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Sample records for product variational formulation

  1. Sunscreen product formulation.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Paul R

    2006-01-01

    On the surface, sunscreen products are pretty simple. They consist of a delivery vehicle containing one or more sunscreen active ingredients. When applied to the skin, these sunscreen actives intercept solar ultraviolet (UV) rays before they can damage the underlying skin. However, while conceptually simple, a detailed analysis reveals that sunscreen formulations are quite complex, requiring careful selection of sunscreen active and vehicle components to control multiple performance and in-use parameters.Thus, to enable a better understanding and appreciation of sunscreen products, the typical steps in formulating a sunscreen product are described. Throughout this process, the key is to apply scientific principles together with a bit of formulation art to holistically create the best sunscreen product that meets the design targets--a sunscreen product that people will use regularly and properly.

  2. Variational formulation of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmello

    1991-01-01

    High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational basis of high-performance elements, with emphasis on those constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parametrized variational principles that provide a foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both are presented.

  3. New Variational Formulations of Hybrid Stress Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Sumihara, K.; Kang, D.

    1984-01-01

    In the variational formulations of finite elements by the Hu-Washizu and Hellinger-Reissner principles the stress equilibrium condition is maintained by the inclusion of internal displacements which function as the Lagrange multipliers for the constraints. These versions permit the use of natural coordinates and the relaxation of the equilibrium conditions and render considerable improvements in the assumed stress hybrid elements. These include the derivation of invariant hybrid elements which possess the ideal qualities such as minimum sensitivity to geometric distortions, minimum number of independent stress parameters, rank sufficient, and ability to represent constant strain states and bending moments. Another application is the formulation of semiLoof thin shell elements which can yield excellent results for many severe test cases because the rigid body nodes, the momentless membrane strains, and the inextensional bending modes are all represented.

  4. New Variational Formulations of Hybrid Stress Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Sumihara, K.; Kang, D.

    1984-01-01

    In the variational formulations of finite elements by the Hu-Washizu and Hellinger-Reissner principles the stress equilibrium condition is maintained by the inclusion of internal displacements which function as the Lagrange multipliers for the constraints. These versions permit the use of natural coordinates and the relaxation of the equilibrium conditions and render considerable improvements in the assumed stress hybrid elements. These include the derivation of invariant hybrid elements which possess the ideal qualities such as minimum sensitivity to geometric distortions, minimum number of independent stress parameters, rank sufficient, and ability to represent constant strain states and bending moments. Another application is the formulation of semiLoof thin shell elements which can yield excellent results for many severe test cases because the rigid body nodes, the momentless membrane strains, and the inextensional bending modes are all represented.

  5. Variational formulation of the Gardner's restacking algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2004-04-26

    The incompressibility of the phase flow of Hamiltonian wave-plasma interactions restrains the class of realizable wave-driven transformations of the particle distribution. After the interaction, the distribution remains composed of the original phase-space elements, or local densities, which are only rearranged (''restacked'') by the wave. A variational formalism is developed to study the corresponding limitations on the energy and momentum transfer. A case of particular interest is a toroidal plasma immersed in a dc magnetic field. The restacking algorithm by Gardner [Phys. Fluids 6, 839 (1963)] is formulated precisely. The minimum energy state for a plasma with a given current is determined

  6. Variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, Alain J.; Tronci, Cesare

    2016-06-15

    The variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory based on Lagrange, Euler, and Euler-Poincaré variational principles are presented. Each variational principle yields a different approach to deriving guiding-center polarization and magnetization effects into the guiding-center Maxwell equations. The conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are also derived by Noether method, where the guiding-center stress tensor is now shown to be explicitly symmetric.

  7. Variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, Alain J.; Tronci, Cesare

    2016-06-01

    The variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory based on Lagrange, Euler, and Euler-Poincaré variational principles are presented. Each variational principle yields a different approach to deriving guiding-center polarization and magnetization effects into the guiding-center Maxwell equations. The conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are also derived by Noether method, where the guiding-center stress tensor is now shown to be explicitly symmetric.

  8. A coupled mode formulation by reciprocity and a variational principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Shun-Lien

    1987-01-01

    A coupled mode formulation for parallel dielectric waveguides is presented via two methods: a reciprocity theorem and a variational principle. In the first method, a generalized reciprocity relation for two sets of field solutions satisfying Maxwell's equations and the boundary conditions in two different media, respectively, is derived. Based on the generalized reciprocity theorem, the coupled mode equations can then be formulated. The second method using a variational principle is also presented for a general waveguide system which can be lossy. The results of the variational principle can also be shown to be identical to those from the reciprocity theorem. The exact relations governing the 'conventional' and the new coupling coefficients are derived. It is shown analytically that the present formulation satisfies the reciprocity theorem and power conservation exactly, while the conventional theory violates the power conservation and reciprocity theorem by as much as 55 percent and the Hardy-Streifer (1985, 1986) theory by 0.033 percent, for example.

  9. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p < 0.05). Data of peroxide values were kept under the critical value reported for detection of organoleptic rancidity. Reported values of hedonic test showed that these dietetics pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers.

  10. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part II: Continuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Part I of this paper introduced a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems. This variational formulation extends Hamilton's principle to allow the inclusion of irreversible processes in the dynamics. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint given by the expression of entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. In Part II, we develop this formulation for the case of continuum systems by extending the setting of Part I to infinite dimensional nonholonomic Lagrangian systems. The variational formulation is naturally expressed in the material representation, while its spatial version is obtained via a nonholonomic Lagrangian reduction by symmetry. The theory is illustrated with the examples of a viscous heat conducting fluid and its multicomponent extension including chemical reactions and mass transfer.

  11. Progress in the Variational Multiscale Formulation of Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Oberai, Assad

    2007-11-01

    In the variational multiscale (VMS) formulation of large eddy simulation subgrid models are introduced in the variational (or weak) formulation of the Navier Stokes equations and a-priori scale separation is accomplished using projection operators to create coarse and fine scales. This separation also leads to two sets of evolution equations: one for the coarse scales and another for the fine scales. The coarse scale equations are solved numerically while the fine scale equations are solved analytically to obtain an expression for the fine scales in terms of the coarse scales and hence achieve closure. Till date, the VMS formulation has lead to accurate results in the simulation of canonical turbulent flow problems. It has been implemented using spectral, finite element and finite volume methods. In this talk, for the incompressible Navier Stokes equations, we willpresent some new ideas for modeling the fine scales within the context of the VMS formulation and discuss their impact on the coarse scale solution. We will present a simple residual-based approximation for the fine scales that accurately models the cross-stress term and demonstrate that when this term is append with an eddy viscosity model for the Reynolds stress, a new mixed-model is obtained. The application of these ideas will be illustrated through some simple numerical examples.

  12. Immunoglobulin: production, mechanisms of action and formulations

    PubMed Central

    Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago; Dinardo, Carla Luana

    2011-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin (Ig) began to be applied in the clinical practice with the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies. Quickly, applications of Ig increased, as its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions were elucidated. Currently, Ig is the most commonly used blood product. Ig is obtained by processing plasma; methods, in particular, techniques to reduce plasma viral loads have been evolving over the years and include: pasteurization, solvent/ detergent treatment, caprylic acid treatment and nanofiltration. These methods contribute to increased safety and quality of blood products. The mechanisms of action of Ig not only involve the blockade of Fc receptors of phagocytes, but also control complement pathways, idiotype-anti-idiotype dimer formation, blockage of superantigen binding to T cells, inhibition of dendritic cells and stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). There are several formulations of Ig available, each one with its own peculiar characteristics. In Brazil, there is stringent legislation regulating the quality of Ig. Only Ig products that completely fulfill the quality control criteria are released for use. These standards involve different tests from visual inspection to determination of anti-complementary activity. This paper will further review the history and current status of Ig, including its production and mechanisms of action. The formulations available in Brazil and also the criteria of quality control currently applied will be presented. PMID:23049343

  13. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part I: Discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. This formulation is an extension of Hamilton's principle of classical mechanics that allows the inclusion of irreversible phenomena. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear phenomenological constraint given by the expression of the entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. From a mathematical point of view, our variational formulation may be regarded as a generalization to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle used in nonlinear nonholonomic mechanics, where the conventional Lagrange-d'Alembert principle cannot be applied since the nonlinear phenomenological constraint and its associated variational constraint must be treated separately. In our approach, to deal with the nonlinear nonholonomic constraint, we introduce a variable called the thermodynamic displacement associated to each irreversible process. This allows us to systematically define the corresponding variational constraint. In Part I, our variational theory is illustrated with various examples of discrete systems such as mechanical systems with friction, matter transfer, electric circuits, chemical reactions, and diffusion across membranes. In Part II of the present paper, we will extend our variational formulation of discrete systems to the case of continuum systems.

  14. Variational formulation of macro-particle plasma simulation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B. A. Stamm, A. B.; Evstatiev, E. G.

    2014-05-15

    A variation formulation of macro-particle kinetic plasma models is discussed. In the electrostatic case, the use of symplectic integrators is investigated and found to offer advantages over typical generic methods. For the electromagnetic case, gauge invariance and momentum conservation are considered in detail. It is shown that, while the symmetries responsible for these conservation laws are broken in the presence of a spatial grid, the conservation laws hold in an average sense. The requirements for exact invariance are explored and it is shown that one viable option is to represent the potentials with a truncated Fourier basis.

  15. Variational formulation of Budyko-Sellers climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Howard, L.; Pollard, D.; Wielicki, B.

    1979-01-01

    A class of simple climate models including those of the Budyko-Sellers type are formulated from a variational principle. A functional is constructed for the zonally averaged mean annual temperature field such that extrema of the functional occur when the climate satisfies the usual energy-balance equation. Local minima of the functional correspond to stable solutions while saddle points correspond to unstable solutions. The technique can be used to construct approximate solutions from trial functions and to carry out finite-amplitude stability analyses. A spectral example is given in explicit detail.

  16. Partial differential equation transform - Variational formulation and Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-12-01

    Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform's controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The

  17. Partial differential equation transform — Variational formulation and Fourier analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform’s controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The

  18. New variational bounds on convective transport. I. Formulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobasco, Ian; Souza, Andre N.; Doering, Charles R.

    2016-11-01

    We study the maximal rate of scalar transport between parallel walls separated by distance h, by an incompressible fluid with scalar diffusion coefficient κ. Given velocity vector field u with intensity measured by the Péclet number Pe =h2 < | ∇ u |2 >1/2 / κ (where < . > is space-time average) the challenge is to determine the largest enhancement of wall-to-wall scalar flux over purely diffusive transport, i.e., the Nusselt number Nu . Variational formulations of the problem are presented and it is determined that Nu <= cPe 2 / 3 , where c is an absolute constant, as Pe -> ∞ . Moreover, this scaling for optimal transport-possibly modulo logarithmic corrections-is asymptotically sharp: admissible steady flows with Nu >=c' Pe 2 / 3 /[ log Pe ] 2 are constructed. The structure of (nearly) maximally transporting flow fields is discussed. Supported in part by National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship DGE-0813964, awards OISE-0967140, PHY-1205219, DMS-1311833, and DMS-1515161, and the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.

  19. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  20. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  1. Variational formulation of covariant eikonal theory for vector waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.; Ye, H.; Hui, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The eikonal theory of wave propagation is developed by means of a Lorentz-covariant variational principle, involving functions defined on the natural eight-dimensional phase space of rays. The wave field is a four-vector representing the electromagnetic potential, while the medium is represented by an anisotropic, dispersive nonuniform dielectric tensor D/sup ..mu nu../(k,x). The eikonal expansion yields, to lowest order, the Hamiltonian ray equations, which define the Lagrangian manifold k(x), and the wave-action conservation law, which determines the wave-amplitude transport along the rays. The first-order contribution to the variational principle yields a concise expression for the transport of the polarization phase. The symmetry between k-space and x-space allows for a simple implementation of the Maslov transform, which avoids the difficulties of caustic singularities.

  2. Variational formulation of eikonal theory for vector waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.; Ye, H.; Hui, Y.

    1986-05-01

    The eikonal theory of wave propagation is developed by means of a Lorentz-covariant variational principle, involving functions defined on the natural eight-dimensional phase space of rays. The wave field is a four-vector representing the electromagnetic potential, while the medium is represented by an anisotropic, dispersive nonuniform dielectric tensor D/sup ..mu.. sup ..nu../(k,x). The eikonal expansion yields, to lowest order, the Hamiltonian ray equations, which define the Lagrangian manifold k(x), and the wave action conservation law, which determines the wave amplitude transport along the rays. The first-order contribution to the variational principle yields a concise expression for the transport of the polarization phase. The symmetry between k-space and x-space allows for a simple implementation of the Maslov transform, which avoids the difficulties of caustic singularities.

  3. Variational formulation of two scalar-tetradic theories of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Saez, D.

    1983-06-15

    In this paper we obtain two scalar-tetradic theories of gravitation (theories A and B) from a variational principle. In these theories the gravitational energy is localized and the principle of equivalence holds. They combine some aspects of Moller theory and the Brans-Dicke theory. The first-order approximations and an introduction to the study of both theories in the static spherically symmetric case are presented.

  4. Variational formulation of macroparticle models for electromagnetic plasma simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Stamm, Alexander B.; Shadwick, Bradley A.; Evstatiev, Evstati G.

    2014-06-01

    A variational method is used to derive a self-consistent macroparticle model for relativistic electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations. Extending earlier work, discretization of the electromagnetic Low Lagrangian is performed via a reduction of the phase-space distribution function onto a collection of finite-sized macroparticles of arbitrary shape and discretization of field quantities onto a spatial grid. This approach may be used with lab frame coordinates or moving window coordinates; the latter can greatly improve computational efficiency for studying some types of laser-plasma interactions. The primary advantage of the variational approach is the preservation of Lagrangian symmetries, which in our case leads tomore » energy conservation and thus avoids difficulties with grid heating. In addition, this approach decouples particle size from grid spacing and relaxes restrictions on particle shape, leading to low numerical noise. The variational approach also guarantees consistent approximations in the equations of motion and is amenable to higher order methods in both space and time. We restrict our attention to the 1.5-D case (one coordinate and two momenta). Lastly, simulations are performed with the new models and demonstrate energy conservation and low noise.« less

  5. Variational formulation of macroparticle models for electromagnetic plasma simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stamm, Alexander B.; Shadwick, Bradley A.; Evstatiev, Evstati G.

    2014-06-01

    A variational method is used to derive a self-consistent macroparticle model for relativistic electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations. Extending earlier work, discretization of the electromagnetic Low Lagrangian is performed via a reduction of the phase-space distribution function onto a collection of finite-sized macroparticles of arbitrary shape and discretization of field quantities onto a spatial grid. This approach may be used with lab frame coordinates or moving window coordinates; the latter can greatly improve computational efficiency for studying some types of laser-plasma interactions. The primary advantage of the variational approach is the preservation of Lagrangian symmetries, which in our case leads to energy conservation and thus avoids difficulties with grid heating. In addition, this approach decouples particle size from grid spacing and relaxes restrictions on particle shape, leading to low numerical noise. The variational approach also guarantees consistent approximations in the equations of motion and is amenable to higher order methods in both space and time. We restrict our attention to the 1.5-D case (one coordinate and two momenta). Lastly, simulations are performed with the new models and demonstrate energy conservation and low noise.

  6. Ergodicity for Nonlinear Stochastic Equations in Variational Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barbu, Viorel Da Prato, Giuseppe

    2006-03-15

    This paper is concerned with nonlinear partial differential equations of the calculus of variation (see [13]) perturbed by noise. Well-posedness of the problem was proved by Pardoux in the seventies (see [14]), using monotonicity methods.The aim of the present work is to investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the corresponding transition semigroup P{sub t}. We show existence and, under suitable assumptions, uniqueness of an ergodic invariant measure {nu}. Moreover, we solve the Kolmogorov equation and prove the so-called 'identite du carre du champs'. This will be used to study the Sobolev space W{sup 1,2}(H,{nu}) and to obtain information on the domain of the infinitesimal generator of P{sub t}.

  7. A variational formulation for translation and assimilation of coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plu, M.

    2013-10-01

    The assimilation of observations from teledetected images in geophysical models requires one to develop algorithms that would account for the existence of coherent structures. In the context of variational data assimilation, a method is proposed to allow the background to be translated so as to fit structure positions deduced from images. Translation occurs as a first step before assimilating all the observations using a classical assimilation procedure with specific covariances for the translated background. A simple validation is proposed using a dynamical system based on the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in a regime prone to phase and amplitude errors. Assimilation of observations after background translation leads to better scores and a better representation of extremas than the method without translation.

  8. Transition state theory: Variational formulation, dynamical corrections, and error estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Tal, Fabio A.

    2005-11-01

    Transition state theory (TST) is revisited, as well as evolutions upon TST such as variational TST in which the TST dividing surface is optimized so as to minimize the rate of recrossing through this surface and methods which aim at computing dynamical corrections to the TST transition rate constant. The theory is discussed from an original viewpoint. It is shown how to compute exactly the mean frequency of transition between two predefined sets which either partition phase space (as in TST) or are taken to be well-separated metastable sets corresponding to long-lived conformation states (as necessary to obtain the actual transition rate constants between these states). Exact and approximate criterions for the optimal TST dividing surface with minimum recrossing rate are derived. Some issues about the definition and meaning of the free energy in the context of TST are also discussed. Finally precise error estimates for the numerical procedure to evaluate the transmission coefficient κS of the TST dividing surface are given, and it is shown that the relative error on κS scales as 1/√κS when κS is small. This implies that dynamical corrections to the TST rate constant can be computed efficiently if and only if the TST dividing surface has a transmission coefficient κS which is not too small. In particular, the TST dividing surface must be optimized upon (for otherwise κS is generally very small), but this may not be sufficient to make the procedure numerically efficient (because the optimal dividing surface has maximum κS, but this coefficient may still be very small).

  9. Variation in nutrients formulated and nutrients supplied on 5 California dairies.

    PubMed

    Rossow, H A; Aly, S S

    2013-01-01

    Computer models used in ration formulation assume that nutrients supplied by a ration formulation are the same as the nutrients presented in front of the cow in the final ration. Deviations in nutrients due to feed management effects such as dry matter changes (i.e., rain), loading, mixing, and delivery errors are assumed to not affect delivery of nutrients to the cow and her resulting milk production. To estimate how feed management affects nutrients supplied to the cow and milk production, and determine if nutrients can serve as indexes of feed management practices, weekly total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for 4 pens (close-up cows, fresh cows, high-milk-producing, and low-milk-producing cows, if available) for 7 to 12 wk on 5 commercial California dairies. Differences among nutrient analyses from these samples and nutrients from the formulated rations were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk fat and milk protein percentages did not vary as much [coefficient of variation (CV) = 18 to 33%] as milk yield (kg; CV = 16 to 47 %) across all dairies and pens. Variability in nutrients delivered were highest for macronutrient fat (CV = 22%), lignin (CV = 15%), and ash (CV = 11%) percentages and micronutrients Fe (mg/kg; CV = 48%), Na (%; CV = 42%), and Zn (mg/kg; CV = 38%) for the milking pens across all dairies. Partitioning of the variability in random effects of nutrients delivered and intraclass correlation coefficients showed that variability in lignin percentage of TMR had the highest correlation with variability in milk yield and milk fat percentage, followed by fat and crude protein percentages. But, variability in ash, fat, and lignin percentages of total mixed ration had the highest correlation with variability in milk protein percentage. Therefore, lignin, fat, and ash may be the best indices of feed management to include effects of variability in nutrients on variability in milk yield, milk fat, and milk

  10. Formulation of a Production Strategy for a Software Product Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Integration (CMMI) level of certification to provide additional confidence in the quality of the products. Moving the organization to that level may...easily [Paige 2006]. A number of development methods such as SCRUM and test-first provide support for this strategy. The production method for a

  11. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  12. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  13. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  14. Variation in amphibian response to two formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides.

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher; Gahl, Meghan; Thompson, Dean; Hao, Chunyan; Houlahan, Jeff

    2014-11-01

    Variation in toxicity among formulations and species makes it difficult to extrapolate results to all species and all formulations of herbicides. The authors exposed larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) from 4 populations to 2 glyphosate-based herbicides, Roundup Weed and Grass Control® and Roundup WeatherMax®. The 96-h median lethal concentration values for both formulations varied among the populations (Roundup Weed and Grass Control, 0.14 mg acid equivalents (a.e.)/L to 1.10 mg a.e./L; Roundup WeatherMax, 4.94 mg a.e./L to 8.26 mg a.e./L), demonstrating that toxicity varies among the formulations and that susceptibility may differ among populations. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation Session 6: Vaccine &Adjuvant Formulation & Production 15-17 May 2013, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Fox, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    The Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation meeting aims to fill a critical gap in current vaccine development efforts by bringing together formulation scientists and immunologists to emphasize the importance of rational formulation design in order to optimize vaccine and adjuvant bioactivity, safety, and manufacturability. Session 6 on Vaccine and Adjuvant Formulation and Production provided three examples of this theme, with speakers emphasizing the need for extensive physicochemical characterization of adjuvant-antigen interactions, the rational formulation design of a CD8+ T cell-inducing adjuvant based on immunological principles, and the development and production of a rabies vaccine by a developing country manufacturer. Throughout the session, the practical importance of sound formulation and manufacturing design accompanied by analytical characterization was highlighted.

  16. A variational justification of the assumed natural strain formulation of finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to study the assumed natural strain (ANS) formulation of finite elements from a variational standpoint. The study is based on two hybrid extensions of the Reissner-type functional that uses strains and displacements as independent fields. One of the forms is a genuine variational principle that contains an independent boundary traction field, whereas the other one represents a restricted variational principle. Two procedures for element level elimination of the strain field are discussed, and one of them is shown to be equivalent to the inclusion of incompatible displacement modes. Also, the 4-node C(exp 0) plate bending quadrilateral element is used to illustrate applications of this theory.

  17. Superconducting axisymmetric finite elements based on a gauged potential variational principle. Part 1: Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, James J.; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    The present work is part of a research program for the numerical simulation of electromagnetic (EM) fields within conventional Ginzburg-Landau (GL) superconductors. The final goal of this research is to formulate, develop and validate finite element (FE) models that can accurately capture electromagnetic thermal and material phase changes in a superconductor. The formulations presented here are for a time-independent Ginzburg-Landau superconductor and are derived from a potential-based variational principle. We develop an appropriate variational formulation of time-independent supercontivity for the general three-dimensional case and specialize it to the one-dimensional case. Also developed are expressions for the material-dependent parameters alpha and beta of GL theory and their dependence upon the temperature T. The one-dimensional formulation is then discretized for finite element purposes and the first variation of these equations is obtained. The resultant Euler equations contain nonlinear terms in the primary variables. To solve these equations, an incremental-iterative solution method is used. Expressions for the internal force vector, external force vector, loading vector and tangent stiffness matrix are therefore developed for use with the solution procedure.

  18. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through the...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through the...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  3. Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This review presents considerations which can be employed during the development of a semi-solid topical generic product. This includes a discussion on the implementation of quality by design concepts during development to ensure the generic drug product has similar desired quality attributes to the reference-listed drug (RLD) and ensure batch to batch consistency through commercial production. This encompasses the concept of reverse-engineering to copy the RLD as a strategy during product development to ensure qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) formulation similarity, as well as similarity in formulation microstructure (Q3). The concept of utilizing in vitro skin permeation studies as a tool to justify formulation differences between the test generic product and the RLD to ensure a successful pharmacodynamic or clinical endpoint bioequivalence study is discussed. The review concludes with a discussion on drug product evaluation and quality tests as well as in vivo bioequivalence studies.

  4. Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Helically symmetric formulation, Casimir invariants, and equilibrium variational principles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2012-05-15

    The noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to construct variational principles for continuously symmetric equilibrium configurations of magnetized plasma, including flow. In particular, helical symmetry is considered, and results on axial and translational symmetries are retrieved as special cases of the helical configurations. The symmetry condition, which allows the description in terms of a magnetic flux function, is exploited to deduce a symmetric form of the noncanonical Poisson bracket of MHD. Casimir invariants are then obtained directly from the Poisson bracket. Equilibria are obtained from an energy-Casimir principle and reduced forms of this variational principle are obtained by the elimination of algebraic constraints.

  5. Equilibrium shapes of a heterogeneous bubble in an electric field: a variational formulation and numerical verifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanxiong; Liu, Liping; Liu, Dong

    2017-03-01

    The equilibrium shape of a bubble/droplet in an electric field is important for electrowetting over dielectrics (EWOD), electrohydrodynamic (EHD) enhancement for heat transfer and electro-deformation of a single biological cell among others. In this work, we develop a general variational formulation in account of electro-mechanical couplings. In the context of EHD, we identify the free energy functional and the associated energy minimization problem that determines the equilibrium shape of a bubble in an electric field. Based on this variational formulation, we implement a fixed mesh level-set gradient method for computing the equilibrium shapes. This numerical scheme is efficient and validated by comparing with analytical solutions at the absence of electric field and experimental results at the presence of electric field. We also present simulation results for zero gravity which will be useful for space applications. The variational formulation and numerical scheme are anticipated to have broad applications in areas of EWOD, EHD and electro-deformation in biomechanics.

  6. A Variational Formulation of Macro-Particle Algorithms for Kinetic Plasma Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadwick, B. A.

    2013-10-01

    Macro-particle based simulations methods are in widespread use in plasma physics; their computational efficiency and intuitive nature are largely responsible for their longevity. In the main, these algorithms are formulated by approximating the continuous equations of motion. For systems governed by a variational principle (such as collisionless plasmas), approximations of the equations of motion is known to introduce anomalous behavior, especially in system invariants. We present a variational formulation of particle algorithms for plasma simulation based on a reduction of the distribution function onto a finite collection of macro-particles. As in the usual Particle-In-Cell (PIC) formulation, these macro-particles have a definite momentum and are spatially extended. The primary advantage of this approach is the preservation of the link between symmetries and conservation laws. For example, nothing in the reduction introduces explicit time dependence to the system and, therefore, the continuous-time equations of motion exactly conserve energy; thus, these models are free of grid-heating. In addition, the variational formulation allows for constructing models of arbitrary spatial and temporal order. In contrast, the overall accuracy of the usual PIC algorithm is at most second due to the nature of the force interpolation between the gridded field quantities and the (continuous) particle position. Again in contrast to the usual PIC algorithm, here the macro-particle shape is arbitrary; the spatial extent is completely decoupled from both the grid-size and the ``smoothness'' of the shape; smoother particle shapes are not necessarily larger. For simplicity, we restrict our discussion to one-dimensional, non-relativistic, un-magnetized, electrostatic plasmas. We comment on the extension to the electromagnetic case. Supported by the US DoE under contract numbers DE-FG02-08ER55000 and DE-SC0008382.

  7. Variational formulation of a quantitative phase-field model for nonisothermal solidification in a multicomponent alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Munekazu; Takaki, Tomohiro; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    A variational formulation of a quantitative phase-field model is presented for nonisothermal solidification in a multicomponent alloy with two-sided asymmetric diffusion. The essential ingredient of this formulation is that the diffusion fluxes for conserved variables in both the liquid and solid are separately derived from functional derivatives of the total entropy and then these fluxes are related to each other on the basis of the local equilibrium conditions. In the present formulation, the cross-coupling terms between the phase-field and conserved variables naturally arise in the phase-field equation and diffusion equations, one of which corresponds to the antitrapping current, the phenomenological correction term in early nonvariational models. In addition, this formulation results in diffusivities of tensor form inside the interface. Asymptotic analysis demonstrates that this model can exactly reproduce the free-boundary problem in the thin-interface limit. The present model is widely applicable because approximations and simplifications are not formally introduced into the bulk's free energy densities and because off-diagonal elements of the diffusivity matrix are explicitly taken into account. Furthermore, we propose a nonvariational form of the present model to achieve high numerical performance. A numerical test of the nonvariational model is carried out for nonisothermal solidification in a binary alloy. It shows fast convergence of the results with decreasing interface thickness.

  8. Mixed augmented variational formulation (MAVF) for lower hybrid full-wave calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Peysson, Y.; Roche, J. R.; Kirsch, C.; Mokrani, A.; Labrunie, S.; Bertrand, P.; Chatenet, J.-H.

    2009-11-26

    In the continuation of the works led in cylindrical geometry, a full toroidal description for an arbitrary poloidal cross-section of the plasma has been developed. For simulation purpose a mixed augmented variational formulation (MAVF), which is particularly well suited for solving Maxwell equations, is considered. The discretization of the MAVF is carried out using Taylor-Hood P2-iso-P1 finite elements. This formulation provide a natural implementation for parallel processing, a particularly important aspect when simulations for plasmas of large size must be considered. Details on the specific application of the MAVF to the LH problem are presented, as well as the structure of the corresponding matrices. A first application to a realistic small tokamak configuration is considered.

  9. A formulation approach for development of HPMC-based sustained release tablets for tolterodine tartrate with a low release variation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Choi, Jae-Seung; Liu, Yan; Xu, Wei-Juan; Yang, Mingshi; Lee, Beom-Jin; Cui, Jing-Hao

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)-based sustained release (SR) tablets for tolterodine tartrate with a low drug release variation. The SR tablets were prepared by formulating a combination of different grades of HPMC as the gelling agents. The comparative dissolution study for the HPMC-based SR tablet as a test and Detrusitol SR capsule as a reference was carried out, and the bioequivalence study of the two products was also conducted in human volunteers. The amount of HPMC, the grade of HPMC and the combination ratio of different grades of HPMC had remarkable effects on drug release from the SR tablets. Both the test and reference products had no significant difference in terms of comparative dissolution patterns in four different media (f₂ > 50). Furthermore, the dissolution method and rotation speed showed no effects on the drug release from the two products. The 90% confidence intervals of the AUC(0-36) and C(max) ratios for the test and reference products were within the acceptable bioequivalence intervals of log0.8-log1.25. A HPMC-based SR tablet for tolterodine tartrate with a low release variation was successfully developed, which was bioequivalent to Detrusitol® SR capsule.

  10. Mixed variational formulations of finite element analysis of elastoacoustic/slosh fluid-structure interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Ohayon, Roger

    1991-01-01

    A general three-field variational principle is obtained for the motion of an acoustic fluid enclosed in a rigid or flexible container by the method of canonical decomposition applied to a modified form of the wave equation in the displacement potential. The general principle is specialized to a mixed two-field principle that contains the fluid displacement potential and pressure as independent fields. This principle contains a free parameter alpha. Semidiscrete finite-element equations of motion based on this principle are displayed and applied to the transient response and free-vibrations of the coupled fluid-structure problem. It is shown that a particular setting of alpha yields a rich set of formulations that can be customized to fit physical and computational requirements. The variational principle is then extended to handle slosh motions in a uniform gravity field, and used to derive semidiscrete equations of motion that account for such effects.

  11. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through the...

  12. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through...

  13. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through...

  14. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through...

  15. A mathematical formulation for interface-based modular product design with geometric and weight constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung-Woon Yoo, John

    2016-06-01

    Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.

  16. General stochastic variational formulation for the oligopolistic market equilibrium problem with excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, Annamaria; Di Meglio, Guglielmo; Mauro, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to study, in a Hilbert space setting, a general random oligopolistic market equilibrium problem in presence of both production and demand excesses and to characterize the random Cournot-Nash equilibrium principle by means of a stochastic variational inequality. Some existence results are presented.

  17. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of funds...

  18. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product formulations...

