start of the protocol and prior to the measures for grip, isokinetic, and isometric dynamometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up or water immersion and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Data were analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures. Trec values were higher at rest in the evening (by 0.37 °C; p < 0.05) than the morning, but

  12. Data assimilation in a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the California Current System using an incremental lognormal 4-dimensional variational approach: Part 1-Model formulation and biological data assimilation twin experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hajoon; Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Fiechter, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    A quadratic formulation for an incremental lognormal 4-dimensional variational assimilation method (incremental L4DVar) is introduced for assimilation of biogeochemical observations into a 3-dimensional ocean circulation model. L4DVar assumes that errors in the model state are lognormally rather than Gaussian distributed, and implicitly ensures that state estimates are positive definite, making this approach attractive for biogeochemical variables. The method is made practical for a realistic implementation having a large state vector through linear assumptions that render the cost function quadratic and allow application of existing minimization techniques. A simple nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model is coupled to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and configured for the California Current System. Quadratic incremental L4DVar is evaluated in a twin model framework in which biological fields only are in error and compared to G4DVar which assumes Gaussian distributed errors. Five-day assimilation cycles are used and statistics from four years of model integration analyzed. The quadratic incremental L4DVar results in smaller root-mean-squared errors and better statistical agreement with reference states than G4DVar while maintaining a positive state vector. The additional computational cost and implementation effort are trivial compared to the G4DVar system, making quadratic incremental L4DVar a practical and beneficial option for realistic biogeochemical state estimation in the ocean.

  13. Yeast and lactic acid flora of tej, an indigenous Ethiopian honey wine: variations within and between production units.

    PubMed

    Bahiru, Bekele; Mehari, Tetemke; Ashenafi, Mogessie

    2006-05-01

    A total of 200 samples of tej, an indigenous Ethiopian honey wine, were collected from ten production units at different production times. The samples were analysed for their microbial flora. Mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and aerobic spores for the different production units were <3 log cfu/ml. Coliforms and other members of Enterobacteriaceae were below detectable levels basically due to the low pH of the samples (<4.0). Yeasts were among the dominant micro-organisms in all samples with mean counts of 6 log cfu/ml for all production units. Over 25% of the yeast isolates belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae followed by Kluyvermyces bulgaricus (16%), Debaromyces phaffi (14%) and K. veronae (10%). Yeast counts showed significant variation within samples of a production unit (CV>10%) and difference in counts among all samples was also significant (P<0.01). The lactic acid bacteria had counts of 6 log cfu/ml with a significant variation within samples of a production unit (CV>10%) or among all samples (P<0.01). In most production units, the heterolactics had higher counts than the homolactics. The lactic flora consisted of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus species. The lactobacilli were, however, the most frequently encountered groups. In most of the samples, the lactic flora was dominated by two (49.5%) or three (46%) groups of lactic acid bacteria.

  14. A quantitative analysis for the ADP-ribosylation activity of pertussis toxin: an enzymatic-HPLC coupled assay applicable to formulated whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine products.

    PubMed

    Cyr, T; Menzies, A J; Calver, J; Whitehouse, L W

    2001-06-01

    The majority of the biological effects of pertussis toxin (PT) are the result of a toxin-catalyzed transfer of an adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADP-ribose) moiety from NAD(+)to the alpha-subunits of a subset of signal-transducing guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). This generally leads to an uncoupling of the modified G-protein from the corresponding receptor and the loss of effector regulation. This assay is based on the PT S1 subunit enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to the cysteine moiety of a fluorescent tagged synthetic peptide homologous to the 20 amino acid residue carboxyl-terminal sequence of the alpha-subunit of the G(i3)protein. The tagged peptide and the ADP-ribosylated product were characterized by HPLC/MS and MS/MS for structure confirmation. Quantitation of this characterized ADP-ribosylated fluorescently tagged peptide was by HPLC fluorescence using Standard Addition methodology. The assay was linear over a five hr incubation period at 20 degrees C at PT concentrations between 0.0625 and 4.0 microg/ml and the sensitivity of the assay could be increased several fold by increasing the incubation time to 24 h. Purified S1 subunit of PT exhibited 68.1+/-10.1% of the activity of the intact toxin on a molar basis, whereas the pertussis toxin B oligomer, the genetically engineered toxoid, (PT-9K/129G), and several of the other components of the Bordetella pertussis organism possessed little (<0.6%) or no detectable ribosylation activity. Commonly used pertussis vaccine reference materials, US PV Lot #11, BRP PV 66/303, and BRP PV 88/522, were assayed by this method against Bordetella pertussis Toxin Standard 90/518 and demonstrated to contain, respectively, 0.323+/-0.007, 0.682+/-0.045, and 0.757+/-0.006 microg PT/ml (Mean+/-SEM) or in terms of microg/vial: 3.63, 4.09 and 4.54, respectively. A survey of several multivalent pertussis vaccine products formulated with both whole cell as well as acellular components indicated that

  15. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products. Chemical characterization and computer modeling of the exhaust products from four propellant formulations: Final report, September 23, 1987--April 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army`s Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  16. Continuous production of controlled release dosage forms based on hot-melt extruded gum arabic: Formulation development, in vitro characterization and evaluation of potential application fields.

    PubMed

    Kipping, Thomas; Rein, Hubert

    2016-01-30

    Controlled release matrices based on gum arabic are prepared by applying a continuous hot-melt extrusion technology: the pre-mixture consisting of gum arabic and the incorporated API is plasticized by a co-rotating twin-screw extruder, an intermediate strand is formed by a round nozzle. Single dosed matrices are prepared by cutting the semi elastic strand with a rotary fly cutter. Paracetamol and phenazone are used as model drug substances. High drug loadings up to 70% can be realized. Matrices are characterized concerning their crystalline structure, in vitro dissolution, disintegration time and various physical parameters including glass transition temperature (Tg). Release characteristic behavior is mainly influenced by erosion of the matrices. At higher drug loadings also diffusion based transport gain importance. The solubility of the API shows an influence on the erosion rate of the matrix and should therefore be considered during formulation development. Tg is mainly influenced by the solubility of the API in the surrounding matrix. High soluble phenazone shows a decrease, whereas paracetamol addition has nearly no influence on the Tg of the polymeric system. Activation energy (EA) of the glass transition is determined via dynamic mechanical analysis. The addition of APIs leads to a reduction of EA indicating an increased molecular movement at Tg region compared to placebo extrudates. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the crystalline state of the extruded matrices and interaction between matrix and incorporated APIs. The production of thin layer matrices is an interesting option to provide a fast drug delivery to the oral cavity. High mechanical strength combined with fast disintegration times can be a great advantage for the development of oro-dispersible tablets. A great benefit of the evaluated processing technology is the simple adaption of the final dose by varying either the cutting length or the diameter of the nozzle resulting in a cost

  17. Genotype-Specific Variation in the Structure of Root Fungal Communities Is Related to Chickpea Plant Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Knight, Joan Diane

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the existence of variations in the association of plant roots with symbiotic fungi that can improve plant growth and inhibit pathogens. However, it is unclear whether intraspecific variations in the symbiosis exist among plant cultivars and if they can be used to improve crop productivity. In this study, we determined genotype-specific variations in the association of chickpea roots with soil fungal communities and evaluated the effect of root mycota on crop productivity. A 2-year field experiment was conducted in southwestern Saskatchewan, the central zone of the chickpea growing region of the Canadian prairie. The effects of 13 cultivars of chickpea, comprising a wide range of phenotypes and genotypes, were tested on the structure of root-associated fungal communities based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 18S rRNA gene markers using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Chickpea cultivar significantly influenced the structure of the root fungal community. The magnitude of the effect varied with the genotypes evaluated, and effects were consistent across years. For example, the roots of CDC Corrine, CDC Cory, and CDC Anna hosted the highest fungal diversity and CDC Alma and CDC Xena the lowest. Fusarium sp. was dominant in chickpea roots but was less abundant in CDC Corrine than the other cultivars. A bioassay showed that certain of these fungal taxa, including Fusarium species, can reduce the productivity of chickpea, whereas Trichoderma harzianum can increase chickpea productivity. The large variation in the profile of chickpea root mycota, which included growth-promoting and -inhibiting species, supports the possibility of improving the productivity of chickpea by improving its root mycota in chickpea genetic improvement programs using traditional breeding techniques. PMID:25616789

  18. Wide Variations in Blood Product Transfusion Practices among Providers Who Care for Patients with Acute Leukemia in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Alexander B; Lee, Eun-Ju; Sekeres, Mikkael; Steensma, David P; Zelterman, Daniel; Prebet, Thomas; DeZern, Amy; Komrokji, Rami; Litzow, Mark; Luger, Selina; Stone, Richard; Erba, Harry P; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Lee, Alfred I; Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Barbarotta, Lisa; Kasberg, Stephanie; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Gore, Steven D; Zeidan, Amer M

    2017-01-01

    Background Transfusion of blood products is a key component of the supportive management in patients with acute leukemia (AL). However high-quality trial evidence and clinical outcome data to support specific transfusion goals for blood products for patients with AL remain limited leading to diverse transfusion practices. The primary objective of this study was to determine the spectrum of transfusion patterns in a variety of care settings among providers who treat AL patients. Study design and Methods A 31-question survey queried providers caring for AL patients about the existence of institutional guidelines for transfusion of blood products, transfusion triggers for hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLTs), and fibrinogen in various settings including inpatient, outpatient, and before procedures. Results We analyzed 130 responses and identified divergent transfusion Hb goals in hospitalized and ambulatory patients, fibrinogen goals for cryoprecipitate transfusions, and variation in practice for use of certain PLTs and red blood cell products. The least variable transfusion patterns were reported for PLT goals in thrombocytopenia and in the setting of invasive procedures such as bone marrow biopsy and lumbar punctures. Conclusions This survey confirmed wide variations in blood product transfusion practices across several clinical scenarios in patients with AL. The findings emphasized the need for large prospective randomized trials to develop standardized evidence-based guidelines for blood product transfusions in patients with AL with the goal of limiting unnecessary transfusions without compromising outcomes. PMID:27878822

  19. New European commission regulation on variations to the terms of marketing authorization for medicinal products and its impact on Croatian legislation.

    PubMed

    Martinac, Adrijana Ilić; Tomić, Sinisa; Simicić, Mirna

    2010-09-01

    Variations introduced to medicinal product documentation must not affect the quality, efficacy, and safety of the product. Croatian Medicinal Products Act and accompanying ordinances are largely aligned with the EU regulations. The EU has now tried to simplify the issue of variations with a new Regulation, creating differences in the definition of and approach to resolving certain types of variations between Croatia and the EU. These differences could hinder the approval procedure for variations in Croatia, particularly for medicines already approved in the EU. Amending the Croatian Ordinance on medicines already authorised in the EU would be one way of maintaining the efficiency of the Croatian regulatory system.

  20. Toxicity of agrochemical formulations.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Neil G

    2005-01-01

    Most agrochemicals have physicochemical properties that make it impractical to apply them directly to crops and other targets. It is necessary to provide a concentrate of the active ingredient, to which formulation agents have been added to allow dilution with water for spraying. These ingredients perform several functions, including emulsifying, solubilizing, antifoaming, and the like. The properties of these materials are not intended to include pesticidal activity. However, some of these materials may have intrinsic toxicologic properties that should be taken into account in an overall evaluation of the safety of the product. In agriculture, exposure to these materials is sporadic and seasonal. The testing of the complete formulation is based on the evaluation of this risk, and it is concentrated on the evaluation of the short-term exposure to the concentrated product. Many of these substances are rather banal and are generally regarded as safe. Exceptions to this rule do exist, particularly concerning solvents; in such cases a fuller data package is necessary to perform risk assessment.

  1. Correction of in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates for geomagnetic field intensity variations during the past 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Jozef; Frank, Martin; Schäfer, Jörg M.; Wieler, Rainer

    2001-09-01

    We present integrated relative production rates for cosmogenic nuclides in rock surfaces, which take into account reported variations of the geomagnetic field intensity during the past 800,000 yr. The calculations are based on the model simulating cosmic ray particle interactions with the Earth's atmosphere given by Masarik and Beer ["Simulation of particle fluxes and cosmogenic nuclide production in the Earth's atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 104(D10), 12099-12111, 1999]. Corrections are nearly independent on altitude between sea level and at least 5000 m. The correction factors are essentially identical for all stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides with half-lives longer than a few hundred thousand years. At the equator, integrated production rates for exposure ages between ˜40,000 to 800,000 yr are 10 to 12% higher than the present-day values, whereas at latitudes >40°, geomagnetic field intensity variations have hardly influenced in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Correction factors for in situ 14C production rates differ from those of longer-lived nuclides. They are always smaller than ˜2% because the magnetic field intensity remained rather constant during the past ˜10 kyr, when the major fraction of the 14C extant today was produced.

  2. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  3. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  4. Discovery of Genetic Variation that Enhances Improvement of Dairy Production and Health in Cattle and Buffalos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypothesis underlying this project is that genome-wide information on genetic variation will increase accuracy of predictions of genetic merit; will enhance heritability and reliability of these predictions through improved pedigree information; and will improve detection of most quantitative tr...

  5. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwani, Meenakshi; Mishra, Sanjay K; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Sihota, Ramanjit; Kotnala, Ankita; Bhartiya, Shibal; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Comparative evaluation of pharmaceutical characteristics of three marketed generic vs branded travoprost formulations. Materials and methods: Three generic travoprost formulations and one branded (Travatan without benzalkonium chloride) formulation (10 vials each), obtained from authorized agents from the respective companies and having the same batch number, were used. These formulations were coded and labels were removed. At a standardized room temperature of 25°C, the drop size, pH, relative viscosity, and total drops per vial were determined for Travatan (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) and all the generic formulations. Travoprost concentration in all four brands was estimated by using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry LCMS. Results: Out of the four formulations, two drugs (TP 1 and TP 4) were found to follow the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) limits for ophthalmic formulation regarding drug concentration, while the remaining two drugs failed due to the limits being either above 110% (TP 2) or below 90% (TP 3). Two of them (TP 1 and TP 2) had osmolality of 313 and 262 mOsm respectively, which did not comply with the osmolality limits within 300 mOsm (+ 10%). The pH of all the formulations ranged between 4.7 and 5.9, and the mean drop size was 30.23 ± 6.03 uL. The total amount of drug volume in the bottles varied from 2.58 ± 0.15 to 3.38 ± 0.06 mL/bottle. Conclusion: There are wide variations in the physical properties of generic formulations available in India. Although some generic drugs are compliant with the pharmacopeia standards, this study underscores the need for a better quality control in the production of generic travoprost formulations. How to cite this article: Wadhwani M, Mishra SK, Angmo D, Velpandian T, Sihota R, Kotnala A, Bhartiya S, Dada T. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2016;10(2):49-55. PMID:27536047

  6. Process variation monitoring (PVM) by wafer inspection tool as a complementary method to CD-SEM for mapping field CDU on advanced production devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Jong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Kim, Chul Hong; Lee, Hak Kwon; Kim, Sung Su; Bae, Koon Ho; Spielberg, Hedvi; Lee, Yun Ho; Levi, Shimon; Bustan, Yariv; Rozentsvige, Moshe

    2010-03-01

    As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) have a dramatic effect on printed final lines and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, layer stack thickness, composition variations, and exposure variations. Process variations, in advanced VLSI production designs, specifically in memory devices, attributed to CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations. These variations significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or OCD metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time to set and cover only selected points of wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials and Hynix Semiconductor Inc. on the implementation of a complementary method to the CDSEM and OCD tools, to monitor defect density and post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM) is based on measuring variations in the scattered light from periodic structures. The application is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV bright field (BF) wafer inspection tool under optimized illumination and collection conditions. The UVisionTM has already passed a successful feasibility study on DRAM products with 66nm and 54nm design rules. The tool has shown high sensitivity to variations across an FEM wafer in both exposure and focus axes. In this article we show how PVM can help detection of Field to Field variations on DRAM wafers with 44nm design rule during normal production run. The complex die layout and the shrink in cell dimensions require high sensitivity to local variations within Dies or Fields. During normal scan of production wafers local Process variations are translated into GL (Grey Level) values

  7. Evidence for variations in magma production along oceanic spreading centers - A critical appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karson, J. A.; Elthon, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of the oceanic lithosphere near fracture zones have resulted in the proposal that the 'magma budget', defined as the amount of magma delivered to magma chambers or conduits beneath a spreading center for a given amount of spreading, decreases as fracture zones are approached. Geochemical variations in basaltic glasses collected near fracture zones are consistent with a decrease in partial melting as fracture zones are approached, but they could also be produced by variations in open-system magmatic processes with no change in the extent of partial melting. Although a decrease in the magma budget as fracture zones are approached is consistent with these data, so are alternative models that incorporate a constant magma budget.

  8. Comment on "Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust".

    PubMed

    Goff, John A

    2015-09-04

    Crowley et al. (Reports, 13 March 2015, p. 1237) propose that abyssal hill topography can be generated by variations in volcanism at mid-ocean ridges modulated by Milankovitch cycle-driven changes in sea level. Published values for abyssal hill characteristic widths versus spreading rate do not generally support this hypothesis. I argue that abyssal hills are primarily fault-generated rather than volcanically generated features.

  9. Evidence for variations in magma production along oceanic spreading centers - A critical appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karson, J. A.; Elthon, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent geologic, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the oceanic lithosphere near fracture zones have resulted in the proposal that the 'magma budget,' defined as the amount of magma delivered to magma chambers or conduits beneath a spreading center for a given amount of spreading, decreases as fracture zones are approached. Seismic reflection and refraction studies indicate that the crust becomes anomalously thin near fracture zones, but reference must be made to the boundary between residual upper mantle peridotites and overlying cumulate rocks in order to assess potential variations in the magma budget. The position of this interface, however, generally is not constrained by geophysical studies. Geochemical variations in basaltic glasses collected near fracture zones are consistent with a decrease in partial melting as fracture zones are approached, but they could also be produced by variations in open-system magmatic processes with no change in the extent of partial melting. Although a decrease in the magma budget as fracture zones are approached is consistent with these data, so are alternative models that incorporate a constant magma budget.

  10. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile; Gregg, Watson

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton is responsible for over half of the net primary production on earth. The knowledge on the contribution of various phytoplankton groups to the total primary production is still poorly understood. Data from satellite observations suggest that for upwelling regions, photosynthetic rates by microplankton is higher than that of nanoplankton but that when the spatial extent is considered, the production by nanoplankton is comparable or even larger than microplankton. Here, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (approx. 50%) followed by coccolithophores and chlorophytes. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (>45 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nino Index, MEI) and 'regional' climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability. These results provide a modeling and data assimilation perspective to phytoplankton partitioning of primary production and contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of the carbon cycle in the oceans at a global scale.

  11. Irreversibility and entropy production in transport phenomena, IV: Symmetry, integrated intermediate processes and separated variational principles for multi-currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of entropy production in transport phenomena is discussed again by emphasizing the role of symmetry of non-equilibrium states and also by reformulating Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion to derive entropy production from it. This yields conceptual reviews of the previous papers [M. Suzuki, Physica A 390 (2011) 1904; 391 (2012) 1074; 392 (2013) 314]. Separated variational principles of steady states for multi external fields {Xi} and induced currents {Ji} are proposed by extending the principle of minimum integrated entropy production found by the present author for a single external field. The basic strategy of our theory on steady states is to take in all the intermediate processes from the equilibrium state to the final possible steady states in order to study the irreversible physics even in the steady states. As an application of this principle, Gransdorff-Prigogine’s evolution criterion inequality (or stability condition) dXP≡∫dr∑iJidXi≤0 is derived in the stronger form dQi≡∫drJidXi≤0 for individual force Xi and current Ji even in nonlinear responses which depend on all the external forces {Xk} nonlinearly. This is called “separated evolution criterion”. Some explicit demonstrations of the present general theory to simple electric circuits with multi external fields are given in order to clarify the physical essence of our new theory and to realize the condition of its validity concerning the existence of the solutions of the simultaneous equations obtained by the separated variational principles. It is also instructive to compare the two results obtained by the new variational theory and by the old scheme based on the instantaneous entropy production. This seems to be suggestive even to the energy problem in the world.

  12. Design and evaluation of a new formulation of enalapril maleate tablet.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Rehana; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Rahim, Najia

    2011-04-01

    Enalapril maleate, one of the Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor is effective in the treatment of hypertension. Enalapril maleate is selected for the present study. The aim of this study was to develop a new formulation of Enalapril maleate tablet and its comparative evaluation with other formulations of Enalapril maleate tablet that are listed in the local index of registered pharmaceutical products. To accomplish this task, a new formulation of Enalapril maleate tablet has been developed by direct compression method. All formulation tablets with 5mg potency were selected and the new formulation tablets were also developed with 5mg potency. For new formulation as well as for six available formulations of Enalapril maleate tablets, various pharmaceutical parameters namely weight variation, thickness, hardness test; friability test, disintegration test, dissolution test and pharmaceutical assay were performed in accordance with United States Pharmacopeias (USP). The results of all the above tests were within the specified limits as mentioned in USP, whereas hardness test results for two formulations were deviated from the specified limits. It is concluded that direct compression can be used as an alternate method for the manufacture of Enalapril maleate tablet.

  13. An Investigation of the Effect of Production Rate Variation on Direct Labor Requirements for Missile Production Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Model Coefficient Variability Modelo B0 as0 1 A81 a Model Reduced Full (%) Reduced Full (%) 2 1 1775 1882 6 -.20 -.19 -5 -.04 2 1863 1890 1.4...b for Production Program Stretchouts," National Manage- ment Journal, Spring 1969, pp . 25-41. 9. Large, Joseph P., Karl Hoffmayer, and Frank

  14. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-Specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2014-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (50, the equivalent of 20 PgC y-1. Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed to 20 (7 PgC y-1 of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10 (4 PgC y(sub-1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (45) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4 (1-2 PgC y-1. We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nio Index, MEI) and regional climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p 0.05) between the MEI and the class-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatomscyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect on the class-specific primary production in the Southern Ocean. These results provide a modeling and

  15. Optimizing Photosynthetic and Respiratory Parameters Based on the Seasonal Variation Pattern in Regional Net Ecosystem Productivity Obtained from Atmospheric Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.; Ju, W.; Yuan, W.; Mo, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of optimizing ecosystem photosynthetic and respiratory parameters from the seasonal variation pattern of the net carbon flux. An optimization scheme is proposed to estimate two key parameters (Vcmax and Q10) by exploiting the seasonal variation in the net ecosystem carbon flux retrieved by an atmospheric inversion system. This scheme is implemented to estimate Vcmax and Q10 of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) to improve its NEP simulation in the Boreal North America (BNA) region. Simultaneously, in-situ NEE observations at six eddy covariance sites are used to evaluate the NEE simulations. The results show that the performance of the optimized BEPS is superior to that of the BEPS with the default parameter values. These results have the implication on using atmospheric CO2 data for optimizing ecosystem parameters through atmospheric inversion or data assimilation techniques.

  16. Titan-like exoplanets: Variations in geometric albedo and effective transit height with haze production rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checlair, Jade; McKay, Christopher P.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Extensive studies characterizing Titan present an opportunity to study the atmospheric properties of Titan-like exoplanets. Using an existing model of Titan's atmospheric haze, we computed geometric albedo spectra and effective transit height spectra for six values of the haze production rate (zero haze to twice present) over a wide range of wavelengths (0.2-2 μm). In the geometric albedo spectra, the slope in the UV-visible changes from blue to red when varying the haze production rate values from zero to twice the current Titan value. This spectral feature is the most effective way to characterize the haze production rates. Methane absorption bands in the visible-NIR compete with the absorbing haze, being more prominent for smaller haze production rates. The effective transit heights probe a region of the atmosphere where the haze and gas are optically thin and that is thus not effectively probed by the geometric albedo. The effective transit height decreases smoothly with increasing wavelength, from 376 km to 123 km at 0.2 and 2 μm, respectively. When decreasing the haze production rate, the methane absorption bands become more prominent, and the effective transit height decreases with a steeper slope with increasing wavelength. The slope of the geometric albedo in the UV-visible increases smoothly with increasing haze production rate, while the slope of the effective transit height spectra is not sensitive to the haze production rate other than showing a sharp rise when the haze production rate increases from zero. We conclude that geometric albedo spectra provide the most sensitive indicator of the haze production rate and the background Rayleigh gas. Our results suggest that important and complementary information can be obtained from the geometric albedo and motivates improvements in the technology for direct imaging of nearby exoplanets.

  17. Titan-Like Exoplanets: Variations in Geometric Albedo and Effective Transit Height with Haze Production Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Checlair, Jade; McKay, Christopher P.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies characterizing Titan present an opportunity to study the atmospheric properties of Titan-like exoplanets. Using an existing model of Titan's atmospheric haze, we computed geometric albedo spectra and effective transit height spectra for six values of the haze production rate (zero haze to twice present) over a wide range of wavelengths (0.2-2 microns). In the geometric albedo spectra, the slope in the UV-visible changes from blue to red when varying the haze production rate values from zero to twice the current Titan value. This spectral feature is the most effective way to characterize the haze production rates. Methane absorption bands in the visible-NIR compete with the absorbing haze, being more prominent for smaller haze production rates. The effective transit heights probe a region of the atmosphere where the haze and gas are optically thin and that is thus not effectively probed by the geometric albedo. The effective transit height decreases smoothly with increasing wavelength, from 376 km to 123 km at 0.2 and 2 microns, respectively. When decreasing the haze production rate, the methane absorption bands become more prominent, and the effective transit height decreases with a steeper slope with increasing wavelength. The slope of the geometric albedo in the UV-visible increases smoothly with increasing haze production rate, while the slope of the effective transit height spectra is not sensitive to the haze production rate other than showing a sharp rise when the haze production rate increases from zero. We conclude that geometric albedo spectra provide the most sensitive indicator of the haze production rate and the background Rayleigh gas. Our results suggest that important and complementary information can be obtained from the geometric albedo and motivates improvements in the technology for direct imaging of nearby exoplanets.

  18. Methane production and diurnal variation measured in dairy cows and predicted from fermentation pattern and nutrient or carbon flow.

    PubMed

    Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Hellwing, A L F; Bannink, A; Lund, P

    2015-11-01

    ) production followed that of rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and the CH(4) to CO(2) production ratio, but was inverse to rumen pH and the rumen hydrogen balance calculated from 4×(acetate+butyrate)/2×(propionate+valerate). In conclusion, the amount of feed fermented was the most important factor determining variations in CH(4) production between animals, diets and during the day. Interactions between feed components, VFA absorption rates and variation between animals seemed to be factors that were complicating the accurate prediction of CH(4). Using a ruminal carbon balance appeared to predict CH(4) production just as well as calculations based on rumen digestion of individual nutrients.