  19. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  1. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  3. Standardization of the finished product: Habbe Irqun Nisa - A Unani anti-inflammatory formulation

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S. Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Shamsi, Shariq

    2012-01-01

    Background: Habb (Pill) is one of the important dosage forms of Unani system of medicine. A number of effective formulations are manufactured in form of Habb because of its various advantages. Out of these, Habbe Irqun Nisa (HI) is a popular anti-inflammatory formulation used in the treatment of Warame Mafasil (arthritis) and Irqun Nisa (sciatica). Nowadays, with increased incidence of these diseases many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are being used in their treatment. Owing to the adverse effects of these drugs, the use of herbal medicines is seen as a better alternative. The basic requirement for the development of Unani system of Medicine is the standardization of single and compound drugs. HI is mentioned in National Formulary of Unani Medicne and selected for the present study. Materials and Methods: HI was prepared manually with the powder of crude drugs, passed through sieve no. 100 and mixed with 1% w/w of gum acacia in mucilage form. It was then dried at 60°C for 90 min and then tested for its standardization on different physicochemical parameters, e.g. organoleptic properties, pH values, moisture content, ash values, friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The data evolved from this study will make it a validated product and will help in the quality control of other finished products in future research. PMID:23929993

  4. A variational formulation of electrostatics in a medium with spatially varying dielectric permittivity.

    PubMed

    Jadhao, Vikram; Solis, Francisco J; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2013-02-07

    In biological and synthetic materials, many important processes involve charges that are present in a medium with spatially varying dielectric permittivity. To accurately understand the role of electrostatic interactions in such systems, it is important to take into account the spatial dependence of the permittivity of the medium. However, due to the ensuing theoretical and computational challenges, this inhomogeneous dielectric response of the medium is often ignored or excessively simplified. We develop a variational formulation of electrostatics to accurately investigate systems that exhibit this inhomogeneous dielectric response. Our formulation is based on a true energy functional of the polarization charge density. The defining characteristic of a true energy functional is that at its minimum it evaluates to the actual value of the energy; this is a feature not found in many commonly used electrostatic functionals. We explore in detail the charged systems that exhibit sharp discontinuous change in dielectric permittivity, and we show that for this case our functional reduces to a functional of only the surface polarization charge density. We apply this reduced functional to study model problems for which analytical solutions are well known. We demonstrate, in addition, that the functional has many properties that make it ideal for use in molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Proactive management of fermentation and formulation interactions to improve biocontrol product performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The key components of biocontrol product development; discovery, fermentation, and formulation, are interactively linked to each other and ultimately, to product performance. The fermentation environment can be managed to maximize the quantity and quality of biomass and bioproducts produced which, ...

  6. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., or other uses of such patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, or product...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product...

  8. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., or other uses of such patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, or product...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product...

  10. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  11. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  12. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  13. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  14. Recovering thermodynamic consistency of the antitrapping model: A variational phase-field formulation for alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Angbo; Mi, Yongli

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenological antitrapping phase-field model has attained much success in describing alloy solidification. The heuristically introduced antitrapping current enables removing artificial effects due to the use of large interfacial width. Nevertheless, such a model is not thermodynamically consistent and has not been fitted into a variational framework. Here we present two approaches to develop a variational phase-field model to describe patten formation in alloys. Following the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics we build in the cross-coupling between the phase transition rate and solute diffusion current. Our formulation not only naturally incorporates the antitrapping current but also predicts the conjugated mesoscopic solute drag effect. A more general form of the antitrapping current is obtained by thin-interface analysis. Benchmark simulations on isothermal dendrite growth are carried out to show the capability of our model to quantitatively characterize the interface evolution and solute profile even with a large interface width used. Importantly, our theory also provides general insights on how to obtain the genuine dynamic coupling between nonconserved and conserved order parameters. This leads to a thermodynamically consistent generalization of the celebrated model C proposed by Hohenberg and Halperin [Rev. Mod. Phys.0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.49.435 49, 435 (1977)].

  15. New variational formulation of Maxwell-Vlasov and guiding center theories local charge and energy conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A new variational formulation of Maxwell-Vlasov and related theories is given in terms of a common Lagrangian density for both the 'Vlasov particles' and the Maxwell fields. This formulation is used to derive in a consistent way, on the one hand, correct charge and current densities and, on the other, corresponding energy and energy flux densities. All of these densities generally show in addition to particle like contributions electric polarization and magnetization terms. By some limiting procedure collisionless guiding center theories with polarization drifts included are also treated. In this way local energy conservation laws are formulated for such theories, which has not been possible up to now.

  16. Novel delivery system for natural products: Nano-curcumin formulations

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Nedaeinia, Reza; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Nikdoust, Shima; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin is extracted from Curcuma longa and regulates the intracellular signal pathways which control the growth of cancerous cell, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis. Curcumin molecules have special intrinsic features that can target the intracellular enzymes, genome (DNA) and messengers (RNA). A wide range of studies have been conducted on the physicochemical traits and pharmacological effects of curcumin on different diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and even it has wound healing. Oral bioavailability of curcumin is rather poor, which would certainly put some boundaries in the employment of this drug. Materials and Methods: Bibliographical searches were performed using MEDLINE/ScienceDirect/OVID up to February 2015 using the following keywords (all fields): (“Curcumin” OR “Curcuma longa”) AND [(nanoparticles) OR (Nanomicelles) OR (micro emulsions) OR (liposome) OR (phospholipid). Results: Consequently, for any developments of curcumin in the future, analogues of curcumin that have better bioavailability or substitute formulations are needed crucially. Conclusion: These studies indicated that nanotechnology can formulate curcumin effectively, and this nano-formulated curcumin with a potent ability against various cancer cells, were represented to have better efficacy and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. PMID:27516979

  17. Variations in exopolysaccharide production by Rhizobium tropici.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Ann K; Wolfe, Lawrence G; Shrout, Joshua D

    2012-03-01

    Rhizobium tropici, a legume-symbiont soil bacterium, is known for its copious production of exopolysaccharide (EPS). Many aspects of this organism's growth and EPS production, however, remain uncharacterized, including the influence of environment and culturing conditions upon EPS. Here, we demonstrate that R. tropici EPS chemical composition and yield differ when grown with different substrates in a defined minimal medium in batch culture. Exopolysaccharide was quantified from R. tropici grown using arabinose, glucose, sucrose, mannitol, fructose, or glutamate as a sole carbon source. All tested substrates produced plenteous amounts of exopolysaccharide material. Variations in pH and carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio also resulted in assorted cell growth and exopolysaccharide production differences. We found that optimizing the C/N ratio has a greater impact upon R. tropici EPS production than upon R. tropici growth. A maximum EPS yield of 4.08 g/L was realized under optimized conditions, which is large even in comparison with other known rhizobia. We provide evidence that the chemical composition of R. tropici EPS can vary with changes to the growth environment. The composition of glucose-grown EPS contained rhamnose-linked residues that were not present in arabinose-grown EPS.

  18. Applying the biopharmaceutics classification system to veterinary pharmaceutical products. Part I: biopharmaceutics and formulation considerations.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marilyn; Augsburger, Larry; Johnston, Thomas; Jones, Wendelyn Warren

    2002-10-04

    The complexity of multiple species approvals continues throughout the life of a product as post-approval manufacturing changes, as well as all generic versions of approved products, are evaluated for each of the approved target animal species. In comparing product bioavailability across animal species, it is not unusual to observe marked interspecies differences. For many compounds, these differences reflect species-specific presystemic metabolism. However, a host of other variables must also be considered, including in vivo drug solubility, gastric transit time, intestinal permeability, diet, and species-by-formulation interactions. To predict potential species-by-formulation interactions, one must consider the solubility and intestinal permeability of the drug entity, the type of formulation, nature of the excipients, and the physiological characteristics of the animal recipient. In this paper, we examine manufacturing and formulation variables that can affect drug bioavailability, and the potential for species-specific differences in the responses to these formulations.

  19. HSCT Assessment Calculations with the AER 2-D Model: Sensitivities to Transport Formulation, PSC Formulation, Interannual Temperature Variation. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Jackman, Charles; Fleming, Eric; Considine, David; Kinnison, Douglas; Connell, Peter; Rotman, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The summary are: (1) Some chemical differences in background atmosphere are surprisingly large (NOY). (2) Differences in model transport explain a majority of the intertnodel differences in the absence of PSCs. (3) With PSCS, large differences exist in predicted O3 depletion between models with the same transport. (4) AER/LLNL model calculates more O3 depletion in NH than LLNL. (5) AER/GSFC model cannot match calculated O3 depletion of GSFC model in SH. and (6) Results sensitive to interannual temperature variations (at least in NH).

  20. Large eddy simulation models for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics derived from the variational multiscale formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A.

    2012-10-15

    Novel large eddy simulation (LES) models are developed for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These models include the application of the variational multiscale formulation of LES to the equations of incompressible MHD. Additionally, a new residual-based eddy viscosity model is introduced for MHD. A mixed LES model that combines the strengths of both of these models is also derived. The new models result in a consistent numerical method that is relatively simple to implement. The need for a dynamic procedure in determining model coefficients is no longer required. The new LES models are tested on a decaying Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD and benchmarked against classical LES turbulence models. The LES simulations are run in a periodic box of size [-{pi}, {pi}]{sup 3} with 32 modes in each direction and are compared to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 512 modes in each direction. The new models are able to account for the essential MHD physics which is demonstrated via comparisons of energy spectra. We also compare the performance of our models to a DNS simulation by Pouquet et al.['The dynamics of unforced turbulence at high Reynolds number for Taylor-Green vortices generalized to MHD,' Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 115-134 (2010)], for which the ratio of DNS modes to LES modes is 262:144.

  1. Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. I. Variational formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-07-15

    A unified theoretical framework is presented for analyzing various branches of drift Alfvén waves and describing their linear and nonlinear behaviors, covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Nonlinear gyrokinetic quasineutrality condition and vorticity equation, derived for drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles in fusion plasmas, are cast in integral form, which is generally variational in the linear limit; and the corresponding gyrokinetic energy principle is obtained. Well known forms of the kinetic energy principle are readily recovered from this general formulation. Furthermore, it is possible to demonstrate that the general fishbone like dispersion relation, obtained within the present theoretical framework, provides a unified description of drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles as either Alfvén eigenmodes or energetic particle modes. The advantage of the present approach stands in its capability of extracting underlying linear and nonlinear physics as well as spatial and temporal scales of the considered fluctuation spectrum. For these reasons, this unified theoretical framework can help understanding experimental observations as well as numerical simulation and analytic results with different levels of approximation. Examples and applications are given in Paper II [F. Zonca and L. Chen, “Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. II. The general fishbone-like dispersion relation,” Phys. Plasmas 21, 072121 (2014)].

  2. Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. I. Variational formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-07-01

    A unified theoretical framework is presented for analyzing various branches of drift Alfvén waves and describing their linear and nonlinear behaviors, covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Nonlinear gyrokinetic quasineutrality condition and vorticity equation, derived for drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles in fusion plasmas, are cast in integral form, which is generally variational in the linear limit; and the corresponding gyrokinetic energy principle is obtained. Well known forms of the kinetic energy principle are readily recovered from this general formulation. Furthermore, it is possible to demonstrate that the general fishbone like dispersion relation, obtained within the present theoretical framework, provides a unified description of drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles as either Alfvén eigenmodes or energetic particle modes. The advantage of the present approach stands in its capability of extracting underlying linear and nonlinear physics as well as spatial and temporal scales of the considered fluctuation spectrum. For these reasons, this unified theoretical framework can help understanding experimental observations as well as numerical simulation and analytic results with different levels of approximation. Examples and applications are given in Paper II [F. Zonca and L. Chen, "Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. II. The general fishbone-like dispersion relation," Phys. Plasmas 21, 072121 (2014)].

  3. Studies on application of annatto (Bixa orellena L.) dye formulations in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Sathiya Mala, Kripanand; Prabhakara Rao, Pamidighantam; Prabhavathy, Manda Babu; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2015-02-01

    Annatto is often used to add color to dairy products such as butter, cheese, or puddings. In India usage of annatto is restricted to butter and cheese, however there are no tailor made formulations available to obtain standardized colour shades for the products. Hence a study was initiated to develop the appropriate annatto dye formulations and level of application in few dairy products (butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream). Dye extracted from annatto seeds was used for the preparation of water soluble potassium carbonate formulation (nor-bixin, 11.24 %), oil soluble formulation (1.35 % bixin) and an oil/water soluble propylene glycol formulation (PG formulation, 1.31 % bixin). Lovibond tintometer colour units of the commercial butter, cheese and biscuit cream samples were measured for standardizing the colour concentration in the experimental products. The present study evaluates the application and stability of these formulations in butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream. The products were evaluated for stability of colour and bixin during storage period. The oil/water soluble propylene glycol formulation was found to be tailor-made for all the dairy products studied though the standardized levels varied between 3.75 and 5.0 mg/kg for butter, 3.75 mg/kg for cheese, 5.0-400 mg/kg for biscuit cream, 12.25 and 25 mg/kg for paneer, 5.0-500 mg/kg for icing cream. Increasing concentration in the range of 30-500 mg/kg yielded products with light cream to orange shades, useful for decorating cakes. The average recovery of bixin from the products immediately after processing was 90-98 %. Significant changes (P ≤ 0.05) were noticed in the colour units and recovery of bixin in all the products during storage of 6 months.

  4. Understanding effect of formulation and manufacturing variables on the critical quality attributes of warfarin sodium product.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Mohammad, Adil; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-10

    Warfarin sodium (WS) is a narrow therapeutic index drug and its product quality should be thoroughly understood and monitored in order to avoid clinical performance issues. This study was focused on understanding the effect of manufacturing and formulation variables on WS product critical quality attributes (CQAs). Eight formulations were developed with lactose monohydrate (LM) or lactose anhydrous (LA), and were either wet granulated or directly compressed. Formulations were granulated either with ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and IPA-water mixture (50:50). Formulations were characterized for IPA, water content, hardness, disintegration time (DT), assay, dissolution and drug physical forms (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR)), and performed accelerated stability studies at 40°C/75% RH for three days. The DT and dissolution of directly compressed formulations were faster than wet granulated formulations. This was due to phase transformation of crystalline drug into its amorphous form as indicated by SEM, NIR-CI, XRPD and ssNMR data which itself act as a binder. Similarly, LM showed faster disintegration and dissolution than LA containing formulations. Stability results indicated an increase in hardness and DT, and a decrease in dissolution rate and extent. This was due to phase transformation of the drug and consolidation with particles' bonding. In conclusion, the CQAs of WS product were significantly affected by manufacturing and formulation variables. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Solutol and cremophor products as new additives in suppository formulation.

    PubMed

    Berkó, Szilvia; Regdon, Géza; Erös, István

    2002-01-01

    Our research has a double purpose. On the one hand, doctors have expressed the need to formulate a rectal suppository dosage form from diuretic ethacrynic acid, which would add to the choice of treatment methods and thereby increase the possibilities of individual cure. On the other hand, the liberation and thereby the bioavailability of poorly-soluble ethacrynic acid needs to be enhanced, and for this purpose solubility-increasing additives new to rectal therapy were used. Solutol HS 15, Cremophor RH 40, and Cremophor RH 60 were used as additives in concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 10%. The quantity of drug released changed as a function of additive concentration. Depending on the acceptor phase, the best results were achieved with an additive concentration of 1-3%, which is related to the optimal additive quantity accumulated on the boundary surface.

  6. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information...

  7. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  9. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  10. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  11. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  12. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1218.56 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  15. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  16. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and Assessments § 1218.56 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.88 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., Research, and Information Order Miscellaneous § 1216.88 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information..., and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  1. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  2. Variational formulation and stability analysis of a three dimensional superelastic model for shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Roberto; Pham, Kim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a variational framework for the three-dimensional macroscopic modelling of superelastic shape memory alloys in an isothermal setting. Phase transformation is accounted through a unique second order tensorial internal variable, acting as the transformation strain. Postulating the total strain energy density as the sum of a free energy and a dissipated energy, the model depends on two material scalar functions of the norm of the transformation strain and a material scalar constant. Appropriate calibration of these material functions allows to render a wide range of constitutive behaviours including stress-softening and stress-hardening. The quasi-static evolution problem of a domain is formulated in terms of two physical principles based on the total energy of the system: a stability criterion, which selects the local minima of the total energy, and an energy balance condition, which ensures the consistency of the evolution of the total energy with respect to the external loadings. The local phase transformation laws in terms of Kuhn-Tucker relations are deduced from the first-order stability condition and the energy balance condition. The response of the model is illustrated with a numerical traction-torsion test performed on a thin-walled cylinder. Evolutions of homogeneous states are given for proportional and non-proportional loadings. Influence of the stress-hardening/softening properties on the evolution of the transformation domain is emphasized. Finally, in view of an identification process, the issue of stability of homogeneous states in a multi-dimensional setting is answered based on the study of second-order derivative of the total energy. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions of stability are provided.

  3. Combustion Product Evaluation of Various Charge Sizes and Propellant Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Activity , Advanced Systems Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground, without whose help and cooperation this study could not have been performed...WC844 propellant were subjected to u rather detailed chemical analyses. A large number of trace chemical species, volatile organics and PAHs were...Sampling for PAH Analyses ....................... 18 3.3.8 Combustion Product Sampling From A Bore Evacuator, 155 mm Gun

  4. Determination of the antibiotic fungicide validamycin A in formulated products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Y M; Lo, C C

    1999-09-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method (MEKC) was used to determine validamycin A content in commercial products. The results indicated that this method was capable of analyzing the validamycin A content in formulated products with an instrument detection limit of 0.94 microg/mL and a method detection limit of 1. 70 microg/mL. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values of MEKC determination of validamycin A in formulated products ranged from 0. 61 to 2.09%. Recoveries of validamycin A in formulated products were in the region of 99.5-105.1%. All commercial products collected from markets contained validamycin A. The high percentage of recovery, the low detection limit, and the low RSD values confirmed that the MEKC technique is a senstivie and selective method.

  5. Zinc oxide as a new antimicrobial preservative of topical products: interactions with common formulation ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Julia; Chevalier, Yves; Couval, Emmanuelle; Bouvier, Dominique; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) appears as a promising preservative for pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. The other ingredients of the formulations may have specific interactions with ZnO that alter its antimicrobial properties. The influence of common formulation excipients on the antimicrobial efficacy of ZnO has been investigated in simple model systems and in typical topical products containing a complex formulation. A wide variety of formulation excipients have been investigated for their interactions with ZnO: antioxidants, chelating agents, electrolytes, titanium dioxide pigment. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO against Escherichia coli was partially inhibited by NaCl and MgSO4 salts. A synergistic influence of uncoated titanium dioxide has been observed. The interference effects of antioxidants and chelating agents were quite specific. The interactions of these substances with ZnO particles and with the soluble species released by ZnO were discussed so as to reach scientific guidelines for the choice of the ingredients. The preservative efficacy of ZnO was assessed by challenge testing in three different formulations: an oil-in-water emulsion; a water-in-oil emulsion and a dry powder. The addition of ZnO in complex formulations significantly improved the microbiological quality of the products, in spite of the presence of other ingredients that modulate the antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    PubMed

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    PubMed Central

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry. PMID:24860803

  8. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  9. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design.

    PubMed

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  10. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  11. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  12. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  13. A variational justification of the assumed natural strain formulation of finite elements. I - Variational principles. II - The C(0) four-node plate element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1990-01-01

    The assumed natural strain formulation of finite elements is interpreted from a variational standpoint. The approach is based on hybrid extensions of the Reissner-type functional which uses the strains and displacements as independent fields. Consideration is restricted to linear elasticity. The four-node C(0) plate-bending quadrilateral is used as a specific example to illustrate the application of the present interpretation. A key finding is that any change in the strain-displacement interpolation from the variationally consistent interpolation must be associated in some way to the addition of incompatible displacement modes.

  14. A simple and elegant technique connecting Marcuse spot size relations to variational formulations in single-mode fiber characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Prosenjit Roy; Pramanik, Sanchita; Sarkar, Somenath

    2016-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of spot size, an important criterion in single-mode fiber optics, is obtained by two different optimization techniques, the well-known variational method and Marcuse formulation. The later is more accurate but cannot predict fiber parameters from given spot sizes. In this study, it is shown for the first time to the best of our knowledge that using simultaneously Marcuse relations of fiber spot sizes for single-mode graded index fibers and also variational formulation, we can more accurately and easily determine the fiber parameters for a particular normalized frequency. Then it is shown with typical example of fractional power in the core that in the case of such fibers, this synthesis of these two useful approaches can also more accurately estimate propagation characteristics of practical interest. This equivalence provides an easy and useful connection between two fundamental but disjoint approaches and should find wide use.

  15. Time-discretized action principle variational formulation of finite-size particle simulation methods for electrostatic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadwick, Bradley; Evstatiev, Evstati

    2013-10-01

    We formulate finite-size particle plasma simulation methods from a time-discretized action principle viewpoint. Using Low's Lagrangian as a starting point, we first discretized in spatially the continuous fields and formulate a time-continuous action for the self-consistent system of particles and fields in the electrostatic (ES) plasma approximation. We then utilize a technique due to Lew et al. to formulate time-discrete action and its variation to obtain a particular time integrator. Such time integrators are symplectic (provided there is symmetry with respect to time inversion); they do not conserve energy exactly but the energy variation is bounded and its magnitude depends on the time step. These general time integrators can be of any order of accuracy, however as a rule, beyond second order they are implicit. Time-implicit schemes are easy to formulate for the general cases of electromagnetic and magnetized plasmas. We provide numerical examples of both explicit and implicit time integrators and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Supported by the U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-SC0008382.

  16. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performing microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.

  17. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performingmore » microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.« less

  18. Variational finite element-tensor formulation for the large deflection random vibration of composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Jay H.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical integration routine is derived from a set of unified single step integration algorithms using a weighted satisfaction of the equilibrium equation governing the large deflection random response of laminated composite plates. The equilibrium equation is derived using a constant matrix large deflection finite-element formulation. In-plane inertia terms are considered in the formulation, however, rotary inertia terms are assumed negligible. Probability density, spectral density and autocorrelation functions of the maximum displacement and strain responses are presented for three acoustic excitation levels. Classical thin plate boundary conditions and pseudo white noise excitation are used in this investigation.

  19. Abuse-deterrent formulations: part 2: commercial products and proprietary technologies.

    PubMed

    Mastropietro, David J; Omidian, Hossein

    2015-02-01

    Increased misuse and abuse of prescription pain medications has driven extensive research and development to produce what are best known as abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs). The ADFs are intended to prevent, impede or discourage physical and chemical tampering while still being able to provide safe and accurate delivery of an abusable medication for therapeutic benefit. This review primarily focuses on patents and company literature regarding the formulations, manufacturing and physiochemical properties of abuse-deterrent compositions. Also included are journal articles with relevance to the development of these novel technologies. Particular attention is given to oral dosage forms with applications found in prescription drug products, over-the-counter medications and proprietary technologies in development. Overall, the formulations of 14 drug products, 2 meth-resistant cold products and 17 pharmaceutical proprietary technologies are explored in detail. Despite the introduction of a wide range of formulation and technology interventions with different deterrence potential, the progression of these technologies seems to be moving from inhibiting only one type of abuse to stopping multiple types of tampering methods. Information on inherent strengths and weaknesses of various formulations can be utilized in the development of more robust and resistant ADF in the future.

  20. Characterization of potential impurities and degradation products in electronic cigarette formulations and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Flora, Jason W; Meruva, Naren; Huang, Chorng B; Wilkinson, Celeste T; Ballentine, Regina; Smith, Donna C; Werley, Michael S; McKinney, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    E-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated. In addition, nicotine-related chemicals have been previously reported as potential e-cigarette formulation impurities. This study determined e-liquid formulation impurities and potentially harmful chemicals in aerosols of select commercial MarkTen(®) e-cigarettes manufactured by NuMark LLC. The potential hazard of the identified formulation impurities and aerosol chemicals was also estimated. E-cigarettes were machine puffed (4-s duration, 55-mL volume, 30-s intervals) to battery exhaustion to maximize aerosol collection. Aerosols analyzed for carbonyls were collected in 20-puff increments to account for analyte instability. Tobacco specific nitrosamines were measured at levels observed in pharmaceutical grade nicotine. Nicotine-related impurities in the e-cigarette formulations were below the identification and qualification thresholds proposed in ICH Guideline Q3B(R2). Levels of potentially harmful chemicals detected in the aerosols were determined to be below published occupational exposure limits.

  1. From a Nonlinear, Nonconvex Variational Problem to a Linear, Convex Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Egozcue, J. Meziat, R. Pedregal, P.

    2002-12-19

    We propose a general approach to deal with nonlinear, nonconvex variational problems based on a reformulation of the problem resulting in an optimization problem with linear cost functional and convex constraints. As a first step we explicitly explore these ideas to some one-dimensional variational problems and obtain specific conclusions of an analytical and numerical nature.

  2. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  3. The Production System's Formulation of Relative Clause Structures: Evidence from Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Dana; Lech, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the formulation of relative clauses with preposition and genitive pied-piping. Thirty child (5;9 to 8;4) and 30 adult Polish speakers were given an elicited production task and a grammaticality judgment task. Almost all of the children accepted preposition pied-piping, but only half of them produced it. We suggest that…

  4. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, information...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  8. Sensitivity of secondary production and export flux to choice of trophic transfer formulation in marine ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Hessen, Dag O.; Mitra, Aditee; Mayor, Daniel J.; Yool, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The performance of four contemporary formulations describing trophic transfer, which have strongly contrasting assumptions as regards the way that consumer growth is calculated as a function of food C:N ratio and in the fate of non-limiting substrates, was compared in two settings: a simple steady-state ecosystem model and a 3D biogeochemical general circulation model. Considerable variation was seen in predictions for primary production, transfer to higher trophic levels and export to the ocean interior. The physiological basis of the various assumptions underpinning the chosen formulations is open to question. Assumptions include Liebig-style limitation of growth, strict homeostasis in zooplankton biomass, and whether excess C and N are released by voiding in faecal pellets or via respiration/excretion post-absorption by the gut. Deciding upon the most appropriate means of formulating trophic transfer is not straightforward because, despite advances in ecological stoichiometry, the physiological mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain incompletely understood. Nevertheless, worrying inconsistencies are evident in the way in which fundamental transfer processes are justified and parameterised in the current generation of marine ecosystem models, manifested in the resulting simulations of ocean biogeochemistry. Our work highlights the need for modellers to revisit and appraise the equations and parameter values used to describe trophic transfer in marine ecosystem models.

  9. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of interacting tunneling transport: variational grand potential, density functional formulation and nature of steady-state forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyldgaard, P.

    2012-10-01

    The standard formulation of tunneling transport rests on an open-boundary modeling. There, conserving approximations to nonequilibrium Green function or quantum statistical mechanics provide consistent but computational costly approaches; alternatively, the use of density-dependent ballistic-transport calculations (e.g., Lang 1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 5335), here denoted ‘DBT’, provides computationally efficient (approximate) atomistic characterizations of the electron behavior but has until now lacked a formal justification. This paper presents an exact, variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory for fully interacting tunneling and provides a rigorous foundation for frozen-nuclei DBT calculations as a lowest-order approximation to an exact nonequilibrium thermodynamic density functional evaluation. The theory starts from the complete electron nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and I identify the operator for the nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy which, generally, must be treated as an implicit solution of the fully interacting many-body dynamics. I demonstrate a minimal property of a functional for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic grand potential which thus uniquely identifies the solution as the exact nonequilibrium density matrix. I also show that the uniqueness-of-density proof from a closely related Lippmann-Schwinger collision density functional theory (Hyldgaard 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 165109) makes it possible to express the variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic description as a single-particle formulation based on universal electron-density functionals; the full nonequilibrium single-particle formulation improves the DBT method, for example, by a more refined account of Gibbs free energy effects. I illustrate a formal evaluation of the zero-temperature thermodynamic grand potential value which I find is closely related to the variation in the scattering phase shifts and hence to Friedel density oscillations. This paper also discusses the

  10. A half-analytical formulation for the impedance variation in axisymmetrical modelling of eddy current non destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maouche, B.; Feliachi, M.; Khenfer, N.

    2006-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impedance variation using a half-analytical formulation based on coupled electromagnetic variables. Such a formulation concerns an axisymmetrical device constituted with a voltage supplied solenoïdal inductor and a conducting workpiece. In this field of modelling, authors have already developed a method [Maouche and Feliachi, J. Phys. III France 10, 1967 (1997)] that determines the current distribution inside inductor coil loops in the case of weak skin depth and a low number of these coil loops. In the proposed development, the number of loops is relatively large and the skin effect in these loops is negligible. This formulation uses a voltage excitation, which makes the source field depending on induced currents and permits to consider the real geometry of the inductor. The model is applied to study an eddy current non destructive testing (ECNDT) device. The variation of the system impedance is calculated in the case of an axisymmetrical device. The obtained modelling results are validated by comparison to measurements and finite element computations [Rémy, Ph.D. thesis, University of Compiègne, France, 1997; La et al., Rev. Prog. Quant. Non-Destructive Eval. 16A, 295 (1997)]. Once validated, the proposed model is applied to determine geometrical and physical characteristics of an ECNDT device. To assemble this interest, we visualise the evolution of the impedance variation according respectively to the air-gap, to the thickness of the workpiece and its electric conductivity. The model is implemented within a software tool (CECM: Coupling Electromagnetic Circuits Method) developed in Matlab environment.

  11. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of interacting tunneling transport: variational grand potential, density functional formulation and nature of steady-state forces.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, P

    2012-10-24

    The standard formulation of tunneling transport rests on an open-boundary modeling. There, conserving approximations to nonequilibrium Green function or quantum statistical mechanics provide consistent but computational costly approaches; alternatively, the use of density-dependent ballistic-transport calculations (e.g., Lang 1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 5335), here denoted 'DBT', provides computationally efficient (approximate) atomistic characterizations of the electron behavior but has until now lacked a formal justification. This paper presents an exact, variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory for fully interacting tunneling and provides a rigorous foundation for frozen-nuclei DBT calculations as a lowest-order approximation to an exact nonequilibrium thermodynamic density functional evaluation. The theory starts from the complete electron nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and I identify the operator for the nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy which, generally, must be treated as an implicit solution of the fully interacting many-body dynamics. I demonstrate a minimal property of a functional for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic grand potential which thus uniquely identifies the solution as the exact nonequilibrium density matrix. I also show that the uniqueness-of-density proof from a closely related Lippmann-Schwinger collision density functional theory (Hyldgaard 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 165109) makes it possible to express the variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic description as a single-particle formulation based on universal electron-density functionals; the full nonequilibrium single-particle formulation improves the DBT method, for example, by a more refined account of Gibbs free energy effects. I illustrate a formal evaluation of the zero-temperature thermodynamic grand potential value which I find is closely related to the variation in the scattering phase shifts and hence to Friedel density oscillations. This paper also discusses the

  12. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield.

  13. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B.; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield. PMID:28099471

  14. Current perspectives on stability of protein drug products during formulation, fill and finish operations.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Nitin; Rajan, Rahul S

    2008-01-01

    Commercialization of protein-based therapeutics is a challenging task in part due to the difficulties in maintaining protein solutions safe and efficacious throughout the drug product development process, storage, transportation and patient administration. Bulk drug substance goes through a series of formulation, fill and finish operations to provide the final dosage form in the desired formulation and container or delivery device. Different process parameters during each of these operations can affect the purity, activity and efficacy of the final product. Common protein degradation pathways and the various physical and chemical factors that can induce such reactions have been extensively studied for years. This review presents an overview of the various formulation-fill-finish operations with a focus on processing steps and conditions that can impact product quality. Various manufacturing operations including bulk freeze-thaw, formulation, filtration, filling, lyophilization, inspection, labeling, packaging, storage, transport and delivery have been reviewed. The article highlights our present day understanding of protein instability issues during biopharmaceutical manufacturing and provides guidance on process considerations that can help alleviate these concerns.

  15. Cycle 23 Variation in Solar Flare Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh; Fletcher, Lyndsay; McTiernan, Jim

    2014-04-01

    The NOAA listings of solar flares in cycles 21 - 24, including the GOES soft X-ray magnitudes, enable a simple determination of the number of flares each flaring active region produces over its lifetime. We have studied this measure of flare productivity over the interval 1975 - 2012. The annual averages of flare productivity remained approximately constant during cycles 21 and 22, at about two reported M- or X-flares per region, but then increased significantly in the declining phase of cycle 23 (the years 2004 - 2005). We have confirmed this by using the independent RHESSI flare catalog to check the NOAA events listings where possible. We note that this measure of solar activity does not correlate with the solar cycle. The anomalous peak in flare productivity immediately preceded the long solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24.