  19. Diagenetic variation in the Oregon Coast Range: Implications for rock strength, soil production, hillslope form, and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2014-06-01

    The mechanisms by which lithology modulates geomorphic processes are poorly known. In the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), rhythmically bedded sandstones of the Eocene Tyee Formation underlie steep, soil-mantled hillslopes, with relatively uniform ridge-valley spacing. These characteristic landforms are perturbed where diagenetic variations manifest as resistant cliffs. Here we use petrology, rock mechanics, and lidar to characterize grain-scale variations in rock properties and their influence on rock strength, hillslope processes, and landscape morphology in two adjacent watersheds. Petrographic analyses suggest that a suite of diagenetic products in the "resistant" bedrock account for a 2.5 times increase in tensile strength relative to "typical" Tyee bedrock. Our reference catchment exhibits negligible resistant outcrops, and consistent hillslope gradients and longitudinal valley profiles. By contrast, the adjacent catchment teems with resistant, 1 to 10 m thick, noncontiguous sandstone beds that form hanging valleys with gentle upstream hillslopes and anomalously narrow valleys. Mechanical and topographic analyses suggest that the low fracture density characteristic of these resistant beds may render them relatively impervious to comminution by tree root activity, the dominant OCR soil production mechanism. Based on both hillslope gradient- and hilltop curvature-erosion models, we estimate that hillslopes perched above resistant beds erode at approximately half the pace of hillslopes unencumbered by downstream knickpoints. The diagenetic variations likely influence relief at the watershed scale. Depositional position and diagenetic processes appear to control the occurrence of resistant beds, providing a framework to quantify how seemingly subtle variations in rock properties can impose first-order controls on landscape form and evolution.

  20. Temporal analysis of natural variation for the rate of leaf production and its relationship with flowering initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Vigo, Belén; de Andrés, M. Teresa; Ramiro, Mercedes; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative growth and flowering initiation are two crucial developmental processes in the life cycle of annual plants that are closely associated. The timing of both processes affects several presumed adaptive traits, such as flowering time (FT), total leaf number (TLN), or the rate of leaf production (RLP). However, the interactions among these complex processes and traits, and their mechanistic bases, remain largely unknown. To determine the genetic relationships between them, the natural genetic variation between A. thaliana accessions Fei-0 and Ler has been studied using a new population of 222 Ler×Fei-0 recombinant inbred lines. Temporal analysis of the parental development under a short day photoperiod distinguishes two vegetative phases differing in their RLP. QTL mapping of RLP in consecutive time intervals of vegetative development indicates that Ler/Fei-0 variation is caused by 10 loci whose small to moderate effects mainly display two different temporal patterns. Further comparative QTL analyses show that most of the genomic regions affecting FT or TLN also alter RLP. In addition, the partially independent genetic bases observed for FT and TLN appear determined by several genomic regions with two different patterns of phenotypic effects: regions with a larger effect on FT than TLN, and vice versa. The distinct temporal and pleiotropic patterns of QTL effects suggest that natural variation for flowering time is caused by different genetic mechanisms involved in vegetative and/or reproductive phase changes, most of them interacting with the control of leaf production rate. Thus, natural selection might contribute to maintain this genetic variation due to its phenotypic effects not only on the timing of flowering initiation but also on the rate of vegetative growth. PMID:20190039

  1. Spatiotemporal variation of fruit digestible-nutrient production in Florida’s uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, James N.; Abrahamson, Warren G.

    2010-11-01

    We examined annual total digestible nutrient (TDN) production by fruits of eight species ( Quercus chapmanii, Quercus geminata, Quercus inopina, Quercus laevis, Quercus myrtifolia, Carya floridana, Sabal etonia, Serenoa repens) that account for the major proportion of TDN production by fruits and seeds in Florida's xeric upland associations (southern ridge sandhill, sand pine scrub, scrubby flatwoods). Mean annual fruit TDN of all species combined over a 27-year span in sandhill and scrub and 24 years in scrubby flatwoods was highest (45.4 kg/ha) and least variable across years in sandhill, intermediate in scrubby flatwoods (28.8 kg/ha), and lowest (14.2 kg/ha) and most variable in scrub. Oaks accounted for the major proportion (68-76%) of fruit TDN in all associations. Among oaks, Q. myrtifolia was the major producer (24-56%) and Q. laevis the poorest (0.2-3%). Although annual combined fruit TDN production varied similarly among associations across years, annual fruit TDN production of C. floridana, oaks, and palmettos within associations was not significantly correlated with the single exception of C. floridana vs. oaks in scrubby flatwoods. Among plant groups, correlations between fruit TDN productions across associations were significant for oaks in all cases and for C. floridana in most contrasts, but palmetto fruit TDN production was not significantly correlated across associations. Seven of eight species exhibited significant periodicities in fruit TDN production in one or more association ranging from 2.0 to 4.8 years. Potential vertebrate consumers of fruit TDN production recorded on the study area include 15 mammals, five birds, and one reptile.

  2. Late Holocene SST and primary productivity variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea as a recorder for winter monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Anna; Gaye, Birgit; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Variability in the oceanic environment of the Arabian Sea region is strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon cycle of alternating wind directions. Strong south-westerly winds during the summer monsoon induce upwelling of nutrient rich waters along the coast off Somalia, Oman and southwest India, which result in high rates of primary production. In the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan on the other hand, primary production and sea surface temperatures are linked to northeast monsoonal winds that cool the sea surface and drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity during the winter season. In this study, we analyzed alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) variations and proxies of primary productivity (organic carbon and δ15N) in a well-laminated sediment core from the Pakistan continental margin to establish the first high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene. Over the last 2400 years reconstructed SST in the northeastern Arabian Sea decreased whereas productivity increased, imaging a long-term trend of northeast monsoon strengthening in response to insolation-induced southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The comparison of our winter monsoon record with records of summer monsoon intensity suggests that summer and winter monsoon strength was essentially anti-correlated over the late Holocene throughout the Asian monsoon system. In addition, SST variations recorded off Pakistan match very well with Northern Hemisphere temperature records supporting the growing body of evidence that Asian climate is linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change. It reveals a consistent pattern of increased summer monsoon activity in the northeastern Arabian Sea during northern hemispheric warm periods (Medieval Warm Period, Roman Warm Period) and strengthened winter monsoon activity during hemispheric colder periods (Little Ice Age).

  3. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Richardson, William B; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, John C; Vallazza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the USA and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: (1) How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and (2) Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee river mouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee river mouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee river mouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content

  4. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  5. Optimization of formulation and process parameters for the production of nanosuspension by wet media milling technique: effect of Vitamin E TPGS and nanocrystal particle size on oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Schenck, Daniel; Bose, Sonali; Ruegger, Colleen

    2012-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop nanosuspension formulations of a poorly soluble drug using a wet media milling technique. The milling process was optimized by studying the effects of critical process parameters on the size of nanoparticles using a factorial design approach. During the design of experiments (DOEs) study, different concentrations of Vitamin E TPGS in the suspensions were used to evaluate its influence on the stabilization of a nanosuspension. Once the final formulation was optimized, a pharmacokinetic study was performed in beagle dogs to investigate the effect of different ranges of particle size of nanocrystals on the plasma profile. A significant increase in AUC and C(max) was observed when the drug substance was converted into nanocrystals, likely due to the increase in dissolution rate. Results also revealed that the nanosuspension formulation (consists of nanocrystals with narrow size distribution, having a mean particle size<300 nm) produced less variability with regards to the individual plasma concentrations in the dogs when compared an alternate nanocrystal formulation (consists of nanocrystals with broad size distribution having a mean particle size<750 nm). This type of observation can be explained due to the Ostwald ripening phenomena between the nanocrystals when the particle size distribution was very broad (higher poly dispersity index). Surprisingly, the un-micronized suspension containing Vitamin E TPGS did not show any significant impact on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  6. Variation in artificial heart acceleration and sound production with prosthetic valve selection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pantalos, G M; Kim, C H; Flatau, A

    1996-03-01

    In an attempt to explore methods to reduce total artificial heart (TAH) acceleration and sound production, in vitro measurements of TAH acceleration and sound were made when using a variety of prosthetic valves in a test ventricle. A miniature, uniaxial, high fidelity accelerometer was glued to the housing of a UTAH-100 left ventricle adjacent to the inflow and outflow ports and parallel to the axis of diaphragm excursion. A miniature, high fidelity contact microphone was glued to the opposite side of the ventricular housing between the inflow and outflow ports. Data was collected over a range of heart rates, ventricular filling volumes and control modes while using tilting disc valves (TDV) and polymer trileaflet valves (PTV). For both valve types, the peak systolic acceleration impulse was lower (approximately equal to 50%) when the ventricle was fully rather than partially filled and the peak diastolic acceleration impulse was lower (approximately equal to 50%) when the ventricle was fully rather than partially ejected. The magnitude of the acceleration with PTVs was approximately equal to 20x less than the TDVs (0.5 to 2.2 g vs. 10 to 49g). The magnitude of the sound production was also considerably less with the PTVs (28 to 49 db vs. 50 to 64 db). Diastolic acceleration and sound production was approximately twice the systolic value for the TDVs; the reserse was true for PTV sound production. These data demonstrate the substantial reduction in TAH impulse acceleration and sound production by selecting PTVs over TDSs. With PTVs, the TAH impulse acceleration is the same as the natural heart. Consequently, this ability to lower TAH acceleration and sound production to the level of the natural heart may lead to a reduction in component wear, patient discomfort and other undesirable consequences of TAH implantation.

  7. Time-dependent Variation in Life Cycle Assessment of Microalgal Biorefinery Co-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, Mahdokht

    Microalgae can serve as a highly productive biological feedstock for fuels and chemicals. The lipid fraction of algal seeds has been the primary target of research for biofuel production. However, numerous assessments have found that valorization of co-products is essential to achieve economic and environmental goals. The relative proportion of co-products depends on the biomolecular composition of algae at the time of harvesting. In the present study the productivity of lipid, starch, and protein fractions were shown through growth experiments to vary widely with species, feeding regime, and harvesting time. Four algae species were cultivated under nitrogen-replete and -deplete conditions and analyzed at regular harvesting intervals. Dynamic growth results were then used for life cycle assessment using the U.S. Department of Energy's GREET model to determine optimal growth scenarios that minimize life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, eutrophication, and cumulative energy demand (CED), while aiming for an energy return on investment (EROI) greater than unity. Per kg of biodiesel produced, C. sorokiniana in N-replete conditions harvested at 12 days was most favorable for GHG emissions and CED, despite having a lipid content of <20%. N. oculata under the same conditions had the lowest life cycle eutrophication impacts, driven by efficient nutrient cycling and valorization of microalgal protein and anaerobic digester residue co-products. The results indicate that growth cycle times that maximize a single fraction do not necessarily result in the most favorable environmental performance on a life cycle basis, underscoring the importance of designing biorefinery systems that simultaneously optimize for lipid and non-lipid fractions.

  8. Mass variation tests for coating tablets and hard capsules: rational application of mass variation tests.

    PubMed

    Katori, Noriko; Aoyagi, Nobuo; Kojima, Shigeo

    2002-09-01

    The mass variation test is a simplified alternative test version of the content uniformity test. In the case of coating tablets and capsules, the mass variation test is principally applied to test the inner cores or fillings containing the active ingredient. However, some exceptions exist in pharmacopoeias. The effects of tablet coating and capsule shell on the results of the mass variation test were studied. The mass variation of outer crusts (coatings, capsule shells) and inner cores (core tablets, fillings) was measured separately in several products. The effects of coating on weight variability were very large for sugar-coated tablets. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of the formulation weight (RSD(W)) of sugar-coated tablets (2.73%) was larger than that of plain tablets (0.77%). The cause of the large RSD(W) is the large variation the weight of sugar-coating accounting for 44% of formulation weight. In the case of film-coated tablets, the effect of coating weight on the mass variation test was very small because the rate of coating in comparison to the whole weight was small. In the case of hard capsules, the usage of whole formulation weight resulted in underestimation of variations of filling weight. The differences between dosage forms in the applicability of the mass variation test are caused by differing weight proportions and variability of the outer coatings or shells. To avoid the underestimation of mass variation for hard capsules, a corrected acceptance value is useful. For all the dosage units, the mass variation test can principally be applied to determine which mass is expected to be proportional to the content of the active ingredient. However, some modification of acceptance values enables application of the mass variation tests to inapplicable cases, such as when the RSD of drug concentration (RSD(C)) is larger than 2%.

  9. Modelling the impact of variations in ice sheet runoff on fjord and coastal biological productivity over annual to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, A. J.; Cowton, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Each summer, vast quantities of surface-derived ice sheet meltwater runs off from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Much of this runoff is injected into glaciated fjords at depth beneath marine-terminating glaciers. Due to its low relative density, the runoff rises as a buoyant plume up the glaciers' calving fronts, entraining deep fjord water as it does so. This deep, ambient water tends to be relatively rich in nutrients and so the runoff plumes act to fertilise the surface layers of the fjord, leading to an observed late season spike in biological productivity in the fjord's surface layers. Although surface melting and runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet are predicted to increase significantly in the coming years and decades, the potential effect of this on fjord and coastal biological productivity is yet to be quantified. Here we present simulations of fjord circulation and biological productivity using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), and a new coupled representation of buoyant runoff plumes which enables decadal time period experiments of large three dimensional fjords. We investigate the effect on biological productivity of varying ice sheet runoff, ocean properties, near-surface winds and fjord geometry and bathymetry. We find that variations in ice sheet runoff are particularly important for biological productivity because the rate of discharge controls the depth at which the plumes reach neutral buoyancy and therefore whether the nutrient-rich deep water is delivered to the photic zone.

  10. Interannual Variation in Root Production in Grasslands Affected by Artificially Modified Amount of Rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different amounts of rainfall on the below-ground plant biomass was studied in three grassland ecosystems. Responses of the lowland (dry Festuca grassland), highland (wet Cirsium grassland), and mountain (Nardus grassland) grasslands were studied during five years (2006–2010). A field experiment based on rainout shelters and gravity irrigation simulated three climate scenarios: rainfall reduced by 50% (dry), rainfall increased by 50% (wet), and the natural rainfall of the current growing season (ambient). The interannual variation in root increment and total below-ground biomass reflected the experimentally manipulated amount of precipitation and also the amount of current rainfall of individual years. The effect of year on these below-ground parameters was found significant in all studied grasslands. In comparison with dry Festuca grassland, better adapted to drought, submontane wet Cirsium grassland was more sensitive to the different water inputs forming rather lower amount of below-ground plant matter at reduced precipitation. PMID:22629201

  11. Interannual variation in root production in grasslands affected by artificially modified amount of rainfall.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different amounts of rainfall on the below-ground plant biomass was studied in three grassland ecosystems. Responses of the lowland (dry Festuca grassland), highland (wet Cirsium grassland), and mountain (Nardus grassland) grasslands were studied during five years (2006-2010). A field experiment based on rainout shelters and gravity irrigation simulated three climate scenarios: rainfall reduced by 50% (dry), rainfall increased by 50% (wet), and the natural rainfall of the current growing season (ambient). The interannual variation in root increment and total below-ground biomass reflected the experimentally manipulated amount of precipitation and also the amount of current rainfall of individual years. The effect of year on these below-ground parameters was found significant in all studied grasslands. In comparison with dry Festuca grassland, better adapted to drought, submontane wet Cirsium grassland was more sensitive to the different water inputs forming rather lower amount of below-ground plant matter at reduced precipitation.

  12. Latitudinal variation of leaf stomatal traits from species to community level in forests: linkage with ecosystem productivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    To explore the latitudinal variation of stomatal traits from species to community level and their linkage with net primary productivity (NPP), we investigated leaf stomatal density (SDL) and stomatal length (SLL) across 760 species from nine forest ecosystems in eastern China, and calculated the community-level SD (SDC) and SL (SLC) through species-specific leaf area index (LAI). Our results showed that latitudinal variation in species-level SDL and SLL was minimal, but community-level SDC and SLC decreased clearly with increasing latitude. The relationship between SD and SL was negative across species and different plant functional types (PFTs), but positive at the community level. Furthermore, community-level SDC correlated positively with forest NPP, and explained 51% of the variation in NPP. These findings indicate that the trade-off by regulating SDL and SLL may be an important strategy for plant individuals to adapt to environmental changes, and temperature acts as the main factor influencing community-level stomatal traits through alteration of species composition. Importantly, our findings provide new insight into the relationship between plant traits and ecosystem function. PMID:26403303

  13. Latitudinal variation of leaf stomatal traits from species to community level in forests: linkage with ecosystem productivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei; Ge, Jianping

    2015-09-25

    To explore the latitudinal variation of stomatal traits from species to community level and their linkage with net primary productivity (NPP), we investigated leaf stomatal density (SDL) and stomatal length (SLL) across 760 species from nine forest ecosystems in eastern China, and calculated the community-level SD (SDC) and SL (SLC) through species-specific leaf area index (LAI). Our results showed that latitudinal variation in species-level SDL and SLL was minimal, but community-level SDC and SLC decreased clearly with increasing latitude. The relationship between SD and SL was negative across species and different plant functional types (PFTs), but positive at the community level. Furthermore, community-level SDC correlated positively with forest NPP, and explained 51% of the variation in NPP. These findings indicate that the trade-off by regulating SDL and SLL may be an important strategy for plant individuals to adapt to environmental changes, and temperature acts as the main factor influencing community-level stomatal traits through alteration of species composition. Importantly, our findings provide new insight into the relationship between plant traits and ecosystem function.

  14. Variations in cercarial production and the level of in vitro activation of metacercariae of two different isolates of Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Norbury, Luke J; Wilkowski, Przemysław; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-09-01

    Fasciola hepatica infections cause large economic losses and are a serious veterinary medicine problem in many regions of the world. Recent studies examining fascioliasis in the bison population from Bialowieza National Park have shown that the prevalence of infection with this parasite is up to 100%. Liver flukes isolated from bison from Bialowieza National Park in Poland were compared with a fluke strain originally obtained from the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, UK, to determine variations in cercarial production and establish the ability of their metacercariae to activate in vitro. Some small differences in cercarial production between the two isolates are shown, while significant differences in the ability of their metacercariae to activate in vitro were observed.

  15. Variations in mitochondrial membrane potential correlate with malic acid production by natural isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake strains.

    PubMed

    Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kichise, Yuki; Izumoto, Eiji; Nakayama, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Research on the relationship between mitochondrial membrane potential and fermentation profile is being intensely pursued because of the potential for developing advanced fermentation technologies. In the present study, we isolated naturally occurring strains of yeast from sake mash that produce high levels of malic acid and demonstrate that variations in mitochondrial membrane potential correlate with malic acid production. To define the underlying biochemical mechanism, we determined the activities of enzymes required for malic acid synthesis and found that pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase activities in strains that produce high levels of malic acid were elevated compared with the standard sake strain K901. These results inspired us to hypothesize that decreased mitochondrial membrane potential was responsible for increased malic acid synthesis, and we present data supporting this hypothesis. Thus, the mitochondrial membrane potential of high malic acid producers was lower compared with standard strains. We conclude that mitochondrial membrane potential correlates with malic acid production.

  16. Ethnic Variation in Consumption of Traditional Tobacco Products and Lung Cancer Risk in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Raspanti, Greg A; Hashibe, Mia; Siwakoti, Bhola; Wei, Mei; Thakur, Binay Kumar; Pun, Chin Bahadur; Milrod, Charles; Adhikari, Subodh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Sapkota, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading contributor to cancer deaths in the developing world. Within countries, significant variability exists in the prevalence of lung cancer risk, yet limited information is available whether some of the observed variability is associated with differences in the consumption pattern of local tobacco products with differing potency. We recruited 606 lung cancer cases and 606 controls from the B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital in Nepal from 2009-2012. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with different tobacco products, using unconditional logistic regression. Unfiltered cigarettes tended to be the most frequently used products across ethnic subgroup with about 53.7% of Brahmins, 60.1% of Chettris, and 52.3% of Rai/Limbu/Magar/others. In contrast, about 39.9% of Madishe/Tharu smokers reported using bidi compared with only 27.7% who smoked unfiltered cigarettes. Among those who only smoked one type of product, choor/kankat smokers had the highest lung cancer risk (OR 10.2; 95% CI 6.2-16.6), followed by bidi smokers (OR 5.6; 95% CI 3.6-8.7), unfiltered cigarettes (OR 4.9; 95% CI 3.4-7.2), and filtered cigarettes (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.2-5.3). A clear dose-response relationship was observed between increased frequency of smoking and lung cancer risk across all ethnic subgroups. These results highlight the important role of traditional tobacco products on lung cancer risk in the low income countries.

  17. Response of a catalytic reaction to periodic variation of the CO pressure: increased CO2 production and dynamic phase transition.

    PubMed

    Machado, Erik; Buendía, Gloria M; Rikvold, Per Arne; Ziff, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the dynamical response of a Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model for CO oxidation with CO desorption to periodic variation of the CO pressure. We use a square-wave periodic pressure variation with parameters that can be tuned to enhance the catalytic activity. We produce evidence that, below a critical value of the desorption rate, the driven system undergoes a dynamic phase transition between a CO2 productive phase and a nonproductive one at a critical value of the period and waveform of the pressure oscillation. At the dynamic phase transition the period-averaged CO2 production rate is significantly increased and can be used as a dynamic order parameter. We perform a finite-size scaling analysis that indicates the existence of power-law singularities for the order parameter and its fluctuations, yielding estimated critical exponent ratios beta/nu approximately 0.12 and gamma/nu approximately 1.77. These exponent ratios, together with theoretical symmetry arguments and numerical data for the fourth-order cumulant associated with the transition, give reasonable support for the hypothesis that the observed nonequilibrium dynamic phase transition is in the same universality class as the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model.

  18. Variation in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented rooibos herbal tea infusions: role of production season and quality grade.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Beelders, Theresa; de Beer, Dalene; Malherbe, Christiaan J; de Villiers, André J; Sigge, Gunnar O

    2012-09-12

    Data are required to calculate the dietary exposure to rooibos herbal tea flavonoids and phenolic acids. Representative content values for the principal phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity of fermented rooibos infusion, taking into account variation caused by production seasons (2009, 2010, and 2011) and quality grades (A, B, C, and D), were determined for samples (n = 114) from different geographical areas and producers. The major phenolic constituents were isoorientin and orientin (>10 mg/L), with quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, phenylpyruvic acid glucoside, and aspalathin present at >5 mg/L. Isovitexin, vitexin, and hyperoside were present at <3 mg/L. Rutin, ferulic acid, and isoquercitrin were present at <2 mg/L. Nothofagin was present at <1 mg/L. Only traces of luteolin-7-O-glucoside and the aglycones quercetin, luteolin, and chrysoeriol were present. Substantial variation was observed in the individual content values of the phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity within production seasons and quality grades.

  19. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  20. Temporal variation in regulation of production in a pelagic food web model

    SciTech Connect

    Bartell, S.M.; Brenkert, A.L.; O'Neill, R.V.; Gardner, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    We examined the implications of differential resource use and predator-prey relations in a seasonal environment, formalized as a pelagic food web model, on temporal changes in the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down structuring of the phytoplankton. Detailed analyses of the model's behavior were used to identify periods when control of production shifted from interspecific interactions among the phytoplankton to cascading trophic interactions.

  1. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    PubMed

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  2. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    PubMed

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  3. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  4. Variation in peak growing season net ecosystem production across the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Peter M; Humphreys, Elyn R; St Louis, Vincent L; Myklebust, May C; Papakyriakou, Tim; Poissant, Laurier; Barker, Joel D; Pilote, Martin; Swystun, Kyle A

    2012-08-07

    Tundra ecosystems store vast amounts of soil organic carbon, which may be sensitive to climatic change. Net ecosystem production, NEP, is the net exchange of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) between landscapes and the atmosphere, and represents the balance between CO(2) uptake by photosynthesis and release by decomposition and autotrophic respiration. Here we examine CO(2) exchange across seven sites in the Canadian low and high Arctic during the peak growing season (July) in summer 2008. All sites were net sinks for atmospheric CO(2) (NEP ranged from 5 to 67 g C m(-2)), with low Arctic sites being substantially larger CO(2) sinks. The spatial difference in NEP between low and high Arctic sites was determined more by CO(2) uptake via gross ecosystem production than by CO(2) release via ecosystem respiration. Maximum gross ecosystem production at the low Arctic sites (average 8.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) was about 4 times larger than for high Arctic sites (average 2.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). NEP decreased with increasing temperature at all low Arctic sites, driven largely by the ecosystem respiration response. No consistent temperature response was found for the high Arctic sites. The results of this study clearly indicate there are large differences in tundra CO(2) exchange between high and low Arctic environments and this difference should be a central consideration in studies of Arctic carbon balance and climate change.

  5. Macroscopic and microscopic variation in recovered magnesium phosphate materials: implications for phosphorus removal processes and product re-use.

    PubMed

    Massey, Michael S; Ippolito, James A; Davis, Jessica G; Sheffield, Ron E

    2010-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery and re-use will become increasingly important for water quality protection and sustainable nutrient cycling as environmental regulations become stricter and global P reserves decline. The objective of this study was to examine and characterize several magnesium phosphates recovered from actual wastewater under field conditions. Three types of particles were examined including crystalline magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite) recovered from dairy wastewater, crystalline magnesium ammonium phosphate hydrate (dittmarite) recovered from a food processing facility, and a heterogeneous product also recovered from dairy wastewater. The particles were analyzed using "wet" chemical techniques, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The struvite crystals had regular and consistent shape, size, and structure, and SEM-EDS analysis clearly showed the struvite crystals as a surface precipitate on calcium phosphate seed material. In contrast, the dittmarite crystals showed no evidence of seed material, and were not regular in size or shape. The XRD analysis identified no crystalline magnesium phosphates in the heterogeneous product and indicated the presence of sand particles. However, magnesium phosphate precipitates on calcium phosphate seed material were observed in this product under SEM-EDS examination. These substantial variations in the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of magnesium phosphates recovered under field conditions could affect their potential for beneficial re-use and underscore the need to develop recovery processes that result in a uniform, consistent product.

  6. Source-dependent variation in hydroxyl radical production by airborne particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Marjan Alaghmand; Neil V. Blough

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest exposure to airborne particles is responsible for a wide range of adverse health effects, potentially arising from particle-induced oxidative stress. A highly sensitive fluorescence method was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical by a broad range of particle types including urban dust, diesel particulate matter, coal fly ash, kaolinite, and silica. Little or no production of OH was observed in the absence of an added electron donor or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the presence of a biological electron donor (NADPH, 3 mM), the rate of OH production (R{sub OH}) for 3 mg/mL of these particles varied from 23 nM s{sup -1} for diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) to 0.20 nM s{sup -1} for coal fly ash (SRM 2689). No detectable OH was produced by kaolinite or silica. Hydroxyl radical formation was eliminated under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of catalase, indicating that O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are required for its generation. Partial inhibition of OH formation by superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also observed in some cases, suggesting that superoxide is also involved. The metal chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFX) in most cases suppressed OH formation, but diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) generally enhanced it, implicating metal ion reactions in OH generation as well. The dependence of R{sub OH} on NADPH concentration further implicates particle surface reactions in OH formation. To the authors' knowledge, these measurements provide the first quantitative estimate of ROH for a broad range of particle types. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Variation in the THC content of illicitly imported Cannabis products--1984-1989.

    PubMed

    Pitts, J E; O'Neil, P J; Leggo, K P

    1990-12-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of more than 180 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products, seized by H.M. Customs and Excise on entry into Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1984-1989, has been determined by gas chromatography. The average THC content of herbal cannabis remained high due to good quality cannabis from Jamaica and the USA, but that of cannabis resin was slightly lower. Resin from Morocco has changed significantly in its physical appearance. There was no fresh seizure of cannabis oil in this period.

  8. Effect of Tannin and Species Variation on In vitro Digestibility, Gas, and Methane Production of Tropical Browse Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, B. S.; Hassen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen tanniferous browse plants were collected from South Africa to investigate their digestibility, gas production (GP) characteristics and methane production. Fresh samples were collected, dried in forced oven, and ground and analyzed for nutrient composition. In vitro GP and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were determined using rumen fluid collected, strained and anaerobically prepared. A semi- automated system was used to measure GP by incubating the sample in a shaking incubator at 39°C. There was significant (p<0.05) variation in chemical composition of studied browses. Crude protein (CP) content of the species ranged from 86.9 to 305.0 g/kg dry matter (DM). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ranged from 292.8 to 517.5 g/kg DM while acid detergent fiber (ADF) ranged from 273.3 to 495.1 g/kg DM. The ash, ether extract, non-fibrous carbohydrate, neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen and CP were negatively correlated with methane production. Methane production was positively correlated with NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Tannin decreased GP, IVOMD, total volatile fatty acid and methane production. The observed low methanogenic potential and substantial ammonia generation of some of the browses might be potentially useful as rumen manipulating agents. However, a systematic evaluation is needed to determine optimum levels of supplementation in a mixed diet in order to attain a maximal depressing effect on enteric CH4 production with a minimal detrimental effect on rumen fermentation of poor quality roughage based diet. PMID:25557814

  9. Accounting for spatial variation in vegetation properties improves simulations of Amazon forest biomass and productivity in a global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida Castanho, A. D.; Coe, M. T.; Heil Costa, M.; Malhi, Y.; Galbraith, D.; Quesada, C. A.

    2012-08-01

    Dynamic vegetation models forced with spatially homogeneous biophysical parameters are capable of producing average productivity and biomass values for the Amazon basin forest biome that are close to the observed estimates, but are unable to reproduce the observed spatial variability. Recent observational studies have shown substantial regional spatial variability of above-ground productivity and biomass across the Amazon basin, which is believed to be primarily driven by soil physical and chemical properties. In this study, spatial heterogeneity of vegetation properties is added to the IBIS land surface model, and the simulated productivity and biomass of the Amazon basin are compared to observations from undisturbed forest. The maximum Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the woody biomass residence time (τw) were found to be the most important properties determining the modeled spatial variation of above-ground woody net primary productivity and biomass, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of these properties may lead to a spatial variability of 1.8 times in the simulated woody net primary productivity and 2.8 times in the woody above-ground biomass. The coefficient of correlation between the modeled and observed woody productivity improved from 0.10 with homogeneous parameters to 0.73 with spatially heterogeneous parameters, while the coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed woody above-ground biomass improved from 0.33 to 0.88. The results from our analyses with the IBIS dynamic vegetation model demonstrate that using single values for key ecological parameters in the tropical forest biome severely limits simulation accuracy. We emphasize that our approach must be viewed as an important first step and that a clearer understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that drive the spatial variability of carbon allocation, τw and Vcmax are necessary.

  10. Optimization of carboxylate-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-mediated cisplatin formulation.

    PubMed

    Kulhari, Hitesh; Pooja, Deep; Singh, Mayank K; Chauhan, Abhay S

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Cisplatin is mainly used in the treatment of ovarian, head and neck and testicular cancer. Poor solubility and non-specific interactions causes hurdles in the development of successful cisplatin formulation. There were few reports on poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-cisplatin complexes for anticancer treatment. But the earlier research was mainly focused on therapeutic effect of PAMAM dendrimer-cisplatin complex, with less attention paid on the formulation development of these complexes. Objective of the present study is to optimize and validate the carboxylate-terminated, EDA core PAMAM dendrimer-based cisplatin formulation with respect to various variables such as dendrimer core, generation, drug entrapment, purification, yield, reproducibility, stability, storage and in-vitro release. Dendrimer-cisplatin complex was prepared by an efficient method which significantly increases the % platinum (Pt) content along with the product yield. Dendrimers showed reproducible (∼27%) platinum loading by weight. Variation in core and generations does not produce significant change in the % Pt content. Percentage Pt content of dendrimeric formulation increases with increase in drug/dendrimer mole ratio. Formulation with low drug/dendrimer mole ratio showed delayed release compared to the higher drug/dendrimer mole ratio; these dendrimer formulations are stable in room temperature. In vitro release profiles of the stored dendrimer-cisplatin samples showed comparatively slow release of cisplatin, which may be due to formation of strong bond between cisplatin and dendrimer. This study will contribute to create a fine print for the formulation development of PAMAM dendrimer-cisplatin complexes.

  11. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  12. Variation in methane production pathways associated with permafrost decomposition in collapse scar bogs of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, James L.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Whiting, Gary J.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the distribution of methanogenic pathways at permafrost collapse scar bogs to test the hypothesis that microbial respiration and methane production are stimulated by the input of organic matter associated with permafrost degradation and collapse. An alternative hypothesis is that recently assimilated carbon produced by the fen-like vegetation (Carex, Eriophorum) growing in open water moats formed by the collapsing edge of these features stimulates microbial respiration. We found that CO2 reduction was the dominant pathway for methanogenesis within the Sphagnum areas that dominate the surface cover of these features, but relatively more acetate fermentation occurred near collapse scar moats. Methane emission and net CO2 uptake were correlated. Both were elevated in collapse scar moats and then decreased along a transect from the moats toward the center Sphagnum-dominated areas. There also appeared to be a shift toward relatively more acetate fermentation in deeper samples associated with increasing cation (calcium and magnesium) concentrations. Our results indicate that organic inputs from permafrost degradation alone do not appear to stimulate acetate fermentation. Permafrost decomposition provides conditions along the collapsing edge that are conducive to colonization by fen-like vegetation that stimulates acetate fermentation and increases methane production and emission rates.

  13. Diurnal sampling reveals significant variation in CO2 emission from a tropical productive lake.

    PubMed

    Reis, P C J; Barbosa, F A R

    2014-08-01

    It is well accepted in the literature that lakes are generally net heterotrophic and supersaturated with CO2 because they receive allochthonous carbon inputs. However, autotrophy and CO2 undersaturation may happen for at least part of the time, especially in productive lakes. Since diurnal scale is particularly important to tropical lakes dynamics, we evaluated diurnal changes in pCO2 and CO2 flux across the air-water interface in a tropical productive lake in southeastern Brazil (Lake Carioca) over two consecutive days. Both pCO2 and CO2 flux were significantly different between day (9:00 to 17:00) and night (21:00 to 5:00) confirming the importance of this scale for CO2 dynamics in tropical lakes. Net heterotrophy and CO2 outgassing from the lake were registered only at night, while significant CO2 emission did not happen during the day. Dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature trends over the diurnal cycle indicated the dependence of CO2 dynamics on lake metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis). This study indicates the importance of considering the diurnal scale when examining CO2 emissions from tropical lakes.

  14. Variation in Siderophore Biosynthetic Gene Distribution and Production across Environmental and Faecal Populations of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Ida; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Lucchini, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for Escherichia coli growth and survival in the host and the external environment, but its availability is generally low due to the poor solubility of its ferric form in aqueous environments and the presence of iron-withholding proteins in the host. Most E. coli can increase access to iron by excreting siderophores such as enterobactin, which have a very strong affinity for Fe3+. A smaller proportion of isolates can generate up to 3 additional siderophores linked with pathogenesis; aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin. However, non-pathogenic E. coli are also able to synthesise these virulence-associated siderophores. This raises questions about their role in the ecology of E. coli, beyond virulence, and whether specific siderophores might be linked with persistence in the external environment. Under the assumption that selection favours phenotypes that confer a fitness advantage, we compared siderophore production and gene distribution in E. coli isolated either from agricultural plants or the faeces of healthy mammals. This population-level comparison has revealed that under iron limiting growth conditions plant-associated isolates produced lower amounts of siderophores than faecal isolates. Additionally, multiplex PCR showed that environmental isolates were less likely to contain loci associated with aerobactin and yersiniabactin synthesis. Although aerobactin was linked with strong siderophore excretion, a significant difference in production was still observed between plant and faecal isolates when the analysis was restricted to strains only able to synthesise enterobactin. This finding suggests that the regulatory response to iron limitation may be an important trait associated with adaptation to the non-host environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to produce multiple siderophores facilitates E. coli gut colonisation and plays an important role in E. coli commensalism. PMID:25756870

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Chitinolytic Gene Expression and Bacterial Biomass Production during Chitin Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Baty, Ace M.; Eastburn, Callie C.; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Goodman, Amanda E.; Geesey, Gill G.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of the chitin-degrading marine bacterium S91 on solid surfaces under oligotrophic conditions was accompanied by the displacement of a large fraction of the surface-derived bacterial production into the flowing bulk aqueous phase, irrespective of the value of the surface as a nutrient source. Over a 200-h period of surface colonization, 97 and 75% of the bacterial biomass generated on biodegradable chitin and a nonnutritional silicon surface, respectively, detached to become part of the free-living population in the bulk aqueous phase. Specific surface-associated growth rates that included the cells that subsequently detached from the substrata varied depending on the nutritional value of the substratum and during the period of surface colonization. Specific growth rates of 3.79 and 2.83 day−1 were obtained when cells first began to proliferate on a pure chitin film and a silicon surface, respectively. Later, when cell densities on the surface and detached cells as CFU in the bulk aqueous phase achieved a quasi-steady state, specific growth rates decreased to 1.08 and 0.79 day−1 on the chitin and silicon surfaces, respectively. Virtually all of the cells that detached from either the chitin or the silicon surfaces and the majority of cells associated with the chitin surface over the 200-h period of surface colonization displayed no detectable expression of the chitin-degrading genes chiA and chiB. Cells displaying high levels of chiA-chiB expression were detected only on the chitin surface and then only clustered in discrete areas of the surface. Surface-associated, differential gene expression and displacement of bacterial production from surfaces represent adaptations at the population level that promote efficient utilization of limited resources and dispersal of progeny to maximize access to new sources of energy and maintenance of the population. PMID:10919823

  16. Coexistence in tropical forests through asynchronous variation in annual seed production.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Wright, S Joseph; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    The storage effect is a mechanism that can facilitate the coexistence of competing species through temporal fluctuations in reproductive output. Numerous natural systems have the prerequisites for the storage effect, yet it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. Here, we investigate the possible importance of the storage effect in explaining the coexistence of tree species in the diverse tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. This tropical forest has been monitored for more than 20 years, and annual seed production is asynchronous among species, a primary requirement for the storage effect. We constructed a model of forest regeneration that includes species-specific recruitment through seed, sapling, and adult stages, and we parameterized the model using data for 28 species for which information is known about seedling germination and survival. Simulations of the model demonstrated that the storage effect alone can be a strong mechanism allowing long-term persistence of species. We also developed a metric to quantify the strength of the storage effect in a way comparable to classical resource partitioning. Applying this metric to seed production data from 108 species, the storage effect reduces the strength of pairwise interspecific competition to 11-43% of the strength of intraspecific competition, thereby demonstrating strong potential to facilitate coexistence. Finally, for a subset of 51 species whose phylogenetic relationships are known, we compared the strength of the storage effect between pairs of species to their phylogenetic similarity. The strength of the storage effect between closely related species was on average no different from distantly related species, implying that the storage effect can be important in promoting the coexistence of even closely related species.

  17. Variation in siderophore biosynthetic gene distribution and production across environmental and faecal populations of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Searle, Laura J; Méric, Guillaume; Porcelli, Ida; Sheppard, Samuel K; Lucchini, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for Escherichia coli growth and survival in the host and the external environment, but its availability is generally low due to the poor solubility of its ferric form in aqueous environments and the presence of iron-withholding proteins in the host. Most E. coli can increase access to iron by excreting siderophores such as enterobactin, which have a very strong affinity for Fe3+. A smaller proportion of isolates can generate up to 3 additional siderophores linked with pathogenesis; aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin. However, non-pathogenic E. coli are also able to synthesise these virulence-associated siderophores. This raises questions about their role in the ecology of E. coli, beyond virulence, and whether specific siderophores might be linked with persistence in the external environment. Under the assumption that selection favours phenotypes that confer a fitness advantage, we compared siderophore production and gene distribution in E. coli isolated either from agricultural plants or the faeces of healthy mammals. This population-level comparison has revealed that under iron limiting growth conditions plant-associated isolates produced lower amounts of siderophores than faecal isolates. Additionally, multiplex PCR showed that environmental isolates were less likely to contain loci associated with aerobactin and yersiniabactin synthesis. Although aerobactin was linked with strong siderophore excretion, a significant difference in production was still observed between plant and faecal isolates when the analysis was restricted to strains only able to synthesise enterobactin. This finding suggests that the regulatory response to iron limitation may be an important trait associated with adaptation to the non-host environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to produce multiple siderophores facilitates E. coli gut colonisation and plays an important role in E. coli commensalism.

  18. Regional Variation of CH4 and N2 Production Processes in the Deep Aquifers of an Accretionary Prism

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shugo; Nagai, Kazushige; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Kunio; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accretionary prisms are mainly composed of ancient marine sediment scraped from the subducting oceanic plate at a convergent plate boundary. Large amounts of anaerobic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4) and nitrogen gas (N2), are present in the deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism; however, the origins of these gases are poorly understood. We herein revealed regional variations in CH4 and N2 production processes in deep aquifers in the accretionary prism in Southwest Japan, known as the Shimanto Belt. Stable carbon isotopic and microbiological analyses suggested that CH4 is produced through the non-biological thermal decomposition of organic matter in the deep aquifers in the coastal area near the convergent plate boundary, whereas a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogens contributes to the significant production of CH4 observed in deep aquifers in midland and mountainous areas associated with the accretionary prism. Our results also demonstrated that N2 production through the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter by denitrifying bacteria is particularly prevalent in deep aquifers in mountainous areas in which groundwater is affected by rainfall. PMID:27592518

  19. High genetic variation in resting-stage production in a metapopulation: Is there evidence for local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Roulin, Anne C; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Hall, Matthew D; Walser, Jean-Claude; Haag, Christoph; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Local adaptation is a key process for the maintenance of genetic diversity and population diversification. A better understanding of the mechanisms that allow (or prevent) local adaptation constitutes a key in apprehending how and at what spatial scale it occurs. The production of resting stages is found in many taxa and reflects an adaptation to outlast adverse environmental conditions. Daphnia magna (Crustacea) can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction, the latter being linked to dormancy, as resting stages can only be produced sexually. In this species, on a continental scale, resting-stage production is locally adapted--that is, it is induced when the photoperiod indicates the imminence of habitat deterioration. Here, we aimed to explore whether selection is strong enough to maintain local adaptation at a scale of a few kilometers. We assessed life-history traits of 64 D. magna clones originating from 11 populations of a metapopulation with permanent and intermittent pool habitats. We found large within- and between-population variation for all dormancy-related traits, but no evidence for the hypothesized higher resting-stage production in animals from intermittent habitats. We discuss how gene flow, founder events, or other forms of selection might interfere with the process of local adaptation.

  20. Psychiatrists' use of formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Both psychologists and psychiatrists are trained to write formulations of their patients' illnesses, with some differences in how they do this. Psychologists focus on psychological understanding, while psychiatrists' formulation brings together aetiology, functioning and a management plan. Mohtashemi et al's study records how some psychiatrists understand formulation and its usefulness. Time pressure was an important barrier to making a full formulation, and some believed the medical role of the psychiatrist was a priority. The study illustrates some of the challenges facing psychiatrists working in the NHS in terms of maintaining high clinical standards and a holistic approach to patient care. PMID:27512593

  1. [Lipid formulations of amphotericin].

    PubMed

    Botero, Martha C; Puentes-Herrera, Marcela; Cortés, Jorge A

    2014-10-01

    Amphotericin B deoxycholate use has increased during the past years in parallel with the increase in the number of immunosuppressed patients suffering invasive fungal infections. This drug is associated with a high rate of side effects, especially renal toxicity. Lipid formulations (liposomal, lipid complex, colloidal suspension and the Indian liposomal formulation) have been developed, which share the same antifungal spectrum but differ in efficacy and toxicity. A review of amphotericin lipid formulations is presented, focusing on differences in efficacy and, especially renal toxicity. The main problem for use of these formulations in Latin America is their highcost.

  2. Sugarcane for water-limited environments. Variation in stomatal conductance and its genetic correlation with crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, J; Jackson, P A; Inman-Bamber, N G; Lakshmanan, P

    2015-07-01

    Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and canopy temperature have been used to estimate plant water status in many crops. The behaviour of g(s) in sugarcane indicates that the internal leaf water status is controlled by regular opening and closing of stomata. A large number of g(s) measurements obtained across varying moisture regimes, locations, and crop cycles with a diverse sugarcane germplasm composed of introgression, and commercial clones indicated that there is a high genetic variation for g(s) that can be exploited in a breeding programme. Regardless of the environmental influences on the expression of this trait, moderate heritability was observed across 51 sets of individual measurements made on replicated trials over 3 years. The clone×water status interaction (G×E) variation was smaller than the clone (G) variation on many occasions. A wide range of genetic correlations (r(g)= -0.29 to 0.94) between g(s) and yield were observed across test environments in all three different production regions used. Canopy conductance (g(c)) based on g(s) and leaf area index (LAI) showed a stronger genetic correlation than the g(s) with cane yield (tonnes of cane per hectare; TCH) at 12 months (mature crop). The regression analysis of input weather data for the duration of measurements showed that the predicted values of r(g) correlated with the maximum temperature (r=0.47) during the measurements and less with other environmental variables. These results confirm that the g(c) could have potential as a criterion for early-stage selection of clones in sugarcane breeding programmes.

  3. Natural Variation in Dauer Pheromone Production and Sensing Supports Intraspecific Competition in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Neelanjan; Meyer, Jan M.; Yim, Joshua J.; Mayer, Melanie G.; Markov, Gabriel V.; Ogawa, Akira; Schroeder, Frank C.; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dauer formation, a major nematode survival strategy, represents a model for small-molecule regulation of metazoan development [1–10]. Free-living nematodes excrete dauer-inducing pheromones that have been assumed to target conspecifics of the same genotype [9, 11]. However, recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed that the dauer pheromone of some strains affects conspecifics of other genotypes more strongly than individuals of the same genotype [12]. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this intriguing cross-preference, we compared six P. pacificus wild isolates to determine the chemical composition of their dauer-inducing metabolomes and responses to individual pheromone components. We found that these isolates produce dauer pheromone blends of different composition and respond differently to individual pheromone components. Strikingly, there is no correlation between production of and dauer response to a specific compound in individual strains. Specifically, pheromone components that are abundantly produced by one genotype induce dauer formation in other genotypes, but not necessarily in the abundant producer. Furthermore, some genotypes respond to pheromone components they do not produce themselves. These results support a model of intraspecific competition in nematode dauer formation. Indeed, we observed intraspecific competition among sympatric strains in a novel experimental assay, suggesting a new role of small molecules in nematode ecology. PMID:24980503

  4. Natural variation in dauer pheromone production and sensing supports intraspecific competition in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Bose, Neelanjan; Meyer, Jan M; Yim, Joshua J; Mayer, Melanie G; Markov, Gabriel V; Ogawa, Akira; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-07-07

    Dauer formation, a major nematode survival strategy, represents a model for small-molecule regulation of metazoan development [1-10]. Free-living nematodes excrete dauer-inducing pheromones that have been assumed to target conspecifics of the same genotype [9, 11]. However, recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed that the dauer pheromone of some strains affects conspecifics of other genotypes more strongly than individuals of the same genotype [12]. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this intriguing cross-preference, we compared six P. pacificus wild isolates to determine the chemical composition of their dauer-inducing metabolomes and responses to individual pheromone components. We found that these isolates produce dauer pheromone blends of different composition and respond differently to individual pheromone components. Strikingly, there is no correlation between production of and dauer response to a specific compound in individual strains. Specifically, pheromone components that are abundantly produced by one genotype induce dauer formation in other genotypes, but not necessarily in the abundant producer. Furthermore, some genotypes respond to pheromone components they do not produce themselves. These results support a model of intraspecific competition in nematode dauer formation. Indeed, we observed intraspecific competition among sympatric strains in a novel experimental assay, suggesting a new role of small molecules in nematode ecology.

  5. Response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge: Seasonal variation in steroid production in a viviparous lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Jones, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis plays a central role in the regulation of gamete maturation, sex steroid production and the stimulation of reproductive behaviours in vertebrates. In seasonal breeders, the timely activation and deactivation of this control system is important to ensure successful reproduction: this process is not well understood in species which breed irregularly. Males of the viviparous blotched blue-tongued lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea, breed annually, while females display a multiennial cycle. We investigated seasonal variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responsiveness in both sexes of T. nigrolutea. We measured changes in plasma concentrations of testosterone and estrogen in response to a single intraperitoneal injection of a GnRH agonist, chicken-II LH-RH, at three reproductively distinct times of year. Plasma testosterone concentrations in males were significantly increased during gonadal quiescence, but not initial or final spermatogenesis. There was no estrogen response in males at any time of year. Conversely, in females, there was an increase in plasma testosterone, but not estrogen, concentration, in reproductively quiescent females several months in advance of a successful pregnancy. These results indicate clear variation in HPG axis activity with sex, season and reproductive condition in this seasonally breeding viviparous lizard. This study opens the way for further investigation into the mechanisms by which internal (body condition) and external seasonal cues (temperature and photoperiod) are coordinated to regulate reproduction in irregularly-breeding reptiles.

  6. The Diurnal Variation of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Chlorine Radicals: Implications for the Heterogeneous Production of HNO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, J. P.; Kohn, D. W.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Pfister, L.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Michelsen, H. A.; Yue, G. K.; Prather, M. J.; Wilson, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained through sunrise and sunset in the lower stratosphere during SPADE are compared to results from a photochemical model constrained by observed concentrations of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heterogeneous hydrolysis of N205 on sulfate aerosols agree with measured concentrations of NO, NO2, and ClO throughout the day, but fail to account for high concentrations of OH and H02 observed near sunrise and sunset. The morning burst of [OH] and [HO2] coincides with the rise of [NO] from photolysis of N02, suggesting a new source of HO, that photolyzes in the near UV (350 to 400 nm) spectral region. A model that allows for the heterogeneous production of HN02 results in an excellent simulation of the diurnal variations of [OH] and [HO2].

  7. The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: Implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained through sunrise and sunset in the lower statosphere during SPADE are compared to results from a photochemical model constrained by observed concentrations of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heteogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on sulfate aerosols agree with measured concentrations of NO, NO2, and ClO throughout the day, but fail to account for high concentrations of OH and HO2 observed near sunrise and sunset. The morning burst of (OH) and (HO2) coincides with the rise of (NO) from photolysis of NO2, suggesting a new source of HO(x) that photolyzes in the near UV (350 to 400 nm) spectral region. A model that allow for the heterogeneous production of HNO2 results in an excellent simulation of the diurnal variations of (OH) and (HO2).

  8. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied. PMID:27886128

  9. Formulation and Stability of Solutions.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. This article, which takes us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions, represents the first of a series of articles discussing how these challenges and issues are addressed.

  10. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  11. Effects of process variation in short cycle stretch forming in beverage can production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthias; Liewald, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    Short Cycle Stretch Forming (SCS) is an innovative stretch forming technology developed at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) at the University of Stuttgart. The SCS technology combines plane pre-stretching and deep drawing operations within the same stroke of press ram. Material is yielding from the inner to the outer part of the sheet. The sheet thickness is reduced and denting resistance and yield stress are increased due to hardening effects. SCS-Technology is enhanced due to rotational-symmetrical bodies by applying this technology to a cupping process in tinplate can production. A process simulation for SCS-Cupping processes was conducted. Based on these results a tool was manufactured and commissioned. Experimental results showed that material yields from the middle of the blank to the outer area of the cup wall. Due to the volume of material, the initial diameter can be reduced and material costs can be saved. In this paper different process settings and their effect on the amount of material, which yielded from the middle of the blank to its outside, are observed in a number of experimental series. A blank holder is added to the process in order to avoid wrinkling. The influence of this additional blank holder is therefore investigated in a first experimental set-up by varying blank holder force. In a further investigation the effects of two materials with different thicknesses is observed. Finally, an experimental series is conducted to observe the effect of blank diameter on the SCS-Cupping process. The results of this paper show that SCS-Cupping offers a promising potential for material savings and outline main effects for this technology.

  12. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  13. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)–fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  14. Development and Validation of a Micellar Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Determination of IFNβ-1b in Lyophilized Formulation of a Biosimilar Product.

    PubMed

    Dadgarnejad, Manuchehr; Rastegar, Hosein; Ilka, Hooshmand; Shekarchi, Maryam; Adib, Nooshin; Alebouyeh, Mahmood; Keypour, Nadia; Shoeibi, Shahram; Kobarfard, Farzad; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines secreted by immune system. They have several effects such as antiviral and anti tumors activity, activating immune cells and healing of multiple sclerosis. The type IFNs present in humans are α ,β and Υ. IFN β is a polypeptide, normally produced by fibroblasts and seems to be more species-specific than IFN. Structural properties of IFNs are important for their biologic effects. There are a few analytical techniques for separation, identification and determination of IFNs in its formulations such as mass spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study we used Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) as a unique mode of CE because of its capability to separate neutral as well as charged solutes. We used sodium tetraborate (Borax) as buffer without any modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The optimum MECK running buffer consisted of Borate 50 Mm; SDS 20 mM pH =9.6. The validated method was used for determination of the IFN β-1b formulation which is manufactured in Iran. From 9 collected different batches, all of them had acceptable potency as claimed on their label with average 102.25 ±10.030 %. This is the first time that a MEKC method is introduced for quantification of IFN β-1b in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is reliable safe, rapid and accurate.