  16. Variational formulation of hybrid problems for fully 3-D transonic flow with shocks in rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Gao-Lian

    1991-01-01

    Based on previous research, the unified variable domain variational theory of hybrid problems for rotor flow is extended to fully 3-D transonic rotor flow with shocks, unifying and generalizing the direct and inverse problems. Three variational principles (VP) families were established. All unknown boundaries and flow discontinuities (such as shocks, free trailing vortex sheets) are successfully handled via functional variations with variable domain, converting almost all boundary and interface conditions, including the Rankine Hugoniot shock relations, into natural ones. This theory provides a series of novel ways for blade design or modification and a rigorous theoretical basis for finite element applications and also constitutes an important part of the optimal design theory of rotor bladings. Numerical solutions to subsonic flow by finite elements with self-adapting nodes given in Refs., show good agreement with experimental results.

  17. Assessment of the anti-Salmonella activity of commercial formulations of organic acid products.

    PubMed

    Wales, Andrew; McLaren, Ian; Rabie, André; Gosling, Rebecca J; Martelli, Francesca; Sayers, Robin; Davies, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Organic acid products are widely used in the UK poultry industry as feed or water additives. Claims for Salmonella control are made for some of these products, but there are few studies comparing the anti-Salmonella effect of the various products in tests that reflect field application. The present studies examined the effects of 13 commercial blends (four water products and nine feed products) on Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium strains. Initial screening, in nutrient broth, of all products with all strains revealed little variation between strains in respect of maximum inhibitory and bactericidal dilutions of each product. However, between the products there was wide and significant variation in the maximum inhibitory and bactericidal dilutions, spanning a 700-fold range in the case of bactericidal dilutions for feed-associated products. Further tests were performed, examining reductions in inoculated Salmonella numbers in various matrices (water, feed, soiled litter, crop and caecal contents) following the addition of the products at recommended inclusion rates. One product, incorporating formaldehyde in addition to organic acid, was consistently most active in all matrices, exceeding reductions associated with other products by 1 to 3 log units at most time points. Many products showed only modest anti-Salmonella activity, amounting to 0 or 1 log unit above negative controls at many time points, and the most active products were not the same in all matrices. Tap water appeared to enhance the ability of products to reduce Salmonella, in comparison with bottled mineral or river water.

  18. Dermal safety assessment of Arm & Hammer laundry products formulated for sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Douglas M; Vorwerk, Linda; Gupta, Archana; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of sensitive skin among the general population in industrialized countries is reported to be over 50%. Sensitive skin subjects often report significant reactions to contact with cosmetics, soaps and other consumer products. This paper describes the overall skin compatibility and mildness program for a newly developed, lightly fragranced, colorant free laundry product (i.e. Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent), specially formulated for individuals with sensitive skin. The skin mildness of the product was compared to Arm & Hammer™ Free & Clear liquid laundry detergent with no fragrance or colorant, and an established history of safe use by sensitive skin consumers. The test material was a liquid laundry product with a light scent formulated for sensitive skin consumers (Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent). The product was compared to commercially marketed products for sensitive skin with a history of skin safety in the marketplace, including: a very similar product formulation (Arm & Hammer™ Free & Clear with no fragrance), and several selected competitors' products. Studies were conducted among individuals with self-assessed sensitive skin (based on a questionnaire) using standard protocols for the Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT), 10-Day Cumulative Irritation, the Wrist Band Wear test, and the Safety In-Use testing. Responses in all protocols were evaluated by visual scoring of potential dermatologic reactions, and recording any sensory effects at the time of the examination. In addition, sensory effects collected from panelists' daily diaries were also evaluated. The HRIPT confirmed that neither the fragrance alone, nor the product formulation with fragrance, induced contact sensitization in sensitive skin subjects. The 10-Day cumulative irritation study conducted using sensitive skin subjects showed highly favorable skin compatibility, and the test product was comparable to the control

  19. Modulation of fossil fuel production by global temperature variations, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, B.W.; Crosby, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The report includes the inverse modulation of global fossil production by variations in Northern Hemispheric temperatures. The present study incorporates recent revisions and extensions of the fuel production record and uses a much improved temperature record. The authors show that the new data are consistent with the predictions of the original Rust-Kirk model which they then extend to allow for time lag between variations in the temperature and the corresponding responses in fuel production. The modulation enters the new model through the convolution of a lagged averaging function with the temperature time-series. The authors also include explicit terms to account for the perturbations caused by the Great Depression and World War II. The final model accounts for 99.84% of the total variance in the production record. This modulation represents a feedback which is consistent with the carbon dioxide problem; climate change; fossil fuel production; global warming Gaia hypothesis; temperature variations.

  20. Variational Formulation and Finite Element Implementation of Pagano’s Theory of Laminated Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-12

    that the plane of crosssection before bending remains plane and perpendicular to the midsurface of the plate during deformation. In addition, it is...assumed that the variation of lateral displacement through the thickness and the stress normal to the midsurface are negligible. A mathematical...frame used, the origin is located in the midsurface of the plate (x1-X2 axes) with x3 axis normal to this plane, but the range of X3 is limited to

  1. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance.

  2. A Variational Formulation for the Finite Element Analysis of Sound Wave Propagation in a Spherical Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebiedzik, Catherine

    1995-01-01

    Development of design tools to furnish optimal acoustic environments for lightweight aircraft demands the ability to simulate the acoustic system on a workstation. In order to form an effective mathematical model of the phenomena at hand, we have begun by studying the propagation of acoustic waves inside closed spherical shells. Using a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction model based upon variational principles, we have written a finite element analysis program and are in the process of examining several test cases. Future investigations are planned to increase model accuracy by incorporating non-linear and viscous effects.

  3. On a variational formulation of the maximum energy dissipation principle for non-equilibrium chemical thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Adam

    2008-05-01

    In this work we revise the applicability of the optimal control and variational approach to the maximum energy dissipation (MED) principle in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The optimal control analogies for the kinetical and potential parts of thermodynamic Lagrangian (in the form of a sum of the positively defined thermodynamic potential and positively defined dissipative function) have been considered. An interpretation of thermodynamic momenta is discussed with respect to standard optimal control applications, which employ dynamic constraints. Also included is interpretation in terms of the least action principle.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia.

  5. Talc based exopolysaccharides formulation enhancing growth and production of Hellianthus annuus under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Arora, K

    2014-12-24

    Stress tolerating strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF07 possessing plant growth promoting activity was screened for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS production was monitored in the cell free culture supernatant (CFCS) and extracted EPS was further purified by thin layer chromatography. EPS producing cells were taken to design talc based formulation and its efficacy was checked on oilseed crop sunflower (Hellianthus annuus), under in vivo saline conditions (soil irrigated with 125 mM of saline water). Application of bioformulation significantly enhanced the yield and growth attributes of the plant in comparison to control (untreated seeds) under stress and non—stress conditions. Germination rate, plant length, dry weight and seed weight increased remarkably. The above findings suggest the application and benefits of utilizing EPS formulation in boosting early seedling emergence, enhancing plant growth parameters, increasing seed weight and mitigating stress in saline affected regions. Such bioformulation may enhance RAS/RT (Root Adhering Soil to Root Tissue ratio), texture of the soil, increase porosity, improve uptake of nutrients, and hence may be considered as commercially important formulation for renovation of stressed sites and enhancing plant growth.

  6. Emulsion versus nanoemulsion: how much is the formulative shift critical for a cosmetic product?

    PubMed

    Musazzi, Umberto M; Franzè, Silvia; Minghetti, Paola; Casiraghi, Antonella

    2017-05-15

    The use of nanoemulsions in cosmetic products has been enlarged in the last decades because of several formulative advantages (e.g., the improved self-life stability, better texture properties). In addition, nanoemulsions seemed to improve the penetration of active ingredients through the human skin, comparing to conventional emulsion. In this contest, the risk of a higher systemic exposure of consumer to active ingredients, due to the ability of nanoemulsion to enhance permeation, results a critical attribute that should be evaluated for assuring the consumer safety. The aim of this work was the evaluation of how an oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion can influence the in vitro skin permeation profiles of two model active ingredients with different polarity (i.e., caffeine and ethyl ximenynate). Preliminarily, since both selected molecules influenced the physical stability of nanoemulsion, formulative studies were carried out to identify the most stable formulation to perform in vitro permeation studies. The overall results demonstrated that nanoemulsions could significantly influence the permeation profiles of molecules as a function of their physicochemical properties. In particular, O/W nanoemulsions significantly improved the permeation profiles of apolar active ingredients in comparison to conventional emulsions, whereas no differences were observable for polar molecules. Considering such findings, it is worth observing that there is room for reconsidering the risk assessment of nanoemulsion-based cosmetic products.

  7. 'Guapo' (Myrosma cannifolia) starch: a natural product with potential use in cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Rincón, A M; Pérez, R M N; Reyes, A; Romero, A; Orfila, L; Padilla, F C

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the possible use of Myrosma cannifolia starch L.F. Maranthaceae ('Guapo'), as a raw material in heterogeneous systems or powdered cosmetic and pharmaceutical products formulation. The starch chemical and physical characteristics, physico-chemical properties, and rheological behaviour, previously studied, were considered. Flowing characteristics, particle size distribution, water absorption capacity at 25 degrees C (ambient temperature), and toxicity were assessed. Results showed that Myrosma starch complies with the USP and British pharmacopoeia, and presented a normal particle distribution. More than 25% of the granules had a diameter >23.81 mum and the average size of particles was >16.92 mum. When compared with talc, 'guapo' starch presented higher values for water absorption capacity and flowing characteristics. Starch showed negative local toxicity, and low acute toxicity in vitro on two human dermis cell types. The amylographic study and the difractograms suggest the possible use of this starch in heterogeneous systems. A facial transparent powder was formulated and some of its properties were determined by sensorial analysis. It was concluded that the M. cannifolia starch presents certain characteristics useful in the formulation of new powdered products.

  8. Final Report on the “ New Directions in the Variational Multiscale Formulation of Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence”

    SciTech Connect

    Assad A. Oberai

    2007-07-13

    The work performed as part of this grant may be described in the context of developing numerical methods for solving an abstract, nonlinear variational problem for which the straightforward Galerkin approximation on a space of reasonable dimension is inaccurate. Target applications include flows with turbulence and systems with shocks. With this in mind, an alternate finite dimensional problem is proposed in which a model term (with unknown parameters) is added to the Galerkin approximation to improve its performance. We have developed new formulations for this model term especially for turbulent flows and for systems with shocks. We have also developed a dynamic approach for evaluating the parameters that appear in this model term. We have conducted several numerical studies to confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  9. Coupling of the ultra-weak variational formulation and an integral representation using a fast multipole method in electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrigrand, E.; Monk, P.

    2007-07-01

    Many different methods have been developed for the solution of the time-harmonic Maxwell equations in exterior domains at high frequency. Volume-based methods have the drawback of needing an artificial boundary far from the obstacle. Integral formulations enable one to avoid this difficulty by solving a problem on the surface of the obstacle. However, integral operators imply dense systems with bad condition numbers. The ultra-weak variational formulation (UWVF) is a volume-based method using plane wave basis functions that allows the use of a coarser mesh in comparison with more classical low order finite element methods. However, the UWVF still involves the problem of the artificial boundary. In this paper, we suggest the use of an integral representation of the unknown field to obtain an exact artificial boundary condition. In this way the distance between the obstacle and the artificial boundary can be reduced. The use of the fast multipole method ensures a low cost for the calculation of various integral operators used in the representation. In this paper we describe the combined algorithm, demonstrate its accuracy on a model problem and discuss the complexity of the algorithm.

  10. Gastroretentive Formulations for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Drugs-Focus on Microspheres and their Production.

    PubMed

    Alzaher, Woroud; Shaw, John; Al-Kassas, Raida

    2016-01-01

    Oral administration is the most commonly used drug delivery route for the majority of conditions. Given its advantages over other routes, such as convenience and cost, its use is increasing every year despite the major advances in drug delivery. Nevertheless, oral formulations are limited and challenged by physicochemical barriers and highly variable residence times. Gastric retention is a strategy that can overcome the highly variable gastric residence time by designing formulations that remain in the stomach longer than would otherwise be expected. This is especially beneficial for drugs that have an absorption window in the stomach and proximal intestine. Various techniques are discussed and include gasgenerating tablets, floating microspheres, hydrodynamically balanced systems, bioadhesive particles, rafts and modified shape systems. Microspheres having the advantages of being multi-unit are further discussed with regard to their production methods and characterisation. Further, a summary of microsphere studies is presented that looks at methods used and key results.

  11. Translation of an experimental oral vaccine formulation into a commercial product.

    PubMed

    Carter, K C; Ferro, V A; Alexander, J; Mullen, A B

    2006-02-01

    An effective experimental vaccine may fail to become a therapeutic reality for a number of scientific, regulatory or commercial reasons. In this review, we share some of our personal experiences as University-based researchers and provide an account of some of the problems that we have encountered during preliminary scale-up and assessment of an oral influenza vaccine formulation. Many of the problems we have faced have been non-scientific and related to identifying project-funding sources, finding suitable contract manufacturing companies that are GMP compliant, and protecting intellectual property generated from the scientific studies. The review is intended as a practical guide that will allow other researchers to adopt effective strategies to permit the translation of an effective experimental formulation to a viable commercial product.

  12. Formulation of an effective mosquito-repellent topical product from lemongrass oil.

    PubMed

    Oyedele, A O; Gbolade, A A; Sosan, M B; Adewoyin, F B; Soyelu, O L; Orafidiya, O O

    2002-04-01

    Ointment and cream formulations of lemongrass oil in different classes of base and the oil in liquid paraffin solution have been evaluated for mosquito repellency in a topical application. Mosquito repellency was tested by determining the bite-deterrence of product samples applied on an experimental bird's skin against a 2-day starved culture of Aedes aegypti L. mosquitoes. The 1%v/v solution and 15%v/w cream and ointment preparations of the oil exhibited > or =50% repellency lasting 2-3 h, which may be attributed to citral, a major oil constituent. This activity was comparable to that of a commercial mosquito repellent. Base properties of the lemongrass oil formulations influenced their effectiveness. The oil demonstrated efficacy from the different bases in the order of hydrophilic base > emulsion base > oleaginous base.

  13. Optimization of a fermented soy product formulation with a kefir culture and fiber using a simplex-centroid mixture design.

    PubMed

    Baú, Tahis Regina; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize a fermented soy product formulation with kefir and soy, oat and wheat fibers and to evaluate the fiber and product characteristics. A simplex-centroid mixture design was used for the optimization. Soymilk, soy, oat and wheat fiber mixtures, sucrose and anti-foaming agent were used for the formulation, followed by thermal treatment, cooling and the addition of flavoring. Fermentation was performed at 25 °C with a kefir culture until a pH of 4.5 was obtained. The products were cooled, homogenized and stored for analysis. From the mathematical models and variables response surface and desirability an optimal fermented product was formulated containing 3% (w/w) soy fiber. Compared with the other formulations, soy fermented product with 3% soy fiber had the best acidity, viscosity, syneresis, firmness and Lactococcus lactis count.

  14. Variations in parthenolide content and daily dose of feverfew products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael H; Cobb, Sarah E; Shelton, Jon

    2002-08-15

    Variations in the parthenolide content of feverfew products available to consumers were studied. Feverfew products were analyzed for the content of parthenolide, the purported active component. The actual weight of feverfew was determined only in those products containing dried feverfew leaf. The total daily doses of feverfew leaf and parthenolide were calculated by using the instructions on each product label. Parthenolide content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The quantity of feverfew leaf in each capsule was similar to that stated on the label and ranged from 25 to 500 mg. Parthenolide content per dosage form varied 150-fold (from 0.02 to 3.0 mg), while percent parthenolide varied 5.3-fold (from 0.14% to 0.74%). If a person consumed the daily dose recommended on the label, intake of dried feverfew leaf would range from 225 to 2246 mg/day, a 10-fold variation, while intake of parthenolide would range from 0.06 to 9.7 mg/day, a 160-fold variation. Large variations were observed in the parthenolide contents and daily intake as recommended by the labeling in commercial feverfew products.

  15. Relative toxicities of formulated glycol aircraft deicers and pure glycol products to duckweed (Lemna minor)

    SciTech Connect

    DuFresne, D.L.; Pillard, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene and propylene glycol deicers are commonly used at airports in the US and other countries to both remove snow and ice from aircraft, and to retard the accumulation of those materials. Snow and ice often pile up at airports during the winter and are then flushed into the storm sewer system during warmer temperatures or rainfall. Some of this water containing deicers may enter waterbodies without prior treatment, While previous studies have investigated the effects of deicers on aquatic animals and algae, data are not available on the effects on aquatic macrophytes, Glycol deicers were obtained in the formulated mixtures used on aircraft; pure ethylene and propylene glycol were obtained from Sigma{reg_sign}. Duckweed (Lemna minor) fronds were exposed to various concentrations of pure and formulated glycol mixtures. The number of fronds at test termination and chlorophyll concentration (measured using a spectrophotometer) were the measured endpoints. Based upon glycol concentration, the formulated products were more toxic than the pure material. These results are consistent with results seen in other animal and plant studies.

  16. Towards heat-stable oxytocin formulations: analysis of degradation kinetics and identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Hawe, Andrea; Poole, Robert; Romeijn, Stefan; Kasper, Piotr; van der Heijden, Rob; Jiskoot, Wim

    2009-07-01

    To investigate degradation kinetics of oxytocin as a function of temperature and pH, and identify the degradation products. Accelerated degradation of oxytocin formulated at pH 2.0, 4.5, 7.0 and 9.0 was performed at 40, 55, 70 and 80 degrees C. Degradation rate constants were determined from RP-HPLC data. Formulations were characterized by HP-SEC, UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Degradation products were identified by ESI-MS/MS. The loss of intact oxytocin in RP-HPLC was pH- and temperature-dependent and followed (pseudo) first order kinetics. Degradation was fastest at pH 9.0, followed by pH 7.0, pH 2.0 and pH 4.5. The Arrhenius equation proved suitable to describe the kinetics, with the highest activation energy (116.3 kJ/mol) being found for pH 4.5 formulations. At pH 2.0 deamidation of Gln(4), Asn(5), and Gly(9)-NH2, as well as combinations thereof were found. At pH 4.5, 7.0 and 9.0, the formation of tri- and tetrasulfide-containing oxytocin as well as different types of disulfide and dityrosine-linked dimers were found to occur. Beta-elimination and larger aggregates were also observed. At pH 9.0, mono-deamidation of Gln(4), Asn(5), and Gly(9)-NH2 additionally occurred. Multiple degradation products of oxytocin have been identified unequivocally, including various deamidated species, intramolecular oligosulfides and covalent aggregates. The strongly pH dependent degradation can be described by the Arrhenius equation.

  17. A Tensor Product Formulation of Strassen's Matrix Multiplication Algorithm with Memory Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, B.; Huang, C. -H.; Sadayappan, P.; ...

    1995-01-01

    In this article, we present a program generation strategy of Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithm using a programming methodology based on tensor product formulas. In this methodology, block recursive programs such as the fast Fourier Transforms and Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithm are expressed as algebraic formulas involving tensor products and other matrix operations. Such formulas can be systematically translated to high-performance parallel/vector codes for various architectures. In this article, we present a nonrecursive implementation of Strassen's algorithm for shared memory vector processors such as the Cray Y-MP. A previous implementation of Strassen's algorithm synthesized from tensor product formulas required workingmore » storage of size O(7 n ) for multiplying 2 n × 2 n matrices. We present a modified formulation in which the working storage requirement is reduced to O(4 n ). The modified formulation exhibits sufficient parallelism for efficient implementation on a shared memory multiprocessor. Performance results on a Cray Y-MP8/64 are presented.« less

  18. Production and characterisation of mucoadhesive nanosuspensions for the formulation of bupravaquone.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C; Kayser, O; Müller, R H

    2001-02-19

    Bupravaquone is a new naphthoquinone antibiotic against Cryptosporidium parvum and other parasites. It has attracted interest for the treatment of C. parvum infections, because of the lack of a drug in the treatment of mostly AIDS patients. The bioavailability of bupravaquone is limited when given orally. To overcome the problem of the high elimination rate caused by diarrhoea, typical for C. parvum infections, bupravaquone was formulated as a mucoadhesive nanosuspension, i.e. combining the properties of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, in this case hydro gels, with nanosuspensions. In this study different polymers/hydro gels were employed to create a prolonged retention time for the drug in the infected gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The second step to improve the bioavailability of bupravaquone was the formulation as nanosuspension. Therefore various concentrations of bupravaquone with different surfactants were tested. The production of these nanosuspensions was carried out by high pressure homogenisation. In addition to the classical stepwise production, about a new one step production method is described.

  19. Comparative Risk Assessment of Formulation Changes in Generic Drug Products: A Pharmacology/Toxicology Perspective.

    PubMed

    Rayavarapu, Sree; Braithwaite, Elena; Dorsam, Robert; Osterhout, James; Furlong, Lesley-Anne; Shetty, Daiva; Peters, John R

    2015-07-01

    This review highlights general toxicology concerns caused by formulation differences between generic and innovator drugs. It underscores the importance of a scientific, clinically oriented, evidence-based comparative safety evaluation procedure for generic drugs and discusses representative case studies from a pharmacology-toxicology perspective. For consideration by generic drug industry stakeholders, this article provides an overview of comparative risk assessments for generic drug products. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of natural product formulations on murine dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrea K; Benson, Jenna M; Muanza, Dave N; Smith, Jerry R; Shepherd, David M

    2011-03-01

    The popularity and availability of herbal extracts has increased dramatically over the last decade, providing an inexpensive manner of self-medication. Although the efficacy of individual extracts is currently being studied intensively, research regarding complex mixtures is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of three complex formulations, including BRC-301, a polyherbal extract; BRC-304, a mixture of vitamins, minerals, antioxidant enzymes, botanical extracts, and carotenoids; and BRC-306, a proprietary blend of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) and Phytolens(®) on murine dendritic cells (DCs). We hypothesized that these formulations would decrease the inflammatory responsiveness and innate function of DCs. In order to address this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of BRC-301, BRC-304, and BRC-306 on DC2.4 cells and assessed the effects of BRC-301 on bone marrow-derived DCs (bmDCs). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of DC2.4 cells and bmDCs induced production of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, and IL-6, a response that was modulated by concomitant treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of BRC-301. In contrast, only the production of NOor IL-6 by LPS-activated DC2.4 cells was affected by BRC-304 or BRC-306, respectively. Flow cytometric evaluation following concurrent BRC-301 and LPS treatment revealed an increased relative expression of CD11c, CD86, and CD54 on bmDCs and an increased frequency of bmDCs expressing MHC II. Finally, BRC-301 enhanced the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated ovalbumin by bmDCs. Taken together, these results suggest that these commercially available formulations modulate the innate responsiveness of murine DCs and may enhance their ability to initiate T cell-mediated immunity.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of natural product formulations on murine dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrea K.; Benson, Jenna M.; Muanza, Dave N.; Smith, Jerry R.; Shepherd, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The popularity and availability of herbal extracts has increased dramatically over the last decade, providing an inexpensive manner of self-medication. Although the efficacy of individual extracts is currently being intensively studied, research regarding complex mixtures is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of three complex formulations including BRC-301, a polyherbal extract; BRC-304, a mixture of vitamins, minerals, antioxidant enzymes, botanical extracts and carotenoids; and BRC-306, a proprietary blend of Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw) and Phytolens® on murine dendritic cells (DCs). We hypothesized that these formulations would decrease the inflammatory responsiveness and innate function of DCs. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of BRC-301, 304, and 306 on DC2.4 cells and further assessed the effects of BRC-301 on bone marrow-derived DCs (bmDCs). LPS stimulation of DC2.4 cells and bmDCs induced production of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6, a response that was modulated by concomitant treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of BRC-301. In contrast, only the production of NO or IL-6 by LPS-activated DC2.4 cells was affected by BRC-304 or BRC-306, respectively. Flow cytometric evaluation following concurrent BRC-301 and LPS treatment revealed an increased relative expression of CD11c, CD86, and CD54 on bmDCs and an increased frequency of bmDCs expressing MHC II. Finally, BRC-301 enhanced the uptake of FITC-conjugated ovalbumin by bmDCs. Taken together, these results suggest that these commercially available formulations modulate the innate responsiveness of murine DCs and may enhance their ability to initiate T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:21399725

  2. Unexploited potential of some biotechnological techniques for biofertilizer production and formulation.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, N; Vassileva, M; Lopez, A; Martos, V; Reyes, A; Maksimovic, I; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Malusà, E

    2015-06-01

    The massive application of chemical fertilizers to support crop production has resulted in soil, water, and air pollution at a global scale. In the same time, this situation escalated consumers' concerns regarding quality and safety of food production which, due to increase of fertilizer prices, have provoked corresponding price increase of food products. It is widely accepted that the only solution is to boost exploitation of plant-beneficial microorganisms which in conditions of undisturbed soils play a key role in increasing the availability of minerals that otherwise are inaccessible to plants. This review paper is focused on the employment of microbial inoculants and their production and formulation. Special attention is given to biotechniques that are not fully exploited as tools for biofertilizer manufacturing such as microbial co-cultivation and co-immobilization. Another emerging area includes biotechnological production and combined usage of microorganisms/active natural compounds (biostimulants) such as plant extracts and exudates, compost extracts, and products like strigolactones, which improve not only plant growth and development but also plant-microbial interactions. The most important potential and novel strategies in this field are presented as well as the tendencies that will be developed in the near future.

  3. Formulation of gammaoryzanol-loaded nanoparticles for potential application in fortifying food products.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Serveh; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Mohammadhassani, Zahra; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2014-12-01

    The field of nanoparticle delivery systems for nutrients and nutraceuticals with poor water solubility has attracted a great attention during the last decades. Ethyl cellulose (EC) based GO-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The effects of formulation parameters on nanoparticle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading efficiency (LE%) were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to investigate the crystalline behavior of GO and EC after the preparation of nanoparticles. Stability of the prepared nanoparticle was investigated during five weeks of storage. Particle sizes of all formulation were in the range of 70-100 nm with narrow size distribution. Increase in the time of sonication from 1 to 5 minutes decreased the particle size. However, the mean particle size was increased when the sonication time increased from 5 to 7 minutes. The results showed that in the same concentration of PVA, increasing the ratio of EC:GO led to an increase in the GO encapsulation efficiency and decrease in loading efficiency. During five weeks, the mean diameter and size distribution indexes (SPAN values) of nanoparticles did not show significant changes. DSC and XRD studies indicated that crystallinity of GO was decreased in nanoparticles. EC based nanoparticles are promising carriers for addition of GO as a water insoluble antioxidant to fortify liquid food products without any change in quality of products.

  4. An Improved Formulation of Hybrid Model Predictive Control With Application to Production-Inventory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider an improved model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems described by mixed logical dynamical (MLD) models. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom parametrization that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on objective function weights (such as move suppression) traditionally used in MPC schemes. The controller formulation is motivated by the needs of non-traditional control applications that are suitably described by hybrid production-inventory systems. Two applications are considered in this paper: adaptive, time-varying interventions in behavioral health, and inventory management in supply chains under conditions of limited capacity. In the adaptive intervention application, a hypothetical intervention inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children, is examined. In the inventory management application, the ability of the algorithm to judiciously alter production capacity under conditions of varying demand is presented. These case studies demonstrate that MPC for hybrid systems can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions involving noise and uncertainty. PMID:24348004

  5. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    PubMed

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  6. A variational formulation for vibro-acoustic analysis of a panel backed by an irregularly-bounded cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Hui; Qu, Yegao

    2016-07-01

    A weak form variational based method is developed to study the vibro-acoustic responses of coupled structural-acoustic system consisting of an irregular acoustic cavity with general wall impedance and a flexible panel subjected to arbitrary edge-supporting conditions. The structural and acoustical models of the coupled system are formulated on the basis of a modified variational method combined with multi-segment partitioning strategy. Meanwhile, the continuity constraints on the sub-segment interfaces are further incorporated into the system stiffness matrix by means of least-squares weighted residual method. Orthogonal polynomials, such as Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind, are employed as the wholly admissible unknown displacement and sound pressure field variables functions for separate components without meshing, and hence mapping the irregular physical domain into a square spectral domain is necessary. The effects of weighted parameter together with the number of truncated polynomial terms and divided partitions on the accuracy of present theoretical solutions are investigated. It is observed that applying this methodology, accurate and efficient predictions can be obtained for various types of coupled panel-cavity problems; and in weak or strong coupling cases for a panel surrounded by a light or heavy fluid, the inherent principle of velocity continuity on the panel-cavity contacting interface can all be handled satisfactorily. Key parametric studies concerning the influences of the geometrical properties as well as impedance boundary are performed. Finally, by performing the vibro-acoustic analyses of 3D car-like coupled miniature, we demonstrate that the present method seems to be an excellent way to obtain accurate mid-frequency solution with an acceptable CPU time.

  7. Variation among individuals in cone production in Pinus palustris (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Haymes, Kelly L; Fox, Gordon A

    2012-04-01

    Reproductive output varies considerably among individuals within plant populations, and this is especially so in cone production of conifers. While this variation can have substantial effects on populations, little is known about its magnitude or causes. We studied variation in cone production for 2 years within a population of Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine; Pinaceae). Using hurdle models, we evaluated the importance of burn treatments, tree size (dbh), canopy status (open, dominant, subordinate), and number of conspecific neighbors within 4 m (N(4)). Cone production of individuals-even after accounting for other variables-was strongly correlated between years. Trees in plots burned every 1, 2, or 5 years produced more cones than those burned every 7 years, or unburned. Larger trees tend to produce more cones, but the large effects of the other factors studied caused substantial scatter in the dbh-cone number relationship. Among trees in the open, dbh had little explanatory power. Subordinate trees with three neighbors produced no cones. Tree size alone was a weak predictor of cone production. Interactions with neighbors play an important role in generating reproductive heterogeneity, and must be accounted for when relating cone production to size. The strong between-year correlation, together with the large variance in cone production among trees without neighbors, suggests that still more of the variance may be explainable, but requires factors outside of our study.

  8. Formulation of criteria for pollution control on cement products produced from solid wastes in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yu; Huang, Zechun; Wang, Qi

    2011-08-01

    The process of producing cement products from solid waste can increase the level of pollutants in the cement products. Therefore, it is very important to establish a pollution control standard for cement products to protect the environment and human health. This paper presents acceptance limits for the availability of heavy metals in cement products which have been produced from solid wastes and explains how the limits have been calculated. The approach and method used to formulate these criteria were based on EN 12920. The typical exposure scenarios used in this paper involve concrete being used for drinking water supply pipelines and concrete pavements and are based on an analysis of typical applications of cement in China, and the potential for contact with water. The parameters of a tank test which was based on NEN 7375 were set in accordance with the environmental conditions of typical scenarios in China. Mechanisms controlling the release of heavy metals in concrete and a model for that release were obtained using the leaching test. Finally, based on acceptance criteria for drinking water and groundwater quality in China, limit values for the availability of heavy metals in concrete were calculated.

  9. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  10. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers' production and listeners' comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions.

  11. Dose variations associated with formulations of NSAID prescriptions for children: a descriptive analysis of electronic health records in the UK.

    PubMed

    Star, Kristina; Caster, Ola; Bate, Andrew; Edwards, I Ralph

    2011-04-01

    NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, are commonly prescribed for children but there is limited published research on real-life prescribed doses for this class of drugs. The aim of the study was to investigate if variations in NSAID doses prescribed to children can be explained by patient age, indication, dosage form, type of NSAID or year of prescription. Recorded daily doses for drugs within the 'Anti-rheumatics, non-steroidal plain' anatomical classification were studied. First prescriptions of a distinct NSAID substance within 13-month time periods in a patient's history were included. To enable grouping and comparison of NSAIDs, doses were analysed as prescribed daily doses (PDDs) relative to the adult defined daily dose, stated as the relative PDD (rPDD) in this study. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the rPDD as the response variable, and age, indication, dosage form, NSAID substance and year of prescription as the explanatory variables. Prescriptions from the Intercontinental Medical Statistics (IMS) Health Disease Analyzer database containing electronic health records of general practitioners in the UK issued from 1988 to December 2005. Data for children aged 2-11 years with NSAID prescriptions including daily dose information. A total of 21 473 first prescriptions for 19 695 patients were studied. The vast majority of prescriptions were for ibuprofen (n = 20 855), which were therefore analysed separately. The other NSAID prescriptions were grouped (n = 618), containing diclofenac, indometacin, mefenamic acid, naproxen and piroxicam ('NSAID group'). The rPDD varied considerably with dosage form in both the ibuprofen and NSAID groups. In particular, tablets/capsules were prescribed at higher doses than liquid dosage forms. In the NSAID group, naproxen was prescribed at noticeably higher doses. The rPDD varied only slightly with age in both groups. Prescriptions indicated for rheumatic disease were associated with lower doses than

  12. Generic products of antiepileptic drugs: a perspective on bioequivalence, bioavailability, and formulation switches using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Karalis, Vangelis; Macheras, Panos; Bialer, Meir

    2014-01-01

    Generic products of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently a controversial topic as neurologists and patients are reluctant to switch from brand products to generics and to switch between generics. The aim of this study was to provide enlightenment on issues of bioequivalence (BE) and interchangeability of AED products. Monte Carlo simulations of the classic 2 × 2 BE studies were performed to study the effect of sample size, within-subject variability, and the true difference in pharmacokinetic values of the products under comparison on BE acceptance of generic AED products. Simulations were extended to study the comparative performance of two generic AED products against the same innovative product. The simulated results are compared with literature data on AEDs. The question with regard to bioavailability (BA) is whether two formulations are different, while for BE the question is whether two formulations are sufficiently similar in terms of extent and rate of absorption. Therefore, the criteria for BA and BE and the statistical analysis involved in their analysis are different. Two generic formulations that meet regulatory approval requirements for generics by being bioequivalent to the same innovative AED may not be bioequivalent to one another and therefore should not be regarded as equal or as therapeutically equivalent products. A switch from a standard or an immediate-release formulation to a modified-release product, which comprises extended-release or delayed-release formulations, should not be regarded as a switch between generics, but rather as a switch between different formulation types. Switches between bioequivalent generic AED products could potentially lead to larger changes in plasma levels and exposure than the brand-to-generic switch. The simulation work verified the clinical findings that not all generic AED products bioequivalent to the same innovative product are bioequivalent to one another. Two generic formulations that meet regulatory

  13. Variations in physicochemical properties of a traditional mercury-based nanopowder formulation: need for standard manufacturing practices.

    PubMed

    Kamath, S U; Pemiah, B; Rajan, K S; Krishnaswamy, S; Sethuraman, S; Krishnan, U M

    2014-01-01

    Rasasindura is a mercury-based nanopowder synthesized using natural products through mechanothermal processing. It has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial for various therapeutic purposes such as rejuvenation, treatment of syphilis and in genital disorders. Rasasindura is said to be composed of mercury, sulphur and organic moieties derived from the decoction of plant extracts used during its synthesis. There is little scientific understanding of the preparation process so far. Though metallic mercury is incorporated deliberately for therapeutic purposes, it certainly raises toxicity concerns. The lack of gold standards in manufacturing of such drugs leads to a variation in the chemical composition of the final product. The objective of the present study was to assess the physicochemical properties of Rasasindura samples of different batches purchased from different manufacturers and assess the extent of deviation and gauge its impact on human health. Modern characterization techniques were employed to analyze particle size and morphology, surface area, zeta potential, elemental composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and degradation. Average particle size of the samples observed through scanning electron microscope ranged from 5-100 nm. Mercury content was found to be between 84 and 89% from elemental analysis. Despite batch-to-batch and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variations in the physicochemical properties, all the samples contained mercury in the form of HgS. These differences in the physicochemical properties may ultimately impact its biological outcome.

  14. Variations in Physicochemical Properties of a Traditional Mercury-Based Nanopowder Formulation: Need for Standard Manufacturing Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, S. U.; Pemiah, B.; Rajan, K. S.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Sethuraman, S.; Krishnan, U. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rasasindura is a mercury-based nanopowder synthesized using natural products through mechanothermal processing. It has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial for various therapeutic purposes such as rejuvenation, treatment of syphilis and in genital disorders. Rasasindura is said to be composed of mercury, sulphur and organic moieties derived from the decoction of plant extracts used during its synthesis. There is little scientific understanding of the preparation process so far. Though metallic mercury is incorporated deliberately for therapeutic purposes, it certainly raises toxicity concerns. The lack of gold standards in manufacturing of such drugs leads to a variation in the chemical composition of the final product. The objective of the present study was to assess the physicochemical properties of Rasasindura samples of different batches purchased from different manufacturers and assess the extent of deviation and gauge its impact on human health. Modern characterization techniques were employed to analyze particle size and morphology, surface area, zeta potential, elemental composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and degradation. Average particle size of the samples observed through scanning electron microscope ranged from 5-100 nm. Mercury content was found to be between 84 and 89% from elemental analysis. Despite batch-to-batch and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variations in the physicochemical properties, all the samples contained mercury in the form of HgS. These differences in the physicochemical properties may ultimately impact its biological outcome. PMID:25593382

  15. Production and application of a thermostable lipase from Serratia marcescens in detergent formulation and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    García-Silvera, Edgar Edurman; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Bertrand, Brandt; Morales-Guzmán, Daniel; Rosas-Galván, Nashbly Sarela; León-Rodríguez, Renato; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2017-04-26

    In this study, extracellular lipase was produced by Serratia marcescens wild type and three mutant strains. The maximum lipase activity (80 U/mL) was obtained with the SMRG4 mutant strain using soybean oil. Using a 2(2) factorial design, the lipase production increased 1.55-fold (124 U/mL) with 4% and 0.05% of soybean oil and Triton X-100, respectively. The optimum conditions for maximum lipase activity were 50 °C and pH 8. However, the enzyme was active in a broad range of pH (6-10) and temperatures (5-55 °C). This lipase was stable in organic solvents and in the presence of oxidizing agents. The enzyme also proved to be efficient for the removal of triacylglycerol from olive oil in cotton cloth. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the interactions between total lipase activity, buffer pH, and wash temperatures on oil removal. The model obtained suggested that all selected factors had a significant impact on oil removal, with optimum conditions of 550 U lipase, 45 °C, pH 9.5, with 79.45% removal. Biotransformation of waste frying oil using the enzyme and in presence of methanol resulted in the synthesis of methyl esters such as methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, and methyl stearate. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Formulation of an aloe-based product according to Iranian traditional medicine and development of its analysis method.

    PubMed

    Moein, Elham; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Toliyat, Tayebeh; Choopani, Rasool; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2017-08-29

    Currently, people are more interested to traditional medicine. The traditional formulations should be converted to modern drug delivery systems to be more acceptable for the patients. In the present investigation, a poly herbal medicine "Ayarij-e-Faiqra" (AF) based on Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) has been formulated and its quality control parameters have been developed. The main ingredients of AF including barks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Cinnamomum cassia J. Presl, the rhizomes of Nardostachys jatamansi DC., the fruits of Piper cubeba L.f., the flowers of Rosa damascena Herrm., the oleo gum resin of Pistacia terebinthus L. and Aloe spp. dried juice were powdered and used for preparing seven tablet formulations of the herbal mixture. Flowability of the different formulated powders was examined and the best formulations were selected (F6&F7). The tablets were prepared from the selected formulations compared according to the physical characteristics and finally, F7 was selected and coated. Physicochemical characters of core and coated AF tablets were determined and the HPLC method for quantitation of aloin as a marker of tablets was selected and verified according to selectivity, linearity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. The results showed that core and coated AF tablets were in agreement with USP requirements for herbal drugs. They had acceptable appearance, disintegration time, friability, hardness, dissolution behavior, weight variation and content uniformity. The amount of aloin in tablets was found 123.1 mg/tab. The HPLC method for aloin determination in AF tablets was verified according to selectivity, linearity (5-500 μg/ml, r(2):0.9999), precision (RSD: 1.62%), recovery (108.0%), LOD & LOQ (0.0053 & 0.0161 μg/ml). The formulated tablets could be a good substitute for powder and capsules of AF in ITM clinics with a feasible and precise method for its quality control. Ayarij-e-Faiqra formulation.

  17. Environmental risk assessment for the galenical formulation of solid medicinal products at Roche Basle, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Corinne C; Dörr, Benno; Schlienger, Claude; Straubt, Jürg O

    2009-04-01

    An environmental risk assessment for losses to wastewater from galenical manufacturing at solid medicinal products at F. Hoffmann-La Roche in Basle, Switzerland, was performed based on an annual total materials balance. This balance resulted in a loss factor of 0.2% relative to the sum of all starting materials, which was later confirmed as valid by analysis for 1 specific active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The initial risk assessment for all 25 different APIs formulated resulted in no evident risk for the wastewater treatment plant, based on biodegradation no-effect data. However, based on acute ecotoxicity data, potential risk to the local receiving water, the River Rhine, was identified from 1 single API, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX). A refinement of the risk assessment for SMX, based on chronic ecotoxicity data, or the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), and documented sewage works degradability, or the predicted environmental concentration (PEC), led to a significant decrease of the initial PEC/PNEC ratio to well below 1. In view of this refinement, the final conclusion is that the galenical production investigated poses no significant risk to the environment.

  18. Reduction of HIV-1 antigen production by phosphatidylcholine containing formulations via growth inhibition of HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Willer, A; Heinzmann, U; Mellert, W; Kleinschmidt, A; Goebel, F D; Erfle, V

    1993-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and licensed formulations containing PC were tested for their influence on the proliferation and viability of cells permanently infected with HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1). PC alone, as well as pharmaceutical formulations containing PC, selectively inhibited the growth of productively infected lymphoid cells. The strongest growth inhibition was observed with formulations containing PC, glycerol and triglyceride together. The growth inhibition was dose-dependent for HIV-1-infected cells. Additionally, PC-containing formulations dramatically reduced antigen production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected in vitro with HIV-1. In vivo experiments with Rauscher-MuLV-infected mice showed that PC administered either intraperitoneally or orally was able to inhibit Rauscher-virus-induced splenomegaly. PC-containing formulations are currently used in man for supportive therapy at doses, which in vitro induced 50% growth inhibition of HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. Such doses have been used in man without side effects for many years. Thus, PC-containing formulations may be valuable for the treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals.

  19. Lexical or syntactic control of sentence formulation? Structural generalizations from idiom production.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Agnieszka E; Bock, Kathryn

    2009-02-01

    To compare abstract structural and lexicalist accounts of syntactic processes in sentence formulation, we examined the effectiveness of nonidiomatic and idiomatic phrasal verbs in inducing structural generalizations. Three experiments made use of a syntactic priming paradigm in which participants recalled sentences they had read in rapid serial visual presentation. Prime and target sentences contained phrasal verbs with particles directly following the verb (pull off a sweatshirt) or following the direct object (pull a sweatshirt off). Idiomatic primes used verbs whose figurative meaning cannot be straightforwardly derived from the literal meaning of the main verb (e.g., pull off a robbery) and are commonly treated as stored lexical units. Particle placement in sentences was primed by both nonidiomatic and idiomatic verbs. Experiment 1 showed that the syntax of idiomatic and nonidiomatic phrasal verbs is amenable to priming, and Experiments 2 and 3 compared the priming patterns created by idiomatic and nonidiomatic primes. Despite differences in idiomaticity and structural flexibility, both types of phrasal verbs induced structural generalizations and differed little in their ability to do so. The findings are interpreted in terms of the role of abstract structural processes in language production.

  20. Herbicidal activity of formulated sorgoleone, a natural product of sorghum root exudate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The allelochemical, sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum bicolor, was formulated as a wettable powder [WP] and evaluated as a natural herbicide on several weed and crop species under different growth conditions. Formulated sorgoleone suppressed germination and ...

  1. Assessment of the quality and structural integrity of a complex glycoprotein mixture following extraction from the formulated biopharmaceutical drug product.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuihua; Dong, Shiming; Xu, Xiao-Jin; Yin, Yan; Shriver, Zachary; Capila, Ishan; Myette, James; Venkataraman, Ganesh

    2011-01-05

    Biological drugs represent an important and rapidly growing class of therapeutics useful in the treatment of a variety of disorders ranging from cancer to inflammation to infectious diseases. Unlike single chemical entities, the recombinant production of these drugs in living cells confers considerable structural and chemical heterogeneity to the biologically derived protein product that constitutes the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In mammalian based expression systems, much of this diversity is conferred through heterogeneous protein glycosylation. These post-translational modifications can have significant effects on the structure, biological function, and pharmacological properties of the API. In addition, the bulk proteins that comprise the API are further formulated through the use of multiple excipients designed to ensure product stability, solubility, and lot-to-lot consistency. Unfortunately, these matrices can interfere with commonly available analytical methods used in the thorough chemical characterization of the biological drug product. At the same time, a demonstration of the suitable extraction of the bulk drug substance in a manner and form that does not destabilize the active ingredient or introduce any structural bias with direct reference to the original drug product is both critical and necessary. Here, we use recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (follitropin alpha for injection) from a pharmaceutical source as an example to illustrate a suitable purification strategy to effectively extract the bulk drug substance from the formulated drug product with high purity and yield. We assess the suitability of this extraction method in preserving the structural integrity and overall quality of the drug substance relative to the formulated drug product, placing a particular emphasis on glycosylation as a key product attribute. In so doing, we demonstrate that it is possible to effectively extract the active pharmaceutical ingredient

  2. Effect of fermentation media on the production, efficacy and storage stability of Metarhizium brunneum microsclerotia formulated as a prototype granule

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New liquid fermentation techniques for the production of the bioinsecticidal fungus Metarhizium brunneum strain F-52 have resulted in the formation of microsclerotia (MS), a compact, melonized-hyphal structure capable of surviving desiccation and formulation as dry granules. When rehydrated, these M...

  3. ESTIMATION OF THE RATE OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM SOLVENT-BASED INDOOR COATING MATERIALS BASED ON PRODUCT FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two computational methods are proposed for estimation of the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from solvent-based indoor coating materials based on the knowledge of product formulation. The first method utilizes two previously developed mass transfer models with ...

  4. Centennial Scale Variations in Lake Productivity Linked to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englebrecht, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar variations on both decadal and centennial timescales have been associated with climate phenomena (van Loon et al., 2004; Hodell et al., 2001; White et al., 1997). The energy received by the Earth at the peak of the solar cycle increases by <0.1%; so the question has remained of how this could be amplified to produce an observable climate response. Recent modeling shows that the response of the Earth's climate system to the 11-year solar cycle may be amplified through stratosphere and ocean feedbacks and has the potential to impact climate variability on a multidecadal to centennial timescales (Meehl et al., 2009). Here, we report a 1000-year record of changes in the stratigraphy and carbon isotope composition of varved lake sediment from Isla Isabela (22°N, 106°W) in the subtropical northeast Pacific. Stable carbon isotopes and carbonate stratigraphy can be used to infer surface productivity in the lake. Our analysis shows variations in primary productivity on centennial timescales and suggests that solar activity may be an important component of Pacific climate variability. A possible response during solar maxima acts to keep the eastern equatorial Pacific cooler and drier than usual, producing conditions similar to a La Niña event. In the region around Isla Isabela peak solar years were characterized by decreased surface temperatures and suppressed precipitation (Meehl et al., 2009), which enhance productivity at Isabela (Kienel et al. 2011). In the future, we plan to analyze the data using advanced time series analysis techniques like the wavelets together with techniques to handle irregularly spaced time series data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-571672

  5. Formulation and solution of the delayed gamma dose rate problem using the concept of effective delayed gamma production cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, S.L.; Ku, L.P.

    1989-06-01

    With appropriate approximations, the delayed gamma dose rate problem can be formulated in terms of the effective delayed gamma production cross section. The coupled neutron-delayed-gamma transport equations then take the same form as the coupled neutron-prompt-gamma transport equations and they can, therefore, be solved directly in the same manner. This eliminates the need for the tedious and error prone flux coupling step in conventional calculations. Mathematical formulation and solution algorithms are derived. The advantages of this method are illustrated by an example of its application in the solution of a practical design problem. 62 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Inclusion variations and calcium treatment optimization in pipeline steel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Hua; Wu, Hua-Jie; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Min

    2011-10-01

    SiCa line and SiCaBaFe alloy were injected into liquid pipeline steel at the end of LF refining as calcium treatment, and samples were taken from the ladles, mould, and slabs. Analysis of Ca content and inclusions shows that Ca content in steel decreases obviously in the following process after calcium treatment; the compositions, morphology, and sizes of inclusions also vary much in the production; primary inclusions in the ladles prior to calcium treatment are mainly Al2O3 inclusions, but they turn to fine irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 compound inclusions after the treatment, then become fine globular CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in the mould, and finally change to a few larger irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 complex inclusions in the slabs. Thermodynamic study reveals that inclusion variations are related with the preferential reactions among Ca, Al2O3, and S and the precipitation of S in CaO-Al2O3 inclusions with high sulfur capacity. New evaluation standards for calcium treatment in high-grade pipeline steel were put forward according to the inclusion variations and requirements of pipeline steel on inclusion controlling, and the calcium process was studied and optimized.

  7. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Laudon, M; Tauman, R; Zisapel, N

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of nocturnal urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6SMT) in a large sample of healthy full-term infants (8 and 16 wk old) and assess whether the endogenous production of melatonin changes with season. 6SMT was assessed in urine samples extracted from disposable diapers removed from full-term, 8- (n = 317) and 16-wk-old (n = 93) infants over the nocturnal period (19:00-08:00 h). In addition, 6SMT was assessed in 8-wk-old (n = 35) healthy infants over the entire 24-h period. 6SMT was determined by an ELISA assay. 6SMT excretion at 8 wk of age exhibited diurnal variations with (mean +/- SD) 61 +/- 18% of the daily production excreted during the nocturnal period regardless of season. The nocturnal 6SMT values in the entire cohort (at 8 as well as 16 wk of age) were found to significantly depart from normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). A normal distribution was obtained using a natural base logarithmic (ln) transformation of the data. The normal range (2.5-97.5 percentile of the ln 6SMT excretion per night) was thus defined as 4.66-8.64 (106-5646 ng/night) for 8-wk-old and 5.19-9.67 (180-15,820 ng/night) for 16-wk-old infants. A significant effect of the month of birth on 6SMT production at the age of 8 wk was found (ANOVA, p < 0.002) with maximal levels produced by infants born in June (summer solstice) and minimal excretion in infants born in December (winter solstice). Short-photoperiod-born infants excreted on average about threefold less 6SMT compared with long-photoperiod-born infants (t test, p = 0. 01). The seasonal variations were no longer present at 16 wk of age. No effect of breast-feeding at the time of sampling on seasonality of 6SMT was found. Normal ranges for the nocturnal urinary excretion of 6SMT in full-term infants at 8 and 16 wk of age are defined. This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor

  8. Candida lipolytica UCP0988 Biosurfactant: Potential as a Bioremediation Agent and in Formulating a Commercial Related Product

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle K. F.; Resende, Ana H. M.; de Almeida, Darne G.; Soares da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential application of the biosurfactant from Candida lipolytica grown in low-cost substrates, which has previously been produced and characterized under optimized conditions as an adjunct material to enhance the remediation processes of hydrophobic pollutants and heavy metals generated by the oil industry and propose the formulation of a safe and stable remediation agent. In tests carried out with seawater, the crude biosurfactant demonstrated 80% oil spreading efficiency. The dispersion rate was 50% for the biosurfactant at a concentration twice that of the CMC. The biosurfactant removed 70% of motor oil from contaminated cotton cloth in detergency tests. The crude biosurfactant also removed 30–40% of Cu and Pb from standard sand, while the isolated biosurfactant removed ~30% of the heavy metals. The conductivity of solutions containing Cd and Pb was sharply reduced after biosurfactants' addition. A product was prepared through adding 0.2% potassium sorbate as preservative and tested over 120 days. The formulated biosurfactant was analyzed for emulsification and surface tension under different pH values, temperatures, and salt concentrations and tested for toxicity against the fish Poecilia vivipara. The results showed that the formulation had no toxicity and did not cause significant changes in the tensoactive capacity of the biomolecule while maintaining activity demonstrating suitability for potential future commercial product formulation. PMID:28507538

  9. Production and storage stability of formulated chicken nuggets using konjac flour and shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Akesowan, Adisak

    2016-10-01

    Formulated chicken nuggets which are low in fat and, high in dietary fiber and free from phosphate were developed by adding various levels of a konjac flour/xanthan gum (KF/XG) (3:1) mixture (0.2-1.5 %, w/w) and shiitake powder (SP) (1-4 %, w/w). A central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the influence of variables on the physical and sensory properties of nuggets and to optimize the formulated nugget formulation. The addition of the KF/XG mixture and SP was effective in improving nugget firmness and increasing hedonic scores for color, taste, flavor and overall acceptability. The nugget became darker with more SP was added. Optimal nuggets with 0.39 % KF/XG mixture and 1.84 % SP had reduced fat, higher dietary fiber and amino acids. After frozen (-18 ± 2 °C) storage, optimal formulated nuggets showed slower decreased in moisture, hardness and chewiness compared to standard nuggets. Konjac flour and SP also lowered lipid oxidation in frozen formulated nuggets. A slight change in sensory score was observed in both nuggets were microbiologically safe after frozen storage for 75 days.

  10. Hunter screening design to understand the product variability of solid dispersion formulation of a peptide antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-11-18

    The focus of present research was to understand and control the variability of solid dispersion (SD) formulation of non-ribosomal peptide antibiotic, vancomycin (VCM). Hunter screening design was constructed using seven independent variables namely melting temperature (X1), congealing temperature (X2), mixing time (X3), type of capsule shell (X4), filling method (X5), molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG, X6) and surfactant type (X7), and responses measured were cumulative percentage of VCM released in 45 min (Y1) and potency (Y2). The SD formulations were prepared by melt-fusion method, and tested for dissolution, potency, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI). Statistically significant (p<0.05) effect of congealing temperature (X2), type of capsule shell (X4), filling method (X5), molecular weight of PEG (X6) was revealed on Y1, and R(2) of 0.992 was obtained between experimental and predicted value. None of the factors have statistically significant (p>0.05) influence on Y2. SEM, DSC and PXRD indicated crystalline nature of SD formulations. Homogeneity of SD formulations was shown by NIR-CI images. In summary, the quality of VCM SD formulations could be assured by controlling the critical factors during manufacturing.

  11. Impact of yeast starter formulations on the production of volatile compounds during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Romano, Patrizia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romaniello, Rossana; Zambuto, Marianna; Calabretti, Antonella; Capece, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The most diffused starter formulation in winemaking is actually represented by active dry yeast (ADY). Spray-drying has been reported as an appropriate preservation method for yeast and other micro-organisms. Despite the numerous advantages of this method, the high air temperatures used can negatively affect cell viability and the fermentative performance of dried cells. In the present study, 11 wine S. cerevisiae strains (both indigenous and commercial) were submitted to spray-drying; different process conditions were tested in order to select the conditions allowing the highest strain survival. The strains exhibited high variability for tolerance to spray-drying treatment. Selected strains were tested in fermentation at laboratory scale in different formulations (free fresh cells, free dried cells, immobilized fresh cells and immobilized dried cells), in order to assess the influence of starter formulation on fermentative fitness of strains and aromatic quality of wine. The analysis of volatile fraction in the experimental wines produced by selected strains in different formulations allowed identification of > 50 aromatic compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes). The results obtained showed that the starter formulation significantly influenced the content of volatile compounds. In particular, the wines obtained by strains in dried forms (as both free and immobilized cells) contained higher numbers of volatile compounds than wines obtained from fresh cells.

  12. High-precision absolute (true) density measurements on hygroscopic powders by gas pycnometry: application to determining effects of formulation and process on free volume of lyophilized products.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takayuki; Wang, Bingquan Stuart; Pikal, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    As density (free volume) of the amorphous solids should be related to mobility and stability, an attempt was made to develop a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method to evaluate free volume via high-precision gas pycnometry density measurements, and to apply this methodology to study the variation of free volume with formulation and thermal history (i.e., annealing). Annealed samples were prepared either by heating the product after freeze drying (postannealing) or drying at higher temperature in secondary drying than normal (in-process annealing). Density was measured using a gas pycnometer. We find that the key to high-precision density measurements is isolation of the instrument from atmospheric moisture; accordingly, all operations were carried out in a dry box. With suitable care, densities of amorphous freeze-dried products can be measured with a precision of better than 0.5% in a series of independent but nominally identical samples. Density decreased with increasing molecular weight of dextran, but density of proteins was independent of molecular weight. Small but significant increases in density upon annealing were observed for several formulations. Thus, we conclude that accurate density measurements may be made by carefully controlling residual moisture. Density may be a useful parameter to predict long-term stability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Product consistency testing of West Valley Compositional Variation Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.M.; Marschman, S.C.; Piepel, G.F.; Whiting, G.K.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear waste glass produced by the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) must meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) as developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist WVDP in complying with WAPS, the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) used the Product Consistency Test (PCT) to evaluate 44 West Valley glasses that had previously been tested in FY 1987 and FY 1988. This report summarizes the results of the PCTs. The glasses tested, which were fabricated as sets of Compositional Variation Glasses for studies performed by the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at PNL during FY 1987 and FY 1988, were doped with Th and U and were variations of West Valley reference glasses. In addition, Approved Reference Material-1 (ARM-1) was used as a test standard (ARM-1 is supplied by the MCC). The PCT was originated at Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by C. M. Jantzen and N. R. Bibler (Jantzen and Bibler 1989). The test is a seven-day modified MCC-3 test that uses crushed glass in the size range -100 +200 mesh with deionized water in a Teflon container. There is no agitation during the PCT, and no attempt to include CO{sub 2} from the test environment. Based on B and Li release, the glasses performed about the same as in previous modified MCC-3 testing performed in FY 1987 and FY 1988 (Reimus et al. 1988). The modified MCC-3 tests performed by Reimus et al. were similar to the PCT containers and the exclusion of CO{sub 2} from the tests.

  14. Subvisible Particle Content, Formulation, and Dose of an Erythropoietin Peptide Mimetic Product Are Associated With Severe Adverse Postmarketing Events.

    PubMed

    Kotarek, Joseph; Stuart, Christine; De Paoli, Silvia H; Simak, Jan; Lin, Tsai-Lien; Gao, Yamei; Ovanesov, Mikhail; Liang, Yideng; Scott, Dorothy; Brown, Janice; Bai, Yun; Metcalfe, Dean D; Marszal, Ewa; Ragheb, Jack A

    2016-03-01

    Peginesatide (Omontys(®); Affymax, Inc., Cupertino, CA) was voluntarily withdrawn from the market less than a year after the product launch. Although clinical trials had demonstrated the drug to be safe and efficacious, 49 cases of anaphylaxis, including 7 fatalities, were reported not long after market introduction. Commercialization was initiated with a multiuse vial presentation, which differs in formulation from the single-use vial presentation used in phase 3 studies. Standard physical and chemical testing did not indicate any deviation from product specifications in either formulation. However, an analysis of subvisible particulates using nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow imaging revealed a significantly higher concentration of subvisible particles in the multiuse vial presentation linked to the hypersensitivity cases. Although it is unknown whether the elevated particulate content is causally related to these serious adverse events, this report illustrates the utility of characterizing subvisible particulates not captured by conventional light obscuration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The role of dissipation and defect energy in variational formulations of problems in strain-gradient plasticity. Part 1: polycrystalline plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. D.

    2011-11-01

    A general set of flow laws and associated variational formulations are constructed for small-deformation rate-independent problems in strain-gradient plasticity. The framework is based on the thermodynamically consistent theory due to Gurtin and Anand (J Mech Phys Solids 53:1624-1649, 2005), and includes as variables a set of microstresses which have both energetic and dissipative components. The flow law is of associative type. It is expressed as a normality law with respect to a convex but otherwise arbitrary yield function, or equivalently in terms of the corresponding dissipation function. Two cases studied are, first, an extension of the classical Hill-Mises or J 2 flow law and second, a form written as a linear sum of the magnitudes of the plastic strain and strain gradient. This latter form is motivated by work of Evans and Hutchinson (Acta Mater 57:1675-1688, 2009) and Nix and Gao (J Mech Phys Solids 46:411-425, 1998), who show that it leads to superior correspondence with experimental results, at least for particular classes of problems. The corresponding yield function is obtained by a duality argument. The variational problem is based on the flow rule expressed in terms of the dissipation function, and the problem is formulated as a variational inequality in the displacement, plastic strain, and hardening parameter. Dissipative components of the microstresses, which are indeterminate, are absent from the formulation. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are investigated for the generalized Hill-Mises and linear-sum dissipation functions, and for various combinations of defect energy. The conditions for well-posedness of the problem depend critically on the choice of dissipation function, and on the presence or otherwise of a defect energy in the plastic strain or plastic strain gradient, and of internal-variable hardening.

  16. Stated product formulation preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among women in the VOICE-D (MTN-003D) study.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Ellen H; Cheng, Helen; Woeber, Kubashni; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda C; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires consistent and correct product use, thus a deeper understanding of women's stated product formulation preferences, and the correlates of those preferences, can help guide future research. VOICE-D (MTN-003D), a qualitative ancillary study conducted after the VOICE trial, retrospectively explored participants' tablet and gel use, as well as their preferences for other potential PrEP product formulations. We conducted an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from VOICE-D participants. During in-depth interviews, women were presented with pictures and descriptions of eight potential PrEP product formulations, including the oral tablet and vaginal gel tested in VOICE, and asked to discuss which product formulations they would prefer to use and why. Seven of the original product formulations displayed were combined into preferred product formulation categories based on exploratory factor and latent class analyses. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of these preferred product formulation categories. In-depth interviews with participants were conducted, coded, and analysed for themes related to product preference. Of the 68 female participants who completed in-depth interviews (22 South Africa, 24 Zimbabwe, 22 Uganda), median age was 28 (range 21-41), 81% were HIV negative, and 49% were married or living with a partner. Four preferred product formulation categories were identified via exploratory factor analysis: 1) oral tablets; 2) vaginal gel; 3) injectable, implant, or vaginal ring; and 4) vaginal film or suppository. A majority of women (81%) expressed a preference for product formulations included in category 3. Characteristics significantly associated with each preferred product category differed. Attributes described by participants as being important in a preferred product formulation included duration of activity, ease of use, route of administration, clinic- versus self

  17. Stated product formulation preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among women in the VOICE-D (MTN-003D) study

    PubMed Central

    Luecke, Ellen H; Cheng, Helen; Woeber, Kubashni; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda C; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires consistent and correct product use, thus a deeper understanding of women's stated product formulation preferences, and the correlates of those preferences, can help guide future research. VOICE-D (MTN-003D), a qualitative ancillary study conducted after the VOICE trial, retrospectively explored participants’ tablet and gel use, as well as their preferences for other potential PrEP product formulations. Methods We conducted an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from VOICE-D participants. During in-depth interviews, women were presented with pictures and descriptions of eight potential PrEP product formulations, including the oral tablet and vaginal gel tested in VOICE, and asked to discuss which product formulations they would prefer to use and why. Seven of the original product formulations displayed were combined into preferred product formulation categories based on exploratory factor and latent class analyses. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of these preferred product formulation categories. In-depth interviews with participants were conducted, coded, and analysed for themes related to product preference. Results Of the 68 female participants who completed in-depth interviews (22 South Africa, 24 Zimbabwe, 22 Uganda), median age was 28 (range 21–41), 81% were HIV negative, and 49% were married or living with a partner. Four preferred product formulation categories were identified via exploratory factor analysis: 1) oral tablets; 2) vaginal gel; 3) injectable, implant, or vaginal ring; and 4) vaginal film or suppository. A majority of women (81%) expressed a preference for product formulations included in category 3. Characteristics significantly associated with each preferred product category differed. Attributes described by participants as being important in a preferred product formulation included duration of activity, ease of use, route of

  18. Lexical or Syntactic Control of Sentence Formulation? Structural Generalizations from Idiom Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konopka, Agnieszka E; Bock, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To compare abstract structural and lexicalist accounts of syntactic processes in sentence formulation, we examined the effectiveness of nonidiomatic and idiomatic phrasal verbs in inducing structural generalizations. Three experiments made use of a syntactic priming paradigm in which participants recalled sentences they had read in rapid serial…

  19. Formulation of a Product Containing the Multifunctional Corrosion Inhibitor System DNBM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-22

    program, via consultation with microencapsulation -service suppliers, that the projected solvent-containing microcapsules , although theoretically feasible...with the microcapsules . A final microencapsulation sequence was performed to prepare sufficient microcapsules for formulation with MIL-P-23377 epoxy... Microencapsulation , Epoxy 01 03 Primers, Coatings. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Four quaternary ammonium

  20. A probabilistic model framework for evaluating year-to-year variation in crop productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokozawa, M.; Iizumi, T.; Tao, F.