  15. Latitudinal variation in ambient UV-B radiation is an important determinant of Lolium perenne forage production, quality, and digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Comont, David; Winters, Ana; Gomez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies to date have considered the responses of agriculturally important forage grasses to UV-B radiation. Yet grasses such as Lolium perenne have a wide current distribution, representing exposure to a significant variation in ambient UV-B. The current study investigated the responses of L. perenne (cv. AberDart) to a simulated latitudinal gradient of UV-B exposure, representing biologically effective UV-B doses at simulated 70, 60, 50, 40, and 30° N latitudes. Aspects of growth, soluble compounds, and digestibility were assessed, and results are discussed in relation to UV-B effects on forage properties and the implications for livestock and bio-ethanol production. Aboveground biomass production was reduced by approximately 12.67% with every 1 kJ m–2 day–1 increase in biologically weighted UV-B. As a result, plants grown in the highest UV-B treatment had a total biomass of just 13.7% of controls. Total flavonoids were increased by approximately 76% by all UV-B treatments, while hydroxycinnamic acids increased in proportion to the UV-B dose. Conversely, the digestibility of the aboveground biomass and concentrations of soluble fructans were reduced by UV-B exposure, although soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations were unaffected. These results highlight the capacity for UV-B to directly affect forage productivity and chemistry, with negative consequences for digestibility and bioethanol production. Results emphasize the need for future development and distribution of L. perenne varieties to take UV-B irradiance into consideration. PMID:23580749

  16. Lithography overlay controller formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, Christopher A.; Toprac, Anthony J.; Edwards, Richard D.; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2000-08-01

    Lithography overlay refers to the measurement of the alignment of successive patterns within the manufacture of semiconductor devices. Control of overlay has become of great importance in semiconductor manufacturing, as the tolerance for overlay error is continually shrinking in order to manufacture next-generation semiconductor products. Run-to-run control has become an attractive solution to many control problems within the industry, including overlay. The term run-to-run control refers to any automated procedure whereby recipe settings are updated between successive process runs in order to keep the process under control. The following discussion will present the formulation of such a controller by examining control of overlay. A brief introduction of overlay will be given, highlighting the control challenge overlay presents. A data management methodology that groups like processes together in order to improve controllability, referred to as control threads, will then be presented. Finally, a discussion of linear model predictive control will show its utility in feedback run-to-run control.

  17. Exploring Canine-Human Differences in Product Performance. Part II: Use of Modeling and Simulation to Explore the Impact of Formulation on Ciprofloxacin In Vivo Absorption and Dissolution in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M N; Mistry, B; Lukacova, V; Lentz, K A; Polli, J E; Hoag, S W; Dowling, T; Kona, R; Fahmy, R M

    2017-03-06

    This study explored the in vivo performance of three oral ciprofloxacin formulations (oral solution, fast, or slow dissolving tablets) in beagle dogs. The in vivo absorption and dissolution behaviors, estimated with in silico mechanistic models, were compared to the results previously published in human volunteers. Six normal healthy male beagle dogs (five to completion) received three oral formulations and an intravenous infusion in a randomized crossover design. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were estimated by tandem mass spectrometry detection. A mechanistic absorption model was used to predict the in vivo dissolution and absorption characteristics of the oral formulations. Canine ciprofloxacin absorption was constrained to the duodenum/jejunum. This absorption window was far narrower than that seen in humans. Furthermore, while substantial within-individual variability in drug absorption was seen in human subjects, a greater magnitude of variability was observed in dogs. For three sets of data, a lag time in gastric emptying was necessary to improve the accuracy of model-generated in vivo blood level profile predictions. In addition to species-associated dissimilarities in drug solubilization due to human versus canine differences in gastrointestinal fluid compositions, the far more rapid intestinal transit time and potential segmental differences in drug absorption needed to be considered during human-canine extrapolation of oral drug and drug product performance. Through the use of mechanistic models, the data generated in the human and canine studies contributed insights into some aspects of the interspecies differences to be considered when extrapolating oral bioavailability/formulation effect data between dogs and humans.

  18. The sensitivity of wood production to seasonal and interannual variations in climate in a lowland Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Lucy; Malhi, Y; Silva-Espejo, J E; Farfán-Amézquita, F; Halladay, K; Doughty, C E; Meir, P; Phillips, O L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding climatic controls on tropical forest productivity is key to developing more reliable models for predicting how tropical biomes may respond to climate change. Currently there is no consensus on which factors control seasonal changes in tropical forest tree growth. This study reports the first comprehensive plot-level description of the seasonality of growth in a Peruvian tropical forest. We test whether seasonal and interannual variations in climate are correlated with changes in biomass increment, and whether such relationships differ among trees with different functional traits. We found that biomass increments, measured every 3 months on the two plots, were reduced by between 40 and 55% in the peak dry season (July-September) relative to peak wet season (January-March). The seasonal patterns of biomass accumulation are significantly (p < 0.01) associated with seasonal patterns of rainfall and soil water content; however, this may reflect a synchrony of seasonal cycles rather than direct physiological controls on tree growth rates. The strength of the growth seasonality response among trees is significantly correlated to functional traits: consistent with a hypothesised trade-off between maximum potential growth rate and hydraulic safety, tall and fast-growing trees with broad stems had the most strongly seasonal biomass accumulation, suggesting that they are more productive in the wet season, but more vulnerable to water limitation in the dry season.

  19. Examining variation in recombination levels in the human female: a test of the production-line hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Rowsey, Ross; Gruhn, Jennifer; Broman, Karl W; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry

    2014-07-03

    The most important risk factor for human aneuploidy is increasing maternal age, but the basis of this association remains unknown. Indeed, one of the earliest models of the maternal-age effect--the "production-line model" proposed by Henderson and Edwards in 1968--remains one of the most-cited explanations. The model has two key components: (1) that the first oocytes to enter meiosis are the first ovulated and (2) that the first to enter meiosis have more recombination events (crossovers) than those that enter meiosis later in fetal life. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that the first oocytes to enter meiosis are indeed the first to be ovulated, but the association between the timing of meiotic entry and recombination levels has not been tested. We recently initiated molecular cytogenetic studies of second-trimester human fetal ovaries, allowing us to directly examine the number and distribution of crossover-associated proteins in prophase-stage oocytes. Our observations on over 8,000 oocytes from 191 ovarian samples demonstrate extraordinary variation in recombination within and among individuals but provide no evidence of a difference in recombination levels between oocytes entering meiosis early in fetal life and those entering late in fetal life. Thus, our data provide a direct test of the second tenet of the production-line model and suggest that it does not provide a plausible explanation for the human maternal-age effect, meaning that-45 years after its introduction-we can finally conclude that the production-line model is not the basis for the maternal-age effect on trisomy.

  20. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C

    2014-08-01

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  1. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 1: spatial variation in DOC productivity.

    PubMed

    Yallop, A R; Clutterbuck, B

    2009-06-01

    The importance of soil storage in global carbon cycling is well recognised and factors leading to increased losses from this pool may act as a positive feedback mechanism in global warming. Upland peat soils are usually assumed to serve as carbon sinks, there is however increasing evidence of carbon loss from upland peat soils, and DOC concentrations in UK rivers have increased markedly over the past three decades. A number of drivers for increasing DOC release from peat soils have been proposed although many of these would not explain fine-scale variations in DOC release observed in many catchments. We examined the effect of land use and management on DOC production in upland peat catchments at two spatial scales within the UK. DOC concentration was measured in streams draining 50 small-scale catchments (b3 km2) in three discrete regions of the south Pennines and one area in the North Yorkshire Moors. Annual mean DOC concentration was also derived from water colour data recorded at water treatment works for seven larger scale catchments (1.5-20 km2) in the south Pennines. Soil type and land use/management in all catchments were characterised from NSRI digital soil data and ortho-corrected colour aerial imagery. Of the factors assessed, representing all combinations of soil type and land use together with catchment slope and area, the proportion of exposed peat surface resulting from new heather burning was consistently identified as the most significant predictor of variation in DOC concentration. This relationship held across all blanket peat catchments and scales. We propose that management activities are driving changes in edaphic conditions in upland peat to those more favourable for aerobic microbial activity and thus enhance peat decomposition leading to increased losses of carbon from these environments.

  2. An Evaluation of Coulomb Stress Changes from Earthquake Productivity Variations in the Western Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptokaropoulos, K. M.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Karakostas, V. G.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and temporal evolution of the stress field in the seismically active and well-monitored area of the western Gulf of Corinth, Greece, is investigated. The highly accurate and vast regional catalogues were used for inverting seismicity rate changes into stress variation using a rate/state-dependent friction model. After explicitly determining the physical quantities incorporated in the model (characteristic relaxation time, fault constitutive parameters, and reference seismicity rates), we looked for stress changes across space and over time and their possible association with earthquake clustering and fault interactions. We focused our attention on the Efpalio doublet of January 2010 ( M = 5.5 and M = 5.4), with a high aftershock productivity, and attempted to reproduce and interpret stress changes prior to and after the initiation of this seismicity burst. The spatial distribution of stress changes was evaluated after smoothing the seismological data by means of a probability density function (PDF). The inverted stress calculations were compared with the calculations derived from an independent approach (elastic dislocation model) and this comparison was quantified. The results of the two methods are in good agreement (up to 80 %) in the far field, with the inversion technique providing more robust results in the near field, where they are more sensitive to the uncertainties of coseismic slip distribution. It is worth mentioning that the stress inversion model proved to be a very sensitive stress meter, able to detect even small stress changes correlated with spatio-temporal earthquake clustering. Data analysis was attempted from 1975 onwards to simulate the stress changes associated with stronger earthquakes over a longer time span. This approach revealed that only M > 5.5 events induce considerable stress variations, although in some cases there was no evidence for such stress changes even after an M > 5.5 earthquake.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of highway transportation fuels from shale and coal oils: project identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Second annual report, March 20, 1980-March 19, 1981. [Broadcut fuel mixtures of petroleum, shale, and coal products

    SciTech Connect

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Project work is reported for the formulation and testing of diesel and broadcut fuels containing components from petroleum, shale oil, and coal liquids. Formulation of most of the fuels was based on refinery modeling studies in the first year of the project. Product blends were prepared with a variety of compositions for use in this project and to distribute to other, similar research programs. Engine testing was conducted in a single-cylinder CLR engine over a range of loads and speeds. Relative performance and emissions were determined in comparison with typical petroleum diesel fuel. With the eight diesel fuels tested, it was found that well refined shale oil products show only minor differences in engine performance and emissions which are related to differences in boiling range. A less refined coal distillate can be used at low concentrations with normal engine performance and increased emissions of particulates and hydrocarbons. Higher concentrations of coal distillate degrade both performance and emissions. Broadcut fuels were tested in the same engine with variable results. All fuels showed increased fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions. The increase was greater with higher naphtha content or lower cetane number of the blends. Particulates and nitrogen oxides were high for blends with high 90% distillation temperatures. Operation may have been improved by modifying fuel injection. Cetane and distillation specifications may be advisable for future blends. Additional multi-cylinder and durability testing is planned using diesel fuels and broadcut fuels. Nine gasolines are scheduled for testing in the next phase of the project.

  4. The improved dissolution and prevention of ampoule breakage attained by the introduction of pretreatment into the production process of the lyophilized formulation of recombinant human Interleukin-11 (rhIL-11).

    PubMed

    Hirakura, Yutaka; Kojima, Seiki; Okada, Akira; Yokohama, Shigeharu; Yokota, Shoji

    2004-11-22

    Lyophilized protein formulations sometimes pose problems such as the formation of a cloudy solution upon reconstitution. Ampoule or vial breakage can also occur during the production processes of lyophilized pharmaceutical products. Various efforts have been made to overcome those difficult problems. In this study, we introduce a particular temperature program into the production process of a recombinant human Interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) lyophilized formulation containing sodium phosphates (Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4, pH 7.0) and glycine in an attempt to improve its dissolution properties and to prevent ampoule breakage from occurring. The formulation was pretreated by nucleating ice and maintaining the solution overnight at a temperature of -6 degrees C. The solution was then completely frozen at a lower temperature. This pretreatment proved successful in not only producing a lyophilized cake which readily disintegrated and dissolved in the reconstitution media, but also prevented ampoule breakage from occurring during the production processes. In contrast, a lyophilized cake produced without the pretreatment created a cloudy solution particularly when reconstituted using water for injection contaminated with aluminum (Al3+), although the solution became transparent within 20-30 min. The pretreatment induced the crystallization of sodium dibasic phosphate (Na2HPO4) in the freeze-concentrate whereas direct freezing without the pretreatment did not crystallize the salt. Thermal analyses (DSC and TMA) showed that amorphous sodium dibasic phosphate in the freeze-concentrate became crystallized upon heating, accompanied by an increase in volume, which probably caused the ampoule breakage that occurred without the pretreatment. Although power X-ray diffraction (PXRD) experiments suggested that, with or without the pretreatment, glycine assumed the beta-form and sodium phosphate stayed amorphous in the final products, an electrostatic interaction between dibasic phosphate anions and

  5. Formulation and stability of cytokine therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lipiäinen, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Sarkhel, Sanjay; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Urtti, Arto; Juppo, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Cytokines are messenger proteins that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells and control immune responses. Interferons, interleukins, and growth factors have applications in cancer, autoimmune, and viral disease treatment. The cytokines are susceptible to chemical and physical instability. This article reviews the structure and stability issues of clinically used cytokines, as well as formulation strategies for improved stability. Some general aspects for identifying most probable stability concerns, selecting excipients, and developing stable cytokine formulations are presented. The vast group of cytokines offers possibilities for new biopharmaceuticals. The formulation approaches of the current cytokine products could facilitate development of new biopharmaceuticals.

  6. Seasonal variations of in vivo and in vitro melatonin production in a passeriform bird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, R; Kumar, V; Van't Hof, T J; Gwinner, E

    2001-09-01

    Melatonin, released from the pineal gland, is an important signal within the circadian pacemaking system of passeriform birds. Until now, seasonal variations in melatonin production have only been examined in a few avian species and the role of melatonin in the regulation of annual rhythms in birds is unclear. We investigated plasma melatonin in a group of house sparrows kept in an outside aviary in spring (March/April), summer (May/June), autumn (September/October), and winter (December/January). The durations of elevated melatonin values mirrored the seasonal changes in night length to a certain degree, the melatonin signal being longest in winter and shortest in summer. Additionally, plasma melatonin peak amplitudes differed significantly among seasons, with highest values in spring and summer and lowest values in winter. Cultured explanted pineal glands obtained from animals in winter and summer showed patterns of in vitro melatonin release comparable to in vivo circulating melatonin with different durations of elevated melatonin and peak amplitude values. These data indicate that the circadian pacemaking system of the house sparrow changes properties seasonally, either as a result of endogenous mechanisms or in response to environmental conditions. These properties are maintained in the pineal gland even after isolation from the animal.

  7. Acidity variations across the cloud drop size spectrum and their influence on rates of atmospheric sulfate production

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, J.L. Jr.; Bator, A.; Rao, Xin; Demoz, B.

    1994-11-01

    Measurements of pH variations within natural cloud drop populations reveal that small drops are often more acidic than large drops. Cloud samples collected from coastal stratus clouds, frontal clouds, and radiation fogs, from heavily polluted and pristine locations, had pH values ranging from below three to more than seven. Differences between small and large cloud drop acidities as large as two pH units were observed, although differences were generally below one pH unit. This chemical heterogenity can significantly enhance oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within clouds, relative to oxidation rates predicted from the average cloudwater composition. One-third of the sampled clouds were estimated to experience an increase of at least 20% in the rate of sulfur oxidation by ozone (8% of the clouds had increases exceeding 100%) as a result of acidity differences between large and small cloud drops. These findings suggest that sulfate production within clouds, a critical component of the global sulfur cycle, may be more rapid than previously though. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Alterations in microbiota and fermentation products in equine large intestine in response to dietary variation and intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kristian; Proudman, Christopher J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J; Dyer, Jane; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of variations in dietary composition on equine gut microbiota and their fermentation products, and proposed that dietary modifications profoundly affect microbial ecosystems and their metabolites. Bacterial communities within the large intestine of three groups of horses were compared using oligonucleotide-RNA hybridisation methodology. Each group consisting of six horses was maintained on (1) a grass-only diet, (2) a concentrate diet (i.e. supplemented with hydrolysable carbohydrates) and (3) a concentrate diet but horses were affected by simple colonic obstruction and distension (SCOD), a prevalent form of dietary-induced intestinal disease. We show that in response to dietary change and intestinal disease, there is a progressive and significant increase in Lachnospiraceae, the Bacteroidetes assemblage and the lactic acid-producing, Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus (BLS) group. In contrast, there is a corresponding decrease in the proportion of obligate fibrolytic, acid-intolerant bacteria, Fibrobacter and Ruminococcaceae. Assessment of monocarboxylic acids indicated that there are significantly higher concentrations of lactic acid in the colonic contents of horses maintained on a concentrate diet and those suffering from SCOD, correlating with the observed increase in the population abundance of the BLS group. However, the population size of the Veillonellaceae (lactate utilisers) remained constant in each study group. The inability of this group to respond to increased lactic acid may be a contributory factor to the build-up of lactic acid observed in horses fed a concentrate diet and those suffering from SCOD.

  9. Seasonal variations in production and consumption rates of dissolved organic carbon in an organic-rich coastal sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Albert, D. B.; Martens, C. S.

    1994-11-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in anoxic marine sediments are controlled by at least three processes: (1) production of nonvolatile dissolved compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, soluble saccharides and fatty acids, via hydrolysis of particulate organic carbon (POC). (2) conversion of these compounds to volatile fatty acids and alcohols by fermentative bacteria. (3) consumption of volatile fatty acids and alcohols by terminal bacteria, such as sulfate reducers and methanogens. We monitored seasonal changes in concentration profiles of total DOC, nonacid-volatile (NAV) DOC and acid-volatile (AV) DOC in anoxic sediment from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA, in order to investigate the factors that control seasonal variations in rates of hydrolysis, fermentation, and terminal metabolism. During the winter months, DOC concentrations increased continuously from 0.2 mM in the bottomwater to ~4 mM at a depth of 36 cm in the sediment column. During the summer, a large DOC maximum developed between 5 and 20 cm, with peak concentrations approaching 10 mM. The mid-depth summertime maximum was driven by increases in both NAV- and AV-DOC concentrations. Net NAV-DOC reaction rates were estimated by a diagenetic model applied to NAV-DOC concentration profiles. Depth-integrated production rates of NAV-DOC increased from February through July, suggesting that net rates of POC hydrolysis during this period are controlled by temperature. Net consumption of NAV-DOC during the late summer and early fall suggests reduced gross NAV-DOC production rates, presumably due to a decline in the availability of labile POC. A distinct subsurface peak in AV-DOC concentration developed during the late spring, when the sulfate depletion depth shoaled from 25 to 10 cm. We hypothesize that the AV-DOC maximum results from a decline in consumption by sulfate-reducing bacteria (due to sulfate limitation) and a lag in the development of an active population of methanogenic

  10. 40 CFR 152.85 - Formulators' exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formulators' exemption. 152.85 Section 152.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... purchased product or its ingredients. These data may include, but are not limited to, product...

  11. 40 CFR 152.85 - Formulators' exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formulators' exemption. 152.85 Section 152.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... purchased product or its ingredients. These data may include, but are not limited to, product...

  12. Formulations and nebulizer performance.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Thomas G

    2002-11-01

    To deliver a drug by nebulization, the drug must first be dispersed in a liquid (usually aqueous) medium. After application of a dispersing force (either a jet of gas or ultrasonic waves), the drug particles are contained within the aerosol droplets, which are then inhaled. Some drugs readily dissolve in water, whereas others need a cosolvent such as ethanol or propylene glycol. Some drugs are delivered as suspensions, and the efficiency of nebulizers can be different for solutions and suspensions. Solutions are delivered more efficiently with most devices. In general, conventional ultrasonic nebulizers should not be used to aerosolize suspensions, because of low efficiency. Newer strategies to improve the delivery of non-water-soluble drugs include the use of liposomes and the milling of the drug into very small "nanoparticles." In addition to the active therapeutic ingredient and solvents, drug formulations may include buffers (the solubility of some medications is influenced by pH), stabilizers, and, in the case of multi-dose preparations, antibacterial agents. Though formulations are designed to optimize drug solubility and stability, changes in formulation can also affect inhaled mass, particle size, and treatment time, though the differences between nebulizer brands probably have a greater impact than differences in formulation. Ultrasonic and jet nebulizers may damage protein and other complex agents through heat or shear stress. Additives to multi-dose formulations, especially antimicrobial and chelating agents, may cause adverse events, so there is a trend towards single-use, preservative-free vials.

  13. Stress Formulation in Three-Dimensional Elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of elasticity evolved over centuries through the contributions of eminent scientists like Cauchy, Navier, Hooke Saint Venant, and others. It was deemed complete when Saint Venant provided the strain formulation in 1860. However, unlike Cauchy, who addressed equilibrium in the field and on the boundary, the strain formulation was confined only to the field. Saint Venant overlooked the compatibility on the boundary. Because of this deficiency, a direct stress formulation could not be developed. Stress with traditional methods must be recovered by backcalculation: differentiating either the displacement or the stress function. We have addressed the compatibility on the boundary. Augmentation of these conditions has completed the stress formulation in elasticity, opening up a way for a direct determination of stress without the intermediate step of calculating the displacement or the stress function. This Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation (CBMF) can be specialized to derive the traditional methods, but the reverse is not possible. Elasticity solutions must be verified for the compliance of the new equation because the boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of displacement are not trivially satisfied. This paper presents the variational derivation of the stress formulation, illustrates the method, examines attributes and benefits, and outlines the future course of research.

  14. A generalized anisotropic deformation formulation for geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Rougier, Esteban; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.; Viswanathan, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) has been applied to analyze the deformation of anisotropic geomaterials. In the most general case geomaterials are both non-homogeneous and non-isotropic. With the aim of addressing anisotropic material problems, improved 2D FDEM formulations have been developed. These formulations feature the unified hypo-hyper elastic approach combined with a multiplicative decomposition-based selective integration for volumetric and shear deformation modes. This approach is significantly different from the co-rotational formulations typically encountered in finite element codes. Unlike the co-rotational formulation, the multiplicative decomposition-based formulation naturally decomposes deformation into translation, rotation, plastic stretches, elastic stretches, volumetric stretches, shear stretches, etc. This approach can be implemented for a whole family of finite elements from solids to shells and membranes. This novel 2D FDEM based material formulation was designed in such a way that the anisotropic properties of the solid can be specified in a cell by cell basis, therefore enabling the user to seed these anisotropic properties following any type of spatial variation, for example, following a curvilinear path. In addition, due to the selective integration, there are no problems with volumetric or shear locking with any type of finite element employed.

  15. Formulation and Stability of Solutions.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. The first in this series of articles took us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions. This article concludes this series of articles with a discussion on foreign particles, protein aggregation, and immunogenicity; optimizing microbiological activity; and osmolality (tonicity) agents, and discusses how these challenges and issues are addressed.

  16. Drug-excipient compatibility testing-Identification and characterization of degradation products of phenylephrine in several pharmaceutical formulations against the common cold.

    PubMed

    Douša, Michal; Gibala, Petr; Havlíček, Jaroslav; Plaček, Lukáš; Tkadlecová, Marcela; Břicháč, Jiří

    2011-07-15

    Different pharmaceutical preparations against the common cold containing phenylephrine (PHE) and saccharose were studied. New impurities were discovered in these preparations after exposure using isocratic ion-pair chromatography separation on a C18 column. LC-MS and NMR techniques were employed to identify and to fully characterize these new compounds. The products were identified as 1-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-4,8-diol and 1-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-4,6-diol. Identification of these degradation products allowed to understand and to confirm their formation mechanism. The developed HPLC method separates of all known impurities and impurities originated from PHE as well.

  17. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data Products for National Drought Monitor Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Drought effects are either direct or indirect depending on location, population, and regional economic vitality. Common direct effects of drought are reduced crop, rangeland, and forest productivity; increased fire hazard; reduced water levels; increased livestock and wildlife mortality rates; and damage to wildlife and fish habitat. Indirect impacts follow on the heels of direct impacts. For example, a reduction in crop, rangeland, and forest productivity may result in reduced income for farmers and agribusiness, increased prices for food and timber, unemployment, reduced tax revenues, increased crime, foreclosures on bank loans to farmers and businesses, migration, and disaster relief programs. In the United States alone, drought is estimated to result in annual losses of between $6 - 8 billion. Recent sustained drought in the United States has made decision-makers aware of the impacts of climate change on society and environment. The eight major droughts that occurred in the United States between 1980 and 1999 accounted for the largest percentage of weather-related monetary losses. Monitoring drought and its impact that occurs at a variety of scales is an important government activity -- not only nationally but internationally as well. The NDMC (National Drought Mitigation Center) and the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) RMA (Risk Management Agency) have partnered together to develop a DM-DSS (Drought Monitoring Decision Support System). This monitoring system will be an interactive portal that will provide users the ability to visualize and assess drought at all levels. This candidate solution incorporates atmospherically corrected VIIRS data products, such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and Ocean SST (sea surface temperature), and AMSR-E soil moisture data products into two NDMC vegetation indices -- VegDRI (Vegetation Drought Response Index) and VegOUT (Vegetation Outlook) -- which are then input into the DM-DSS.

  18. Some challenges in modern hair colour formulations.

    PubMed

    Wis-Surel, G M

    1999-10-01

    Formulation of hair coloring product involves two stages, first a development of product base followed by formulation of desired shade. During that process a special consideration needs to be given to a whole range of product characteristics such as dye stability in the product medium, colour wearability on hair, light fading and finally rheology of the product. This paper reviews improvement in permanent coloring products as it relates to dye and base composition. Examples are shown where a reduction or elimination of certain dyes, m-phenylenediamine or sodium picramate, improves long term stability and product performance on hair. In cases when only reduction of the dyes was carried out, improvement in stability was achieved through their use as secondary colour contributors and not as primary ones. There are also other composition aspects that impact colour performance of the final product. For example, pH of the coloring mixture has a pronounced effect on the final colour developed in hair. It is shown that a shift in tonality caused by pH change can be predicted for finished product using a simple system composed of the main coupler-intermediate pair employed in the product. The colour response to pH change of this simple system was found to mirror that of the product. This predictability can be used as a formulation tool to develop more efficient dye systems. Effects of some functional materials on colour result such as propylene glycol, ascorbic acid or silicone are also shown.

  19. Granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  20. Temporal and spatial variation in flower and fruit production in a food-deceptive orchid: a five-year study.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, H; Brys, R

    2010-01-01

    Deceptive orchids are generally characterized by low levels of fruit set; however, there may be substantial variations in fruit set between sites and years. Within a single population, individual plants may also differ greatly in their reproductive output as a result of differences in inflorescence size or local density. In this study, we determined flower and fruit production over 5 years in two populations of the food-deceptive orchid, Orchis purpurea. All plants were monitored annually for survival and flowering at each site to determine whether flowering and fruiting induced costs. The number of flowers per inflorescence varied considerably from year to year (min: 36.6, max: 49.5). Average fruit set was low (7%) and varied considerably among years and populations. A considerable proportion of plants also failed to set any fruit. However, the probability of producing at least one fruit was not affected by inflorescence size or local density. The number of fruits was significantly related to inflorescence size, but proportional fruit set was not. Local density also did not affect the number of fruits, nor proportional fruit set. There was also no evidence that plants with large inflorescence size or high fruiting success had a larger probability of remaining vegetative the year after flowering than plants with small inflorescence size or low fruiting success. Our results suggest that pollinator-mediated selective forces on inflorescence size through female reproductive success alone are weak, most likely because of the low overall level of visitation and the resulting uncertainty of pollination at the individual level. Our results further demonstrate that investigation of patterns of fruit set over several years is needed to better understand the variability in female reproductive success that is typical of most plant-pollinator interactions.

  1. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  2. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  3. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection.

  4. Development and validation of a stability indicating method for S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation products in oral syrup formulation.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Ameriga; De Filippis, Piero; Curcuruto, Ornella; Repeto, Paolo; Roveda, Davide; Hartenstein, Matthew; Adams, Erwin; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2015-11-10

    A stability-indicating method for the determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation impurities in Exputex® 250mg/5mL syrup was developed in anion-exchange liquid chromatography mode. A forced degradation study supported the method development to ensure stability indicating conditions. Aqueous solutions of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and syrup samples at different pH-values were stress-tested in different thermal, light exposure and headspace conditions. One degradation product was detected in thermal stress studies at 60°C and 80°C in the pH range 5.0-7.0 and was identified by mass spectrometry as 5-oxo-thiomorpholine-3-carboxylic acid (lactam of carbocysteine). A second degradation product was only generated in moderately strong oxidizing conditions (0.5% H2O2 aqueous solution) and was identified as S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine-(R/S)-sulphoxide (carbocysteine sulphoxide). The method was developed on a Zorbax SAX column, in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of 200mM phosphate solution at pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) and UV detection was performed at a wavelength of 205nm. The method was linear for carbocysteine (R>0.9982) over a concentration range of 2.5-50μg/mL and 0.4-0.6mg/mL. Linearity for the impurities was shown from the LOQ to 50μg/mL. Specificity was verified and accuracy demonstrated for the active ingredient and its degradation products in syrup samples at 3 levels around their respective specification limits. Repeatability, intermediate precision and inter-laboratory reproducibility were assessed on three commercial batches, analyzed in triplicate by two operators at both the transferring and the receiving site and demonstrated a successful method transfer to the manufacturing quality control laboratory.

  5. Seasonal sea ice cover as principal driver of spatial and temporal variation in depth extension and annual production of kelp in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Olesen, Birgit; Sejr, Mikael K; Christensen, Peter Bondo; Rodrigues, João; Renaud, Paul E; Balsby, Thorsten JS; Rysgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    We studied the depth distribution and production of kelp along the Greenland coast spanning Arctic to sub-Arctic conditions from 78 °N to 64 °N. This covers a wide range of sea ice conditions and water temperatures, with those presently realized in the south likely to move northwards in a warmer future. Kelp forests occurred along the entire latitudinal range, and their depth extension and production increased southwards presumably in response to longer annual ice-free periods and higher water temperature. The depth limit of 10% kelp cover was 9–14 m at the northernmost sites (77–78 °N) with only 94–133 ice-free days per year, but extended to depths of 21–33 m further south (73 °N–64 °N) where >160 days per year were ice-free, and annual production of Saccharina longicruris and S. latissima, measured as the size of the annual blade, ranged up to sevenfold among sites. The duration of the open-water period, which integrates light and temperature conditions on an annual basis, was the best predictor (relative to summer water temperature) of kelp production along the latitude gradient, explaining up to 92% of the variation in depth extension and 80% of the variation in kelp production. In a decadal time series from a high Arctic site (74 °N), inter-annual variation in sea ice cover also explained a major part (up to 47%) of the variation in kelp production. Both spatial and temporal data sets thereby support the prediction that northern kelps will play a larger role in the coastal marine ecosystem in a warmer future as the length of the open-water period increases. As kelps increase carbon-flow and habitat diversity, an expansion of kelp forests may exert cascading effects on the coastal Arctic ecosystem.

  6. Simple Spectrophotometric Methods for Standardizing Ayurvedic Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Vador, N.; Vador, B.; Hole, Rupali

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicines are effective but the standardization of Ayurvedic formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles. Department of AYUSH has given preliminary guidelines for standardizing these conventional formulations, for uniformity of batches in production of Ayurvedic formulation and it is necessary to develop methods for evaluation. The present work is an attempt to standardize asav-arishta, the traditional Ayurvedic formulation using simple, non-expensive spectrophotometric methods. The various parameters performed included total phenolics, total flavonoids, total alkaloids and total saponins, also included pH, sugar %, alcohol content and specific gravity. The results obtained may be considered as tools for assistance to the regulatory authorities, scientific organizations and manufacturers for developing standards. PMID:23325998

  7. Two and three way spectrophotometric-assisted multivariate determination of linezolid in the presence of its alkaline and oxidative degradation products and application to pharmaceutical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha Abd El-Monem; Eissa, Maya Shaaban; Abd El-Sattar, Osama Ibrahim; Abd El-Kawy, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Linezolid (LIN) is determined in the presence of its alkaline (ALK) and oxidative (OXD) degradation products without preliminary separation based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry using two-way chemometric methods; principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS), and three-way chemometric methods; parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS). A training set of mixtures containing LIN, ALK and OXD; was prepared in the concentration ranges of 12-18, 2.4-3.6 and 1.2-1.8 μg mL-1, respectively according to a multilevel multifactor experimental design. The multivariate calibrations were obtained by measuring the zero-order absorbance from 220 to 320 nm using the training set. The validation of the multivariate methods was realized by analyzing their synthetic mixtures. The capabilities of the chemometric analysis methods for the analysis of real samples were evaluated by determination of LIN in its pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. The accuracy of the methods, evaluated through the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), was 0.058, 0.026, 0.101 and 0.026 for LIN using PCR, PLS, PARAFAC and N-PLS, respectively. Protolytic equilibria of LIN and its degradation products were evaluated using the corresponding absorption spectra-pH data obtained with PARAFAC. The obtained pKa values of LIN, ALK and OXD are 5.70, 8.90 and 6.15, respectively. The results obtained were statistically compared to that of a reported HPLC method, and there was no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported method regarding both accuracy and precision.

  8. Sodium diacetate and sodium lactate affect microbiology and sensory and objective characteristics of a restructured turkey breast product formulated with a fibrin cold-set binding system.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Shafit, H; Williams, S K

    2010-03-01

    Research was conducted to manufacture and evaluate a restructured turkey breast product using the Fibrimex cold-set binding system, sodium diacetate (NaD), and sodium lactate (NaL) and to ascertain effects of the treatments on proximate composition, pH, psychrotrophic organisms, water activity, onset of rancidity (TBA), thaw loss, cooking yields, and objective color, and sensory characteristics. Whole turkey breasts were cut into 5-cm-thick strips; treated with either water only (control), 1.5% NaL, 2.0% NaL, 0.1% NaD, 1.5% NaL + 0.1% NaD, or 2.0% NaL + 0.1% NaD; blended with Fibrimex ingredients; stuffed into casings; and stored at -30 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo. After each storage period, frozen chubs were tempered at 4 degrees C, sliced into 1-cm-thick steaks, packaged in retail trays, stored at 0 degrees C to simulate retail storage, and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d. Sodium diacetate used alone or in combination with NaL reduced (P < 0.05) growth of psychrotrophic organisms and had no adverse effects on water activity, pH, cooking yield, fat, moisture, protein, objective color, onset of rancidity, and sensory characteristics (juiciness, turkey flavor intensity, and tenderness). Panelists reported slight off-flavor in all steaks treated with NaL. Treating steaks with NaL alone or in combination with NaD resulted in increased (P < 0.05) ash content. Sodium lactate also functioned to minimize thaw loss in the frozen restructured turkey product.

  9. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of a novel fast dissolving film formulation of flupentixol dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, Ahmed; Bendas, Ehab R; Ramadan, Afaf A; Mostafa, Dalia A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop fast dissolving oral film of the antipsychotic drug, flupentixol dihydrochloride, to enhance its bioavailability, optimize its therapeutic effect when used to treat depression with anxiety, and increase the convenience and compliance by the mentally ill, developmentally disable, elderly, and pediatric patients. Six formulae were prepared with different concentrations of water-soluble polymers vis. hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E5) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by solvent casting technique. The prepared films were subjected to characterization for folding endurance, weight variations, thickness, disintegration time, drug release pattern, and drug content. Physical compatibility between the drug and excipients was guaranteed in the selected formulation (2% HPMC) by means of differential scanning calorimetry analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. This formulation revealed high stability after testing according to the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. In vivo studies based on single phase parallel design were carried out for the optimized formulation in healthy human volunteers. The concentration of flupentixol dihydrochloride in plasma samples was analyzed by a developed validated LC-MS/MS assay method and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the established formulation were compared with the commercially available oral tablets. Faster rate of absorption of flupentixol could be obtained from the oral film formulation and the relative bioavailability was found to be 151.06% compared to the marketed product.

  10. [Evaluation of Gastric Mucosal Injury Model Animals of Rebamipide Formulation--Study of Therapeutic Equivalence].

    PubMed

    Abe, Noriaki; Funato, Hiroki; Hirata, Ayumu; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yagi, Yusuke; Kadota, Aki; Ogi, Kyoko; Yokota, Junko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generic drugs is promoted from the perspective of medical economics. In this context, we need to understand not only the bioequivalence of generic drugs specified in "the Guidelines for Bioequivalence Studies of Generic Products", but also formulation properties to consider their effect on pharmacological therapy. We evaluated the pharmaceutical characteristics of rebamipide formulations, a brand-name drug and two generic drugs, and their clinical functionality by using rat models of gastric mucosal injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Pharmaceutical evaluation showed significant differences in hardness. The inter-lot variation was small in all rebamipide formulations. In the clinical functionality study, biochemistry test values 7 d after the administration of rebamipide showed no differences among formulations. Higher levels of mucosal fluid secretion and antioxidative enzymes were observed in the groups administered rebamipide than in the control group. The levels of lipid peroxide were lower in the groups administered rebamipide than the control group. Multivariate analysis showed slight divergence between the brand-name and generic drugs. In future, it will be necessary to select generic drugs after careful consideration of bioequivalence, clinical functionality, and therapeutic equivalence by reviewing scientific evidence such as indication and formulation design, not to mention stable provision.

  11. Interannual variation in nitrous oxide emissions from perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland used for dairy production.

    PubMed

    Burchill, William; Li, Dejun; Lanigan, Gary J; Williams, Micheal; Humphreys, James

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions are subject to intra- and interannual variation due to changes in weather and management. This creates significant uncertainties when quantifying estimates of annual N2 O emissions from grazed grasslands. Despite these uncertainties, the majority of studies are short-term in nature (<1 year) and as a consequence, there is a lack of data on interannual variation in N2 O emissions. The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify annual N2 O emissions and (ii) assess the causes of interannual variation in emissions from grazed perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from fertilized and grazed perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland (WC) and from perennial ryegrass plots that were not grazed and did not receive N input (GB), over 4 years from 2008 to 2012 in Ireland (52°51'N, 08°21'W). The annual N2 O-N emissions (kg ha(-1); mean ± SE) ranged from 4.4 ± 0.2 to 34.4 ± 5.5 from WC and from 1.7 ± 0.8 to 6.3 ± 1.2 from GB. Interannual variation in N2 O emissions was attributed to differences in annual rainfall, monthly (December) soil temperatures and variation in N input. Such substantial interannual variation in N2 O emissions highlights the need for long-term studies of emissions from managed pastoral systems.

  12. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for the Great Lakes Basin Ecological Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    The proposed solution would simulate VIIRS and LDCM sensor data for use in the USGS/USFWS GLBET DST. The VIIRS sensor possesses a spectral range that provides water-penetrating bands that could be used to assess water clarity on a regional spatial scale. The LDCM sensor possesses suitable spectral bands in a range of wavelengths that could be used to map water quality at finer spatial scales relative to VIIRS. Water quality, alongshore sediment transport and pollutant discharge tracking into the Great Lakes system are targeted as the primary products to be developed. A principal benefit of water quality monitoring via satellite imagery is its economy compared to field-data collection methods. Additionally, higher resolution satellite imagery provides a baseline dataset(s) against which later imagery can be overlaid in GIS-based DST programs. Further, information derived from higher resolution satellite imagery can be used to address public concerns and to confirm environmental compliance. The candidate solution supports the Public Health, Coastal Management, and Water Management National Applications.

  13. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse irradiation can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus global irradiance could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar irradiance are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-global irradiance, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.

  14. Seasonal and geothermal production variations in concentrations of He and CO2 in soil gases, Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    To increase understanding of natural variations in soil gas concentrations, CO2, He, O2 and N2 were measured in soil gases collected regularly for several months from four sites at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah. Soil temperature, air temperature, per cent relative humidity, barometric pressure and amounts of rain and snowfall were also monitored to determine the effect of meteorological parameters on concentrations of the measured gases. Considerable seasonal variation existed in concentrations of CO2 and He. The parameters that most affected the soil-gas concentrations were soil and air temperatures. Moisture from rain and snow probably affected the soil-gas concentrations also. However, annual variations in meteorological parameters did not appear to affect measurements of anomalous concentrations in samples collected within a time period of a few days. Production from some of the geothermal wells probably affected the soil-gas concentrations. ?? 1990.

  15. Variation of natural radionuclides in non-ferrous fayalite slags during a one-month production period.

    PubMed

    Croymans, Tom; Vandael Schreurs, Indy; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Lutter, Guillaume; Stroh, Heiko; Schreurs, Sonja; Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-03-18

    The European Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS) describes a set of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)-processing industries which produce residues known to be possibly enriched in NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides). These residues can be used as a component in building materials aimed for public usage. The industrial processes, in which the residues are produced, are often complex and total monitoring can be challenging especially when the origin of the used raw materials varies. In this study the NORs present in non-ferrous fayalite slags of a secondary smelter facility, a NORM-processing industry according to the EU-BSS, were monitored daily during a one-month production period. In addition flue dust samples and feedstock samples, known to contain elevated levels of NORs, of the same period were measured. The survey involved the gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of the decay products from the (238)U and (232)Th decay chains, (235)U and (40)K using HPGe detectors. Secular equilibrium was observed for the slags, flue dust and feedstock samples in the (232)Th decay chain, in contrast to the (238)U decay chain. During the month in question the ratios of maximum over minimum activity concentration were 3.1 ± 0.5 for (40)K, 4 ± 1 for (238)U, 6 ± 1 for (226)Ra, 13 ± 7 for (210)Pb, 4.5 ± 0.6 for (228)Ra and 4.7 ± 0.7 for (228)Th for the slags. Even with the activity concentration of the feedstock material ranging up to 2.1 ± 0.3 kBq/kg for (238)U, 1.6 ± 0.2 kBq for (226)Ra, 22 ± 7 kBq/kg for (210)Pb, 2.1 ± 0.2 kBq/kg for (228)Ra and 2.0 ± 0.4 kBq/kg for (228)Th, none of the slag samples exceeded the exemption/clearance levels of the EU-BSS and RP-122 part II, which can respectively provide guidance under equilibrium and in absence of equilibrium. As each NORM-processing industry has its own complexity and variability, the observed variations point out that one should approach one-time measurements or low frequency

  16. Element free Galerkin formulation of composite beam with longitudinal slip

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Dzulkarnain; Mokhtaram, Mokhtazul Haizad; Badli, Mohd Iqbal; Yassin, Airil Y. Mohd

    2015-05-15

    Behaviour between two materials in composite beam is assumed partially interact when longitudinal slip at its interfacial surfaces is considered. Commonly analysed by the mesh-based formulation, this study used meshless formulation known as Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method in the beam partial interaction analysis, numerically. As meshless formulation implies that the problem domain is discretised only by nodes, the EFG method is based on Moving Least Square (MLS) approach for shape functions formulation with its weak form is developed using variational method. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by Langrange multipliers. The proposed EFG formulation gives comparable results, after been verified by analytical solution, thus signify its application in partial interaction problems. Based on numerical test results, the Cubic Spline and Quartic Spline weight functions yield better accuracy for the EFG formulation, compares to other proposed weight functions.

  17. Critical Climate-Sensitive and Important Grain-Producing Regions: Grain Production/Yield Variations Due to Climate Fluctuations. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Ideally, the Crop Country Inventory, CCI, is a methodology for the pre-harvest prediction of large variations in a country s crop production. This is accomplished by monitoring the historical climatic fluctuations, especially during the crop calendar period, in a climate sensitive large crop production region or sub-country, rather than the entire country. The argument can be made that the climatic fluctuations in the climatic sensitive region are responsible for the major annual crop country variations and that the remainder of the country, without major climatic fluctuations for a given year, can be assumed to be a steady-state crop producer. The principal data set that has been used is the Global Climate Mode (GCM) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), taken over the last half century. As a test of its accuracy, GCM data can and has been correlated with the actual meteorological station data at the station site.

  18. Formulation development and comparative in vitro study of metoprolol tartrate (IR) tablets.

    PubMed

    Husain, Tazeen; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Maboos, Madiha; Khan, Madeeha; Bashir, Lubna; Naz, Shazia

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop Immediate Release (IR) tablets of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) and to compare trial formulations to a reference product. Six formulations (F1-F6) were designed using central composite method and compared to a reference brand (A). Two marketed products (brands B and C) were also evaluated. F1-F6 were prepared with Avicel PH101 (filler), Crospovidone (disintegrant) and Magnesium Stearate (lubricant) by direct compression. Pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods were used to assess their quality. Furthermore, drug profiles were characterized using model dependent and independent (f(2)) approaches. Brands B and C and F5 and F6 did not qualify the tests for content uniformity. Moreover, brand B did not meet weight variation criteria and brand C did not satisfy requirements for single point dissolution test. Of the trial formulations, F2 failed the test for uniformity in thickness while F4 did not disintegrate within time limit. Only F1 and F3 met all quality parameters and were subjected to accelerated stability testing without significant alterations in their physicochemical characteristics. Based on AIC and r(2)(adjusted) values obtained by applying various kinetic models, drug release was determined to most closely follow Hixson-Crowell cube root law. F1 was determined to be the optimized formulation.

  19. Liposomal paclitaxel formulations.

    PubMed

    Koudelka, Stěpán; Turánek, Jaroslav

    2012-11-10

    Over the past three decades, taxanes represent one of the most important new classes of drugs approved in oncology. Paclitaxel (PTX), the prototype of this class, is an anti-cancer drug approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. However, notwithstanding a suitable premedication, present-day chemotherapy employing a commercial preparation of PTX (Taxol®) is associated with serious side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Liposomes represent advanced and versatile delivery systems for drugs. Generally, both in vivo mice tumor models and human clinical trials demonstrated that liposomal PTX formulations significantly increase a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PTX which outperform that for Taxol®. Liposomal PTX formulations are in various stages of clinical trials. LEP-ETU (NeoPharm) and EndoTAG®-1 (Medigene) have reached the phase II of the clinical trials; Lipusu® (Luye Pharma Group) has already been commercialized. Present achievements in the preparation of various liposomal formulations of PTX, the development of targeted liposomal PTX systems and the progress in clinical testing of liposomal PTX are discussed in this review summarizing about 30 years of liposomal PTX development.

  20. Introducing constricted variational density functional theory in its relaxed self-consistent formulation (RSCF-CV-DFT) as an alternative to adiabatic time dependent density functional theory for studies of charge transfer transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Seth, Mike; Ziegler, Tom

    2014-05-14

    We have applied the relaxed and self-consistent extension of constricted variational density functional theory (RSCF-CV-DFT) for the calculation of the lowest charge transfer transitions in the molecular complex X-TCNE between X = benzene and TCNE = tetracyanoethylene. Use was made of functionals with a fixed fraction (α) of Hartree-Fock exchange ranging from α = 0 to α = 0.5 as well as functionals with a long range correction (LC) that introduces Hartree-Fock exchange for longer inter-electronic distances. A detailed comparison and analysis is given for each functional between the performance of RSCF-CV-DFT and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that in this particular case, all functionals afford the same reasonable agreement with experiment for RSCF-CV-DFT whereas only the LC-functionals afford a fair agreement with experiment using TDDFT. We have in addition calculated the CT transition energy for X-TCNE with X = toluene, o-xylene, and naphthalene employing the same functionals as for X = benzene. It is shown that the calculated charge transfer excitation energies are in as good agreement with experiment as those obtained from highly optimized LC-functionals using adiabatic TDDFT. We finally discuss the relation between the optimization of length separation parameters and orbital relaxation in the RSCF-CV-DFT scheme.

  1. Mass variation in outcome to high production activity in Kamojang Geothermal Field, Indonesia: A reservoir monitoring with relative and absolute gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Y.; Kamah, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.; Ehara, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Taniguchi, M.

    2011-11-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in west Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam has been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of condensed water and river water were injected to the reservoir system. Regarding to the electricity demand, installed capacity of KGF increased from 30 MWe to 140 MWe in 1987 and 200 MWe in 2007. Mass variation in the geothermal reservoir can be measured by using the map of the gravity changes. Gravity changes observed in the KGF between 1999 and 2005 at 51 benchmarks are interpreted in terms of a change of mass. Concerning to the production mass increase, gravity changes also observed between 1999 and 2008 at 30 benchmarks. The recent gravity measurement was conducted using absolute gravimeter in 2009 and 2010 at 12 gravity benchmarks. Mass variation in the reservoir was caused by production and injection activities. Mass variation in KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production.

  2. Development of a topically active imiquimod formulation.

    PubMed

    Chollet, J L; Jozwiakowski, M J; Phares, K R; Reiter, M J; Roddy, P J; Schultz, H J; Ta, Q V; Tomai, M A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a topical formulation of imiquimod, a novel immune response modifier, to induce local cytokine production for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. A pH-solubility profile and titration data were used to calculate a pKa of 7.3, indicative of a weak base. Solubility experiments were conducted to identify a solvent that dissolves imiquimod to achieve a 5% formulation concentration. Studies to select surfactants, preservatives, and viscosity-enhancing excipients to formulate an oil-in-water cream indicated that fatty acids were the preferred solvent for topical imiquimod formulations, and isostearic acid (ISA) was selected. A relationship existed between the fatty acid composition of four commercially available ISA sources and the solubility of imiquimod. A combination of polysorbate 60, sorbitan monostearate, and xanthan gum was used to produce a physically stable cream. The preservative system included parabens and benzyl alcohol to meet the USP criteria for preservative activity. An in vitro method was developed to demonstrate that imiquimod was released from the formulation. Topical application of the formulation induced local cytokine activity in mice.

  3. Rapid and specific high-performance liquid chromatography for the in vitro quantification of D-Lys6-GnRH in a microemulsion-type formulation in the presence of peptide oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Alexandra P; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assay of d-Lys(6)-GnRH contained in a microemulsion-type formulation is described. The peptide is extracted from the microemulsion matrix and quantified using a two-step gradient method. Separation from microemulsion compounds and potential peptide oxidation products was achieved on a Jupiter C(18) column at 40 degrees C, using a gradient of 10-35% CH(3)CN for peptide elution. The correlation of peak intensity measured at 220 nm and peptide concentration was linear over the range 2.5-60 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997 and a y-intercept not significantly different from zero (p > 0.05). Intraday and interday variability of the assay was less than 5% for multiple injections of samples containing 7.5, 30 and 60 microg/mL. The lower limit of quantitation was calculated to be 0.38 microg/mL, and the lower limit of detection was 0.13 microg/mL. The assay was applied to samples that were stressed under physiological conditions (37 degrees C, pH 7.4) over 4 days. Three degradation peaks were well resolved from the parent peptide, demonstrating the selectivity of the assay. Off-line MALDI TOF mass spectrometry was applied to identify these degradation species as oxidation products of the peptide.

  4. Interannual variation in nitrous oxide emissions from perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland used for dairy production

    PubMed Central

    Burchill, William; Li, Dejun; Lanigan, Gary J; Williams, Micheal; Humphreys, James

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are subject to intra- and interannual variation due to changes in weather and management. This creates significant uncertainties when quantifying estimates of annual N2O emissions from grazed grasslands. Despite these uncertainties, the majority of studies are short-term in nature (<1 year) and as a consequence, there is a lack of data on interannual variation in N2O emissions. The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify annual N2O emissions and (ii) assess the causes of interannual variation in emissions from grazed perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from fertilized and grazed perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland (WC) and from perennial ryegrass plots that were not grazed and did not receive N input (GB), over 4 years from 2008 to 2012 in Ireland (52°51′N, 08°21′W). The annual N2O-N emissions (kg ha−1; mean ± SE) ranged from 4.4 ± 0.2 to 34.4 ± 5.5 from WC and from 1.7 ± 0.8 to 6.3 ± 1.2 from GB. Interannual variation in N2O emissions was attributed to differences in annual rainfall, monthly (December) soil temperatures and variation in N input. Such substantial interannual variation in N2O emissions highlights the need for long-term studies of emissions from managed pastoral systems. PMID:24706411

  5. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-11-01

    Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 (10Be) production rates. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and MD05-2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05-2920, MD05-2930 and MD90-0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest 10Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 1022 Am2) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant 10Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The 10Be-derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes-Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial-scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities.

  6. Variational Derivation of Dissipative Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    A new variational principle is formulated to derive various dissipative equations. Model equations considered are the damping equation, Bloch equation, diffusion equation, Fokker-Planck equation, Kramers equation and Smoluchowski equation. Each equation and its time reversal equation are simultaneously obtained in our variational principle.

  7. Authigenic 10Be/9Be Ratio Signatures of the Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Linked to Geomagnetic Dipole Moment Variation During and Since the Brunhes/Matuyama Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Q.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.; Ménabréaz, L.; Valet, J. P.; Valery, G.; Choy, S.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric production rate of cosmogenic nuclides is linked to the geomagnetic dipole moment (GDM) by a non-linear inverse relationship. Large amplitude GDM variations associated with reversals and excursions can potentially be reconstructed using time variation of the cosmogenic beryllium-10 (10Be) production recorded in ocean sediments. Downcore profiles of authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) in oceanic cores provide independent and additional records of the evolution of the geomagnetic intensity and complete previous information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI). Here are presented new authigenic 10Be/9Be results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and from the top of core MD05-2930 collected in the West Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Completing data of Ménabréaz et al. (2012, 2014), these results provide the first continuous 10Be production rate sedimentary record covering the last 800 ka. Along these cores, authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio peaks are recorded - within methodological errors - at the stratigraphic level of RPI lows. High-resolution chronologies (δ18O-derived) lead to interpret these peaks as successive global 10Be overproduction events triggered by geomagnetic dipole lows present in the PISO-1500 and Sint-2000 stacks. The largest amplitude 10Be production enhancement is synchronous to the very large decrease of the dipole field associated with the last polarity reversal (772 ka). It is consistent in shape and duration with the peak recorded in core MD90-0961 from the Maldive area (Indian Ocean) (Valet et al. 2014). Two significant 10Be production enhancements are coeval with the Laschamp (41 ka) and Icelandic basin (190 ka) excursions, while 10Be production peaks of lower amplitude correlate to other recognized excursions such as the Blake (120 ka), Pringle-Falls (215 ka), Portuguese Margin (290 ka), Big Lost (540 ka) among others. This study provides new data on the amplitude and timing of dipole field variations

  8. Analyzing the Effect of Variations in Soil and Management Practices on the Sustainability of Corn Stover-Based Bioethanol Production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel

    2011-08-07

    The inherent variability in corn stover productivity due to variations in soils and crop management practices might contribute to a variation in corn stover-based bioethanol sustainability. This study was carried out to examine how changes in soil types and crop management options would affect corn stover yield (CSY) and the sustainability of the stover-based ethanol production in the Delta region of Mississippi. Based on potential acreage and geographical representation, three locations were selected. Using CERES-Maize model, stover yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and crop management options. Based on 'net energy value (NEV)' computed from CSYs, a sustainability indicator for stover-based bioethanol production was established. The effects of soils and crop management options on CSY and NEV were determined using ANOVA tests and regression analyses. Both CSY and NEV were significantly different across sandy loam, silt loam, and silty clay loam soils and also across high-, mid-, and low-yielding cultivars. With an increase in irrigation level, both CSY and NEV increased initially and decreased after reaching a peak. A third-degree polynomial relationship was found between planting date and CSY and NEV each. By moving from the lowest to the highest production scenario, values of CSY and NEV could be increased by 86 to 553%, depending on location and weather condition. The effects of variations in soils and crop management options on NEV were the same as on CSY. The NEV was positive for all scenarios, indicating that corn stover-based ethanol production system in the Delta region is sustainable.