    2008-12-01

    Most models describing the relation between crop productivity and weather condition have so far been focused on mean changes of crop yield. For keeping stable food supply against abnormal weather as well as climate change, evaluating the year-to-year variations in crop productivity rather than the mean changes is more essential. We here propose a new framework of probabilistic model based on Bayesian inference and Monte Carlo simulation. As an example, we firstly introduce a model on paddy rice production in Japan. It is called PRYSBI (Process- based Regional rice Yield Simulator with Bayesian Inference; Iizumi et al., 2008). The model structure is the same as that of SIMRIW, which was developed and used widely in Japan. The model includes three sub- models describing phenological development, biomass accumulation and maturing of rice crop. These processes are formulated to include response nature of rice plant to weather condition. This model inherently was developed to predict rice growth and yield at plot paddy scale. We applied it to evaluate the large scale rice production with keeping the same model structure. Alternatively, we assumed the parameters as stochastic variables. In order to let the model catch up actual yield at larger scale, model parameters were determined based on agricultural statistical data of each prefecture of Japan together with weather data averaged over the region. The posterior probability distribution functions (PDFs) of parameters included in the model were obtained using Bayesian inference. The MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) algorithm was conducted to numerically solve the Bayesian theorem. For evaluating the year-to-year changes in rice growth/yield under this framework, we firstly iterate simulations with set of parameter values sampled from the estimated posterior PDF of each parameter and then take the ensemble mean weighted with the posterior PDFs. We will also present another example for maize productivity in China. The

  1. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Bagon, K R; Gough, T A

    1980-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of 304 seizures of illicit Cannabis products was determined using gas chromatography. This procedure results in the conversion of THC acid to THC itself and thus gives the total THC content of the material, which reflects its potency as experienced by the smokers. The study was carried out over three years, thus enabling comparisons to be made between THC levels from a given country of origin over this time span in addition to any variations between the countries. In the early part of the study, herbal cannabis from South East Asia was consistently the best quality and that from the Caribbean the poorest quality. In the third year of the study, the material from South East Asia was in general no richer in THC than material from other areas of the world. Cannabis resins normally had higher THC contents than most herbal material, but the highest levels were found in "hash oil" from the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent.

  2. Defined salt formulations for the growth of Salinispora tropica strain NPS21184 and the production of salinosporamide A (NPI-0052) and related analogs.

    PubMed

    Tsueng, Ginger; Teisan, Sy; Lam, Kin S

    2008-04-01

    Salinosporamide A (NPI-0052) is currently produced by a marine actinomycete, Salinispora tropica, via a saline fermentation process using a non-defined, commercially available synthetic sea salt, Instant Ocean. In order to control the consistency of the production of NPI-0052 and related analogs, two chemically defined salt formulations were developed to replace Instant Ocean. A chemically defined sodium-chloride-based salt formulation with similar sodium and chloride contents as in Instant Ocean was found to support higher production of NPI-0052 and a better metabolite production profile for downstream processing than Instant Ocean. A chemically defined sodium-sulfate-based salt formulation with low chloride concentration at 17 mM was found to support a similar NPI-0052 and metabolite production profile as Instant Ocean. The sodium-sulfate-based formulation is a robust formulation for large-scale production process due to its reduced corrosiveness in fermentation as compared with the saline fermentation utilizing Instant Ocean or the sodium-chloride-based salt formulation. The production of NPI-0052 in both chemically defined salt formulations was successfully scaled-up to a 42-l fermentor, indicating that these salt formulations can be used for large-scale manufacturing process.

  3. Matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC) simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals by hot-melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Boksa, Kevin; Otte, Andrew; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-09-01

    A novel method for the simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals, matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC), is presented. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) is used to create cocrystals by coprocessing the drug and coformer in the presence of a matrix material. Carbamazepine (CBZ), nicotinamide (NCT), and Soluplus were used as a model drug, coformer, and matrix, respectively. The MAC product containing 80:20 (w/w) cocrystal:matrix was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed for quantifying the efficiency of cocrystal formation. The MAC product was estimated to be 78% (w/w) cocrystal (theoretical 80%), with approximately 0.3% mixture of free (unreacted) CBZ and NCT, and 21.6% Soluplus (theoretical 20%) with the PLS model. A physical mixture (PM) of a reference cocrystal (RCC), prepared by precipitation from solution, and Soluplus resulted in faster dissolution relative to the pure RCC. However, the MAC product with the exact same composition resulted in considerably faster dissolution and higher maximum concentration (∼five-fold) than those of the PM. The MAC product consists of high-quality cocrystals embedded in a matrix. The processing aspect of MAC plays a major role on the faster dissolution observed. The MAC approach offers a scalable process, suitable for the continuous manufacturing and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals.

  4. Alternative formulations to reduce CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) use in US exempted and excluded aerosol products. Final report, April-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.P.; Wevill, S.L.

    1989-11-01

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to reduce or eliminate the CFC content of these products. The ban allowed for exemptions if it could be demonstrated that no acceptable alternative propellants were available and that the products were essential. Essentiality was based on three criteria: (1) the product's economic significance, (2) the environmental and health impacts of the product and its substitutes, and (3) the effects on the quality of life resulting from no longer having the product or a reasonable substitute available. Also, if a CFC served some purpose other than as a propellant, that product was excluded from the regulation. The study shows that about 40% of the CFC usage in these products can be immediately replaced by available substitutes. It identified seven categories of products for which immediate replacement of all of the CFC content is not technically feasible.

  5. Climate Variations and Alaska Tundra Vegetation Productivity Declines in Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Bieniek, P.; Raynolds, M. K.; Epstein, H. E.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J. E.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    While sea ice has continued to decline, vegetation productivity increases have declined particularly during spring in Alaska as well as many parts of the Arctic tundra. To understand the processes behind these features we investigate spring climate variations that includes temperature, circulation patterns, and snow cover to determine how these may be contributing to spring browning. This study employs remotely sensed weekly 25-km sea ice concentration, weekly surface temperature, and bi-weekly NDVI from 1982 to 2014. Maximum NDVI (MaxNDVI, Maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), Time Integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI), Summer Warmth Index (SWI, sum of degree months above freezing during May-August), atmospheric reanalysis data, dynamically downscaled climate data, meteorological station data, and snow water equivalent (GlobSnow, assimilated snow data set). We analyzed the data for the full period (1982-2014) and for two sub-periods (1982-1998 and 1999-2014), which were chosen based on the declining Alaska SWI since 1998. MaxNDVI has increased from 1982-2014 over most of the Arctic but has declined from 1999 to 2014 southwest Alaska. TI-NDVI has trends that are similar to those for MaxNDVI for the full period but display widespread declines over the 1999-2014 period. Therefore, as the MaxNDVI has continued to increase overall for the Arctic, TI-NDVI has been declining since 1999 and these declines are particularly noteworthy during spring in Alaska. Spring declines in Alaska have been linked to increased spring snow cover that can delay greenup (Bieniek et al. 2015) but recent ground observations suggest that after an initial warming and greening, late season freezing temperature are damaging the plants. The late season freezing temperature hypothesis will be explored with meteorological climate/weather data sets for Alaska tundra regions. References P.A. Bieniek, US Bhatt, DA Walker, MK Raynolds, JC Comiso, HE Epstein, JE Pinzon, CJ Tucker, RL Thoman, H Tran, N M

  6. Pilot-scale production and liquid formulation of Rhodotorula minuta, a potential biocontrol agent of mango anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Vera, M; Jiménez, B; Balderas, K; Ortiz, M; Allende, R; Carrillo, A; Galindo, E

    2005-01-01

    To develop a pilot-plant fermentation process for the production of the yeast Rhodotorula minuta, to be used as a biocontrol agent of mango anthracnose, using a low-cost culture medium. To develop a stable liquid formulation that preserve high viability of the yeast stored at 4 degrees C. Keeping constant the volumetric power input, a fermentation process was scaled-up from shake flasks to a 100 l bioreactor. Preharvest applications of the yeast resulted in postharvest anthracnose severity equal or lower than that observed with a chemical fungicide. Glycerol was added to the formulation as water activity reducer and xanthan gum as a viscosity-enhancing agent. Yeast initial concentration of 10(10) CFU ml(-1) resulted in 4-5 orders of magnitude decrease after 1 month of storage at 4 degrees C, whereas when it was formulated at 10(9) CFU ml(-1), the decrease was of two orders of magnitude in 6 months. The fermentation process was successfully scaled-up using a low-cost culture medium. Postharvest anthracnose severity could be considerably reduced using this yeast. Formulating the yeast at 10(9) CFU ml(-1) and adding glycerol (20%) and xanthan (5 g l(-1)) avoided both contamination and yeast sedimentation and it was able to preserve up to 10(7) CFU ml(-1) after 6 months at 4 degrees C. The yeast R. minuta is reported as a novel antagonistic micro-organism against the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Pilot plant production of this yeast allowed us to conduct field tests in commercial orchards during three harvest seasons. Yeast suspensions applied to mango trees reduced the fruit anthracnose severity in levels similar or better than chemical fungicides.

  7. Combined Maxwell and kinetic guiding-center theory with polarization drift: Regularized variational formulation with local charge and energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Restrepo, D.; Pfirsch, D.; Wimmel, H. K.

    1986-06-01

    A formerly derived regularization method is applied to time-dependent Lagrangian guiding-center mechanics, with the polarization drift included. This approach removes the singularity that occurs for B-fields with non-vanishing parallel curl. From the Lagrangian equations of motion, Liouville's theorem and a collisionless kinetic equation for the “regularized guiding centers” are derived. A common Lagrangian density for both the guiding centers and the Maxwell fields is obtained by using a “constrained” Hamiltonian and a formely derived, new variational principle. From this variational formalism local conservation laws for electric charge and energy are derived, together with the correct charge, current, energy and energy flux densities. These densities combined point-like contributions with electric polarization and magnetization terms.

  8. Formulation and evaluation of a montelukast sodium orally disintegrating tablet with a similar dissolution profile as the marketed product.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Feng, Tingting; Li, Yong; Du, Bin; Weng, Weiyu

    2017-03-01

    A major challenge of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) development is predicting its bioequivalence to its corresponding marketed product. Therefore, comparing ODT dissolution profiles to those of the corresponding marketed product is very important. The objective of this study was to develop a 5.2-mg montelukast sodium (MS) ODT with a similar dissolution profile to that of the marketed chewable tablet. Dissolution profiles were examined in different media to screen each formulation. We found that MS dissolution from ODTs in acidic medium heavily depended on manufacturing methods. All MS ODTs prepared using direct compression rapidly disintegrated in acidic medium. However, dispersed MS powders aggregated into sticky masses, resulting in slow dissolution. In contrast, MS ODTs prepared using wet granulation had much faster dissolution rates in acidic medium with no obvious aggregation. Additionally, the optimized formulation, prepared using wet granulation, displayed similar dissolution profiles to the marketed reference in all four types of media examined (f2 > 50). The in vitro disintegration time of the optimized ODT was 9.5 ± 2.4 s, which meets FDA requirements. In conclusion, the wet granulation preparation method of MS ODTs resulted in a product with equivalent dissolution profiles as those of the marketed product.

  9. Anti-diabetic activity and stability study of the formulated leaf extract of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd with the influence of seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Camilia George; Nesseem, Demiana Ibrahim; Ismail, Manal Fouad

    2011-01-07

    The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaf extract (200 mg/kg b.w.), plain and formulated in STZ-diabetic rats. Percentage yield of extracts, marker yield (christinin-A) and antihyperglycemic potencies, depending on seasonal variation were investigated. The chemical stability, study of storage conditions, shelf life T90 prediction of both plain extract and formulated soft gelatin capsules by accelerated studies were studied. Changes in all studied parameters after oral administration of Z. spina-christi extract for 28 days were reported. Seasonal variation affecting yield and activities was studied. Flavonoid contents were HPLC evaluated. The capsules were stored at 30, 40 and 50°C [75% relative humidity] and their residual christinin-A content was assayed for 24 weeks. Christinin-A chemical degradation was monitored by HPLC stability indicating method previously validated. Possible physical examination was checked by dissolution test of the content of the capsules using dissolution tester USP XXIV. Oral administration of Z. spina-christi leaf extract, plain and formulated for 28 days reduced blood glucose level with significant increase in serum insulin and C-peptide levels. Marked elevation in total antioxidant capacity with normalization of percentage of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C%) was reported. Moreover, they succeeded to reduce the elevated blood lactate level and to elevate the reduced blood pyruvate content of diabetic rats. In line with amelioration of the diabetic state, Zizyphus extract, plain and formulated restored liver and muscle glycogen content together with significant decrease of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. In vitro experiments showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity of Zizyphus extract against α-amylase enzyme with (IC(50)) at 0.3 mg/ml. Such finding has been supported by the in vivo suppression of starch digestion and

  10. Effect of once daily and twice daily sustained release theophylline formulations on daytime variation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M.; Olivieri, M.; Lampronti, G.; Bonazza, L.; Biasin, C.; Nacci, P.; Talamini, G.; Lo, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies evaluating spirometric values and symptoms have shown that once daily theophylline administered in the evening produces greater stabilisation of the airway function in asthmatic patients than the prototype theophylline given twice a day. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on bronchial responsiveness to methacholine of an ultrasustained release theophylline formulation (Diffumal-24, Malesci, Florence, Italy) administered once a day, a sustained release theophylline formulation (Theo-Dur, Recordati, Milan, Italy) administered twice a day, and placebo. METHODS: The study was performed in 12 adult patients with asthma using a randomised, double blind, three phase, cross-over design. Each phase lasted seven days and was followed or preceded by at least three days of theophylline washout. Diffumal-24 was administered once a day at 20.00 hours whereas Theo-Dur was given twice a day at 08.00 hours and 20.00 hours. In each patient the total daily dose of theophylline was the same during both phases. The dose of the two active preparations was titrated to individual needs before the beginning of the study and then given in divided or once daily doses. At 08.00, 14.00, and 20.00 hours on day 7 of each phase serum theophylline concentrations were measured and spirometric tests (FEV1) and bronchial challenge with methacholine were also performed. RESULTS: When the administration of Diffumal-24 was compared with that of Theo-Dur, a higher serum theophylline concentration of the former was seen in the morning whereas at 20.00 hours the reverse was true. Compared with placebo, at 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 improved FEV1 whereas Theo-Dur did not (difference between treatments 0.29 1, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). At 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 decreased bronchial sensitivity to methacholine, expressed as a natural logarithm of PD20, to a greater extent than Theo-Dur (difference between treatments 0.54 log units, 95% CI 0.016 to 1.08). The morning

  11. Interactions between the stratum corneum and topically applied products: regulatory, instrumental and formulation issues with focus on moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M

    2014-09-01

    Virtually everyone in Europe will use at least one cosmetic product every day. The extensive use of cosmetics and results from measurements of quality of life in patients with skin diseases demonstrate the importance of a healthy skin. The skin is not only a barrier against desiccation and intrusion of harmful materials, but also an organ of social communication, where dry, scaly, rough stratum corneum is unappealing to touch, inducing anxiety and depression. Knowledge about the skin biochemistry and the use of noninvasive instruments facilitate the development of topical products and quantification of their effects. The presentation of the products and mode of action determine the regulatory demands and the approval process, as they can fall into different regulatory entities, such as cosmetics, medicinal products, medical devices and as other chemical products. The majority of the topical products on the market are regulated as cosmetics. For example, facial skin care and daily moisturizing routines are frequently used. However, despite visible relief of dryness symptoms, some products are reported to result in deterioration of the skin barrier function. New clinical outcomes show important clinical differences between formulations and the relapse of eczema. In a worst case scenario, treatment with a moisturizing cream may increase the risks of eczema and asthma. In the present overview, product presentations and mode of actions are reflected against the regulatory demands in Europe. The regulations are continuously revisited and new guidelines are being implemented, such as the new cosmetic regulation with advice on testing and responsible marketing.

  12. Hospital Trusts productivity in the English NHS: Uncovering possible drivers of productivity variations.

    PubMed

    Aragon Aragon, María Jose; Castelli, Adriana; Gaughan, James

    2017-01-01

    Health care systems in OECD countries are increasingly facing economic challenges and funding pressures. These normally demand interventions (political, financial and organisational) aimed at improving the efficiency of the health system as a whole and its single components. In 2009, the English NHS Chief Executive, Sir David Nicholson, warned that a potential funding gap of £20 billion should be met by extensive efficiency savings by March 2015. Our study investigates possible drivers of differential Trust performance (productivity) for the financial years 2010/11-2012/13. Following accounting practice, we define Productivity as the ratio of Outputs over Inputs. We analyse variation in both Total Factor and Labour Productivity using ordinary least squares regressions. We explicitly included in our analysis factors of differential performance highlighted in the Nicholson challenge as the sources were the efficiency savings should come from. Explanatory variables include efficiency in resource use measures, Trust and patient characteristics, and quality of care. We find that larger Trusts and Foundation Trusts are associated with lower productivity, as are those treating a greater proportion of both older and/or younger patients. Surprisingly treating more patients in their last year of life is associated with higher Labour Productivity.

  13. Formulation and development of tablets based on Ludipress and scale-up from laboratory to production scale.

    PubMed

    Heinz, R; Wolf, H; Schuchmann, H; End, L; Kolter, K

    2000-05-01

    In spite of the wealth of experience available in the pharmaceutical industry, tablet formulations are still largely developed on an empirical basis, and the scale-up from laboratory to production is a time-consuming and costly process. Using Ludipress greatly simplifies formulation development and the manufacturing process because only the active ingredient Ludipress and a lubricant need to be mixed briefly before being compressed into tablets. The studies described here were designed to investigate the scale-up of Ludipress-based formulations from laboratory to production scale, and to predict changes in tablet properties due to changes in format, compaction pressure, and the use of different tablet presses. It was found that the tensile strength of tablets made of Ludipress increased linearly with compaction pressures up to 300 MPa. It was also independent of the geometry of the tablets (diameter, thickness, shape). It is therefore possible to give an equation with which the compaction pressure required to achieve a given hardness can be calculated for a given tablet form. The equation has to be modified slightly to convert from a single-punch press to a rotary tableting machine. Tablets produced in the rotary machine at the same pressure have a slightly higher tensile strength. The rate of increase in pressure, and therefore the throughput, has no effect on the tensile strength of Ludipress tablets. It is thought that a certain minimum dwell time is responsible for this difference. The production of tablets based on Ludipress can be scaled up from one rotary press to another without problem if the powder mixtures are prepared with the same mixing energy. The tensile strength curve determined for tablets made with Ludipress alone can also be applied to tablets with a small quantity (< 10%) of an active ingredient.

  14. Quality by design in formulation and process development for a freeze-dried, small molecule parenteral product: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mockus, Linas N; Paul, Timothy W; Pease, Nathan A; Harper, Nancy J; Basu, Prabir K; Oslos, Elizabeth A; Sacha, Gregory A; Kuu, Wei Y; Hardwick, Lisa M; Karty, Jacquelyn J; Pikal, Michael J; Hee, Eun; Khan, Mansoor A; Nail, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    A case study has been developed to illustrate one way of incorporating a Quality by Design approach into formulation and process development for a small molecule, freeze-dried parenteral product. Sodium ethacrynate was chosen as the model compound. Principal degradation products of sodium ethacrynate result from hydrolysis of the unsaturated ketone in aqueous solution, and dimer formation from a Diels-Alder condensation in the freeze-dried solid state. When the drug crystallizes in a frozen solution, the eutectic melting temperature is above -5°C. Crystallization in the frozen system is affected by pH in the range of pH 6-8 and buffer concentration in the range of 5-50 mM, where higher pH and lower buffer concentration favor crystallization. Physical state of the drug is critical to solid state stability, given the relative instability of amorphous drug. Stability was shown to vary considerably over the ranges of pH and buffer concentration examined, and vial-to-vial variability in degree of crystallinity is a potential concern. The formulation design space was constructed in terms of pH and drug concentration, and assuming a constant 5 mM concentration of buffer. The process design space is constructed to take into account limitations on the process imposed by the product and by equipment capability.

  15. Mixing monoclonal antibody formulations using bottom-mounted mixers: impact of mechanism and design on drug product quality.

    PubMed

    Gikanga, Benson; Chen, Yufei; Stauch, Oliver B; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2015-01-01

    Using bottom-mounted mixers, particularly those that are magnetically driven, is becoming increasingly common during the mixing process in pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturing because of their associated low risk of contamination, ease of use, and ability to accommodate low minimum mixing volumes. Despite these benefits, the impact of bottom-mounted mixers on biologic drug product is not yet fully understood and is scarcely reported. This study evaluated four bottom-mounted mixers to assess their impact on monoclonal antibody formulations. Changes in product quality (size variants, particles, and turbidity) and impact on process performance (sterile filtration) were evaluated after mixing. The results suggested that mixers that are designed to function with no contact between the impeller and the drive unit are the most favorable and gentle to monoclonal antibody molecules. Designs with contact or a narrow clearance tended to shear and grind the protein and resulted in high particle count in the liquid, which would subsequently foul a filter membrane during sterile filtration using a 0.22 μm pore size filter. Despite particle formation, increases in turbidity of the protein solution and protein aggregation/fragmentation were not detected. Further particle analysis indicated particles in the range of 0.2-2 μm are responsible for filter fouling. A small-scale screening model was developed using two types of magnetic stir bars mimicking the presence or absence of contact between the impeller and drive unit in the bottom-mounted mixers. The model is capable of differentiating the sensitivity of monoclonal antibody formulations to bottom-mounted mixers with a small sample size. This study fills an important gap in understanding a critical bioprocess unit operation. Mixing is an important unit operation in drug product manufacturing for compounding (dilution, pooling, homogenization, etc.). The current trend in adopting disposable bottom-mounted mixers has

  16. Impact of Different Elastomer Formulations on Moisture Permeation through Stoppers Used for Lyophilized Products Stored under Humid Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Jun; Maeda, Terutoshi; Kuboniwa, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of moisture permeability of different elastomer formulation stoppers, which had different moisture absorption abilities, on the increase of moisture content inside lyophilized vials during long-term storage under humid conditions. Two different elastomer formulation stoppers (high-moisture and low-moisture uptake stoppers) were compared. The increased amount of moisture content inside lyophilized vials fitted with high-moisture stoppers was higher than those fitted with low-moisture stoppers during the early stage of storage. However, this trend was reversed during the later stage of storage. Our data show that the moisture increase inside the lyophilized vials at the early stage was caused by moisture transfer from the stoppers, whereas the later moisture increase was caused by external moisture permeation through the stoppers. Results indicate that the difference in the moisture uptake profile inside the lyophilized vials at each period of storage was caused by the moisture absorption ability and moisture permeation ability of the two elastomer formulation stoppers. In terms of long-term storage stability under humid conditions, our data indicate that external moisture permeating through the stopper into the lyophilized vial during the late stage was the more important factor. In addition, the increase in moisture content at the early stage was controlled by stopper drying time. Furthermore, stopper drying time did not have an effect on moisture permeation at the late stage. Moisture permeation during the storage period appears to be dependent on the different elastomer formulations of the stoppers. The moisture permeation of different elastomer stoppers was an important factor in terms of the increased moisture content inside the lyophilized vials during the late stage of long-term storage under humid conditions. For lyophilized products stored at room temperature, the moisture permeation ability of the

  17. Managing Variation in Services in a Software Product Line Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Oriented Domain Analysis ( FODA ) Feasibility Study (CMU/SEI-90-TR-021, ADA235785). Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1990...the systems in the product line, and a plan for building the systems. Product line scope and product line analysis define the boundaries and...systems, as well as expected ways in which they may vary. Product line analysis applies established modeling techniques to engineer the common and

  18. Constrained Variational Response to Fock-Space Multi-Reference Coupled-Cluster Theory: Formulation for Excited-State Electronic Structure Calculations and Some Pilot Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Prashant Uday; Pal, Sourav

    2007-11-01

    Fock-space (FS) multi-reference (MR) coupled-cluster (CC) method has emerged as compact tool to account for electronic structure of open-shell systems and molecules in low-lying excited states. Development of linear response (LR) has been one of the challenging problems in FSMRCC due to multiple-root nature of effective Hamiltonian. The recently developed constrained variational approach (CVA) has opened up a promising tool for efficient evaluation of analytic response properties. In this article, we present formulation of the method for excited state calculations. We discuss the decoupling of equations as a result of spin-adaptation and present some preliminary results for analytical dipole moments and polarizabilities of some molecules in low-lying triplet excited states.

  19. Napping-Ultra Flash Profile as a Tool for Category Identification and Subsequent Model System Formulation of Caramel Corn Products.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Emily; Schmidt, Shelly; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-07-01

    In a novel approach to formulation, the flash descriptive profiling technique Napping-Ultra Flash Profile (Napping-UFP) was used to characterize a wide range of commercial caramel corn products. The objectives were to identify product categories, develop model systems based on product categories, and correlate analytical parameters with sensory terms generated through the Napping-UFP exercise. In one 2 h session, 12 panelists participated in 4 Napping-UFP exercises, describing and grouping, on a 43×56 cm paper sheet, 12 commercial caramel corn samples by degree of similarity, globally and in terms of aroma-by-mouth, texture, and taste. The coordinates of each sample's placement on the paper sheet and descriptive terms generated by the panelists were used to conduct Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) and hierarchical clustering of the samples. Strong trends in the clustering of samples across the 4 Napping-UFP exercises resulted in the determination of 3 overarching types of commercial caramel corn: "small-scale dark" (typified by burnt, rich caramel corn), "large-scale light" (typified by light and buttery caramel corn), and "large-scale dark" (typified by sweet and molasses-like caramel corn). Representative samples that best exemplified the properties of each category were used as guides in the formulation of 3 model systems that represent the spread of commercial caramel corn products. Analytical testing of the commercial products, including aw measurement, moisture content determination, and thermal characterization via differential scanning calorimetry, were conducted and results related to sensory descriptors using Spearman's correlation.

  20. Proactive Management of Fermentation and Formulation Interactions to Improve Biocontrol Product Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The key components of biocontrol product development—discovery, fermentation, and formulation—are interactively linked to each other and ultimately to product performance. To identify biocontrol agents suited for commercial development, our discovery programs utilize a cumulative ranking system tha...

  1. Variational and perturbative formulations of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy with mean-field embedding and its analytical gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    Conventional quantum chemical solvation theories are based on the mean-field embedding approximation. That is, the electronic wavefunction is calculated in the presence of the mean field of the environment. In this paper a direct quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) analog of such a mean-field theory is formulated based on variational and perturbative frameworks. In the variational framework, an appropriate QM/MM free energy functional is defined and is minimized in terms of the trial wavefunction that best approximates the true QM wavefunction in a statistically averaged sense. Analytical free energy gradient is obtained, which takes the form of the gradient of effective QM energy calculated in the averaged MM potential. In the perturbative framework, the above variational procedure is shown to be equivalent to the first-order expansion of the QM energy (in the exact free energy expression) about the self-consistent reference field. This helps understand the relation between the variational procedure and the exact QM/MM free energy as well as existing QM/MM theories. Based on this, several ways are discussed for evaluating non-mean-field effects (i.e., statistical fluctuations of the QM wavefunction) that are neglected in the mean-field calculation. As an illustration, the method is applied to an SN2 Menshutkin reaction in water, NH3+CH3Cl→NH3CH3++Cl-, for which free energy profiles are obtained at the Hartree-Fock, MP2, B3LYP, and BHHLYP levels by integrating the free energy gradient. Non-mean-field effects are evaluated to be <0.5 kcal/mol using a Gaussian fluctuation model for the environment, which suggests that those effects are rather small for the present reaction in water.

  2. Investigation of sorbic acid volatile degradation products in pharmaceutical formulations using static headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yarramraju, Sitaramaraju; Akurathi, Vamsidhar; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2007-06-28

    An analytical method that allows simultaneous analysis of sorbic acid and its degradation products was developed using static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). AT-Aquawax-DA, the capillary column used, showed good selectivity and separation towards sorbic acid and its degradation products. Sorbic acid degradation was investigated in both acidic and aqueous media at room and elevated temperatures. In total 12 sorbic acid degradation products were found, 8 of which could be characterized. The method was investigated for its accuracy towards estimation of degradation products. Using the HS-GC method different batches of pharmaceutical preparations such as cold cream, cetomacrogol cream and vaseline were investigated for sorbic acid degradation products which were estimated by applying the standard addition method. Acetaldehyde was found to be the major degradation product. The other identified degradation products were: acetone; 2-methylfuran; crotonaldehyde; alfa-angelicalactone; 2-acetyl, 5-methylfuran; toluene and 2,5-dimethylfuran. Both mass spectrometeric (MS) and flame ionization detection (FID) were used. The qualitative investigation was done on HS-GC-MS and the quantitative work on HS-GC-FID.

  3. Formulation of a Traditionally Used Polyherbal Product for Burn Healing and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Its Phenolic Contents.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, Shirin; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, plants have been considered as powerful agents for treatment of disorders regarding to their traditional use. In Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), plants have a special role in the treatment of various diseases. Burns with their devastating outcomes have been discussed in ITM as well. In the present study, a polyherbal ointment (PHO), retrieved from ITM, was formulated for burn healing and it's HPTLC fingerprint was prepared. Aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals (4.85%, 4.85% and 33%, respectively) were added to white beeswax, eucerin and white petrolatum as ointment base. In addition to the microbiological tests, physical stability and rheological behavior of the product were assessed. Fingerprinting of phytochemical constituents of PHO was performed by using silica gel plates and toluene: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (60:40:1) and ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (100:11:11:10) as mobile phases. The results showed that PHO was stable towards physical changes and successfully passed microbiological tests. Moreover, PHO exhibited plastic behavior which is in favor of a topical burn product. In addition, HPTLC fingerprinting of PHO demonstrated the presence of several phenolic constituents corresponding to the plant extracts. Regarding to the role of phenolic compounds in wound healing process, PHO could be an appropriate candidate for burn healing with respect to its traditional use in ITM. Moreover, HPTLC fingerprinting could be utilized as an applicable method for quality control of the prepared formulation.

  4. Formulation of a Traditionally Used Polyherbal Product for Burn Healing and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Its Phenolic Contents

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Shirin; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, plants have been considered as powerful agents for treatment of disorders regarding to their traditional use. In Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), plants have a special role in the treatment of various diseases. Burns with their devastating outcomes have been discussed in ITM as well. In the present study, a polyherbal ointment (PHO), retrieved from ITM, was formulated for burn healing and it’s HPTLC fingerprint was prepared. Aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals (4.85%, 4.85% and 33%, respectively) were added to white beeswax, eucerin and white petrolatum as ointment base. In addition to the microbiological tests, physical stability and rheological behavior of the product were assessed. Fingerprinting of phytochemical constituents of PHO was performed by using silica gel plates and toluene: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (60:40:1) and ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (100:11:11:10) as mobile phases. The results showed that PHO was stable towards physical changes and successfully passed microbiological tests. Moreover, PHO exhibited plastic behavior which is in favor of a topical burn product. In addition, HPTLC fingerprinting of PHO demonstrated the presence of several phenolic constituents corresponding to the plant extracts. Regarding to the role of phenolic compounds in wound healing process, PHO could be an appropriate candidate for burn healing with respect to its traditional use in ITM. Moreover, HPTLC fingerprinting could be utilized as an applicable method for quality control of the prepared formulation. PMID:27610150

  5. PRN 2008-1: Notice to Manufacturers, Producers, Formulators, and Registrants of Pesticide Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice presents EPA's guidance on optional environmental hazard label language for certain non-restricted use pesticide products intended for outdoor residential use. It clarifies language on how the user can avoid environmental contamination.

  6. [Thermostability testing of iron(II) sulphate for formulation of drug product].

    PubMed

    Laczkovich, Orsolya; Révész, Piroska; Pallagi, Edina; Eros, István

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the experimental study was to determine which iron(II) sulphate form, the monohydrate or the heptahydrate, is more suitable for formulation of a retard dosage form with melt technology, and to control the suitable compound from a thermostability aspect according to the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization). Iron(II) sulphate is susceptible to oxidation and a rise in temperature increases the rate of this redox change. The presence of Fe3+ is definitely harmful in the case of enteral administration. First, the activation energy of the oxidation process was quantified for both iron(II) sulphate forms. It was found that the monohydrate is oxidized four times more slowly than the monohydrate form. It follows from this that the monohydrate well resists short-lived high temperature. The thermostability tests on the monohydrate showed that samples, stored at high temperature and high relative humidity for a long time, oxidized only slowly. On the basis of all these findings, the monohydrate form may be suggested for melt technology.

  7. Advanced stable lipid-based formulations for a patient-centric product design.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karin; Saurugger, Eva-Maria; Kienberger, Diana; Lopes, Diogo; Haack, Detlev; Köberle, Martin; Stehr, Michael; Lochmann, Dirk; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2016-01-30

    Multiparticulate dosage forms are a recent strategy to meet the special needs of children, elderly people and patients suffering from dysphagia. Our study presents a novel and cost-efficient approach for the manufacturing of a taste-masked multiparticulate system with a stable immediate release profile by applying lipid-based excipients in a solvent-free hot melt coating process. The thermosensitive N-acetylcysteine (N-ac) was used as model drug and hot-melt coated with a mixture of tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. A predictive in vitro method for the evaluation of the taste masking efficiency was developed based on the deprotonation of the carboxyl group of N-ac and the decline of pH, responsible for the unpleasant sour taste of the compound. The method was confirmed using in vivo studies. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering experiments revealed polymorphic transformation and its dependency on transformation time, temperature and emulsifier concentration. During the process, the coating was transformed almost completely into the stable β-polymorph, leading to an unaltered dissolution profile during storage. A statistical design was conducted that revealed the critical process parameters affecting the taste masking efficiency and drug release. This study shows the successful application of solvent-free hot-melt coating in the development of a taste-masked and stable formulation.

  8. Enhanced undecylprodigiosin production from Serratia marcescens SS-1 by medium formulation and amino-acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Yu, Wan-Ju; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2005-10-01

    Serratia marcescens Simon Swift-1 (SS-1) was used to produce a prodigiosin-like pigment, undecylprodigiosin (UP), known to have antitumor activities and potential as an anticancer drug. Modified media containing components of Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and selected amino acids were used to improve UP production from S. marcescens SS-1. Optimal culture conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, agitation rate) for UP production were also identified. It was found that S. marcescens SS-1 was able to produce 690 mg l-1 of UP when it was grown with 5 g l-1 yeast extract alone (YE medium) under the optimal culture conditions of 30 degrees C, 200 rpm, and pH 8. The UP production of 690 mg l-1 is nearly 23-fold of that obtained from original LB medium. Addition of amino acids containing pyrrole-like structures further enhanced UP production. Nearly 2 and 1.4 g l-1 of UP was produced when the SS-1 strain was cultivated with YE medium supplemented with proline and histidine (5 g l-1), respectively. Moreover, the addition of aspartic acid (5 g l-1) also resulted in a high UP production of 1.4 g l-1. Optimal dosages of the three amino acids were subsequently determined and the highest UP production (2.5 g l-1) was achieved with the addition of 10 g l-1 of proline. This suggests that the supplementation of amino acids related to the formation of a UP precursor (e.g., pyrrolylpyrromethene) could enhance UP production by the SS-1 strain.

  9. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Crowley, John W; Katz, Richard F; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2015-03-13

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between oceans and continents, causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with consequences for the melting of Earth's interior. Using Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations as a forcing function, theoretical models of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that include melt transport predict temporal variations in crustal thickness of hundreds of meters. New bathymetry from the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows statistically significant spectral energy near the Milankovitch periods of 23, 41, and 100 thousand years, which is consistent with model predictions. These results suggest that abyssal hills, one of the most common bathymetric features on Earth, record the magmatic response to changes in sea level. The models and data support a link between glacial cycles at the surface and mantle melting at depth, recorded in the bathymetric fabric of the sea floor.

  10. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W.; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A.; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2–71.2% during 1982–2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms.

  11. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A; Li, Yue

    2016-05-31

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2-71.2% during 1982-2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms.

  12. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W.; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A.; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2–71.2% during 1982–2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms. PMID:27243565

  13. Variation in Extrafloral Nectary Productivity Influences the Ant Foraging

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar is the main food source offered by plants to predatory ants in most land environments. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) to plant defense against herbivores, the influence of EFNs secretory activity pattern on predatory ants remains yet not fully understood. Here, we verified the relation between the extrafloral nectar production of a plant community in Cerrado in different times of the day, and its attractiveness to ants. The extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of seven plant species showed higher productivity overnight. Ant abundance was higher in times of large extrafloral nectar production, however, there was no positive relation between ant richness on plants and EFNs productivity. There was temporal resource partitioning among ant species, and it indicates strong resource competition. The nectar productivity varied among plant species and time of the day, and it influenced the visitation patterns of ants. Therefore, EFNs are a key ant-plant interaction driver in the studied system. PMID:28046069

  14. Variation in Extrafloral Nectary Productivity Influences the Ant Foraging.

    PubMed

    Lange, Denise; Calixto, Eduardo Soares; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar is the main food source offered by plants to predatory ants in most land environments. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) to plant defense against herbivores, the influence of EFNs secretory activity pattern on predatory ants remains yet not fully understood. Here, we verified the relation between the extrafloral nectar production of a plant community in Cerrado in different times of the day, and its attractiveness to ants. The extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of seven plant species showed higher productivity overnight. Ant abundance was higher in times of large extrafloral nectar production, however, there was no positive relation between ant richness on plants and EFNs productivity. There was temporal resource partitioning among ant species, and it indicates strong resource competition. The nectar productivity varied among plant species and time of the day, and it influenced the visitation patterns of ants. Therefore, EFNs are a key ant-plant interaction driver in the studied system.

  15. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2013-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of four phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First, we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production ((is)approximately 50%, the equivalent of 20 PgC·y1). Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed approximately 20% ((is) approximately 7 PgC·y1) of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10% ((is) approximately 4 PgC·y1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in the high latitudes ((is) greater than 40 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4% (1-2 PgC·y1). We assessed the effects of climate variability on group-specific primary production using global (i.e., Multivariate El Niño Index, MEI) and "regional" climate indices (e.g., Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p (is) less than 0.05) between the MEI and the group-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatoms/cyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect

  16. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R. F.; Crowley, J. W.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between the oceans and continents, causing long-wavelength changes of static pressure in the upper mantle. Previous work has shown that subaerial, glaciated volcanoes respond to these changes with variation in eruption rates (Jull & McKenzie 1996, Huybers & Langmuir 2009), and has suggested that the magmatic flux at mid-ocean ridges may vary with changes in sea-level (Huybers & Langmuir 2009, Lund & Asimow 2011). The latter is speculative, however, because previous theory has assumed highly simplified melt transport and neglected the dependence of the ridge thermal structure on spreading rate. Moreover, it remains a challenge to connect model predictions of variations arising from sea-level change with sea-floor observations. Here we present results from a theoretical model of a mid-ocean ridge based on conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and composition for two phases (magma & mantle) and two thermodynamic components (enriched & depleted) (Katz 2008, 2010). The model is driven by imposed variations in the static pressure within the mantle. We consider both the geochemically inferred record of past sea-level variation, as well as simpler harmonic and instantaneous variations. The output of these models is compared with observations of bathymetry at ridges that are undisturbed by off-axis volcanism. The comparison is preliminary but suggests that some abyssal hills on the sea-floor are, at least in part, the result of glacial cycles. To understand the simulation results in more detail, we develop analytical solutions for a reduced-complexity model. This model is derived according to the idea that the melting induced by sea-level changes can be thought of as a small perturbation to a steady-state system. We obtain a Green's function solution for crustal thickness as a function of sea-level change with the associated dependencies on geophysical parameters of the magma/mantle system. We show that this solution captures much of the

  17. Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    Suggestions for studying the topic of variation of individuals and objects (balls) to help develop elementary school students' measurement, comparison, classification, evaluation, and data collection and recording skills are made. General suggestions of variables that can be investigated are made for the study of human variation. Twelve specific…

  18. Product formulations using recycled tire crumb rubber. Final report/project accomplishments summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this project was to combine crumb rubber and synthetic fiber obtained from scrap tires with thermoplastic polymers and convert these materials into commercially useful, high-value products. A specific goal was to use these materials for roofing, while remaining cognizance of other potential applications.

  19. Use of diets formulated for summer water temperatures in pond production of hybrid striped bass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  20. Evaluation of production method and formulation for optimizing in-vitro produced Gypchek

    Treesearch

    R. E. Webb; G. B. White; K. W. Thorpe; J. M. Slavicek; J. D. Podgwaite; R. W. Fuester; P. B. Taylor; R. A. Peiffer; M. A. Valenti

    2003-01-01

    Gypchek (USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC), a product with the Lymantria dispar multi-enveloped nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) as the active ingredient, is a general use biopesticide for use against the gypsy moth. Successful field trials with Gypchek incorporated with the commercially-produced Carrier 038 (Valent BioSciences Corp., Libertyville,...

  1. Norethindrone acetate (NA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) related oxidative transformation products in stability samples of formulated drug product: synthesis of authentic references.

    PubMed

    Ekhato, I Victor; Hurley, Tim; Lovdahl, Michael; Revitte, T J; Guo, Luyi; Huang, Yun; Clipper, Scott; Colson, Charles

    2002-03-01

    Preparative chemical methods for the synthesis of eight oxidative transformation products of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and norethindrone acetate (NA) are described. The prepared materials are useful as reference materials and standards for pharmaceutical analysis of EE and NA as bulk chemical or in formulated product. All eight products result from oxidation of the A and/or B rings of the parent compounds. Oxidation of the heteroannular 3,5 dienyl acetate derivative of NA resulted in the 6 alpha-hydroxy, 6 beta-hydroxy and 6-keto NA. Oxidation of 6-keto NA led to the preparation of 6 alpha-hydroxy, 6 beta-hydroxy, 6-keto- and Delta(6) EE. Delta(11) EE was prepared from estrone.

  2. Isolation, identification, and synthesis of two oxidative degradation products of olanzapine (LY170053) in solid oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Baertschi, Steven W; Brunner, Heiko; Bunnell, Charles A; Cooke, Gary G; Diseroad, Benjamin; Dorman, Douglas E; Jansen, Patrick J; Kemp, Craig A J; Maple, Steven R; McCune, Karen A; Speakman, Jeffrey L

    2008-02-01

    Two impurities found in both stressed and aged solid-state formulations of olanzapine have been identified as (Z)-1,3-dihydro-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-(2-oxopropylidene)-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one (1) and (Z)-1-[1,2-dihydro-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-thioxo-3H-1,5-benzodiazepin-3-ylidene]propan-2-one (2). The structures indicate that the two impurities are degradation products resulting from oxidation of the thiophene ring of olanzapine. The impurities were isolated by preparative HPLC from a thermally stressed formulation, and characterized by UV, IR, MS, and NMR. A synthetic preparation of compounds 1 and 2 by reaction of olanzapine with the singlet oxygen mimic 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) is presented. The structure of 2 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. A degradation pathway for the formation of 1 and 2 is proposed.

  3. Coherent States for Kronecker Products of Non Compact Groups: Formulation and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambah, Bindu A.; Agarwal, Girish S.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce and study the properties of a class of coherent states for the group SU(1,1) X SU(1,1) and derive explicit expressions for these using the Clebsch-Gordan algebra for the SU(1,1) group. We restrict ourselves to the discrete series representations of SU(1,1). These are the generalization of the 'Barut Girardello' coherent states to the Kronecker Product of two non-compact groups. The resolution of the identity and the analytic phase space representation of these states is presented. This phase space representation is based on the basis of products of 'pair coherent states' rather than the standard number state canonical basis. We discuss the utility of the resulting 'bi-pair coherent states' in the context of four-mode interactions in quantum optics.

  4. PR notice 87-6. Notice to manufacturers, formulators, procedures, and registrants of pesticide products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces certain policies designed to reduce the potential for adverse effects from the use of pesticide products containing toxic inert ingredients. The agency is encouraging the use of the least toxic inert ingredient available and requiring the development of data necessary to determine the conditions of safe use of products containing toxic inert ingredients. In support of these policies, the Agency has categorized inert ingredients according to toxicity.

  5. Contracting Strategy Formulation for Production Competition in Major Weapon Systems Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    PRODUCTION SOURCES -- 31 1. Form, Fit, and Function--------------------- 32 2. Technical Data Package----------------------- 33 I. 3. Leader - Follower ------------------------------ 34...Function (F), (2) Technical Data Package (TDP), (3) Leader - Follower , (4) Licensing, and (5) Contractor Teaming. [Ref. l:p. 5-31 These methodologies are not...3. Leader - Follower The Leader - Follower technique establishes a second source through direct contractor-to-contractor transfer of technical data [Ref

  6. Study of ionospheric topside variations based on NeQuick topside formulation and comparisons with the IRI-2012 model at equatorial latitude station, Chumphon, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamjareegulgarn, Punyawi; Supnithi, Pornchai; Hozumi, Kornyanat; Tsugawa, Takuya

    2017-07-01

    It is well-known that the equatorial anomaly at equatorial and low latitudes is caused by the fountain effect, therefore, the modeling of topside electron density profiles (EDPs) and the knowledge of electron density distribution in the region are particular challenging. Chumphon station, Thailand, is located within this region. However, at this station, since only an FMCW ionosonde system is installed, the topside EDP cannot be automatically obtained. Therefore, in this work, the topside EDPs are derived using the NeQuick topside formulation of the NeQuick 2 model (namely, NeQuick-derived topside EDPs) and then compared with those of three options of the IRI-2012 model including NeQuick, IRI01-corr, and IRI2001 options. The results show that, at Chumphon station, the NeQuick-derived topside EDPs are generally closer to the topside EDPs of IRI01-corr option in winter season and the topside EDPs of NeQuick option in equinox and summer seasons. When analyzing the topside TEC values obtained from each profile and the IGS TEC, it is found that the topside TEC values integrated from NeQuick-derived topside EDPs and predicted by both IRI01-corr and IRI-2001 options of the IRI-2012 model are sometimes higher than the IGS TEC values observed at Chumphon. In addition, we study the diurnal variations of the scale height computed from NeQuick topside formulation (Hsc), hmF2 and foF2 parameters. The correlation of Hsc with the parameters hmF2 and the bottomside thickness parameter of NeQuick model (B2bot). The computed Hsc values during daytime are lower than those during nighttime and they show non-linear correlations with hmF2 and B2bot. The main cause of these discrepancies are possibly due to the B2bot expressions used to compute the Hsc.

  7. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  8. A commentary on the effects of garlic extraction and formulation on product composition.

    PubMed

    Staba, E J; Lash, L; Staba, J E

    2001-03-01

    The garlic (Allium sativa L.) bulb has been used as a food and condiment for centuries throughout the entire world and in Egypt for perhaps 5000 years. Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 by the U.S. Congress, it has been claimed that garlic dietary supplements possess health benefits. Support for this claim is not the primary objective of this publication. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that the prediction of a potential health benefit(s) from garlic is largely dependent on the process used to produce a product.

  9. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  10. Annual and Geographic variations in cone production by longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1987-01-01

    Abstract.Cone production by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) has been monitored on sample trees in shelterwood stands since 1966. Eleven locations, three each-in Alabama and Florida and one in Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina were included in the study. Each location had two test areas, with...

  11. Optimization of corn, rice and buckwheat formulations for gluten-free wafer production.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ismail Sait; Yildiz, Onder; Meral, Raciye

    2016-07-01

    Gluten-free baked products for celiac sufferers are essential for healthy living. Cereals having gluten such as wheat and rye must be removed from the diet for the clinical and histological improvement. The variety of gluten-free foods should be offered for the sufferers. In the study, gluten-free wafer formulas were optimized using corn, rice and buckwheat flours, xanthan and guar gum blend as an alternative product for celiac sufferers. Wafer sheet attributes and textural properties were investigated. Considering all wafer sheet properties in gluten-free formulas, better results were obtained by using 163.5% water, 0.5% guar and 0.1% xanthan in corn formula; 173.3% water, 0.45% guar and 0.15% xanthan gum in rice formula; 176% water, 0.1% guar and 0.5% xanthan gum in buckwheat formula. Average desirability values in gluten-free formulas were between 0.86 and 0.91 indicating they had similar visual and textural profiles to control sheet made with wheat flour.

  12. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Brian T. Sullivan; Matthew P. Ayres

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signaling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxica1. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An...

  13. Characterization of Rocket Propellant Combustion Products. Chemical Characterization and Computer Modeling of the Exhaust Products from Four Propellant Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-31

    Fractions as a Function of Exit/Throat Area Ratios Com position Q ............................................... 43 20 Effect of ± 5% Shift in Heat of...Constituents in ASCF Chamber .................................. 49 23 Effect of Choice Gaseous Equation of State on Computed Mole Fractions for Composition...health hazards from weapons combustion products, to include rockets and missiles, became evident, Research to elucidate significant health effects of

  14. Dynamic Oligopolistic Market Equilibrium Problems with Production Excesses: A Variational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, Annamaria; Mauro, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    This paper is devoted to study, through a variational approach, the behaviour and the equilibrium conditions for a noncooperative oligopolistic market when production excesses occur. Then, existence and continuity results are shown.

  15. An infrared spectroscopic tool for process monitoring: sugar contents during the production of a depilatory formulation.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Julia; Cascant, Mercedes; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2012-09-15

    A fast, reliable and economical methodology has been developed to control the production process of sugar-based depilatories. The method is based on the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. A very simple sample preparation process involving the dissolution of samples in water was applied. Employing a multivariate calibration model established from data of 15 well characterized samples, prediction errors equal or below 3.04 mg mL(-1) for the quantitative determination of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and maltotriose were obtained. Results found in this preliminary study indicate a great potential for the development of at-line ATR-FTIR-PLS methods based on a careful selection of variables from IR spectra, delivering fast and reliable results. As a reference method, a liquid chromatography (LC)-IR method was adapted for sample characterization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Variation of F-2 toxin production on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Kallela, K; Hintikka, E L; Ylimäki, A

    1978-10-01

    The F-2 producing capacity of one Fusarium graminearum strain (strain No. 13) and of three hyphal tip transverse lines (a b and c) isolated from the original strain and of a mixture of these lines (a b and c) was studied in two successive years on different substrates: oats, barley, wheat, grain mixture and wheat bran. In the first year the original strain produced high amounts of F-2 but was heterogenous in toxin production. The F-2 producing capacity of one of the hyphal tip transverse lines (a) was high and that of two lines (b and c) and of the mixture of the three lines (a+b+c) was poor. In the following year the F-2 producing capacity of the fungal cultures had changed: the F-2 producing capacity of the original strain (No. 13) was greatly reduced, that of one hyphal tip transverse line (b) remained poor and that of two hyphal tip transverse lines (a and c) and of the mixture of the lines clearly increased. The F-2 production was changed in all the substrates and in about the same proportion. In general oats was the best substrate for F-2 production. The possible causes of the changed F-2 production are discussed. The estrogenic effect of F-2 produced in different substrates was studied by using as criteria the uterine weight, vaginal opening and liquid content in the uterus of immature female rats. The effect was in direct proportion to the amount of F-2 ingested by the rats. The substrate was without any influence on the physiological effect of F-2, and in this respect our results deviate from some earlier findings.

  17. Randomized two-way cross-over bioequivalence study of two amoxicillin formulations and inter-ethnicity pharmacokinetic variation in healthy Malay volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations.

  18. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HPLC determination of estradiol, its degradation product, and preservatives in new topical formulation Estrogel HBF.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Lucie; Solich, Petr; Matysová, Ludmila; Sícha, Jan

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a novel method for simultaneous determination of estradiol, its degradation product estrone, and two preservatives, methylparaben and propylparaben, in the topical preparation Estradiol HBF. After optimization of the analytical conditions the method was validated and applied in studies of the stability of the topical preparation Estrogel HBF. Separation of all these compounds was performed on a Supelco Discovery C18 (250 mm x 3.0 mm, 5 microm) analytical column. A mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, and water (23:24:53 v/ v) was chosen as mobile phase. UV absorbance at 225 nm was used for detection and quantitation of analytes. The total analysis time was less than 12 min at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min(-1). All the compounds were isolated from the topical gel by simple extraction with an acetonitrile solution of hydrocortisone, as internal standard, and using sonication and centrifugation thereafter. The supernatant was injected directly on to the analytical column. The recovery of the procedure was from 96.9 to 100.4%. Validation of method according international guidelines was successfully performed.

  20. New product development with the innovative biomolecular sublingual immunotherapy formulations for the management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Frati, Franco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Scala, Enrico; Ridolo, Erminia; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Makrì, Eleni; Pajno, Giovanni; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2014-01-01

    The molecular allergy technique, currently defined as component-resolved diagnosis, significantly improved the diagnosis of allergy, allowing for differentiation between molecules actually responsible for clinical symptoms (genuine sensitizers) and those simply cross-reacting or shared by several sources (panallergens), thus influencing the appropriate management of a patient's allergy. This also concerns allergen immunotherapy (AIT), which may be prescribed more precisely based on the component-resolved diagnosis results. However, the advance in diagnosis needs to be mirrored in AIT. According to consensus documents and to expectations of specialists, therapy should be based on standardized extracts containing measured amounts of the clinically relevant molecules, ie, the major allergens. The new generation of extracts for sublingual immunotherapy fulfills these requirements and are thus defined as biomolecular (BM). BM refers to natural extracts with a defined content of major allergens in micrograms. All Staloral BM products are indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma. The effectiveness of AIT is related to its ability to modify the immunological response of allergic subjects. The 5-grass and house dust mite extracts were evaluated addressing the T helper 1, T helper 2, and T helper 3 cells by polymerase chain reaction array on mRNA extracted from Waldeyer's ring tissue (adenoids). Sublingual immunotherapy with a defined content of major allergens in micrograms induced a strong downregulation of genes involved in T helper 2 and T helper 1 activation and function, allowing the definition of the immunologic effect as "bio-homeostatic". This clinical and immunological model must be implemented with respect to other allergens, thus expanding the application of a treatment with a unique disease-modifying capacity.

  1. Can exploiting natural genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis contribute to increasing rice productivity? A simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Rice productivity can be limited by available photosynthetic assimilates from leaves. However, the lack of significant correlation between crop yield and leaf photosynthetic rate (A) is noted frequently. Engineering for improved leaf photosynthesis has been argued to yield little increase in crop productivity because of complicated constraints and feedback mechanisms when moving up from leaf to crop level. Here we examined the extent to which natural genetic variation in A can contribute to increasing rice productivity. Using the mechanistic model GECROS, we analysed the impact of genetic variation in A on crop biomass production, based on the quantitative trait loci for various photosynthetic components within a rice introgression line population. We showed that genetic variation in A of 25% can be scaled up equally to crop level, resulting in an increase in biomass of 22-29% across different locations and years. This was probably because the genetic variation in A resulted not only from Rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase)-limited photosynthesis but also from electron transport-limited photosynthesis; as a result, photosynthetic rates could be improved for both light-saturated and light-limited leaves in the canopy. Rice productivity could be significantly improved by mining the natural variation in existing germ-plasm, especially the variation in parameters determining light-limited photosynthesis.

  2. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    PubMed

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  3. Bioequivalence in dogs of a meloxicam formulation administered as a transmucosal oral mist with an orally administered pioneer suspension product.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Cheng, Z; Keefe, T J; Weich, E; Bryd, J; Cedergren, R; Cozzi, E

    2013-02-01

    A mucosal mist formulation of meloxicam, administered as a spray into the mouth (test article), was compared for bioequivalence to a pioneer meloxicam suspension for oral administration (reference article). Pharmacokinetic profiles and average bioequivalence were investigated in 20 dogs. The study design comprised a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment cross-over design, with maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under plasma concentration-time curve to last sampling time (AUC(last)) used as pivotal bioequivalence variables. Bioequivalence of the products was confirmed, based on relative ratios of geometric mean concentrations (and 90% confidence intervals within the range 0.80-1.25) for C(max) of 101.9 (97.99-106.0) and for AUC(last) of 97.24 (94.44-100.1). The initial absorption of meloxicam was more rapid for the test article, despite virtually identical C(max) values for the two products. Mean elimination half-lives were 29.6 h (test article) and 30.0 h (reference article). The meloxicam plasma concentration-time profiles were considered in relation to published data on the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 isoenzymes by meloxicam.

  4. Endospore production allows using spray-drying as a possible formulation system of the biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis CPA-8.

    PubMed

    Yánez-Mendizabal, V; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Cañamás, T; Teixidó, N

    2012-04-01

    The role of endospore production by Bacillus subtilis CPA-8 on survival during spray-drying was investigated by comparison with a non-spore-forming biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2. Endospore formation promoted heat resistance in CPA-8 depending on growth time (72 h cultures were more resistant than 24 h ones). The survival of CPA-8 and CPA-2 after spray-drying was determined after being grown in optimised media for 24 and 72 h. Spray-dried 72 h CPA-8 had the best survival (32%), while CPA-2 viability was less than 2%. CPA-8 survival directly related with its ability to produce endospores. Spray-dried CPA-8 reduced Monilinia fructicola conidia germination similarly to fresh cells, demonstrating that spray-drying did not adversely affect biocontrol efficacy. Endospore production thus improves CPA-8 resistance to spray-drying. These results can provide a reliable basis for optimising of the spray-drying formulation process for CPA-8 and other microorganisms.

  5. Topographic Variation and Methane Production in Siberian Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, J.; Kuhn, M. A.; Dunn, S.; Spawn, S.; Schade, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the fate of soil carbon when permafrost soils begin to thaw is critical for predicting the impact of permafrost thaw on global climate change. Microbial metabolism of soil carbon can produce carbon dioxide or methane, depending on soil conditions, and which pathway dominates has great significance for the strength of climate feedbacks since methane is a much more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. In Arctic ecosystems, methane production from upland environments is not well understood and generally assumed to be low because conditions there are generally not favorable for methanogenesis. Small changes in topography, however, can lead to great heterogeneity in soil conditions at small scales that may lead to higher methane flux than generally recognized. In this study, we investigated patterns in methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in in surface waters of 15 small ponds in the Kolyma River watershed in Northeast Siberia. The ponds were distributed across a topographic gradient from upland tundra high in the landscape to low-lying ponds in the floodplain of the Kolyma River. In addition, we used chambers to measured methane fluxes from a variety of topographic depressions that ranged from pools to moss-dominated saturated soils lacking surface water, to dry soils dominated by sedges. Dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations in ponds showed no trend down the topographic gradient while methane concentrations decreased downslope. The decrease in methane production may be the result of a switch from green moss to brown moss, which may act as a host for methanotrophic bacteria. Ponds with green moss had significantly higher concentrations of methane than the ponds with brown moss. In addition, we found significantly higher methane fluxes from pools and saturated soils then from drier soils, which showed very low fluxes. These results suggest that upland tundra may be a significant source of methane, and that methane fluxes are driven

  6. Robustness testing in pharmaceutical freeze-drying: inter-relation of process conditions and product quality attributes studied for a vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Schneid, Stefan C; Stärtzel, Peter M; Lettner, Patrick; Gieseler, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legislation has introduced the evaluation of the Design Space of critical process parameters in manufacturing processes. In freeze-drying, a "formulation" is expected to be robust when minor deviations of the product temperature do not negatively affect the final product quality attributes. To evaluate "formulation" robustness by investigating the effect of elevated product temperature on product quality using a bacterial vaccine solution. The vaccine solution was characterized by freeze-dry microscopy to determine the critical formulation temperature. A conservative cycle was developed using the SMART™ mode of a Lyostar II freeze dryer. Product temperature was elevated to imitate intermediate and aggressive cycle conditions. The final product was analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Karl Fischer, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), and the life cell count (LCC) during accelerated stability testing. The cakes processed at intermediate and aggressive conditions displayed larger pores with microcollapse of walls and stronger loss in LCC than the conservatively processed product, especially during stability testing. For all process conditions, a loss of the majority of cells was observed during storage. For freeze-drying of life bacterial vaccine solutions, the product temperature profile during primary drying appeared to be inter-related to product quality attributes.

  7. Enhanced ethanol production from pomelo peel waste by integrated hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Cao, Ming; Guo, Hong; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2014-05-21

    Pomelo peel is an abundant pectin-rich biomass waste in China and has the potential to serve as a source of fuels and chemicals. This study reports a promising way to deal with pomelo peel waste and to utilize it as raw material for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). An integrated strategy, incorporating hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation, was further developed to enhance the ethanol production. The results show that hydrothermal treatment (120 °C, 15 min) could significantly reduce the use of cellulase (from 7 to 3.8 FPU g(-1)) and pectinase (from 20 to 10 U g(-1)). A multienzyme complex, which consists of cellulase, pectinase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase, was also proven to be effective to improve the hydrolysis of pretreated pomelo peel, leading to higher concentrations of fermentative sugars (36 vs 14 g L(-1)) and galacturonic acid (23 vs 9 g L(-1)) than those with the use of a single enzyme. Furthermore, to increase the final ethanol concentration, fed-batch operation by adding fresh substrate was employed in the SSF process. A final solid loading of 25% (w/v), which is achieved by adding 15% fresh substrate to the SSF system at an initial solid loading of 10%, produced 36 g L(-1) ethanol product in good yield (73.5%). The ethanol concentration is about 1.73-fold that at the maximum solid loading of 14% for batch operation, whereas both of them have a closed ethanol yield. The results indicate that the use of the fed-batch mode could alleviate the decrease in ethanol yield at high solid loading, which is caused by significant mass transfer limitation and increased inhibition of toxic compounds in the SSF process. The integrated strategy demonstrated in this work could open a new avenue for dealing with pectin-rich biomass wastes and utilization of the wastes to produce ethanol.

  8. LC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of six glucocorticoids in pharmaceutical formulations and counterfeit cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Jessica; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2014-03-01

    A screening method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of six corticosteroids (betamethasone 17-valerate BM 17-V, beclomethasone BC, beclomethasone dipropionate BCDP, methylprednisolone MP, budesonide BD, flunisolide FN) was developed in order to control their illegal use in cosmetic and natural products. Indeed, despite corticosteroids are banned in cosmetics, counterfeit products might be present on the market, representing a health hazard. Therefore, effective analytical methods are required to rapidly screen over the counter products in health care shops for counterfeit corticosteroids. The analytical method involves the employment of a Waters Synergy C18 column (150mm×2.0mm I.D.) by using the following mobile phase: A (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile), B (0.1% formic acid in water) in a linear gradient (from A-B 25:75, v/v to A-B 95:5, v/v in 30min) at the flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The detection was performed with an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer in positive polarity, total ion current (TIC) and tandem mass modalities for qualitative purpose; single ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantitative analysis on the ESI generated most abundant ion for each steroid. The method was fully validated in terms of precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, recovery, and it was applied to the identification and quantification of corticosteroids in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetic products. The mean recovery of BM 17-V, BC, BCDP, MP, BD and FN were found to be 101.3, 101.5, 98.8, 98.9, 98.1, 99.0%, respectively. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were comprised in the range 29-95ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time this mix of glucocorticoids were simultaneously determined in cosmetic products by using a fully validated method. BMV, in its two isomeric forms BM 17-V and BM 21-V, was found to be illegally present in one cream sample (A) with the total concentration level

  9. Centennial-scale variations in diatom productivity off Peru over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Sophie; Crosta, Xavier; Schneider, Ralph; Blanz, Thomas; Ther, Olivier; Martinez, Philippe; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The Peruvian coastal upwelling is one of the most productive systems in the global ocean, with important impacts on the carbon cycle. Primary productivity there displays strong variations at the inter-annual to decadal timescales. However, down-core investigations rarely reach sufficient temporal resolution to assess the response of productivity to climatic variations at these timescales beyond the instrumental and historical periods. We here analyzed diatom assemblages, sea-surface temperatures, nitrogen and organic carbon contents on a laminated sediment core from the Peruvian continental shelf to trace variations in regional productivity over the last 3000 years. Our record provides evidence for different climatic and oceanic conditions with more humid and less productive conditions older than 2500 Cal years BP and drier and more productive conditions younger than 2500 Cal years BP. The last 2500 years also present much stronger centennial-scale variability with the occurrence of six intervals with higher total diatom abundances and stronger percentages in upwelling-related diatom species, representative of intensified productivity, congruent to lower percentages in benthic diatoms, indicative of reduced rainfall. These six periods were synchronous to intervals of enhanced Walker circulation, suggesting a strong imprint of the Pacific zonal circulation on productivity variations off Peru. Our record also demonstrates that SSTs did not vary in phase with productivity, arguing against the idea of regional SSTs controlled by the upwelling intensity, but were rather in agreement to SST records off southern Chile, suggesting that Peruvian SSTs variations were largely controlled by oceanic currents at southern high latitudes.