  9. Formulations of entomopathogens as bioinsecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a proper formulation is a necessary component for commercialization of entomopathogenic microbes as biological insecticides. The objective of this chapter is to present broad-ranging information about formulations to foster research toward developing commercial microbial-based insecticide...

  10. Non-genetic sources of variation of milk production and reproduction and interactions between both classes of traits in Sicilo-Sarde dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Meraï, A; Gengler, N; Hammami, H; Rekik, M; Bastin, C

    2014-09-01

    This work aimed to study the sources of variation in productive and reproductive traits of the dairy Sicilo-Sarde ewes and to further investigate the interaction between both classes of traits. After edits, a database containing 5935 lactation records collected during 6 successive years in eight dairy flocks in the North of Tunisia was used. Total milked milk (TMM) in the milking-only period was retained as productive trait. The interval from the start of the mating period to the subsequent lambing (IML) and the lambing status (LS) were designed as reproductive traits. Sicilo-Sarde ewes had an average TMM of 60.93 l (±44.12) during 132.8 days (±46.6) after a suckling period of 100.4 days (±24.9). Average IML was 165.7 days. In a first step, the major factors influencing milk production and reproductive traits were determined. The significant sources of variation identified for TMM were: flock, month of lambing, year of lambing, parity, suckling length, litter size and milking-only length. Flock×month of the start of the mating period, parity, year of mating and litter size were identified as significant factors of variation for IML, while flock×month of the start of the mating period, parity and year of mating were identified as significant sources of variation for LS. In a second step, variance components were estimated using a three traits threshold mixed model, which combined LS as categorical trait and TMM and IML as continuous traits. Repeatability estimates were 0.21 (±0.03) for TMM, 0.09 (±0.02) for IML, and 0.10 (±0.05) for LS. Moreover, TMM and IML were found to be favorably associated for the flock× year of lambing effect (-0.45±0.18) but unfavorably associated for the animal effect (0.20±0.09).

  11. Spatial Variation of Pressure in the Lyophilization Product Chamber Part 2: Experimental Measurements and Implications for Scale-up and Batch Uniformity.

    PubMed

    Sane, Pooja; Varma, Nikhil; Ganguly, Arnab; Pikal, Michael; Alexeenko, Alina; Bogner, Robin H

    2017-02-01

    Product temperature during the primary drying step of freeze-drying is controlled by a set point chamber pressure and shelf temperature. However, recent computational modeling suggests a possible variation in local chamber pressure. The current work presents an experimental verification of the local chamber pressure gradients in a lab-scale freeze-dryer. Pressure differences between the center and the edges of a lab-scale freeze-dryer shelf were measured as a function of sublimation flux and clearance between the sublimation front and the shelf above. A modest 3-mTorr difference in pressure was observed as the sublimation flux was doubled from 0.5 to 1.0 kg·h(-1)·m(-2) at a clearance of 2.6 cm. Further, at a constant sublimation flux of 1.0 kg·h(-1)·m(-2), an 8-fold increase in the pressure drop was observed across the shelf as the clearance was decreased from 4 to 1.6 cm. Scale-up of the pressure variation from lab- to a manufacturing-scale freeze-dryer predicted an increased uniformity in drying rates across the batch for two frequently used pharmaceutical excipients (mannitol and sucrose at 5% w/w). However, at an atypical condition of shelf temperature of +10°C and chamber pressure of 50 mTorr, the product temperature in the center vials was calculated to be a degree higher than the edge vial for a low resistance product, thus reversing the typical edge and center vial behavior. Thus, the effect of local pressure variation is more significant at the manufacturing-scale than at a lab-scale and accounting for the contribution of variations in the local chamber pressures can improve success in scale-up.

  12. Assessing variation in skeletal production from surface death assemblages on the basis of age-frequency distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasovych, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.; Foygel Barber, Rina

    2015-04-01

    Age-frequency distributions of dead skeletal material that capture information on the elapsed time since death of individuals on the landscape or seabed provide decadal- to millennial-scale windows into the history of production and on the processes that lead to skeletal disintegration and burial. However, models quantifying the dynamics of skeletal loss assumed that skeletal production has been constant during accumulation of death assemblages. Here, we assess the joint effects of temporally-variable production and skeletal loss on the shape of postmortem age-frequency distributions. We show that the modes of such distributions will tend to be shifted to younger age cohorts relative to the true timing of past production pulses. This shift in the timing of a past production will be higher where loss rates are high and/or the rate of decline in production is slow. We apply the models combining the dynamic of loss and production to death assemblages with the deposit-feeding bivalve Nuculana taphria from the Southern California continental shelf, finding that (1) an onshore-offshore gradient in time averaging is dominated by a gradient in the timing of production, corresponding to the tracking of shallow-water habitats under a sea-level rise, and (2) model estimates of the timing of past production are in good agreement with an independent sea-level curve.

  13. Formulation of custom sized LX-15 granules

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, T.W.

    1980-04-01

    LX-15 is a booster explosive formulation consisting of 95% HNS I and 5% Kel F-800 developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The purpose of this effort was to develop formulation techniques for the production of custom size granules that are amenable for processing in automatic weighing equipment. This report details processes whereby 0.4 and 1.5 kg size batches are produced, meeting those requirements. Efforts to date have found that granule size is dependent on batch/vessel size, water-to-solvent ratio and the degree of vessel agitation.

  14. Formulation and production of intumescent coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schwartz, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for manufacturing and producing fire protective intumescent coatings are described. The coatings consist of three reactive parts mixed together at the time of use. The chemical composition of the reactive parts is discussed. The characteristics of the coatings which are obtained by three types of processing are analyzed. Qualification tests of the materials to determine acceptability are reported.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  16. Genotypic variation in traits linked to climate and aboveground productivity in a widespread C₄ grass: evidence for a functional trait syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Lowry, David B; Taylor, Samuel H; Juenger, Thomas E; Hawkes, Christine V; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Kiniry, James R; Fay, Philip A

    2013-09-01

    Examining intraspecific variation in growth and function in relation to climate may provide insight into physiological evolution and adaptation, and is important for predicting species responses to climate change. Under common garden conditions, we grew nine genotypes of the C₄ species Panicum virgatum originating from different temperature and precipitation environments. We hypothesized that genotype productivity, morphology and physiological traits would be correlated with climate of origin, and a suite of adaptive traits would show high broad-sense heritability (H(2)). Genotype productivity and flowering time increased and decreased, respectively, with home-climate temperature, and home-climate temperature was correlated with genotypic differences in a syndrome of morphological and physiological traits. Genotype leaf and tiller size, leaf lamina thickness, leaf mass per area (LMA) and C : N ratios increased with home-climate temperature, whereas leaf nitrogen per unit mass (Nm ) and chlorophyll (Chl) decreased with home-climate temperature. Trait variation was largely explained by genotypic differences (H(2) = 0.33-0.85). Our results provide new insight into the role of climate in driving functional trait coordination, local adaptation and genetic divergence within species. These results emphasize the importance of considering intraspecific variation in future climate change scenarios.

  17. Iodide impurities in hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) products: lot-lot variations and influence on gold nanorod synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rayavarapu, Raja Gopal; Ungureanu, Constantin; Krystek, Petra; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Manohar, Srirang

    2010-04-06

    Recent reports [Smith and Korgel Langmuir 2008, 24, 644-649 and Smith et al. Langmuir 2009, 25, 9518-9524] have implicated certain hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) products with iodide impurities, in the failure of a seed-mediated, silver and surfactant-assisted growth protocol, to produce gold nanorods. We used two of the three "suspect" CTAB products and a "good" CTAB product in the protocol, varying silver nitrate solutions in the growth solutions. We obtained excellent gold nanorod samples as witnessed in signature longitudinal plasmon peaks in optical extinction spectra, which we substantiated using electron microscopy. Analysis of these samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) failed to detect iodide. We subsequently learnt from discussions with Smith et al. that different lot numbers within the same product had been analyzed by our respective laboratories. We can conclude that iodide impurities can vary significantly from lot to lot within a product, to such an extent that there is no guarantee that gold nanorods can be synthesized with one or other CTAB product. Conversely, labeling a CTAB product, identified by a product number or supplier name, as one whose use precludes the formation of nanorods, is also hasty.

  18. High-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of steviol glycosides in Stevia formulations and sugar-free food products, and benchmarking with (ultra) high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Meyer, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Roussel, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-11

    A high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method was newly developed and validated for analysis of 7 steviol glycosides in 6 different types of food and Stevia formulations. After a minimized one-step sample preparation, 21 samples were developed in parallel, allowing an effective food screening. Depending on the sample application volume, the method was suited to analyze food sample concentrations in the mg/kg range. LOQs of stevioside in natural yoghurt matrix spiked at 0.02, 0.13 and 0.2% were determined by the calibration curve method to be 12ng/band (peak height). ANOVA was successfully passed to prove data homogeneity in the working range (30-600ng/band). The accuracy (recovery tolerance limit, 92-120%), repeatability (3.1-5.4%) and intermediate precision (4.0-8.4%) were determined for stevioside in milk-based matrix including sample preparation and recovery rates at 3 different concentration levels. For the first time, the recording of HPTLC-ESI-MS spectra via the TLC-MS Interface was demonstrated for rebaudioside A. HPTLC contents for rebaudioside A were compared with results of two (U)HPLC methods. The running costs and analysis time of the three different methods were discussed in detail with regard to screening of food products.

  19. Formulations for children: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah K; Marriott, John F

    2015-03-01

    Paediatric formulation design is complex as there is a need to understand the developmental physiological changes that occur during childhood and their impact on the absorption of drugs. Paediatric dose adjustments are usually based on achieving pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic profiles equivalent to those achieved in adult populations. However, differences in the way in which children handle adult products or the use of bespoke paediatric formulations can result in unexpected pharmacokinetic drug profiles with altered clinical efficacy. Differences in drug formulations need to be understood by healthcare professionals involved in the prescribing, administration or dispensing of drugs to children such that appropriate advice is given to ensure that therapeutic outcomes are achieved. This issue is not confined to oral medicines but is applicable for all routes of administration encountered in paediatric therapy.

  20. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  1. Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

    2006-07-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other "heat and eat" multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a "frankfurter on a roll", a "beef cheeseburger on a bun" and a "vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun" was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat" sandwich products.

  2. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Process-Related Impurities and Degradation Products of Rabeprazole Sodium in Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Sangeetha, Dhanaraj

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of process-related impurities and degradation products of rabeprazole sodium in pharmaceutical formulation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on the Waters Symmetry Shield RP18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm) 5 μm column with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A (mixture of 0.025 M KH2PO4 buffer and 0.1% triethylamine in water, pH 6.4 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 90:10 v/v, respectively) and solvent B (mixture of acetonitrile and water in the ratio of 90:10 v/v, respectively). The mobile phase was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and with UV detection at 280 nm. Rabeprazole sodium was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal, and photolytic degradation. Rabeprazole sodium was found to degrade significantly under acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis, oxidative, and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peak and its impurities, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The mass balance was found to be in the range of 97.3-101.3% in all of the stressed conditions, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, and robustness.

  3. Relationship between interleukin-5 production and variations in eosinophil counts during HIV infection in West Africa: influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Diagbouga, S; Aldebert, D; Fumoux, F; Capron, M; Ledru, E

    1999-02-01

    Eosinophils are important effectors of the non-specific immune response and we studied whether perturbations in the production of the type 2 cytokine, interleukin-5 (IL-5), could account for the variations in eosinophil counts observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV-infected patients without helminthiasis were investigated in a cross-sectional study in West Africa. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher in CDC-B patients than in controls, but were dramatically decreased at the CDC-C stage. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)+ ionomycin-induced IL-5 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was decreased from the A stage of the disease, and significant correlations were observed between IL-5 production and eosinophil counts in tuberculosis (TB)-negative HIV-1-positive, TB-positive HIV-1-positive and TB-positive HIV-negative patient groups. Nevertheless, the production of IL-5 was not decreased in HIV-positive patients with TB, in contrast to HIV-positive patients without TB presenting with the same ranges of CD4+ counts. Our data suggest that, during HIV infection, the impairment in IL-5 production is one of the factors associated with the 'paradoxal' eosinopenia observed in tropical areas, but that IL-5 production during active TB is compensated by cellular subsets, yet to be identified.

  4. King eiders use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; O'Brien, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves ("capital") and current diet ("income"). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 +/- 18%, N: 99 +/- 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 +/- 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 +/- 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual variation into

  5. Substrate and/or substrate-driven changes in the abundance of methanogenic archaea cause seasonal variation of methane production potential in species-specific freshwater wetlands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Deyan; Ding, Weixin; Yuan, Junji; Xiang, Jian; Lin, Yongxin

    2014-05-01

    There are large temporal and spatial variations of methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetlands. To understand temporal changes of CH4 production potential (MPP), soil samples were collected from a permanently inundated Carex lasiocarpa marsh and a summer inundated Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh over the period from June to October of 2011. MPP, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, abundance and community structure of methanogenic archaea were assessed. In the C. lasiocarpa marsh, DOC concentration, MPP and the methanogen population showed similar seasonal variations and maximal values in September. MPP and DOC in the C. angustifolia marsh exhibited seasonal variations and values peaked during August, while the methanogen population decreased with plant growth. Methanogen abundance correlated significantly (P = 0.02) with DOC only for the C. lasiocarpa marsh. During the sampling period, the dominant methanogens were the Methanosaetaceae and Zoige cluster I (ZC-Ι) in the C. angustifolia marsh, and Methanomicrobiales and ZC-Ι in the C. lasiocarpa marsh. MPP correlated significantly (P = 0.04) with DOC and methanogen population in the C. lasiocarpa marsh but only with DOC in the C. angustifolia marsh. Addition of C. lasiocarpa litter enhanced MPP more effectively than addition of C. angustifolia litter, indicating that temporal variation of substrates is controlled by litter deposition in the C. lasiocarpa marsh while living plant matter is more important in the C. angustifolia marsh. This study indicated that there was no apparent shift in the dominant types of methanogen during the growth season in the species-specific freshwater wetlands. Temporal variation of MPP is controlled by substrates and substrate-driven changes in the abundance of methanogenic archaea in the C. lasiocarpa marsh, while MPP depends only on substrate availability derived from root exudates or soil organic matter in the C. angustifolia marsh.

  6. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  7. Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation in Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2005-01-01

    A set of conditions had not been formulated on the boundary of an elastic continuum since the time of Saint-Venant. This limitation prevented the formulation of a direct stress calculation method in elasticity for a continuum with a displacement boundary condition. The missed condition, referred to as the boundary compatibility condition, is now formulated in polar coordinates. The augmentation of the new condition completes the Beltrami-Michell formulation in polar coordinates. The completed formulation that includes equilibrium equations and a compatibility condition in the field as well as the traction and boundary compatibility condition is derived from the stationary condition of the variational functional of the integrated force method. The new method is illustrated by solving an example of a mixed boundary value problem for mechanical as well as thermal loads.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  9. Mixed formulation for frictionless contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Kyun O.

    1989-01-01

    Simple mixed finite element models and a computational precedure are presented for the solution of frictionless contact problems. The analytical formulation is based on a form of Reissner's large rotation theory of the structure with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the internal forces (stress resultants), the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The element characteristic array are obtained by using a modified form of the two-field Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The internal forces and the Lagrange multipliers are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. The Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is used for the solution of the nonlinear algebraic equations, and the determination of the contact area and the contact pressures.

  10. Scale Invariant Gravity - a Simple Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, P. S.

    1981-09-01

    Using the Cosmological Principle as justification, it is suggested that the scale-invariant theory of gravity be based on a Conspiracy Hypothesis (CH). The CH says: The matter parameters of a system (mass, density, pressure, etc.), the "constants" of physics and the coordinates occur together in dimensionless combinations (η-numbers) in which the components may vary but in such a manner that the variations conspire to keep the -numbers constant. This hypothesis yields a formulation of the scale-invariant theory that is simpler than other versions of it in which the Newtonian gravitational parameter G is treated as a field variable (Dirac, Hoyle/Narlikar, Canuto et al.). This simple formulation of scale-invariant gravity agrees with a recent reformulation of the (Perfect) Cosmological Principle. It also agrees with observations that have been made to date, and the equations suggest several new tests that can possibly be carried out.

  11. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

    PubMed Central

    Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Valet, Jean‐Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium‐10 (10Be) production rates. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05‐2920 and MD05‐2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05‐2920, MD05‐2930 and MD90‐0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest 10Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 1022 Am2) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant 10Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The 10Be‐derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes‐Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial‐scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities. PMID:28163989

  12. Authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary.

    PubMed

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-11-01

    Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 ((10)Be) production rates. Authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric (10)Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and MD05-2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05-2920, MD05-2930 and MD90-0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest (10)Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 10(22) Am(2)) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant (10)Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The (10)Be-derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes-Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial-scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities.

  13. Spatio-temporal variation of nectar robbing in Salvia gesneriflora and its effects on nectar production and legitimate visitors.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, E; Rosas-Guerrero, V

    2016-01-01

    Nectar robbing occurs when floral visitors remove floral nectar through floral damage and usually without providing pollination in return. Even though nectar robbing may have negative, neutral or even positive effects on plant fitness, few studies have investigated temporal and spatial variation in robbing rate and their consequences, particularly in the tropics. In this study, robbing levels were estimated during 3 years in four populations of Salvia gesneriflora, a hummingbird-pollinated shrub endemic to central Mexico that is mainly robbed by birds, carpenter bees and bumblebees. The effect of robbing on nectar availability, flower longevity and on visitation rate by floral visitors was also evaluated. Our results indicate great variation in robbing levels across years and populations and a positive relationship between robbing level and flower abundance per population. Moreover, our results show that nectar availability is about eight times higher in unrobbed flowers than in robbed flowers, and that nectar robbers prefer younger flowers, although lifespan of robbed and unrobbed flowers did not differ statistically. Primary and secondary nectar robbers showed a higher visitation rate compared to legitimate visitors, and neither legitimate nor illegitimate floral visitors seem to discriminate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. These results suggest that robbers may respond to food availability and that no floral visitors apparently could differentiate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. Finally, results show that nectar robbers prefer the youngest flowers, which suggests that strong competition for access to nectar between pollinators and robbers might occur, mainly at the first stages of the flowers.

  14. The effect of seasonal variation on biomethane production from seaweed and on application as a gaseous transport biofuel.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-06-01

    Biomethane produced from seaweed may be used as a transport biofuel. Seasonal variation will have an effect on this industry. Laminaria digitata, a typical Irish brown seaweed species, shows significant seasonal variation both in proximate, ultimate and biochemical composition. The characteristics in August were optimal with the lowest level of ash (20% of volatile solids), a C:N ratio of 32 and the highest specific methane yield measured at 327LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 72% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per mass collected of 53m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in August, which is 4.5 times higher than the lowest value, obtained in December. A seaweed cultivation area of 11,800ha would be required to satisfy the 2020 target for advanced biofuels in Ireland, of 1.25% renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T) based on the optimal gross energy yield obtained in August (200GJha(-1)yr(-1)).

  15. Spring onset variations and long-term trends from new hemispheric-scale products and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, D. G.; Li, X.; Ault, T.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Schwartz, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Spring onset is commonly characterized by plant phenophase changes among a variety of biophysical transitions and has important implications for natural and man-managed ecosystems. Here, we present a new integrated analysis of variability in gridded Northern Hemisphere spring onset metrics. We developed a set of hemispheric temperature-based spring indices spanning 1920-2013. As these were derived solely from meteorological data, they are used as a benchmark for isolating the climate system's role in modulating spring "green up" estimated from the annual cycle of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Spatial patterns of interannual variations, teleconnections, and long-term trends were also analyzed in all metrics. At mid-to-high latitudes, all indices exhibit larger variability at interannual to decadal time scales than at spatial scales of a few kilometers. Trends of spring onset vary across space and time. However, compared to long-term trend, interannual to decadal variability generally accounts for a larger portion of the total variance in spring onset timing. Therefore, spring onset trends identified from short existing records may be aliased by decadal climate variations due to their limited temporal depth, even when these records span the entire satellite era. Based on our findings, we also demonstrated that our indices have skill in representing ecosystem-level spring phenology and may have important implications in understanding relationships between phenology, atmosphere dynamics and climate variability.

  16. Spatial variation in vegetation productivity trends, fire disturbance, and soil carbon across arctic-boreal permafrost ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranty, Michael M.; Liberman-Cribbin, Wil; Berner, Logan T.; Natali, Susan M.; Goetz, Scott J.; Alexander, Heather D.; Kholodov, Alexander L.

    2016-09-01

    In arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystems vegetation structural and functional influences on the surface energy balance can strongly influence permafrost soil temperatures. As such, vegetation changes will likely play an important role in permafrost soil carbon dynamics and associated climate feedbacks. Processes that lead to changes in vegetation, such as wildfire or ecosystem responses to rising temperatures, are of critical importance to understanding the impacts of arctic and boreal ecosystems on future climate. Yet these processes vary within and between ecosystems and this variability has not been systematically characterized across the arctic-boreal region. Here we quantify the distribution of vegetation productivity trends, wildfire, and near-surface soil carbon, by vegetation type, across the zones of continuous and discontinuous permafrost. Siberian larch forests contain more than one quarter of permafrost soil carbon in areas of continuous permafrost. We observe pervasive positive trends in vegetation productivity in areas of continuous permafrost, whereas areas underlain by discontinuous permafrost have proportionally less positive productivity trends and an increase in areas exhibiting negative productivity trends. Fire affects a much smaller proportion of the total area and thus a smaller amount of permafrost soil carbon, with the vast majority occurring in deciduous needleleaf forests. Our results indicate that vegetation productivity trends may be linked to permafrost distribution, fire affects a relatively small proportion of permafrost soil carbon, and Siberian larch forests will play a crucial role in the strength of the permafrost carbon climate feedback.

  17. Theory and practice of supersaturatable formulations for poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohsaku

    2015-03-01

    Candidate compounds with high activity do not always possess adequate physicochemical properties to be developed as commercial products. Notably, the development of candidates with poor aqueous solubility has been a great challenge in the past two decades. Formulations that offer supersaturated state during the dissolution process are considered effective for increasing the oral bioavailability of such candidates. Representative supersaturatable dosage forms include amorphous solid dispersions, nanocrystal formulations and self-(micro)emulsifying drug delivery systems. This review describes the characteristics of these formulations, with emphasis on the suitability of the candidates for each type of formulation, from a physicochemical viewpoint. Influence of developmental strategy on the formulation selection is also discussed. This review aims to provide guidance for selecting formulations for poorly soluble drugs based on both academic and practical backgrounds.

  18. Field theory on R× S 3 topology: Lagrangian formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.; Malka, A.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the ordinary field theory, from the variational and Noether's theorem point of view, is outlined. A discussion is then given of the field equations of Klein-Gordon, Schrödinger, Dirac, Weyl, and Maxwell in their ordinary form on the Minkowskian space-time manifold as well as on the topological space-time manifold R × S3 as they were formulated by Carmeli and Malin, including the latter's most general solutions. We then formulate the general variational principle in the R × S3 topological space, from which we derive the field equations in this space.

  19. Response of cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii taverneri to spatial and temporal variation in production of crowberries on the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Safine, David E.; Nielson, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic geese often feed on berries during premigratory fattening. We hypothesized that during autumn staging on the Alaska Peninsula, the distribution of Taverne's cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii taverneri) would be correlated with spatial variation in crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) abundance. We also predicted that daily rates of fat increase among cackling geese would be higher in years when crowberries were abundant, compared to years when the crowberry crop was poor. Apparent distribution of geese based on fecal densities mirrored patterns of berry abundance, with areas that had highest densities of crowberries being used most heavily by geese. In areas where apparent use was greatest, geese consumed approximately 30 % of the berry crop between early September and mid-October. From 1999 to 2002, annual mean crowberry density in early September ranged from 205 berries m-2 (1999) to 12 berries m-2 (2002). Daily rates of lipid increase averaged 7.6 g day-1 for juvenile and 11.4 g-1 day for adult cackling geese and did not differ among years despite a >90 % difference in annual berry abundance. Although cackling geese used areas with higher densities of berries and apparently consumed a relatively large percentage of the crowberry crop, we could not detect an effect of annual variation in berry abundance on rates of fattening. Berries may have provided relatively little metabolizable biomass due to their high (90 %) water content. However, consumption of crowberries may provide geese with other physiological benefits such as water for osmoregulation or antioxidants and fatty acids that contribute to metabolic performance during migration.

  20. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets

  1. Generalized quasi-variational inequality and implicit complementarity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jen-Chih.

    1989-10-01

    A new problem called the generalized quasi-variational inequality problem is introduced. This new formulation extends all kinds of variational inequality problem formulations that have been introduced and enlarges the class of problems that can be approached by the variational inequality problem formulation. Existence results without convexity assumptions are established and topological properties of the solution set are investigated. A new problem called the generalized implicit complementarity problem is also introduced which generalizes all the complementarity problem formulations that have been introduced. Applications of generalized quasi-variational inequality and implicit complementarity problems are given. 43 refs.

  2. Variational formulation for weakly nonlinear perturbations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, M.

    2011-10-01

    A new equation of motion that governs weakly nonlinear phenomena in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHDs) is derived as a natural extension of the well-known linearized equation of motion for the displacement field. This derivation is made possible by expanding the MHD Lagrangian explicitly up to third order with respect to the displacement of plasma, which necessitates an efficient use of the Lie series expansion. The resultant equation of motion (i.e. the Euler-Lagrange equation) includes a new quadratic force term which is responsible for various mode-mode coupling due to the MHD nonlinearity. The third-order potential energy serves to quantify the coupling coefficient among resonant three modes and its cubic symmetry proves the Manley-Rowe relations. In contrast to earlier works, the coupling coefficient is expressed only by the displacement vector field, which is already familiar in the linear MHD theory, and both the fixed and free boundary cases are treated systematically.

  3. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS FORMULATION FOR A COOLING COIL GROUT

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E

    2008-05-23

    lower water to solids ratio. Nevertheless, the higher viscosity grout may still meet the requirements for the cooling coil grout under certain pumping conditions or alternatively, the mix may be made more fluid by a short period of high shear mixing during production. The mixes have not been optimized for large scale production. It may be possible, for example, to adjust the water to cementitious materials ratio to provide improved performance of these mixes based on the results and conclusions of the large scale testing at CETL. Recommendations from this task include incorporation of a backup mixing/pumping system that is either integrated into the system or is available for immediate use in case of a pump or mixer failure of the primary system. A second recommendation is to conduct a laboratory scale investigation to determine the impact of operational variation on the properties of the grout. This effort would be initiated after feedback is received from the large scale testing at CETL. The purpose of this proposed variability testing is to better understand the limits of the operational variations (such as temperature and mixing time), and to identify possible approaches for remediation to ensure that the grout produced will flow effectively in the coils while still meeting the performance requirements.