  10. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  11. Formulation and quality control of semi-solid containing harmless bacteria by-products: chronic wounds pro-healing activity.

    PubMed

    Sesto Cabral, Maria Eugenia; Ramos, Alberto Nicolas; Macedo, Alexandre Jose; Trentin, Danielle S; Treter, Janine; Manzo, Ruben H; Valdez, Juan Carlos

    2014-07-08

    Abstract Chronic wounds are those that remain in a chronic inflammatory state and fail to follow normal healing process. Infection is one of the most important causes of chronicity. A frequent pathogen isolated from chronic infections is Pseudomonas aeruginosa; refractory to therapy and host immune attack in its biofilm phenotype. Lactobacillus plantarum cultures supernatants (LAPS) interfere with its pathogenic capacity. In addition, LAPS showed bacteriostatic and bactericide properties and is neither cytotoxic nor an inductor of necrosis-apoptosis. LAPSs chemical composition was determined; allowing us to propose a correlation between its constituents and their biological activity. This article shows a pharmaceutical dosage form designed by using LAPS as an API with pro-healing activity and its quality control. Pharmacotechnical and anti-microbial assays were adapted to demonstrate that the vehicle used does not modify LAPS activities. Selected formulation (F100) showed fair mechanical and technological properties. From the in vitro release assays was found an adequate release from the carrier matrix and maintains its anti-pathogenic activity for 6 months. We propose F100 for chronic wounds treatment. The use of harmless bacteria by-products, such as LAPS, to antagonize infectious pathogens that have ability to form biofilm is an efficient and economic approach to treat infected chronic wounds.

  12. Comparison of Dissolution Similarity Assessment Methods for Products with Large Variations: f2 Statistics and Model-Independent Multivariate Confidence Region Procedure for Dissolution Profiles of Multiple Oral Products.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Hiroko; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The current Japanese Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare (MHLW)'s Guideline for Bioequivalence Studies of Generic Products uses averaged dissolution rates for the assessment of dissolution similarity between test and reference formulations. This study clarifies how the application of model-independent multivariate confidence region procedure (Method B), described in the European Medical Agency and U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines, affects similarity outcomes obtained empirically from dissolution profiles with large variations in individual dissolution rates. Sixty-one datasets of dissolution profiles for immediate release, oral generic, and corresponding innovator products that showed large variation in individual dissolution rates in generic products were assessed on their similarity by using the f2 statistics defined in the MHLW guidelines (MHLW f2 method) and two different Method B procedures, including a bootstrap method applied with f2 statistics (BS method) and a multivariate analysis method using the Mahalanobis distance (MV method). The MHLW f2 and BS methods provided similar dissolution similarities between reference and generic products. Although a small difference in the similarity assessment may be due to the decrease in the lower confidence interval for expected f2 values derived from the large variation in individual dissolution rates, the MV method provided results different from those obtained through MHLW f2 and BS methods. Analysis of actual dissolution data for products with large individual variations would provide valuable information towards an enhanced understanding of these methods and their possible incorporation in the MHLW guidelines.

  13. Eye irritation of low-irritant cosmetic formulations: correlation of in vitro results with clinical data and product composition.

    PubMed

    Debbasch, Caroline; Ebenhahn, Catherine; Dami, Nadia; Pericoi, Marc; Van den Berghe, Christine; Cottin, Martine; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2005-01-01

    Alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test, such as the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) or the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) tests, are currently used to evaluate the irritant potential of cosmetic or consumer products. Although, for strong irritants, the results of these tests correlate well with those of the Draize test, they appear to be less suited to identify mild irritants. In order to improve the sensitivity of alternative eye irritation tests, we developed a novel method that uses a human corneal epithelial cell line (CEPI), and the endpoints of cytotoxicity and IL-8 release. Twelve make-up removers were assessed by the HET-CAM, BCOP and CEPI tests, as well as in a clinical in-use test under ophthalmological control after their application to the external eye lid. In addition, we investigated the impact of osmolality and raw material composition on in vitro and clinical results and compared the in vitro results with those of clinical studies. Overall, although HET-CAM results were unrelated to eye discomfort and adverse clinical signs, they correlated mainly with the presence and concentration of surfactants in the test articles. BCOP scores were unrelated to clinical signs, but related mainly to glycol and sodium lactate content and concentration in the test articles. Cytotoxicity in CEPI mainly correlated with presence and concentrations of surfactants, and IL-8 release to clinical signs and/or glycol and sodium lactate concentrations. Overall, IL-8 release appeared to be the most sensitive and reliable endpoint to predict human eye tolerance to mildly irritant products. Although our results suggest that the IL-8 assay appears to be a promising screen for borderline-irritant formulations, further experiments are required to confirm and validate these preliminary results.

  14. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory.

  15. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    PubMed

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  16. Formulation and evaluation of an effective pH balanced topical antimicrobial product containing tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Biju, S S; Ahuja, A; Khar, R K; Chaudhry, R

    2005-03-01

    The effect of pH on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil formulations was studied. Microemulsions, liposomal dispersions, multiple emulsions and a colloidal bed of sterile clay were formulated using 5% w/w of tea tree oil. A number of formulations were prepared at various pH values (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0). Thermal stability studies showed that the formulations were stable for more than eight months. Agar dilution tests showed MICs of 1.0% v/v S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In the broth dilution test, MBC of the oil for P. acnes was 0.5% v/v. MIC and MBC values were comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that tea tree oil retained its activity in the above-mentioned formulations. The microbiological evaluation showed that the formulations containing 5% w/w tea tree oil had a maximum effect at pH 5.5.

  17. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions.

  18. A thermodynamic interpretation of Budyko and L'vovich formulations of annual water balance: Proportionality Hypothesis and maximum entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dingbao; Zhao, Jianshi; Tang, Yin; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2015-04-01

    The paper forms part of the search for a thermodynamic explanation for the empirical Budyko Curve, addressing a long-standing research question in hydrology. Here this issue is pursued by invoking the Proportionality Hypothesis underpinning the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method widely used for estimating direct runoff at the event scale. In this case, the Proportionality Hypothesis posits that the ratio of continuing abstraction to its potential value is equal to the ratio of direct runoff to its potential value. Recently, the validity of the Proportionality Hypothesis has been extended to the partitioning of precipitation into runoff and evaporation at the annual time scale as well. In this case, the Proportionality Hypothesis dictates that the ratio of continuing evaporation to its potential value is equal to the ratio of runoff to its potential value. The Budyko Curve could then be seen as the straightforward outcome of the application of the Proportionality Hypothesis to estimate mean annual water balance. In this paper, we go further and demonstrate that the Proportionality Hypothesis itself can be seen as a result of the application of the thermodynamic principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP). In this way, we demonstrate a possible thermodynamic basis for the Proportionality Hypothesis, and consequently for the Budyko Curve. As a further extension, the L'vovich formulation for the two-stage partitioning of annual precipitation is also demonstrated to be a result of MEP: one for the competition between soil wetting and fast flow during the first stage; another for the competition between evaporation and base flow during the second stage.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging phantoms for quality-control of myocardial T1 and ECV mapping: specific formulation, long-term stability and variation with heart rate and temperature.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Heng, Ee Ling; Gatehouse, Peter D; Donovan, Jacqueline; Raphael, Claire E; Giri, Shivraman; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K; Firmin, David N

    2016-09-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantoms are routinely used for quality assurance in MRI centres; however their long term stability for verification of myocardial T1/ extracellular volume fraction (ECV) mapping has never been investigated. Nickel-chloride agarose gel phantoms were formulated in a reproducible laboratory procedure to mimic blood and myocardial T1 and T2 values, native and late after Gadolinium administration as used in T1/ECV mapping. The phantoms were imaged weekly with an 11 heart beat MOLLI sequence for T1 and long TR spin-echo sequences for T2, in a carefully controlled reproducible manner for 12 months. There were only small relative changes seen in all the native and post gadolinium T1 values (up to 9.0 % maximal relative change in T1 values) or phantom ECV (up to 8.3 % maximal relative change of ECV, up to 2.2 % maximal absolute change in ECV) during this period. All native and post gadolinium T2 values remained stable over time with <2 % change. Temperature sensitivity testing showed MOLLI T1 values in the long T1 phantoms increasing by 23.9 ms per degree increase and short T1 phantoms increasing by 0.3 ms per degree increase. There was a small absolute increase in ECV of 0.069 % (~0.22 % relative increase in ECV) per degree increase. Variation in heart rate testing showed a 0.13 % absolute increase in ECV (~0.45 % relative increase in ECV) per 10 heart rate increase. These are the first phantoms reported in the literature modeling T1 and T2 values for blood and myocardium specifically for the T1mapping/ECV mapping application, with stability tested rigorously over a 12 month period. This work has significant implications for the utility of such phantoms in improving the accuracy of serial scans for myocardial tissue characterisation by T1 mapping methods and in multicentre work.

  20. Further studies on the modulation of fossil fuel production by global temperature variations

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, B.W.; Crosby, F.J. )

    1994-01-01

    This study extends the earlier work of Rust and Kirk (1982) on the inverse modulation of global fossil fuel production by variations in Northern Hemispheric temperatures. Recent revisions and extensions of the fuel production record are incorporated and a much improved temperature record in used. The new data are consistent with the predictions of the original Rust-Kirk model which is extended to allow for time lags between variations in the temperature and the corresponding responses in fuel production. The modulation enters the new model through the convolution of a lagged averaging function with the temperature time-series. Explicit terms account for the perturbations caused by the Great Depression and World War II. The final model accounts for 99.84% of the total variance in the production record. The temperature modulation produces variations of as much as 30% in the total production. This modulation represents a feedback which is consistent with the predictions of the Gaia hypothesis for a planetary greenhouse temperature control. The new model calculates 20-y fuel production predictions for three temperature scenarios which hopefully bracket the possibilities for temperature behavior during that time.

  1. Comparative in vitro anti-tick efficacy of commercially available products and newly developed phyto-formulations against field collected and resistant tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ajith Kumar, K G; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S; Srivastava, Sharad; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-12-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is considered as one of the most widely distributed tick species ecto-parasitizing on livestock and causes fatal diseases with significant production loss. To address the problem of controlling acaricide resistant tick infestations on animals, attention has been paid to develop eco-friendly phyto-acaricides. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the comparative anti-tick activities of commercially available herbal and chemical products with chemically characterized phyto-formulations developed recently against field ticks and resistant tick lines of R. (B.) microplus. The chemical product Butox(®) Vet was found nearly passive against all the tested resistant tick lines. However, one of the commercial polyherbal product, Zerokeet(®) showed an efficacy (E%) of 41.8-75.4 % ([Formula: see text]) using recommended dilution (1:2) against field ticks and resistant tick lines. However, the other commercial product, Erina(®) EP has very limited efficacy against all the tested tick. In comparison, the newly developed phyto-formulation, NBA/13/B/2 and NAC-01 conferred an E% of 82.4-91.3 % ([Formula: see text]) and 62.3-94.6 % ([Formula: see text]), respectively, against tested resistant ticks. Results indicated higher marketing potentiality of newly developed formulation in the existing tick problem scenario.

  2. An Application of Variational Theory to an Integrated Walrasian Model of Exchange, Consumption and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, M. B.; Milasi, M.; Vitanza, C.

    2010-09-01

    An existence result of a Walrasian equilibrium for an integrated model of exchange, consumption and production is obtained. The equilibrium model is characterized in terms of a suitable generalized quasi-variational inequality; so the existence result comes from an original technique which takes into account tools of convex and set-valued analysis.

  3. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  4. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Pureswaran, Deepa S; Sullivan, Brian T; Ayres, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  5. Comparison of bioavailability between the most available generic tablet formulation containing artemether and lumefantrine on the Tanzanian market and the innovator’s product

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Existence of anti-malarial generic drugs with low bioavailability marketed on sub-Saharan Africa raises a concern on patients achieving therapeutic concentrations after intake of such products. This work compared bioavailability of one generic tablet formulation with innovator’s product. Both were fixed dose combination tablet formulations containing artemether and lumefantrine. Methodology The study was conducted in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, in which a survey of the most abundant generic containing artemether-lumefantrine tablet formulation was carried out in retail pharmacies. The most widely available generic (Artefan®, Ajanta Pharma Ltd, Maharashtra, India) was sampled for bioavailability comparison with Coartem® (Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland) - the innovator’s product. A randomized, two-treatment cross-over study was conducted in 18 healthy Tanzanian black male volunteers. Each volunteer received Artefan® (test) and Coartem® (as reference) formulation separated by 42 days of drug-free washout period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 168 hours after oral administration of a single dose of each treatment. Quantitation of lumefantrine plasma levels was done using HPLC with UV detection. Bioequivalence of the two products was assessed in accordance with the US Food and Drug Authority (FDA) guidelines. Results The most widely available generic in pharmacies was Artefan® from India. All eighteen enrolled volunteers completed the study and both test and reference tablet formulations were well tolerated. It was possible to quantify lumefantrine alone, therefore, the pharmacokinetic parameters reported herein are for lumefantrine. The geometric mean ratios for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 84% in all cases and within FDA recommended bioequivalence limits of 80% – 125%, but the 90% confidence intervals were outside FDA recommended limits (CI 49–143%, 53 - 137%, 52 - 135% respectively). There were no statistical significant

  6. Formation of amide- and imide-linked degradation products between the peptide drug oxytocin and citrate in citrate-buffered formulations.

    PubMed

    Poole, Robert A; Kasper, Piotr Tomasz; Jiskoot, Wim

    2011-07-01

    Citric acid is widely used to buffer pharmaceutical formulations including protein pharmaceuticals. In accelerated stability studies of the small cyclic peptide oxytocin, we have noted that additional degradation products form when oxytocin is formulated in citrate that do not form in other common buffers such as acetate and phosphate. Using high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified these degradation products as amide- and imide-linked adducts of oxytocin and citrate. The site of reaction was shown to be the N-terminal amine of cysteine. The adducts have been found to form for oxytocin formulated in citrate buffer over the pH range of 3-6; the extent of formation is greatest at a pH of 4-4.5. We have additionally identified these same adducts in samples of oxytocin formulated in citrate buffer that had been stored in the dark for 3 months at room temperature. Altogether, these results demonstrate that reaction between citrate and oxytocin leads to the formation of covalent amide- and imide-linked adducts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  7. Formulation of a Commercial Biosurfactant for Application as a Dispersant of Petroleum and By-Products Spilled in Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Bruno G.; Brito, Juliana G. M.; Brasileiro, Pedro P. F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills in oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harm the coastal populations of affected areas. It is therefore fundamental to develop treatment strategies for such spills. Currently, chemical dispersants have been used during oil spills, although these agents have been increasingly restricted due to their toxic potential. Thus, the aim of the present study was to formulate a biodegradable commercial biosurfactant for application as a dispersant. Biosurfactants are scientifically known biomolecules produced by microorganisms capable of allowing water-oil interaction. Thus, a biosurfactant was produced by the yeast Candida bombicola URM 3718 cultivated in industrial waste and formulated with the addition of a potassium sorbate preservative for fractionated sterilization (tyndallization) and the combination of fluent vaporization with the preservative. After formulation, samples were stored for 120 days, followed by surface tension, emulsification and oil dispersant tests in sea water. The results were promising for the biosurfactant formulated with the preservative, which demonstrated stability and an absence of toxicity in experiments with a marine indicator. The commercial biosurfactant was tested at different pH values, temperatures and in the presence of salt, demonstrating potential industrial application at a cost compatible with the environmental field. The formulation process developed in this research was patented in the Brazilian National Intellectual Property Institute (patent number BR1020140179631). PMID:27803697

  8. Design and quality control of a pharmaceutical formulation containing natural products with antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Adriana A L; Ordoñez, Roxana M; Zampini, Iris C; Isla, María I

    2009-08-13

    The aims of the present study were to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity as well as mutagenicity of Sechium edule fluid extract and to obtain a pharmaceutical formulation with them. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. isolated from clinical samples from two hospitals of Tucuman, Argentina. Non-toxicity and mutagenicity on both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA 100 strains until 100 microg/plate were observed. A hydrogel with carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing S. edule fluid extract as antibacterial, antimycotic and antioxidant agent was obtained. Microbiological, physical and functional stability of pharmaceutical formulation conserved at room temperature for 1 year were determined. Addition of antioxidant preservatives to store the pharmaceutical formulation was not necessary. The semisolid system showed antimicrobial activity against all gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi assayed. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 20 to 800 microg/mL. Its activity was compared with a pharmaceutical formulation containing commercial antibiotic and antifungal. A pseudoplastic behavior and positive thixotropy were observed. Our current finding shows an antimicrobial activity of hydrogel containing S. edule extract on a large range of gram negative and gram positive multi-resistant bacteria and fungi. This topical formulation may be used as antimycotic and as antibacterial in cutaneous infections.

  9. Explaining maximum variation in productivity requires phylogenetic diversity and single functional traits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Xinxin; Song, Feifan; Zhou, Shurong; Cadotte, Marc W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-01-01

    Many community experiments have shown a positive relationship between plant biodiversity and community productivity, with biodiversity measured in multiple ways based on taxonomy, function, and phylogeny. Whether these different measures of biodiversity and their interactions explain variation in productivity in natural assemblages has rarely been tested. In a removal experiment using natural alpine assemblages in the Tibetan Plateau, we manipulated species richness and functional diversity to examine how different measures of biodiversity predict aboveground biomass production. We combined different biodiversity measures (functional, phylogenetic, richness, evenness) in generalized linear models to determine which combinations provided the most parsimonious explanations of variation in biomass production. Although multivariate functional diversity indices alone consistently explained more variation in productivity than other single measures, phylogenetic diversity and plant height represented the most parsimonious combination. In natural assemblages, single metrics alone cannot fully explain ecosystem function. Instead, a combination of phylogenetic diversity and traits with weak or no phylogenetic signal is required to explain the effects of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function.

  10. Evolutionary and ecological consequences of multiscale variation in pollen receipt for seed production.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Sebastian J; Rosenheim, Jay A; Williams, Neal W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability can select for traits that reduce the negative impacts of this variability on mean fitness. Such selection may be particularly potent for seed production in flowering plants, as they often experience variation in pollen receipt among individuals and among flowers within individuals. Using analytically tractable models, we examine the optimal allocations for producing ovules, attracting pollen, and maturing seeds in deterministic and stochastic pollen environments. In deterministic environments, the optimal strategy attracts sufficient pollen to fertilize every ovule and mature every zygote into a seed. Stochastic environments select for allocations proportional to the risk of seed production being limited by zygotes or seed maturation. When producing an ovule is cheap and maturing a seed is expensive, among-plant variation selects for attracting more pollen at the expense of producing fewer ovules and having fewer resources for seed maturation. Despite this increased allocation, such populations are likely to be pollen limited. In contrast, within-plant variation generally selects for an overproduction of ovules and, to a lesser extent, pollen attraction. Such populations are likely to be resource limited and exhibit low seed-to-ovule ratios. These results highlight the importance of multiscale variation in the evolution and ecology of resource allocations.

  11. Longitudinal and depth variation of bacterioplankton productivity and related factors in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peierls, Benjamin L.; Paerl, Hans W.

    2011-11-01

    Bacterioplankton productivity (BP) spatial variation was investigated in relation to potential resources, including primary productivity and dissolved organic matter, in the micro-tidal Neuse River-Pamlico Sound estuarine system, North Carolina, USA. Estuarine BP was predicted to correlate with the trophic gradient, decreasing along the salinity gradient in parallel with the decrease in organic matter and primary productivity. This prediction was tested over four years at spatial scales ranging from kilometers to meters along the riverine axis and with depth. The general pattern of BP across the salinity gradient was unimodal and matched the phytoplankton patterns in peak location and variability. Peak locations varied with discharge, especially in 2003 when above average discharge moved peaks downstream. Spatial coherence of BP with other variables was much less at short time scales. The effect of temperature, nutrients, and phytoplankton on BP varied by location, especially fresh versus brackish stations, although only temperature explained more than 20% of the BP variation. Depth variation of BP was as great as longitudinal variation and bottom samples were often higher than surface. BP was strongly correlated with particulate organic carbon at the pycnocline and bottom, highlighting the importance of particulate matter as a resource. Station-averaged BP and phytoplankton data corresponded well with two published meta-analyses, although the offset of the freshwater station suggested longitudinal differences in community composition or resource availability.

  12. Transitioning from brand to generic with topical products and the importance of maintaining the formulation and therapeutic profiles of the original product: focus on clocortolone pivalate 0.1% cream.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2014-07-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are a major part of the foundation of treatment for a wide variety of eczematous and inflammatory skin disorders in both adults and children. Mid-potency TCSs represent an important category as they are often used to treat eczematous dermatoses, such as atopic dermatitis. The TCS product must effectively release the active ingredient and promote cutaneous penetration so that therapeutic activity can occur. As many topical products eventually become available as generic formulations, it is important to recognize that although the active ingredient and its concentration are the same, the vehicle excipients may differ significantly, occasionally leading to potential differences in irritancy, in allergenicity, in effects on epidermal permeability barrier function, and, possibly, in efficacy. Clocortolone pivalate 0.1% cream is a mid-potency TCS formulated in an emollient formulation that has been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in the management of several corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses. This article outlines the pharmacologic and clinical data achieved with the original brand formulation of clocortolone pivalate 0.1% cream, and discusses the establishment of an authorized generic formulation that is identical in formulation to the original brand.

  13. Modelling natural grass production and its spatio-temporal variations in a semiarid Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Susanne; Lozano-Parra, Javier; Maneta-López, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Natural grasses are found in semiarid rangelands with disperse tree cover of part of the Iberian Peninsula and constitute a resource with high ecologic and economic value worth, being an important source of food for livestock, playing a significant role in the hydrologic cycle, controlling the soil thermal regime, and are a key factor in reducing soil erosion and degradation. However, increasing pressure on the resources, changes in land use as well as possible climate variations threaten the sustainability of natural grasses. Despite of their importance, the spatio-temporal variations of pasture production over whole watersheds are poorly known. In this sense, previous studies by other authors have indicated its dependence on a balance of positive and negative effects brought about by the main limiting factors: water, light, nutrients and space. Nevertheless, the specific weight of each factor is not clear because they are highly variable due to climate characteristics and the structure of these agroforestry systems. We have used a physical spatially-distributed ecohydrologic model to investigate the specific weight of factors that contribute to pasture production in a semiarid watershed of 99.5 ha in western Spain. This model couples a two layer (canopy and understory) vertical local closure energy balance scheme, a hydrologic model and a carbon uptake and vegetation growth component, and it was run using a synthetic daily climate dataset generated by a stochastic weather generator, which reproduced the range of climatic variations observed under mediterranean current climate. The modelling results reproduced satisfactorily the seasonality effects of climate as precipitation and temperatures, as well as annual and inter-annual variations of pasture production. Spatial variations of pasture production were largely controlled by topographic and tree effects, showing medium-low values depending of considered areas. These low values require introduction of feed to

  14. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  15. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  16. Submerged Culture of a Mycelial Formulation of a Bioherbicidal Strain of Myrothecium verrucaria with Mitigated Mycotoxin Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361390) was shown to be highly efficacious in controlling the exotic invasive weed kudzu. The mycelium can be rapidly (48 h) produced in several media including soy flour-cornmeal medium. HPLC analyses revealed that the mycelial formu...

  17. Quality by Design approach for studying the impact of formulation and process variables on product quality of oral disintegrating films.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Sonal; Pavurala, Naresh; Manda, Prashanth; Xu, Xiaoming; Cruz, Celia N; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R

    2017-07-15

    The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of formulation and process variables on the quality of oral disintegrating films (ODF) using Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Lamotrigine (LMT) was used as a model drug. Formulation variable was plasticizer to film former ratio and process variables were drying temperature, air flow rate in the drying chamber, drying time and wet coat thickness of the film. A Definitive Screening Design of Experiments (DoE) was used to identify and classify the critical formulation and process variables impacting critical quality attributes (CQA). A total of 14 laboratory-scale DoE formulations were prepared and evaluated for mechanical properties (%elongation at break, yield stress, Young's modulus, folding endurance) and other CQA (dry thickness, disintegration time, dissolution rate, moisture content, moisture uptake, drug assay and drug content uniformity). The main factors affecting mechanical properties were plasticizer to film former ratio and drying temperature. Dissolution rate was found to be sensitive to air flow rate during drying and plasticizer to film former ratio. Data were analyzed for elucidating interactions between different variables, rank ordering the critical materials attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP), and for providing a predictive model for the process. Results suggested that plasticizer to film former ratio and process controls on drying are critical to manufacture LMT ODF with the desired CQA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Product and process understanding to relate the effect of freezing method on glycation and aggregation of lyophilized monoclonal antibody formulations.

    PubMed

    Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Read, Erik K; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-07-25

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of controlled and uncontrolled freezing step of a lyophilization process on the extent of non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of an IgG1 formulation at two concentrations (1mg/ml and 20mg/ml). The degree of glycation (%) was determined through boronate affinity chromatography and its effect on the formation of soluble aggregates and higher molecular weight species was studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS). The effect of non-enzymatic glycation on the secondary structure of the formulations was also studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that controlled nucleation yielded higher residual moisture contents and significantly lower specific surface areas for the two monoclonal antibody concentrations compared with uncontrolled nucleation cycle (p<0.05). For the two concentrations, uncontrolled nucleation resulted in significantly higher levels of glycation compared with controlled nucleation samples (p<0.05). Further, it was observed that higher storage temperatures (25°C/60% RH) versus 5°C resulted in higher glycation. Even though SEC-MALS analyses of the low concentrated formulations did not reveal the formation of higher molecular weight species, DLS analyses at two storage conditions revealed increases in the hydrodynamic radii and polydispersity index of the reconstituted formulations, suggesting the onset of formation of smaller species in the formulations. CD spectroscopy did not reveal any differences in the secondary structure of the mAb for the two concentrations after lyophilization. In conclusion, the freezing step method impacted the extent of glycation in lyophilized samples and the hydrolyzed component of sucrose was critical for increasing glycation. Even though some level of glycation was observed in lyophilized samples, the

  19. Application of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Product Life Cycle Management. A Case Study with a Carbidopa-Levodopa Extended-Release Formulation.

    PubMed

    Modi, Nishit B

    2017-01-24

    Increasing costs in discovering and developing new molecular entities and the continuing debate on limited company pipelines mean that pharmaceutical companies are under significant pressure to maximize the value of approved products. Life cycle management in the context of drug development comprises activities to maximize the effective life of a product. Life cycle approaches can involve new formulations, new routes of delivery, new indications or expansion of the population for whom the product is indicated, or development of combination products. Life cycle management may provide an opportunity to improve upon the current product through enhanced efficacy or reduced side effects and could expand the therapeutic market for the product. Successful life cycle management may include the potential for superior efficacy, improved tolerability, or a better prescriber or patient acceptance. Unlike generic products where bioequivalence to an innovator product may be sufficient for drug approval, life cycle management typically requires a series of studies to characterize the value of the product. This review summarizes key considerations in identifying product candidates that may be suitable for life cycle management and discusses the application of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in developing new products using a life cycle management approach. Examples and a case study to illustrate how pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics contributed to the selection of dosing regimens, demonstration of an improved therapeutic effect, or regulatory approval of an improved product label are presented.

  20. An enumerative technique for modeling wind power variations in production costing

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.R.; Graham, M.S.

    1997-04-01

    Production cost, generation expansion, and reliability models are used extensively by utilities in the planning process. Most models do not provide adequate means for representing the full range of potential variation in wind power plants. In order to properly account for expected variation in wind-generated electricity with these models, the authors describe an enumerated probabilistic approach that is performed outside the production cost model, compare it with a reduced enumerated approach, and present some selected utility results. The technique can be applied to any model, and can considerably reduce the number of model runs as compared to the full enumerated approach. They use both a load duration curve model and a chronological model to measure wind plant capacity credit, and also present some other selected results.

  1. Solar neutrino production of long-lived isotopes and secular variations in the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.; Cowan, G.A.

    1980-11-21

    Long-lived isotopes produced in the earth's crust by solar neutrinos may provide a method of probing secular variations in the rate of energy production in the sun's core. Only one isotope, calcium-41, appears to be suitable from the dual standpoints of reliable nuclear physics and manageable backgrounds. The proposed measurement also may be interesting in view of recent evidence for neutrino oscillations.

  2. The use of linear programming to determine whether a formulated complementary food product can ensure adequate nutrients for 6- to 11-month-old Cambodian infants.

    PubMed

    Skau, Jutta K H; Bunthang, Touch; Chamnan, Chhoun; Wieringa, Frank T; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Roos, Nanna; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2014-01-01

    A new software tool, Optifood, developed by the WHO and based on linear programming (LP) analysis, has been developed to formulate food-based recommendations. This study discusses the use of Optifood for predicting whether formulated complementary food (CF) products can ensure dietary adequacy for target populations in Cambodia. Dietary data were collected by 24-h recall in a cross-sectional survey of 6- to 11-mo-old infants (n = 78). LP model parameters were derived from these data, including a list of foods, median serving sizes, and dietary patterns. Five series of LP analyses were carried out to model the target population's baseline diet and 4 formulated CF products [WinFood (WF), WinFood-Lite (WF-L), Corn-Soy-Blend Plus (CSB+), and Corn-Soy-Blend Plus Plus (CSB++)], which were added to the diet in portions of 33 g/d dry weight (DW) for infants aged 6-8 mo and 40 g/d DW for infants aged 9-11 mo. In each series of analyses, the nutritionally optimal diet and theoretical range, in diet nutrient contents, were determined. The LP analysis showed that baseline diets could not achieve the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, and zinc (range: 14-91% of RNI in the optimal diets) and that none of the formulated CF products could cover the nutrient gaps for thiamin, niacin, iron, and folate (range: 22-86% of the RNI). Iron was the key limiting nutrient, for all modeled diets, achieving a maximum of only 48% of the RNI when CSB++ was included in the diet. Only WF and WF-L filled the nutrient gap for calcium. WF-L, CSB+, and CSB++ filled the nutrient gap for zinc (9- to 11-mo-olds). The formulated CF products improved the nutrient adequacy of complementary feeding diets but could not entirely cover the nutrient gaps. These results emphasize the value of using LP to evaluate special CF products during the intervention planning phase. The WF study was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN19918531.

  3. Seasonal variation of chemical composition and biomethane production from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-09-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum, an abundant Irish brown seaweed, shows significant seasonal variation in chemical composition and biogas production. The polyphenol content is shown to be a more important factor in biogas production than ash content. High polyphenol content in summer months adversely affected biogas production; suggesting two potential harvest dates, March and October. A. nodosum harvested in October showed a relatively low level of polyphenols (2% of TS) and ash (23% of volatile solids), and exhibited a specific methane yield of 215LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 44% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per wet weight of 47m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in October, which is 2.9 times higher than the lowest value (16m(3)CH4t(-1)), obtained in December. The gross energy yield of A. nodosum based on the optimal biogas production can achieve 116GJha(-1)yr(-1) in October.

  4. Comparison of hydrophilic variation and bioethanol production of furfural residues after delignification pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingxi; Tang, Yong; Xing, Yang; Zhang, Weiming; Shang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Furfural residue (FR) is a waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol production from FR after delignification was compared. Hydrophilic variation was measured by conductometric titration to detect the relationship between hydrophilicity and bioethanol production. It was found that ethanol yield increased as delignification enhanced, and it reached up to 75.6% of theoretical yield for samples with 8.7% lignin. The amount of by-products decreased as delignification increased. New inflection points appeared in conductometric titration curves of samples that were partially delignified, but they vanished in the curves of the highly delignified samples. Total charges and carboxyl levels increased after slight delignification, and they decreased upon further delignification. These phenomena suggested some new hydrophilic groups were formed during pretreated delignification, which would be beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, some newly formed groups may act as toxicant to the yeast during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

  5. Proficiency test for chemical laboratories for the analysis of a pesticide in a formulated product: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Doyeli; Rani, Anita

    2009-01-01

    A multilaboratory proficiency testing program was conducted by the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (India) and coordinated by the Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology. This program was conducted to compare the performance of individual laboratories in the area of pesticide formulation (Chlorpyrifos 20 EC) analysis. A total of 24 laboratories in India participated. Analysis of 2 parameters (i.e., estimation of the active ingredient and the acidity) of 2 samples of Chlorpyrifos 20 EC was the objective of this program. Homogeneity tests were performed before sample distribution. Performance of the participating laboratories was evaluated by using new robust statistics given in the guidelines of the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia. Results were collated and statistically computed to calculate the value of 2 types of Z-scores (Zwi and Zbi). In addition to the statistical analysis, a graphical representation such as the Youden plot was also generated to evaluate the performance of participating laboratories.