  4. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  5. Nonlinear finite element analysis: An alternative formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merazzi, S.; Stehlin, P.

    1980-01-01

    A geometrical nonlinear analysis based on an alternative definition of strain is presented. Expressions for strain are obtained by computing the change in length of the base vectors in the curvilinear element coordinate system. The isoparametric element formulation is assumed in the global Cartesian coordinate system. The approach is based on the minimization of the strain energy, and the resulting nonlinear equations are solved by the modified Newton method. Integration of the first and second variation of the strain energy is performed numerically in the case of two and three dimensional elements. Application is made to a simple long cantilever beam.

  6. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  7. Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation for Analyzing Radially Symmetrical Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaljevic, Igor; Saigal, Sunil; Hopkins, Dale A.; Patnaik, Surya N.

    1994-01-01

    A force method formulation, the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF), has been developed for analyzing boundary value problems in elastic continua. The CBMF is obtained by augmenting the classical Beltrami-Michell formulation with novel boundary compatibility conditions. It can analyze general elastic continua with stress, displacement, or mixed boundary conditions. The CBMF alleviates the limitations of the classical formulation, which can solve stress boundary value problems only. In this report, the CBMF is specialized for plates and shells. All equations of the CBMF, including the boundary compatibility conditions, are derived from the variational formulation of the integrated force method (IFM). These equations are defined only in terms of stresses. Their solution for kinematically stable elastic continua provides stress fields without any reference to displacements. In addition, a stress function formulation for plates and shells is developed by augmenting the classical Airy's formulation with boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of the stress function. The versatility of the CBMF and the augmented stress function formulation is demonstrated through analytical solutions of several mixed boundary value problems. The example problems include a composite circular plate and a composite circular cylindrical shell under the simultaneous actions of mechanical and thermal loads.

  8. Natural variation in the glucose content of dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated rice straw liquid hydrolysates: implications for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Goda, Takashi; Teramura, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Miki; Kanamaru, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Rice straw is a promising resource for bioethanol production. Because the glucose content of pretreatment liquid hydrolysates is highly correlated with ethanol yield, the selection of appropriate rice cultivars is essential. The glucose content in liquid hydrolysates of pretreated rice straws of 208 diverse cultivars was evaluated in natural field in 2013 and 2014 using a novel high-throughput system. The glucose content of the rice straw samples varied across cultivars and was affected by environmental factors such as temperature and solar radiation. Several high-quality cultivars exhibiting high glucose content in both years were identified. The results of this study can aid in development of novel rice cultivars suitable as both feedstocks for bioethanol production and cooking.

  9. Variations of net ecosystem production due to seasonal precipitation differences in a tropical dry forest of northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Vivian S.; Garatuza-Payán, Jaime; Yépez, Enrico A.; Watts, Christopher J.; Rodríguez, Julio C.; Robles-Morua, Agustin; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their large extent and high primary productivity, tropical dry forests (TDF) are important contributors to atmospheric carbon exchanges in subtropical and tropical regions. In northwest Mexico, a bimodal precipitation regime that includes winter precipitation derived from Pacific storms and summer precipitation from the North American monsoon (NAM) couples water availability with ecosystem processes. We investigated the net ecosystem production of a TDF ecosystem using a 4.5 year record of water and carbon fluxes obtained from the eddy covariance method complemented with remotely sensed data. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer that respiration is mainly due to decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the NAM. Precipitation characteristics during NAM have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF into the fall season. We identified that a threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of monsoon precipitation leads to a switch in the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This monsoonal precipitation threshold is typically exceeded one out of every 2 years. The close coupling of winter and summer periods with respect to carbon fluxes suggests that the annual carbon balance is dependent on precipitation amounts in both seasons in TDF ecosystems.

  10. Genetic Variation in the Histamine Production, Response, and Degradation Pathway Is Associated with Histamine Pharmacodynamic Response in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bridgette L.; Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Liu, Xiaoxi; Dai, Hongying; Vyhlidal, Carrie A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is growing knowledge of the wide ranging effects of histamine throughout the body therefore it is important to better understand the effects of this amine in patients with asthma. We aimed to explore the association between histamine pharmacodynamic (PD) response and genetic variation in the histamine pathway in children with asthma. Methods: Histamine Iontophoresis with Laser Doppler Monitoring (HILD) was performed in children with asthma and estimates for area under the effect curve (AUEC), maximal response over baseline (Emax), and time of Emax (Tmax) were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and non-linear mixed-effects model with a linked effect PK/PD model. DNA isolation and genotyping were performed among participants to detect known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 10) among genes (HDC, HNMT, ABP1, HRH1, HRH4) within the histamine pathway. General linear model was used to identify associations between histamine related genetic variants and measured histamine PD response parameters. Results: Genotyping and HILD response profiles were completed for 163 children. ABP1 47 C/T, ABP1 4107, and HNMT-1639 C/Twere associated with Emax (ABP1 47 CC genotype mean Emax 167.21 vs. CT/TT genotype mean Emax 139.20, p = 0.04; ABP1 4107 CC genotype mean Emax 141.72 vs. CG/GG genotype mean Emax 156.09, p = 0.005; HNMT-1639 CC genotype mean Emax 132.62 vs. CT/TT genotype mean Emax 155.3, p = 0.02). In a stratified analysis among African American children only, ABP1 and HNMT SNPs were also associated with PD response; HRH4 413 CC genotype was associated with lower Emax, p = 0.009. Conclusions: We show for the first time that histamine pathway genetic variation is associated with measureable changes in histamine response in children with asthma. The variability in histamine response and impact of histamine pathway genotype is important to further explore in patients with asthma so as to improve disease phenotyping leading to more

  11. Predicting skin penetration of actives from complex cosmetic formulations: an evaluation of inter formulation and inter active effects during formulation optimization for transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Wiechers, J W; Watkinson, A C; Cross, S E; Roberts, M S

    2012-12-01

    Twenty products, containing a radiolabelled form of each active in typical cosmetic formulations, were made and applied to female human epidermal membranes mounted in Franz diffusion cells for 48 h under 'in use' conditions. The products consisted of combinations of five formulations (a hydro-alcoholic gel, an oil in water emulsion, a water in oil emulsion, a microemulsion and an oil) with four model drug actives (testosterone, hydrocortisone, 5-fluorouracil and ketoconazole). Steady-state flux appeared to be reached by 8 h and maintained for all products, other than for the microemulsions, consistent with the actives being present in the residual formulation on the skin at saturation. The recovery for each active at the end of the 48-h study (from a series of stratum corneum tape strips, the remaining skin, cumulative amount penetrating into the receptor solution, product washed from the skin and on the donor chamber cap) ranged from 86.5% to 100.6%. The rank order of the fluxes for the actives from the hydro-alcoholic gel is consistent with the known active molecular size and polarity determinants for maximum epidermal flux. Actives with similar steady-state (maximum) fluxes from a range of formulations had retention in the stratum corneum and similar transport rate constants through the stratum corneum. The microemulsion formulation significantly enhanced both the stratum corneum steady-state flux and transport rate constant for 5-fluorouracil, hydrocortisone and testosterone. The penetration flux of each active could be related to its size and polarity and appeared maximal when the actives in the different cosmetic formulations applied to the skin under 'in use' conditions were likely to remain in the residual product on the skin as a saturated solution after solvent evaporation. Enhanced penetration fluxes can be achieved by formulation selection and an appropriate choice/mix of emollients/adjuvants. The principles described here provide a framework for

  12. Variation in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) land use indicates production and population peaks prior to European contact

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Christopher M.; Puleston, Cedric O.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Haoa, Sonia; Ladefoged, Thegn N.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers believe that prehistoric Rapa Nui society collapsed because of centuries of unchecked population growth within a fragile environment. Recently, the notion of societal collapse has been questioned with the suggestion that extreme societal and demographic change occurred only after European contact in AD 1722. Establishing the veracity of demographic dynamics has been hindered by the lack of empirical evidence and the inability to establish a precise chronological framework. We use chronometric dates from hydrated obsidian artifacts recovered from habitation sites in regional study areas to evaluate regional land-use within Rapa Nui. The analysis suggests region-specific dynamics including precontact land use decline in some near-coastal and upland areas and postcontact increases and subsequent declines in other coastal locations. These temporal land-use patterns correlate with rainfall variation and soil quality, with poorer environmental locations declining earlier. This analysis confirms that the intensity of land use decreased substantially in some areas of the island before European contact. PMID:25561523

  13. Variation in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) land use indicates production and population peaks prior to European contact.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Christopher M; Puleston, Cedric O; Vitousek, Peter M; Chadwick, Oliver A; Haoa, Sonia; Ladefoged, Thegn N

    2015-01-27

    Many researchers believe that prehistoric Rapa Nui society collapsed because of centuries of unchecked population growth within a fragile environment. Recently, the notion of societal collapse has been questioned with the suggestion that extreme societal and demographic change occurred only after European contact in AD 1722. Establishing the veracity of demographic dynamics has been hindered by the lack of empirical evidence and the inability to establish a precise chronological framework. We use chronometric dates from hydrated obsidian artifacts recovered from habitation sites in regional study areas to evaluate regional land-use within Rapa Nui. The analysis suggests region-specific dynamics including precontact land use decline in some near-coastal and upland areas and postcontact increases and subsequent declines in other coastal locations. These temporal land-use patterns correlate with rainfall variation and soil quality, with poorer environmental locations declining earlier. This analysis confirms that the intensity of land use decreased substantially in some areas of the island before European contact.

  14. Seasonal variation of biomass and oil production of the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera sp. in outdoor vertical bubble column and raceway-type bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sato, Reiko; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of industrial biodiesel production, outdoor mass cultivation of the marine oleaginous diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, was conducted in bench-scale photobioreactors (∼200 L, raceway- and column-types) and seasonal variation of biomass and oil content were monitored. Through three seasons (from spring to autumn), the microalgae showed steady growth and oil accumulation in both reactors in spite of fluctuating temperature and solar irradiation. When comparing the both reactors, the column-type bioreactor was better with regard to energy conversion efficiency compared to the raceway-type bioreactor. The areal oil productivity of 3.23 g/m(2)/day is comparable or even higher level as compared with the one from other oleaginous microalgae prepared in outdoor mass cultivation. Furthermore, repeated batch culture experiments resulted in success at least 5 cycles. Through the experimental period, little bacterial contamination was observed while protozoal contamination was a fatal issue. The microalgal cell was robust enough to be handled by an automated pump system in inoculation and harvesting processes, and cell adhesion to the bioreactor wall was not observed. These beneficial features could realize ease of oil production and system maintenance. These findings ensure promising innovation by means of outdoor mass cultivation with this strain toward biodiesel production.

  15. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) container productivity in a slum and a suburban district of Rio de Janeiro during dry and wet seasons.

    PubMed

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Marques, William A; Peres, Roberto C; Cunha, Sérgio P; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

    2007-06-01

    Seasonal variation in container productivity and infestation levels by Aedes aegypti were evaluated in two areas with distinct levels of urbanization degrees in Rio de Janeiro, a slum and a suburban neighborhood. The four most productive containers can generate up to 90% of total pupae. Large and open-mouthed containers, such as water tanks and metal drums, located outdoors were the most productive in both areas, with up to 47.49% of total Ae. aegypti pupae collected in the shaded sites in the suburban area. Water-tanks were identified as key containers in both areas during both the dry and rainy seasons. Container productivity varied according to seasons and urbanization degree. However, the mean number of pupae per house was higher in the suburban area, but not varied between seasons within each area (P > 0.05). High infestation indexes were observed for both localities, with a house index of 20.5-21.14 in the suburban and of 9.56-11.22 in the urban area. This report gives potential support to a more focused and cost-effective Ae. aegypti control in Rio de Janeiro.

  16. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  17. Variation in lipid extractability by solvent in microalgae. Additional criterion for selecting species and strains for biofuel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Héctor; Carmona, Laura; Assunção, Patricia; Freijanes, Karen; de la Jara, Adelina; Portillo, Eduardo; Torres, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    The lipid extractability of 14 microalgae species and strains was assessed using organic solvents (methanol and chloroform). The high variability detected indicated the potential for applying this parameter as an additional criterion for microalgae screening in industrial processes such as biofuel production from microalgae. Species without cell walls presented higher extractability than species with cell walls. Analysis of cell integrity by flow cytometry and staining with propidium iodide showed a significant correlation between higher resistance to the physical treatments of cell rupture by sonication and the lipid extractability of the microalgae. The results highlight the cell wall as a determining factor in the inter- and intraspecific variability in lipid extraction treatments.

  18. Work Element B: 157. Sampling in Fish-Bearing Reaches [Variation in Productivity in Headwater Reaches of the Wenatchee Subbasin], Final Report for PNW Research Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Polivka, Karl; Bennett, Rita L.

    2009-03-31

    We studied variation in productivity in headwater reaches of the Wenatchee subbasin for multiple field seasons with the objective that we could develop methods for monitoring headwater stream conditions at the subcatchment and stream levels, assign a landscape-scale context via the effects of geoclimatic parameters on biological productivity (macroinvertebrates and fish) and use this information to identify how variability in productivity measured in fishless headwaters is transmitted to fish communities in downstream habitats. In 2008, we addressed this final objective. In collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks we found some broad differences in the production of aquatic macroinvertebrates and in fish abundance across categories that combine the effects of climate and management intensity within the subbasin (ecoregions). From a monitoring standpoint, production of benthic macroinvertebrates was not a good predictor of drifting macroinvertebrates and therefore might be a poor predictor of food resources available to fish. Indeed, there is occasionally a correlation between drifting macroinvertebrate abundance and fish abundance which suggests that headwater-derived resources are important. However, fish in the headwaters appeared to be strongly food-limited and there was no evidence that fishless headwaters provided a consistent subsidy to fish in reaches downstream. Fish abundance and population dynamics in first order headwaters may be linked with similar metrics further down the watershed. The relative strength of local dynamics and inputs into productivity may be constrained or augmented by large-scale biogeoclimatic control. Headwater streams are nested within watersheds, which are in turn nested within ecological subregions; thus, we hypothesized that local effects would not necessarily be mutually exclusive from large-scale influence. To test this we examined the density of primarily salmonid fishes at several spatial and temporal scales

  19. Variation in Type A Trichothecene Production and Trichothecene Biosynthetic Genes in Fusarium goolgardi from Natural Ecosystems of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Laurence, Matthew H.; Proctor, Robert H.; McCormick, Susan P.; Summerell, Brett A.; Liew, Edward C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium goolgardi, isolated from the grass tree Xanthorrhoea glauca in natural ecosystems of Australia, is closely related to fusaria that produce a subgroup of trichothecene (type A) mycotoxins that lack a carbonyl group at carbon atom 8 (C-8). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that F. goolgardi isolates produce type A trichothecenes, but exhibited one of two chemotypes. Some isolates (50%) produced multiple type A trichothecenes, including 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NEO), 8-acetylneosolaniol (Ac-NEO) and T-2 toxin (DAS-NEO-T2 chemotype). Other isolates (50%) produced only DAS (DAS chemotype). In the phylogenies inferred from DNA sequences of genes encoding the RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunits as well as the trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI), F. goolgardi isolates were resolved as a monophyletic clade, distinct from other type A trichothecene-producing species. However, the relationships of F. goolgardi to the other species varied depending on whether phylogenies were inferred from RPB1 and RPB2, the 12-gene TRI cluster, the two-gene TRI1-TRI16 locus, or the single-gene TRI101 locus. Phylogenies based on different TRI loci resolved isolates with different chemotypes into distinct clades, even though only the TRI1-TRI16 locus is responsible for structural variation at C-8. Sequence analysis indicated that TRI1 and TRI16 are functional in F. goolgardi isolates with the DAS-NEO-T2 chemotype, but non-functional in isolates with DAS chemotype due to the presence of premature stop codons caused by a point mutation. PMID:26556373

  20. Biopsychosocial Formulation: Recognizing Educational Shortcomings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Tina; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Clardy, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Since Engel introduced the biopsychosocial model, it has been extensively examined. The authors expect psychiatrists to formulate cases using the biopsychosocial model. However, resident psychiatrists' ability to generate formulations using this model has received little attention. Methods: The authors evaluated resident biopsychosocial…

  1. Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)

  2. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana.

  3. Seasonal and Inter-annual Variation in Wood Production in Tropical Trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, is Related to Local Climate and Species Functional Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, K.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Kellner, J. R.; Wright, S. J.; Condit, R.; Detto, M.; Tribble, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest carbon budgets play a major role in global carbon dynamics, but the responses of tropical forests to current and future inter-annual climatic variation remains highly uncertain. Better predictions of future tropical forest carbon fluxes require an improved understanding of how different species of tropical trees respond to changes in climate at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scales. We installed dendrometer bands on a size-stratified sample of 2000 trees in old growth forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a moist lowland forest that experiences an annual dry season of approximately four months. Tree diameters were measured at the beginning and end of the rainy season since 2008. Additionally, we recorded the canopy illumination level, canopy intactness, and liana coverage of all trees during each census. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate how tree growth was related to seasonal and interannual variation in local climate, tree condition, and species identity, and how species identity effects related to tree functional traits. Climatic variables considered included precipitation, solar radiation, soil moisture, and climatological water deficit, and were all calculated from high-quality on-site measurements. Functional traits considered included wood density, maximum adult stature, deciduousness, and drought tolerance. We found that annual wood production was positively related to water availability, with higher growth in wetter years. Species varied in their response to seasonal water availability, with some species showing more pronounced reduction of growth during the dry season when water availability is limited. Interspecific variation in seasonal and interannual growth patterns was related to life-history strategies and species functional traits. The finding of higher growth in wetter years is consistent with previous tree ring studies conducted on a small subset of species with reliable annual rings. Together with previous

  4. Accelerating Vaccine Formulation Development Using Design of Experiment Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Ahl, Patrick L; Mensch, Christopher; Hu, Binghua; Pixley, Heidi; Zhang, Lan; Dieter, Lance; Russell, Ryann; Smith, William J; Przysiecki, Craig; Kosinski, Mike; Blue, Jeffrey T

    2016-10-01

    Vaccine drug product thermal stability often depends on formulation input factors and how they interact. Scientific understanding and professional experience typically allows vaccine formulators to accurately predict the thermal stability output based on formulation input factors such as pH, ionic strength, and excipients. Thermal stability predictions, however, are not enough for regulators. Stability claims must be supported by experimental data. The Quality by Design approach of Design of Experiment (DoE) is well suited to describe formulation outputs such as thermal stability in terms of formulation input factors. A DoE approach particularly at elevated temperatures that induce accelerated degradation can provide empirical understanding of how vaccine formulation input factors and interactions affect vaccine stability output performance. This is possible even when clear scientific understanding of particular formulation stability mechanisms are lacking. A DoE approach was used in an accelerated 37(°)C stability study of an aluminum adjuvant Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B vaccine. Formulation stability differences were identified after only 15 days into the study. We believe this study demonstrates the power of combining DoE methodology with accelerated stress stability studies to accelerate and improve vaccine formulation development programs particularly during the preformulation stage.

  5. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.

  6. [Formation and Variation of Brominated Disinfection By-products in A Combined Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis Process for Seawater Desalination].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Sun, Ying-xue; Shi, Na; Hu, Hong-ying

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and brominated disinfection by-products ( Br-DBPs ) during a seawater desalination ultrafiltration (UF) combined reverse osmosis (RO) process were studied. The seawater contained high level of bromide ion (45.6-50.9 mg x L(-1)) and aromatic compounds with specific ultraviolet absorbance ( SUVA) of 3.6-6.0 L x (mg x m)(-1). The tryptophan-like aromatic protein, fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like were the main fluorescent DOM in the seawater. After pre-chlorination of the seawater, the concentrations of DBPs was significantly increased in the influent of UF, which was dominantly the Br-DBPs. Bromoform (CHBr3) accounted for 70.48% - 91.50% of total trihalomethanes (THMs), dibromoacetic acid (Br2CHCO2H) occupied 81.14% - 100% of total haloacetic acids (HAAs) and dibromoacetonitrile (C2HBr2N) occupied 83.77% - 87.45% of total haloacetonitriles ( HANs). The removal efficiency of THMs, HAAs and HANs by the UF membrane was 36.63% - 40.39%, 73.83% - 95.38% and 100%, respectively. The RO membrane could completely remove the HAAs, while a little of the THMs was penetrated. The antiestrogenic activity in the seawater was 0.35 - 0.44 mg x L(-1), which was increased 32% - 69% after the pre-chlorination. The DBPs and other bio-toxic organics which formed during the UF-RO process were finally concentrated in the UF concentrate and RO concentrate.

  7. Variation in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production by Wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Its Effect on Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Yu; Chen, Hung-Wei; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common naturally occurring and most thoroughly studied plant growth regulator. Microbial synthesis of IAA has long been known. Microbial IAA biosynthesis has been proposed as possibly occurring through multiple pathways, as has been proven in plants. However, the biosynthetic pathways of IAA and the ecological roles of IAA in yeast have not been widely studied. In this study, we investigated the variation in IAA production and its effect on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative Saccharomyces paradoxus yeasts from diverse ecological sources. We found that almost all Saccharomyces yeasts produced IAA when cultured in medium supplemented with the primary precursor of IAA, L-tryptophan (L-Trp). However, when cultured in medium without L-Trp, IAA production was only detected in three strains. Furthermore, exogenous added IAA exerted stimulatory and inhibitory effects on yeast growth. Interestingly, a negative correlation was observed between the amount of IAA production in the yeast cultures and the IAA inhibition ratio of their growth. PMID:27483373

  8. Genetic variation of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in young crossbred ewes and its relationship with their maintenance feed intake at maturity and production traits.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, R A; Fogarty, N M

    2008-09-01

    The genetic variation of plasma IGF-I in crossbred ewe lambs postweaning was evaluated together with its potential use as a physiological marker for selection in meat sheep. Genetic variation for IGF-I was analyzed among 1,246 young crossbred ewes that were the progeny of 30 sires from various maternal breeds and Merino dams. The estimate of heritability of IGF-I was 0.28 +/- 0.10, with sire breed not being significant. Genetic correlations were estimated between IGF-I and performance traits of the ewes, including feed intake, growth, body composition, wool, and reproduction over 3 matings. Although the genetic correlations had high standard errors because of the limited size of the data set, the correlation between IGF-I and grazing feed intake of the mature ewes at maintenance was positive (0.32 +/- 0.31). The genetic correlations of IGF-I with other traits ranged from positive and low to moderate for growth (0.05 to 0.36), positive for ultrasound eye muscle depth (0.15), and negative for ultrasound fat depth (-0.12) in the mature ewes, and close to zero for the wool traits. The genetic correlation between IGF-I and the average number of lambs born per ewe mated was negative (-0.18), whereas that for the average number of lambs weaned per ewe mated was positive (0.10). The parameters indicated that genetic variation exists for IGF-I in sheep, and selection for low IGF-I in young ewes may result in some reduction in feed intake and improvement in maintenance efficiency of mature ewes under grazing, with little impact on other production traits. However, the genetic correlations had high standard errors, and more precise estimates of these parameters are required for genetic evaluation and to predict with confidence the outcome of breeding programs.

  9. Enzymatic detergent formulation containing amylase from Aspergillus niger: a comparative study with commercial detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Mitidieri, Sydnei; Souza Martinelli, Anne Helene; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2006-07-01

    There is a wide range of biotechnological applications for amylases, including the textile, pharmaceutical, food and laundry industries. Hydrolytic enzymes are 100% biodegradable and enzymatic detergents can achieve effective cleaning with lukewarm water. Microorganisms and culture media were tested for amylase production and the best producer was Aspergillus niger L119 (3.9 U ml(-1) +/- 0.2) in submerged culture and its amylase demonstrated excellent activity at 50-55 degrees C and pH 4.0, remaining stable at 53 degrees C for up to 200 h. In order to establish the potential uses of this enzyme in detergents, different formulations were tested using the A. niger amylase extract. Enzyme activity was compared with three commercial formulations. The detergents are used in hospitals to clean surgical and endoscopy equipment. The presence of amylase in the formulation is because of its action within hospital drainage system, whether or not it has any function in cleaning the equipment.

  10. Conference report: formulating better medicines for children: 4th European Paediatric Formulation Initiative conference.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer; Mills, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The fourth annual European Paediatric Formulation Initiative (EuPFI) conference on Formulating Better Medicines for Children was held on 19-20 September 2012 at the Institute of Molecular Genetics Congress Centre, Prague, Czech Republic. The 2-day conference concentrated on the latest advances, challenges and opportunities for developing medicinal products and administration devices for pediatric use, both from European and US perspectives. It was aimed specifically at providing exposure to emerging practical applications, and for illustrating remedies utilized by pediatric drug-development teams to overcome hurdles faced in developing medicines for pediatric patients. The conference format included plenary talks, focus sessions on each of the EuPFI work streams (extemporaneous preparations, excipients, pediatric administration devices, taste masking and taste assessment, age-appropriate formulations), case studies, soapbox sessions and a parallel poster display. This conference report summarizes the keynote lectures and also gives a flavor of other presentations and posters from the conference.

  11. Seasonal variations in the household exposures of Korean housewives to volatile tap water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hekap

    2008-09-15

    This study was conducted to compare housewives' winter and summer exposures to volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) in chlorinated tap water. A total of 60 households were visited for this purpose: 27 in winter and 33 in summer. Each subject was given a questionnaire regarding general tap water use, household ventilation time, and activities related to water use. Tap water, household air, and exhaled breath samples were also collected during the visits. All of the subjects answered that they consumed tap water after either thermal treatment or purification through filtration systems. A longer ventilation time in winter than in summer resulted in a higher inhalation exposure for housewives during that season. Estimated chronic daily intakes calculated for winter and summer showed that in winter, the greatest risk at home is inhalation exposure while resting at home, whereas in summer, it is showering. In both seasons, the ingestion route can be discounted, because tap water is processed before consumption, eliminating the volatile DBPs. From this study, it is evident that the inhalation of household air while resting at home cannot be ignored in risk assessment. Moreover, the fact that water is normally boiled or filtered before use should also be considered.

  12. Spatial variations of human health risk associated with exposure to chlorination by-products occurring in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Legay, Christelle; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan; Sérodes, Jean B; Levallois, Patrick; Proulx, Francois

    2011-03-01

    During disinfection, chlorine reacts with organic matter present in drinking water and forms various undesirable chlorinated by-products (CBPs). This paper describes a study of the spatial variability of human health risk (i.e., cancer effects) from CBP exposure through drinking water in a specific region. The region under study involves nine drinking water distribution systems divided into several zones based on their characteristics. The spatial distribution of cancer risk (CR) was estimated using two years of data (2006-2008) on various CBP species. In this analysis, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) served as surrogates for CBPs. Three possible routes of exposure (i.e., via ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact) were considered for each selected compound. The cancer risk assessment involved estimating a unit risk (R(T)) in each zone of the selected distribution systems. A probabilistic analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations was employed. Risk assessment results showed that cancer risk varied between systems, but also within individual systems. As a result, the population of the same region was not exposed to the same risk associated with CBPs in drinking water. Unacceptable levels (i.e., R(T) > 10(-4)) for the estimated CR were determined for several zones in the studied region. This study demonstrates that a spatial-based analysis performed to represent the spatial distribution of risk estimates can be helpful in identifying suitable risk management strategies. Suggestions for improving the risk analysis procedure are also presented.

  13. On the scale variation of the total cross section for Higgs production at the LHC and at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafarella, A.; Corianò, C.; Guzzi, M.; Smith, J.

    2006-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the total pp cross section for scalar Higgs production to next-to-next-to-leading order in αs at LHC energies, and of the pp¯ cross section at the Tevatron, combining an implementation of the solutions of the parton evolution equations at the three-loop order with the corresponding hard scatterings, evaluated at the same perturbative order. Our solutions of the DGLAP equations are implemented directly in x-space and allow for the study of the dependence of the results on the factorization (μF) and renormalization scales (μR) typical of a given process, together with the stability of the perturbative expansion. The input sets for the parton evolutions are those given by Martin, Roberts, Stirling and Thorne and by Alekhin. Results for K-factors are also presented. The NNLO corrections can be quite sizeable at typical collider energies. The stability region of the perturbative expansion is found when μR>mH˜μF.

  14. Seasonal variation in the occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant in Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Lv, Min; Hu, Anyi; Yang, Xiaoyong; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-07-30

    The occurrence and seasonal variation of 50 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Xiamen, China was investigated over a period of one year. Among the targets, 39 PPCPs were detected in the influent. The highest concentration was observed for acetaminophen, with the average concentration in the influent of 2963.5ng/L. The seasonal variation of PPCPs in the influent was observed. For most pharmaceuticals, highest concentrations were in March 2013, followed by December 2012, while the concentrations were lower in August 2012 and May 2013. Among the detected PPCPs, 14 targets could be removed more than 50% in the WWTP. The activated sludge treatment process contributed to most of PPCP removal, while the adsorption to the particles in the primary treatment and the transformation under UV radiation in the disinfection treatment also contributed to the PPCP removal. Among the detected PPCPs in the influent, 36 PPCPs could be detected in the final effluent of the WWTP. Significantly higher concentrations of PPCPs were observed in effluent samples collected in March 2013 compared to other seasons, suggesting higher concentrations of PPCPs could be discharged into the surrounding seawater during this period.

  15. Variation of the water production rate of comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina) from SOHO/SWAN observations throughout its apparition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, Michael; Mäkinen, Terhi; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Quémerais, Eric; Ferron, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    The all-sky hydrogen Lyman-alpha camera, SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies), on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite makes observations of the hydrogen coma of comets. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge atomic hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily full-sky SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates are calculated using our time-resolved model (Mäkinen & Combi, 2005, Icarus 177, 217), typically yielding about 1 observation every 2 days on the average. Here we describe the analysis of observations of comets observed during 2015 and 2016 of bright comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina). C/2013 US10 reached a perihelion distance of 0.82286 AU on 15.7 November 2015. The pre-perihelion leg of the apparition followed an average power law variation of 3.7 x 1029 r-1.3 molecules s-1, where r is the heliocentric distance in AU. This rather flat variation is not atypical of new Oort cloud comets on their first pass through the inner solar system. Support from grants NNX11AH50G from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program and NNX13AQ66G from the NASA Planetary Mission Data Analysis Program are gratefully acknowledged, as is support from CNRS, CNES, and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI).

  16. Occurrence and spatial and temporal variations of disinfection by-products in the water and air of two indoor swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Catto, Cyril; Sabrina, Simard; Ginette, Charest-Tardif; Manuel, Rodriguez; Robert, Tardif

    2012-08-01

    In order to improve disinfection by-product (DBP) exposure assessment, this study was designed to document both water and air levels of these chemical contaminants in two indoor swimming pools and to analyze their within-day and day-to-day variations in both of them. Intensive sampling was carried out during two one-week campaigns to measure trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines (CAMs) in water and air, and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water several times daily. Water samples were systematically collected at three locations in each pool and air samples were collected at various heights around the pool and in other rooms (e.g., changing room) in the buildings. In addition, the ability of various models to predict air concentrations from water was tested using this database. No clear trends, but actual variations of contamination levels, appeared for both water and air according to the sampling locations and times. Likewise, the available models resulted in realistic but imprecise estimates of air contamination levels from water. This study supports the recommendation that suitable minimal air and water sampling should be carried out in swimming pools to assess exposure to DBPs.

  17. Aerosol characterization of nebulized intranasal glucocorticoid formulations.

    PubMed

    Berlinski, A; Waldrep, J C

    2001-01-01

    Inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs) are the mainstay of long-term therapy for asthma. The lack of suitable preparations in the United States has induced clinicians to use intranasal (IN) GC formulations as "nebulizer suspensions" for off-label therapy. However, no data are available regarding aerosol production and characteristics. The aim of this study was to characterize drug outputs and aerodynamic profiles of four nebulized IN GC formulations with further analysis of flunisolide (Flu), and to test the influence of different delivery system/formulation combinations. The aerodynamic profiles and drug outputs were determined by impaction and chemical analysis. The solution output was determined by the gravimetric technique. Triamcinole acetonide (TAA), fluticasone propionate (Flut), beclomethasone dipropionate (Bec), and Flu (550, 500, 840, and 250 microg, respectively) diluted to 4 mL with saline solution were tested with the Sidestream (SID) and Aero-Tech II (AT2) nebulizers. Subsequently, Flu was tested with four additional nebulizers (Pari LC + [PARI] Acorn II, Hudson T Up-draft II, and Raindrop). All the aerosols were heterodisperse and had a particle size range optimal for peripheral airway deposition (1.85 to 3.67 microm). Flu had the highest drug output in the respirable range (22.8 and 20.3 microg/min with the AT and SID, respectively). Flu was 5-11 times more efficiently nebulized than the other formulations tested. No differences were detected in the solution outputs (0.25 to 0.3 mL/min). In subsequent testing of Flu, the PARI, AT, and SID showed the best performances. The LC+ achieved the highest drug and solution output (27.4 microg/min and 0.89 mL/min, respectively). In conclusion, Flu showed the best aerosol performance characteristics. These data do not endorse the off-label utilization of nebulized IN GC, but underscores the importance of in vitro testing before selecting any formulation/nebulizer combinations for clinical use.

  18. Significance of Strain in Formulation in Theory of Solid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic theory of solid mechanics was deemed complete circa 1860 when St. Venant provided the strain formulation or the field compatibility condition. The strain formulation was incomplete. The missing portion has been formulated and identified as the boundary compatibility condition (BCC). The BCC, derived through a variational formulation, has been verified through integral theorem and solution of problems. The BCC, unlike the field counterpart, do not trivialize when expressed in displacements. Navier s method and the stiffness formulation have to account for the extra conditions especially at the inter-element boundaries in a finite element model. Completion of the strain formulation has led to the revival of the direct force calculation methods: the Integrated Force Method (IFM) and its dual (IFMD) for finite element analysis, and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF) in elasticity. The benefits from the new methods in elasticity, in finite element analysis, and in design optimization are discussed. Existing solutions and computer codes may have to be adjusted for the compliance of the new conditions. Complacency because the discipline is over a century old and computer codes have been developed for half a century can lead to stagnation of the discipline.

  19. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  20. Novel formulations for antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2014-10-09

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  1. Predicting kinetic model of biogas production and biodegradability organic materials: biogas production from vinasse at variation of COD/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Syaichurrozi, Iqbal; Budiyono; Sumardiono, Siswo

    2013-12-01

    The biogas fermentation of vinasse (TS 7.015 ± 0.007%) was investigated within a wide range of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)/N (Total Nitrogen) ratio. Urea (46% nitrogen content) was added into substrate to adjust COD/N ratio of 400/7-700/7. This study used batch anaerobic digesters in laboratory-scale that were operated at room temperature in 60 days. The results showed that control variable, 400/7, 500/7, 600/7, 700/7 generated total biogas of 107.45, 123.87, 133.82, 139.17, 113.27 mL/g COD and had the value of COD removal of 31.274 ± 0.887, 33.483 ± 0.266, 36.573 ± 1.689, 38.088 ± 0.872, 32.714 ± 0.881%, respectively. Variable with COD/N ratio of 600/7 was the best variable. In the kinetic model of biogas production, variable with COD/N of 600/7 had kinetic constant of A (mL/g COD), μ (mL/g COD.day), λ (days) of 132.580, 15.200, 0.213, respectively. The model equation of kinetic of biodegradability organic materials obtained was [formula in text].

  2. Discovery and Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Don; Rodger, Caroline

    The uses of Raman spectroscopy in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) discovery, development and release cover a wide variety of sample types and applications. However, the technique does not have a high prominence in the pharmaceutical industry despite being recognised by regulatory authorities as a suitable methodology for the analysis and release of pharmaceutical API and products. One reason is that other analytical techniques are well established and changing to Raman methods is cost prohibitive considering return on investments (ROI). In addition the technique is often regarded as being one for "experts" and not one for main stream applications. As a consequence Raman spectroscopy is frequently the 2nd or 3rd technique of choice for a specific application. However, due to its unique sampling attributes (e.g. micro and macro measurements direct from the sample, through glass, from well plates or in the presence of water) and selectivity, applications of this technology are found throughout the life cycles of pharmaceutical products. It can therefore be considered to be a spectroscopic common denominator. This chapter highlights a number of routine, specialised and niche Raman spectroscopy applications which have been used in the development of new medicines while detailing some of the limitations of these approaches.

  3. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed.

  4. [The formulation aspects of drug liberation].

    PubMed

    Rácz, I

    1993-05-01

    Author raised problems and showed through research data some simple possibilities to achieve controlled release drug liberation. The dosage form developed during drug formulation work may influence the biological effects exerted by the active ingredients and therefore may alter the therapeutic efficacy, too. The dosage from itself includes all the chemical properties of active ingredients (salt-, ester form, polar-apolar material etc.), the physical state (crystal, amorphous, polymorphous, particle size, surface area, solvated state etc.), the value of stability and the parameters of auxiliary materials and manufacturing processes. The aim of formulation -among others-is to achieve the optimal liberation and bioavailability of drugs. The article reviews the possibilities through examples (theophylline, nitrofurantoin, phenacetin, antacids) how to make production prescriptions with high reproducibility used for the preparation of prolonged action systems with controlled release drug liberation.

  5. Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Khalafi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to design, formulate and evaluate the green tea gums with a suitable taste and quality in order to produce an anti-oxidant chewing gum. Materials and Methods: Fresh green tea leaves obtained from Northern Iran for extraction. Maceration is the extraction method that is used in this study. The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoids of the hydro alcoholic extract were measured. Various formulations of the 120 mg green tea extract chewing gums with different sweeteners, flavoring agents and various gum bases were prepared afterward release pattern, content uniformity, organoleptic results and other properties were characterized. Results: The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoid of the hydro alcoholic extraction were 207.32 mg/g, 130.00 mg/g and 200.82 mg/g, respectively. Release pattern of green tea chewing gum with different gum base ratios and various sweeteners in phosphate buffer were prepared. A total of 60 persons who were 20-30 years of age, participated in our panel test for organoleptic properties such as taste, stiffness, stickiness, etc., Acceptable gum was the one with the same ratio of the used rubber bases. Cinnamon selected as the preferred taste by volunteers. Combination of aspartame, sugar and maltitol has appropriate taste. The effect of various sweetener on release pattern was negligible, on the other hand rubber bases ratio variation, changed the release pattern obviously. Conclusion: The green tea chewing gum with sugar, maltitol and aspartame sweeteners and cinnamon flavor, using the same rubber bases ratio may be a desirable antioxidant product. PMID:25161989

  6. High concentration biotherapeutic formulation and ultrafiltration: Part 1 pressure limits.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Herb; Arias, Joshua; Zou, Yu

    2017-01-01

    High therapeutic dosage requirements and the desire for ease of administration drive the trend to subcutaneous administration using delivery systems such as subcutaneous pumps and prefilled syringes. Because of dosage volume limits, prefilled syringe administration requires higher concentration liquid formulations, limited to about 30 cP or roughly 100-300 g L(-1) for mAb's. Ultrafiltration (UF) processes are routinely used to formulate biological therapeutics. This article considers pressure constraints on the UF process that may limit its ability to achieve high final product concentrations. A system hardware analysis shows that the ultrafiltration cassette pressure drop is the major factor limiting UF systems. Additional system design recommendations are also provided. The design and performance of a new cassette with a lower feed channel flow resistance is described along with 3D modeling of feed channel pressure drop. The implications of variations in cassette flow channel resistance for scaling up and setting specifications are considered. A recommendation for a maximum pressure specification is provided. A review of viscosity data and theory shows that molecular engineering, temperature, and the use of viscosity modifying excipients including pH adjustment can be used to achieve higher concentrations. The combined use of a low pressure drop cassette with excipients further increased final concentrations by 35%. Guidance is provided on system operation to control hydraulics during final concentration. These recommendations should allow one to design and operate systems to routinely achieve the 30 cP target final viscosity capable of delivery using a pre-filled syringe. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:113-124, 2017.

  7. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th-10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Jesset, Sébastien; Thébault, Erwan; Bouillon, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Annie; Le Goff, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity determinations of both thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate. Intensity analyses were also carried out on modern pottery produced at Saran during an experimental firing. The results show very good agreement with the geomagnetic field intensity directly measured inside and around the kiln, thus reasserting the reliability of the Triaxe protocol and the relevance of the quality criteria used. They further demonstrate the potential of the Saran pottery production for archeomagnetism. The new archeointensity results allow a precise and coherent description of the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe during the Early Medieval period, which was until now poorly documented. They show a significant increase in intensity during the 6th century AD, high intensity values from the 7th to the 9th century, with a minimum of small amplitude at the transition between the 7th and the 8th centuries and finally an important decrease until the beginning of the 11th century. Together with published intensity results available within a radius of 700 km around Paris, the new data were used to compute a master curve of the Western European geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 1500 years. This curve clearly exhibits five intensity maxima: at the transition between the 6th and 7th century AD, at the middle of the 9th century, during the 12th century, in the second part of the 14th century and at the very beginning of the 17th century AD. Some of these peaks are smoothed, or

  8. A study of oak-pollen production and phenology in northern California: prediction of annual variation in pollen counts based on geographic and meterologic factors.

    PubMed

    Fairley, D; Batchelder, G L

    1986-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of oak-pollen production and dispersal, 9 years of weekly volumetric air sampling, with modified swing-shield rotoslide pollen samplers, were obtained in San Francisco and San Jose, Calif. The Mediterranean climate of coastal California supports 9 million acres of oaks of nine different species. The major pollen contributors in the two sampling areas are coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Neé) and valley oak (Quercus lobata neé). Sampling data indicate that grains may be wind transported at least 16 km (10 miles). A strong correlation exists between pollen capture and total rainfall a full year before pollen release. The correlation is statistically significant, based on a Spearman rank test. A positive regression line slope demonstrates that the greater the precipitation, the stronger the stimulus for pollen production. The median count can be predicted within a factor of two with high probability a full year before release. During most seasons, the peak pollen collection from coast live oak and valley oak occurs in early April. A second peak production period, in mid-May, represents the conglomerate of other oak-pollen types. However, there are major yearly differences in the relative amounts of pollen released during these two periods. Consequently, individual oak pollinosis may depend as much on variable production by the major species as on the total quantity of airborne oak pollen. These data will help clinicians predict and prepare for the intensity of the oak-pollen season and explain seasonal variations in clinical symptoms from year to year. The question of cross-reacting and specific allergens among oak species can be answered by RAST-inhibition studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Systematic Studies of Modified Vocalization: Speech Production Changes During a Variation of Metronomic Speech in Persons Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ye, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The most common way to induce fluency using rhythm requires persons who stutter to speak one syllable or one word to each beat of a metronome, but stuttering can also be eliminated when the stimulus is of a particular duration (e.g., 1 s). The present study examined stuttering frequency, speech production changes, and speech naturalness during rhythmic speech that alternated 1 s of reading with 1 s of silence. A repeated-measures design was used to compare data obtained during a control reading condition and during rhythmic reading in 10 persons who stutter (PWS) and 10 normally fluent controls. Ratings for speech naturalness were also gathered from naïve listeners. Results showed that mean vowel duration increased significantly, and the percentage of short phonated intervals decreased significantly, for both groups from the control to the experimental condition. Mean phonated interval length increased significantly for the fluent controls. Mean speech naturalness ratings during the experimental condition were approximately 7 on a 1–9 scale (1 = highly natural; 9 = highly unnatural), and these ratings were significantly correlated with vowel duration and phonated intervals for PWS. The findings indicate that PWS may be altering vocal fold vibration duration to obtain fluency during this rhythmic speech style, and that vocal fold vibration duration may have an impact on speech naturalness during rhythmic speech. Future investigations should examine speech production changes and speech naturalness during variations of this rhythmic condition. Educational Objectives The reader will be able to: (1) describe changes (from a control reading condition) in speech production variables when alternating between 1 s of reading and 1 s of silence, (2) describe which rhythmic conditions have been found to sound and feel the most natural, (3) describe methodological issues for studies about alterations in speech production variables during fluency-inducing conditions, and (4

  10. The food choice kaleidoscope. A framework for structured description of product, place and person as sources of variation in food choices.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Sara R; Bava, Christina M; Worch, Thierry; Dawson, John; Marshall, David W

    2011-04-01

    Despite a wide range of research approaches already being used to study eating and drinking, this complex aspect of human activity lacks conceptualisation and methodology for structured description of food choices. This paper introduces a metaphoric framework--the food choice kaleidoscope--as an approach to such inquiry. It conceptualises individual food choice events (or eating occasions) as being shaped by three main factors--product, person and place--and provides a descriptive approach through which patterns and variability in food choice events can be observed. The factors can be studied separately or in combination to reveal the joint influence of product, place and/or person factors. The approach is 'data hungry' and requires information about large numbers of eating occasions obtained for a variety of foods/beverage in a variety of situations. Using information about ∼5800 eating occasions obtained from 25 New Zealand women who self-completed 24-h recall diaries, the kaleidoscopic approach is illustrated. The data are analysed in relation to 30 food/beverage categories and 37 contextual (or 'place') variables, and at the level of individual participants. Results are presented that document: product-to-product variability in who eats/drinks what and where/how it is consumed; place-to-place variation in what is consumed and by whom; and person-to-person variability in what is consumed and where/how it is consumed. The most significant insight to emerge is the considerable heterogeneity that is hidden beneath the average patterns, and that average values may be inappropriate/irrelevant for this type of data.

  11. Pesticide formulations and application systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko; Spicer

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses pesticide formulations; spraying techniques and/or low and ultra low volume applications employing oil carriers, including subsurface drip irrigation and plant growth regulators; and granule technology.

  12. Production, Quality Control, Stability and Pharmacotoxicity of a Malaria Vaccine Comprising Three Highly Similar PfAMA1 Protein Molecules to Overcome Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Houard, Sophie; Havelange, Nicolas; Drossard, Jürgen; Mertens, Hubert; Croon, Alexander; Kastilan, Robin; Byrne, Richard; van der Werff, Nicole; van der Eijk, Marjolein; Thomas, Alan W.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Remarque, Edmond J.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) is a leading asexual blood stage vaccine candidate for malaria. In preparation for clinical trials, three Diversity Covering (DiCo) PfAMA1 ectodomain proteins, designed to overcome the intrinsic polymorphism that is present in PfAMA1, were produced under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in Pichia pastoris. Using identical methodology, the 3 strains were cultivated in 70-L scale fed-batch fermentations and PfAMA1-DiCos were purified by two chromatography steps, an ultrafiltration/diafiltration procedure and size exclusion chromatography, resulting in highly pure (>95%) PfAMA1-DiCo1, PfAMA1 DiCo2 and PfAMA1 DiCo3, with final yields of 1.8, 1.9 and 1.3 gram, respectively. N-terminal determinations showed that approximately 50% of each of the proteins lost 12 residues from their N-terminus, in accordance with SDS-PAGE (2 main bands) and MS-data. Under reducing conditions a site of limited proteolytic cleavage within a disulphide bonded region became evident. The three proteins quantitatively bound to the mAb 4G2 that recognizes a conformational epitope, suggesting proper folding of the proteins. The lyophilized Drug Product (1:1:1 mixture of PfAMA1-DiCo1, DiCo2, DiCo3) fulfilled all pre-set release criteria (appearance, dissolution rate, identity, purity, protein content, moisture content, sub-visible particles, immuno-potency (after reconstitution with adjuvant), abnormal toxicity, sterility and endotoxin), was stable in accelerated and real-time stability studies at -20°C for over 24 months. When formulated with adjuvants selected for clinical phase I evaluation, the Drug Product did not show adverse effect in a repeated-dose toxicity study in rabbits. The Drug Product has entered a phase Ia/Ib clinical trial. PMID:27695087

  13. Bioavailability of cefuroxime axetil formulations.

    PubMed

    Donn, K H; James, N C; Powell, J R

    1994-06-01

    Cefuroxime axetil tablets have proved effective for the treatment of a variety of community-acquired infections. A suspension formulation has been developed for use in children. Two studies have been conducted to determine if the cefuroxime axetil formulations are bioequivalent. In the initial randomized, two-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received 250-mg doses of suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil every 12 h after eating for seven doses. Each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Comparisons of serum and urine pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that the suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil are not bioequivalent. Following the initial bioequivalency study, 0.1 % sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was added to the suspension to assure the homogeneity of the granules during the manufacturing process. In the subsequent randomized, three-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received single 250-mg doses of three cefuroxime axetil formulations: suspension without SLS, suspension with SLS, and tablet. Again each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that while the suspension with SLS and suspension without SLS are bioequivalent, bioequivalence between the suspension with SLS and the tablet was not observed. Thus, the addition of the SLS surfactant to the suspension did not alter the bioavailability of the formulation.

  14. Multi-Satellite Characterization of Interannual Variation in Primary Production and Air-Sea CO2 Flux in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Ross Sea is the most productive sector of the Southern Ocean, the largest of the three iron limited HNLC regions. This productivity supports a rich upper trophic level community, including large numbers of penguins, seals, and whales. It also represents a large sink for atmospheric CO2. Since the advent of ocean color remote sensing using satellites such as CZCS, SeaWiFS, and MODIS, it has become increasingly clear that productivity in the Ross Sea is also characterized by a great deal of interannual variability. Passive microwave data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager show that distributions of sea ice within the Ross Sea vary markedly from year to year, with some years experiencing nearly ice-free springtime conditions while others remain nearly ice covered. This extreme variability in sea ice cover is due to changes in climate state as well as some unusual events specific to the Ross Sea, such as the calving of two enormous icebergs, one in 2000 and the other in 2002. Variation in ice cover during austral spring and summer impacts the growth of the phytoplankton community, whose cumulative rate of annual primary production ranges widely, from <10 Tg C in 2002-03 to almost 40 Tg C in 1999-00. When these satellite data are used in conjunction with a three-dimensional ocean ecosystem model of the Ross Sea, the calculated air-sea fluxes of CO2 are even more variable, varying over 50-fold between 1997 and 2004. Not surprisingly, the lowest atmospheric flux of CO2 into the surface waters of the Ross Sea (0.10 Tg C) is associated with the year having the lowest primary production and highest sea ice cover. The extreme sensitivity of rates of primary production and particularly air-sea CO2 fluxes to changes in sea ice distribution in the Southern Ocean suggest that this region may undergo dramatic changes if global temperatures continue to rise, as they have in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula.

  15. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate for Respiratory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate for respiratory disorders for pediatrics. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisites for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation were undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate was optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of salbutamol sulphate were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly; provided rapid onset of action; and enhanced the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:23956881

  16. Formulations and computational methods for contact problems in solid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirar, Anand Ramchandra

    2000-11-01

    A study of existing formulations and computational methods for contact problems is conducted. The purpose is to gain insights into the solution procedures and pinpoint their limitations so that alternate procedures can be developed. Three such procedures based on the augmented Lagrangian method (ALM) are proposed. Small-scale benchmark problems are solved analytically as well as numerically to study the existing and proposed methods. The variational inequality formulation for frictionless contact is studied using the two bar truss-wall problem in a closed form. Sub-differential formulation is investigated using the spring-wall contact and the truss-wall friction problems. A two-phase analytical procedure is developed for solving the truss-wall frictional contact benchmark problem. The variational equality formulation for contact problems is studied using the penalty method along with the Newton-Raphson procedure. Limitations of such procedures, mainly due to their dependence on the user defined parameters (i.e., the penalty values and the number of time steps), are identified. Based on the study it is concluded that alternate formulations need to be developed. Frictionless contact formulation is developed using the basic concepts of ALM from optimization theory. A new frictional contact formulation (ALM1) is then developed employing ALM. Automatic penalty update procedure is used to eliminate dependence of the solution on the penalty values. Dependence of the solution on the number of time steps in the existing as well as ALM1 formulations is attributed to a flaw in the return mapping procedure for friction. Another new frictional contact formulation (ALM2) is developed to eliminate the dependence of solution on the number of time steps along with the penalty values. Effectiveness of ALM2 is demonstrated by solving the two bar and five bar truss-wall problems. The solutions are compared with the analytical and existing formulations. Design sensitivity analysis of

  17. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  18. Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjønneland, Anne; Føns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

    2013-04-15

    High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96-1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk.

  19. Sequence Variations in the Bovine Growth Hormone Gene Characterized by Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (Sscp) Analysis and Their Association with Milk Production Traits in Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Yao, J.; Aggrey, S. E.; Zadworny, D.; Hayes, J. F.; Kuhnlein, U.

    1996-01-01

    Sequence variations in the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene were investigated by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of seven amplified fragments covering almost the entire gene (2.7 kb). SSCPs were detected in four of these fragments and a total of six polymorphisms were found in a sample of 128 Holstein bulls. Two polymorphisms, a T->C transition in the third intron (designated GH4.1) and an A->C transversion in the fifth exon (designated GH6.2), were shown to be associated with milk production traits. GH4.1(c)/GH4.1(c) bulls had higher milk yield than GH4.1(c)/GH4.1(t) (P <= 0.005) and GH4.1(t)/GH4.1(t) (P <= 0.0022) bulls. GH4.1(c)/GH4.1(c) bulls had higher kg fat (P <= 0.0076) and protein (P <= 0.0018) than GH4.1(c)/GH4.1(t) bulls. Similar effects on milk production traits with the GH6.2 polymorphism were observed with the GH6.2(a) allele being the favorable allele. The average effects of the gene substitution for GH4.1 and GH6.2 are similar, with +/-300 kg for milk yield, +/-8 kg for fat content and +/-7 kg for protein content per lactation. The positive association of GH4.1(c) and GH6.2(a) with milk production traits may be useful for improving milk performance in dairy cattle. PMID:8978066

  20. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, S.; Kaur, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations. PMID:22228936