  6. The steady-state serum concentration of genistein aglycone is affected by formulation: a bioequivalence study of bone products.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandra; Burnett, Bruce P; Polito, Francesca; Russo, Silvia; D'Anna, Rosario; Pillai, Lakshmi; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Levy, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    An FDA-regulated, prescription medical food (Fosteum; 27 mg natural genistein, 200 IU cholecalciferol, 20 mg citrated zinc bisglycinate (4 mg elemental zinc) per capsule) and an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement (Citracal Plus Bone Density Builder; 27 mg synthetic genistein, 600 mg elemental calcium (calcium citrate), 400 IU vitamin D3, 50 mg magnesium, 7.5 mg zinc, 1 mg copper, 75 μ g molybdenum, 250 μ g boron per two tablets) were compared to a clinically proven bone formulation (27 mg natural genistein, 400 IU cholecalciferol, 500 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) per tablet; the Squadrito formulation) in an 8-day steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 30) randomized to receive 54 mg of genistein per day. Trough serum samples were obtained before the final dose on the morning of the ninth day followed by sampling at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hrs. Total serum genistein, after β -glucuronidase/sulfatase digestion, was measured by time-resolved fluorometric assay. Maximal time (Tmax), concentration (Cmax), half-life (T1/2), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined for genistein in each formulation. Fosteum and the Squadrito study formulation were equivalent for genistein Tmax (2 hrs), Cmax (0.7 μM), T1/2 (18 ± 6.9 versus 21 ± 4.9 hrs), and AUC (9221 ± 413 versus 9818 ± 1370 ng·hr/mL). The OTC supplement's synthetically derived genistein, however, showed altered Tmax (6 hrs), Cmax (0.57 μ M), T1/2 (8.3 ± 1.9 hrs), and AUC (6474 ± 287 ng·hr/mL). Differences in uptake may be due to multiple ingredients in the OTC supplement which interfere with genistein absorption.

  7. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures.

  8. Model-based evaluation of similarity in pharmacokinetics of two formulations of the blood-derived plasma product c1 esterase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Ron J; Budde, Ilona Kleine; Sprengers, Paul F W; Levi, M; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2012-02-01

    A novel formulation of C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate, a plasma product used in the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE), was studied in a clinical trial for similarity in pharmacokinetics (PK) compared with the reference product. Direct trial data were limited given the availability of patients, and therefore a modeling approach was used to study similarity. Type I error of the study was evaluated using simulations based on retrospective data. A population PK modeling analysis was performed on data from the trial. Analysis of variance was carried out on results of a noncompartmental PK analysis (NCA) of the clinical data. Simulations showed that type I error was inflated to 62% (P < .05) when bioequivalence criteria (confidence intervals within 80%-125%) were adhered to strictly. In the clinical trial, 13 HAE patients were evaluable. The population PK analysis showed no significant differences in PK parameters, whereas confidence intervals for all parameters were within 80% to 125%. The relative differences in area under the curve, incremental recovery, and mean residence time estimated using NCA were all close to 1. The novel formulation showed similar PK characteristics to the original formulation. The model-based approach showed that strict criteria for PK comparison could not be applied in this analysis.

  9. Inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α and NO production in mouse macrophage and inflammatory response in rat animal models by a novel Ayurvedic formulation, BV-9238.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debendranath; Chaskar, Sunetra; Athavale, Nitin; Chitre, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic crippling disease, where protein-based tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors show significant relief, but with potentially fatal side effects. A need for a safe, oral, cost-effective small molecule or phyto-pharmaceutical is warranted. BV-9238 is an Ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing specialized standardized extracts of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa. The anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 were evaluated for inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated, RAW 264.7, mouse macrophage cell line. BV-9238 reduced TNF-α and NO production, without any cytotoxic effects. Subsequently, the formulation was tested in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) and carrageenan-induced paw edema (CPE) rat animal models. AIA was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant intra-dermally in the paw, and BV-9238 and controls were administered orally for 21 days. Arthritic scores in AIA study and inflamed paw volume in CPE study were significantly reduced upon treatment with BV-9238. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 are due to its inhibition of TNF-α, and NO, and this formulation shows promise as an alternate therapy for inflammatory disorders where TNF-α and NO play important roles.

  10. Variation of Evaporation Across a Corn-Soybean Production Region in Central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J. L.; Kustas, W. P.

    2003-12-01

    Evaporation from production corn-soybean surfaces is often assumed to be uniform across a regional extent such as the Upper Midwest in the U.S.; however, there are few direct measurements of the spatial and temporal variation of evaporation to support this assumption. During a soil moisture remote sensing study in the summer of 2002 (SMEX02), fourteen energy balance stations complete with net radiometers, soil heat flux plates, a three-dimensional sonic anemometer, and fast response CO2-H2O sensors (eddy covariance) were deployed across an 25-kilometer corn-soybean production watershed in central Iowa south of Ames, Iowa. Data were collected beginning in mid-May through August and summarized into half-hourly and daily intervals. Two intercomparisons of all eddy covariance systems were conducted, one prior to the SMEX02 study (May 2002) over an alfalfa field and one after the study over a grass surface in August (2002). The coefficient of variation among the eddy covariance instruments was less than 7%. Latent heat flux values among corn and soybean fields that were greater than 7% were considered to be real differences in evaporation among fields. Diurnal differences in net radiation and latent heat fluxes were evident among both corn and soybean fields and when seasonal totals were evaluated the differences persisted. Variation in latent heat flux among corn and soybeans was attributed to soil type, water availability and spatial variation of precipitation across the watershed. The results from fourteen eddy covariance stations provide a measure of the spatial variation in latent heat flux across a region that is considered to be relatively homogenous. This information will aid in evaluating regional evaporation models.

  11. Advanced protein formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that protein product development is far more challenging than that for small-molecule drugs. The major challenges include inherent sensitivity to different types of stresses during the drug product manufacturing process, high rate of physical and chemical degradation during long-term storage, and enhanced aggregation and/or viscosity at high protein concentrations. In the past decade, many novel formulation concepts and technologies have been or are being developed to address these product development challenges for proteins. These concepts and technologies include use of uncommon/combination of formulation stabilizers, conjugation or fusion with potential stabilizers, site-specific mutagenesis, and preparation of nontraditional types of dosage forms—semiaqueous solutions, nonfreeze-dried solid formulations, suspensions, and other emerging concepts. No one technology appears to be mature, ideal, and/or adequate to address all the challenges. These gaps will likely remain in the foreseeable future and need significant efforts for ultimate resolution. PMID:25858529

  12. Aftershock productivity of large megathrust earthquakes: regional variations and influence of mainshock source parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzler, N.; Brodsky, E. E.; Lay, T.

    2016-12-01

    On average, the number of aftershocks increases with mainshock magnitude following a well-defined relationship for any given region. However, variability around this average relationship provokes important questions. What regional variations exist? How do other mainshock properties such as stress drop affect aftershock productivity? To address these issues we focus on variations of aftershock productivity of large (MW ≥ 7.0) circum-Pacific megathrust earthquakes within the past 25 years. We capitalize on an extant set of finite-fault rupture model inversions to investigate how aftershock productivity varies regionally and with aftershock source parameters. We find aftershock productivity to be higher for islands arcs of the western circum-Pacific than for continental arcs of the eastern circum-Pacific. Surprisingly, events with larger static stress-drops do not produce more aftershocks than those with smaller stress drops. If anything, larger static stress-drops tend to produce fewer aftershocks than comparable magnitude events with lower stress-drop. The regional trend may reflect differences in fault susceptibility between island arcs and continental arcs, and the stress-drop behavior may imply near-total stress release for the largest stress drop events.

  13. Uncertainties in the production of p nuclei in massive stars obtained from Monte Carlo variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, T.; Nishimura, N.; Hirschi, R.; Cescutti, G.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Heger, A.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear data uncertainties in the production of p nuclei in massive stars have been quantified in a Monte Carlo procedure. Bespoke temperature-dependent uncertainties were assigned to different types of reactions involving nuclei from Fe to Bi. Their simultaneous impact was studied in post-processing explosive trajectories for three different stellar models. It was found that the grid of mass zones in the model of a 25 M⊙ star, which is widely used for investigations of p nucleosynthesis, is too crude to properly resolve the detailed temperature changes required for describing the production of p nuclei. Using models with finer grids for 15 and 25 M⊙ stars with initial solar metallicity, it was found that most of the production uncertainties introduced by nuclear reaction uncertainties are smaller than a factor of 2. Since a large number of rates were varied at the same time in the Monte Carlo procedure, possible cancellation effects of several uncertainties could be taken into account. Key rates were identified for each p nucleus, which provide the dominant contribution to the production uncertainty. These key rates were found by examining correlations between rate variations and resulting abundance changes. This method is superior to studying flow patterns, especially when the flows are complex, and to individual, sequential variation of a few rates.

  14. Biomass rather than growth rate determines variation in net primary production by giant kelp.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Arkema, Katie K

    2008-09-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is influenced by disturbance-driven fluctuations in foliar standing crop (FSC) and resource-driven fluctuations in rates of recruitment and growth, yet most studies of NPP have focused primarily on factors influencing growth. We quantified NPP, FSC, recruitment, and growth rate for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, at three kelp forests in southern California, U.S.A., over a 54-month period and determined the relative roles of FSC, recruitment, and growth rate in contributing to variation in annual NPP. Net primary production averaged between 0.42 and 2.38 kg dry mass x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the three sites. The initial FSC present at the beginning of the growth year and the recruitment of new plants during the year explained 63% and 21% of the interannual variation observed in NPP, respectively. The previous year's NPP and disturbance from waves collectively accounted for 80% of the interannual variation in initial FSC. No correlation was found between annual growth rate (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit of existing kelp mass) and annual NPP (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit area of ocean bottom), largely because annual growth rate was consistent compared to initial FSC and recruitment, which fluctuated greatly among years and sites. Although growth rate was a poor predictor of variation in annual NPP, it was principally responsible for the high mean values observed for NPP by Macrocystis. These high mean values reflected rapid growth (average of approximately 2% per day) of a relatively small standing crop (maximum annual mean = 444 g dry mass/m2) that replaced itself approximately seven times per year. Disturbance-driven variability in FSC may be generally important in explaining variation in NPP, yet it is rarely examined because cycles of disturbance and recovery occur over timescales of decades or more in many systems. Considerable insight into how variation in FSC drives variation in NPP may

  15. Spatial Variation of Pressure in the Lyophilization Product Chamber Part 1: Computational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Arnab; Varma, Nikhil; Sane, Pooja; Bogner, Robin; Pikal, Michael; Alexeenko, Alina

    2017-04-01

    The flow physics in the product chamber of a freeze dryer involves coupled heat and mass transfer at different length and time scales. The low-pressure environment and the relatively small flow velocities make it difficult to quantify the flow structure experimentally. The current work presents the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling for vapor flow in a laboratory scale freeze dryer validated with experimental data and theory. The model accounts for the presence of a non-condensable gas such as nitrogen or air using a continuum multi-species model. The flow structure at different sublimation rates, chamber pressures, and shelf-gaps are systematically investigated. Emphasis has been placed on accurately predicting the pressure variation across the subliming front. At a chamber set pressure of 115 mtorr and a sublimation rate of 1.3 kg/h/m(2), the pressure variation reaches about 9 mtorr. The pressure variation increased linearly with sublimation rate in the range of 0.5 to 1.3 kg/h/m(2). The dependence of pressure variation on the shelf-gap was also studied both computationally and experimentally. The CFD modeling results are found to agree within 10% with the experimental measurements. The computational model was also compared to analytical solution valid for small shelf-gaps. Thus, the current work presents validation study motivating broader use of CFD in optimizing freeze-drying process and equipment design.

  16. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance. PMID:26323882

  17. Variation with semilunar periodicity of plasma steroid hormone production in the mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Hong, Wanshu; Chen, Shixi; Zhang, Qiyong

    2008-02-01

    Variation in the production of the plasma steroid hormones E(2), 17alpha-OHP and T in females and T and 11-KT in males, was investigated in the mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris during the spawning season. Females with oocytes at the vitellogenic stage (GSI 5.97-6.86%) and mature males with GSI of 0.255-0.288% were collected at intervals of 3-4 days within the two complete semilunar cycles from May 31 to June 30, 2006. The results showed that variations in the levels of plasma steroid hormones were synchronized obviously with semilunar periodicity in both females and males. Each steroid hormone level exhibited two cycles, each cycle with a peak. In females, the first peaks in plasma E(2), 17alpha-OHP and T levels were observed 3 days after the first lunar quarter, and the second ones, 4 days after the last lunar quarter. In males, the first peaks of plasma T and 11-KT levels occurred 3 days after the first lunar quarter, and the second ones, at the last lunar quarter. The fact that, in the present study, changes in the levels of plasma steroid hormones were synchronized with semilunar periodicity, although the fish were at the same stages of gonadal development, suggests that variation of plasma steroid hormones is basically regulated by biological rhythms (Zeitgebers), and that tidal movement (with its semilunar periodicity) is the major environmental factor stimulating steroid hormone production in B. pectinirostris.

  18. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Rooney, William L; Mullet, John E

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance.

  19. Inter- and intra-annual variations of clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liming; Liu, Jane; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Wang, Rong; Sprintsin, Michael; Zheng, Ting; Ryu, Youngryel; Pisek, Jan; Gonsamo, Alemu; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Clumping index quantifies the level of foliage aggregation, relative to a random distribution, and is a key structural parameter of plant canopies and is widely used in ecological and meteorological models. In this study, the inter- and intra-annual variations in clumping index values, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product, are investigated at six forest sites, including conifer forests, a mixed deciduous forest and an oak-savanna system. We find that the clumping index displays large seasonal variation, particularly for the deciduous sites, with the magnitude in clumping index values at each site comparable on an intra-annual basis, and the seasonality of clumping index well captured after noise removal. For broadleaved and mixed forest sites, minimum clumping index values are usually found during the season when leaf area index is at its maximum. The magnitude of MODIS clumping index is validated by ground data collected from 17 sites. Validation shows that the MODIS clumping index can explain 75% of variance in measured values (bias = 0.03 and rmse = 0.08), although with a narrower amplitude in variation. This study suggests that the MODIS BRDF product has the potential to produce good seasonal trajectories of clumping index values, but with an improved estimation of background reflectance.

  20. Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, Winifred

    2005-04-01

    In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  1. Variations in Amazon forest productivity correlated with foliar nutrients and modelled rates of photosynthetic carbon supply.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Lina M; Patiño, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Weedon, Graham P; Sitch, Stephen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dolman, A J; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R; Baker, Timothy R; Almeida, Samuel; Higuchi, Niro; Lloyd, Jon

    2011-11-27

    The rate of above-ground woody biomass production, W(P), in some western Amazon forests exceeds those in the east by a factor of 2 or more. Underlying causes may include climate, soil nutrient limitations and species composition. In this modelling paper, we explore the implications of allowing key nutrients such as N and P to constrain the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, and also we examine the relationship between modelled rates of photosynthesis and the observed gradients in W(P). We use a model with current understanding of the underpinning biochemical processes as affected by nutrient availability to assess: (i) the degree to which observed spatial variations in foliar [N] and [P] across Amazonia affect stand-level photosynthesis; and (ii) how these variations in forest photosynthetic carbon acquisition relate to the observed geographical patterns of stem growth across the Amazon Basin. We find nutrient availability to exert a strong effect on photosynthetic carbon gain across the Basin and to be a likely important contributor to the observed gradient in W(P). Phosphorus emerges as more important than nitrogen in accounting for the observed variations in productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of future tropical forests under a changing climate.

  2. Variations in Amazon forest productivity correlated with foliar nutrients and modelled rates of photosynthetic carbon supply

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Lina M.; Patiño, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F.; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Weedon, Graham P.; Sitch, Stephen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver L.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dolman, A. J.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R.; Baker, Timothy R.; Almeida, Samuel; Higuchi, Niro; Lloyd, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The rate of above-ground woody biomass production, WP, in some western Amazon forests exceeds those in the east by a factor of 2 or more. Underlying causes may include climate, soil nutrient limitations and species composition. In this modelling paper, we explore the implications of allowing key nutrients such as N and P to constrain the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, and also we examine the relationship between modelled rates of photosynthesis and the observed gradients in WP. We use a model with current understanding of the underpinning biochemical processes as affected by nutrient availability to assess: (i) the degree to which observed spatial variations in foliar [N] and [P] across Amazonia affect stand-level photosynthesis; and (ii) how these variations in forest photosynthetic carbon acquisition relate to the observed geographical patterns of stem growth across the Amazon Basin. We find nutrient availability to exert a strong effect on photosynthetic carbon gain across the Basin and to be a likely important contributor to the observed gradient in WP. Phosphorus emerges as more important than nitrogen in accounting for the observed variations in productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of future tropical forests under a changing climate. PMID:22006971

  3. Experimental Study of Hydroxy Gas (HHO) Production with Variation in Current, Voltage and Electrolyte Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Noor; Pandey, K. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, work has been carried out experimentally for the investigation of the effects of variation incurrent, voltage, temperature, chemical concentration and reaction time on the amount of hydroxy gas produced. Further effects on the overall electrolysis efficiency of advance alkaline water is also studied. The hydroxy gas (HHO) has been produced experimentally by the electrolysis of alkaline water with parallel plate electrode of 316L-grade stainless steel. The electrode has been selected on the basis of corrosion resistance and inertness with respect to electrolyte (KOH). The process used for the production of HHO is conventional as compared to the other production processes because of reduced energy consumption, less maintenance and low setup cost. From the experimental results, it has been observed that with increase in voltage, temperature and electrolyte concentration of alkaline solution, the production of hydroxy gas has increased about 30 to 40% with reduction in electrical energy consumption.

  4. The Steady-State Serum Concentration of Genistein Aglycone Is Affected by Formulation: A Bioequivalence Study of Bone Products

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandra; Burnett, Bruce P.; Polito, Francesca; Russo, Silvia; D'Anna, Rosario; Pillai, Lakshmi; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Levy, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    An FDA-regulated, prescription medical food (Fosteum; 27 mg natural genistein, 200 IU cholecalciferol, 20 mg citrated zinc bisglycinate (4 mg elemental zinc) per capsule) and an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement (Citracal Plus Bone Density Builder; 27 mg synthetic genistein, 600 mg elemental calcium (calcium citrate), 400 IU vitamin D3, 50 mg magnesium, 7.5 mg zinc, 1 mg copper, 75 μg molybdenum, 250 μg boron per two tablets) were compared to a clinically proven bone formulation (27 mg natural genistein, 400 IU cholecalciferol, 500 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) per tablet; the Squadrito formulation) in an 8-day steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 30) randomized to receive 54 mg of genistein per day. Trough serum samples were obtained before the final dose on the morning of the ninth day followed by sampling at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hrs. Total serum genistein, after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase digestion, was measured by time-resolved fluorometric assay. Maximal time (Tmax), concentration (Cmax), half-life (T1/2), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined for genistein in each formulation. Fosteum and the Squadrito study formulation were equivalent for genistein Tmax (2 hrs), Cmax (0.7 μM), T1/2 (18 ± 6.9 versus 21 ± 4.9 hrs), and AUC (9221 ± 413 versus 9818 ± 1370 ng·hr/mL). The OTC supplement's synthetically derived genistein, however, showed altered Tmax (6 hrs), Cmax (0.57 μM), T1/2 (8.3 ± 1.9 hrs), and AUC (6474 ± 287 ng·hr/mL). Differences in uptake may be due to multiple ingredients in the OTC supplement which interfere with genistein absorption. PMID:23484100

  5. Case study of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions and factors influencing emission variations in secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Chen; Li, Li; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-04-09

    Secondary aluminum production has been recognized as an important source of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Large variations in PCN emissions as the smelting process proceeds have not been determined. In this study, solid and gaseous discharges, including fly ash, slag, and stack gas samples collected from four secondary smelting plants during different smelting stages were analyzed for PCNs. The average emission factor of ∑(1-8)PCNs to air was calculated to be 17.4 mg t(-1), with a range of 4.3-29.5 mg t(-1). The average emission factors of ∑(1-8)PCNs from fly ash and slag were 55.5 ng t(-1) and 0.13 ng t(-1), respectively. The derived emission factors may enable a more accurate estimation of annual emissions and a more comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of PCNs emitted from secondary aluminum production. The emission levels and characteristics of PCNs during different smelting stages were compared. Possible factors, including the organic impurities from aluminum scrap, fuel, and chloride additives, which could contribute to variations in PCN emissions and characteristics were discussed. These results may provide useful information for developing better control strategies for reducing PCN emissions in secondary aluminum production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SEBAL For Detecting Spatial Variation Of Water Productivity For Wheat In The Yaqui Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, S. J.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C. J.

    2006-08-01

    Although the use of water productivity is gaining importance for evaluating good management practices, there is no standardized framework that aids the calculations. A methodology has been developed to quantify spatial variation of crop yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water productivity (WPET) using the SEBAL algorithm and high and low resolution satellite images. SEBAL estimated ET was validated over a wheat dominated area in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico and proved to be accurate. Estimated average wheat yields of 5.5 ton ha-1 were well within the range of measured yields reported in the literature. Area average WPET was 1.37 kg m-3 and could be considered high compared to other irrigated systems around the world It is concluded that the proposed methodology is accurate and that better knowledge of the spatial variation of WP provides valuable information for regional water managers to seek local solutions for boosting the productivity of agricultural water use by means of sharing and exchanging good management practices.

  7. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses. PMID:26070163

  8. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses.

  9. An Algorithm to Identify Compounded Non-Sterile Products that Can Be Formulated on a Commercial Scale or Imported to Promote Safer Medication Use in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha; MacArthur, Robert B.; Löbenberg, Raimar; Cies, Jeffrey J.; Cernak, Ibolja; Parrish, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of commercially-available pediatric drug products and dosage forms is well-known. A group of clinicians and scientists with a common interest in pediatric drug development and medicines-use systems developed a practical framework for identifying a list of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with the greatest market potential for development to use in pediatric patients. Reliable and reproducible evidence-based drug formulations designed for use in pediatric patients are needed vitally, otherwise safe and consistent clinical practices and outcomes assessments will continue to be difficult to ascertain. Identification of a prioritized list of candidate APIs for oral formulation using the described algorithm provides a broader integrated clinical, scientific, regulatory, and market basis to allow for more reliable dosage forms and safer, effective medicines use in children of all ages. Group members derived a list of candidate API molecules by factoring in a number of pharmacotherapeutic, scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory variables into the selection algorithm that were absent in other rubrics. These additions will assist in identifying and categorizing prime API candidates suitable for oral formulation development. Moreover, the developed algorithm aids in prioritizing useful APIs with finished oral liquid dosage forms available from other countries with direct importation opportunities to North America and beyond. PMID:28975916

  10. Concentrated Protein Body Product Derived from Rice Endosperm as an Oral Tolerogen for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy—A New Mucosal Vaccine Formulation against Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kitamura, Noriko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Ogo, Yuko; Hayashi, Shimpei; Yang, Lijun; Ohta, Masaru; Thet Tin, Wai Wai; Sekikawa, Kenji; Takano, Makoto; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I) from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1) and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation. PMID:25774686

  11. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are thus exposed to variations in yields, production and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are therefore paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We found that moderate-to-marked yield loss over a substantial percentage (26-33%) of the harvested area of these crops is reliably predictable if climatic forecasts are near perfect. However, only rice and wheat production are reliably predictable at three months before the harvest using within-season hindcasts. The reliabilities of estimates varied substantially by crop--rice and wheat yields were the most predictable, followed by soybean and maize. The reasons for variation in the reliability of the estimates included the differences in crop sensitivity to the climate and the technology used by the crop-producing regions. Our findings reveal that the use of seasonal climatic forecasts to predict crop failures will be useful for monitoring global food production and will encourage the adaptation of food systems toclimatic extremes.

  12. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  13. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Waning, Brenda; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Jambert, Elodie; Bärnighausen, Till; Li, Yun; Pouw, Mieke; Moon, Suerie

    2010-10-17

    Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67%) of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than adult markets. Ensuring a long-term supply of quality, well

  14. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. Methods We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Results Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67%) of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Conclusion Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than adult markets. Ensuring a long

  15. Nitric oxide production by haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martínez, Juan Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as an important physiological modulator, with evidence of its role as a signalling molecule throughout the whole phylogenetic scale. In marine molluscs, it intervenes in processes related to the immune function of haemocytes. The presented results indicate that basal NO production by haemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations, with summer values statistically higher than those of winter. The presence of IL-2 increased NO production in winter. In summer, incubating the haemocytes with TNF-alpha for 6h slightly increased NO production. LPS, TGF-beta1 or PDGF did not induce significant effects on NO production by the haemocytes. Immunoblotting experiments detected two proteins that bind to vertebrate iNOS and eNOS antibodies, with different seasonal expression: the protein that binds to anti-iNOS antibody was expressed throughout the year, whereas the anti-eNOS antibody bound with a protein that was only detected in winter. IL-2 is suggested to start a signalling system dependent on the seasonal presence of winter protein. Such a system would activate the enzyme, thus favouring the higher NO production detected in winter.

  16. Anti-cancer mechanism and possibility of nano-suspension formulations for a marine algae product fucoxanthin.

    PubMed

    Muthuirulappan, Srinivasan; Francis, Steffi Pulikodan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, use of natural products available from marine sources, and especially algae products, are receiving more attention. Scientific evidence for claimed nutraceutical and therapeutical effects of one such marine algae product, fucoxanthin, is discussed in this paper with a summary of the currently available literature regarding its antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activities. It is safe for use in humans, but as it has poor solubility a nano-suspension mode of delivery may be adopted to improve efficacy of supplements. We conclude from our literature review that the marine algae product fucoxanthin has significant antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activity with established mechanisms of action.

  17. Long-term variations in dust production in R Coronae Borealis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Mattei, Janet A.

    1993-01-01

    Several searches for periodicities in the historical visible light curves of RCB stars have found that the intervals between declines are random. This paper reexamines 70 declines of R Coronae Borealis since 1853 using one homogeneous data set, the AAVSO light curve. In this data set, pairs of consecutive declines also show a random distribution of intervals. However, if the sequence of declines is examined, there are semiperiodic variations between times of high- and low-decline activity on a time scale of a few years. Near-IR photometry of RCB stars indicates that there are large semiperiodic variations in the amount of dust being produced which have similar time scales. Possible interpretations of a semiperiodic variation in dust formation rates in RCB stars are presented. One is a magnetic activity cycle resulting in 'spots' on the star over which dust formation takes place. Such a magnetic activity cycle is similar to the solar cycle. Another is the changes in the period and amplitude of the pulsations over several years affecting the efficiency of dust production.

  18. Global Precipitation Variations and Long-term Changes Derived from the GPCP Monthly Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Global and large regional rainfall variations and possible long-term changes are examined using the 25-year (1979-2004) monthly dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The emphasis is to discriminate among the variations due to ENSO, volcanic events and possible long-term changes. Although the global change of precipitation in the data set is near zero, the data set does indicate an upward trend (0.13 mm/day/25yr) and a downward trend (-0.06 mm/day/25yr) over tropical oceans and lands (25S-25N), respectively. This corresponds to a 4% increase (ocean) and 2% decrease (land) during this time period. Techniques are applied to attempt to eliminate variations due to ENSO and major volcanic eruptions. The impact of the two major volcanic eruptions over the past 25 years is estimated to be about a 5% reduction in tropical rainfall. The modified data set (with ENSO and volcano effect removed) retains the same approximate change slopes, but with reduced variance leading to significance tests with results in the 90-95% range. Inter-comparisons between the GPCP, SSWI (1988-2004), and TRMM (1998-2004) rainfall products are made to increase or decrease confidence in the changes seen in the GPCP analysis.

  19. Seasonal variation in Campylobacter-contaminated retail chicken products: a year-round investigation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kanako; Takahashi, Ryuta; Andoh, Masako; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Tamura, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter was isolated from retail meat samples collected during the fiscal year 2009 in Japan. The higher percentages of contamination of chicken products were observed from June (39.3%) to November (83.3%). However, the highest number of human campylobacteriosis cases was reported in June in the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report. The chicken isolates with distinct clusters IVb and I, based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene, were predominantly obtained during the periods between April and November 2009 and between February and March 2010, respectively. Extensive monitoring of Campylobacter contamination in chickens produced in various places is needed to analyse the seasonal variations between contamination of the meat products and the number of human cases with campylobacteriosis.

  20. Investigation of sulphur isotope variation due to different processes applied during uranium ore concentrate production.

    PubMed

    Krajkó, Judit; Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Konings, Rudy

    The applicability and limitations of sulphur isotope ratio as a nuclear forensic signature have been studied. The typically applied leaching methods in uranium mining processes were simulated for five uranium ore samples and the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratios were measured. The sulphur isotope ratio variation during uranium ore concentrate (UOC) production was also followed using two real-life sample sets obtained from industrial UOC production facilities. Once the major source of sulphur is revealed, its appropriate application for origin assessment can be established. Our results confirm the previous assumption that process reagents have a significant effect on the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratio, thus the sulphur isotope ratio is in most cases a process-related signature.

  1. Modifications ofAOAC Official Method 999.15 to improve the quantitation of vitamin K1 in complex formulated nutritional products.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Barrientos, Steven; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) occurs in foods in relatively low concentrations. It is synthesized for addition to formulated nutritional products (infant formulas, medical foods, and adult nutritional products). In recent years, nutritional products formulated with free amino acids and partially hydrolyzed proteins have been introduced in the market. Schimpf et al. demonstrated that the current AOAC Official Method 999.15 for determination of vitamin K in milk and infant formula is not adequate to quantitatively extract vitamin K1 from such products. We developed a modification of AOAC 999.15 for the analysis of vitamin K1 in these products that provides quantitative extraction by increasing the sample size, volume of extraction solvents, time of liquid/liquid partitioning, and order of the addition of solvents. This modified procedure showed extraction efficiency comparable to that of the original AOAC 999.15 procedure for analyzing infant formula matrixes and to the modified procedure of Schimpf et al. for the analysis of samples containing limited amounts of free amino acids andlor partially hydrolyzed proteins. Extraction efficiency increased more than 10% using the modified extraction procedure for samples containing higher amounts of these components. The chromatographic separation was improved by using a Dionex Acclaim triacontanol-bonded C30 column (250 x 3.0 mm id, 3 pm particle size) maintained at 15 degrees C, with acetonitrile-methanol (50 + 50, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, which provided baseline separation of the cis and trans isomers of vitamin K1 from each other and from other compounds contained in the sample extracts.

  2. Holocene millennial-scale productivity variations in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incarbona, Alessandro; di Stefano, Enrico; Patti, Bernardo; Pelosi, Nicola; Bonomo, Sergio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Rodolfo; Tranchida, Giorgio; Zgozi, Salem; Bonanno, Angelo

    2008-09-01

    The calcareous nannofossil assemblages of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 963D from the central Mediterranean Sea have been investigated to document oceanographic changes in surface waters. The studied site is located in an area sensitive to large-scale atmospheric and climatic systems and to high- and low-latitude climate connection. It is characterized by a high sedimentation rate (the achieved mean sampling resolution is <70 years) that allowed the Sicily Channel environmental changes to be examined in great detail over the last 12 ka BP. We focused on the species Florisphaera profunda that lives in the lower photic zone. Its distribution pattern shows repeated abundance fluctuations of about 10-15%. Such variations could be related to different primary production levels, given that the study of the distribution of this species on the Sicily Channel seafloor demonstrates the significant correlation to productivity changes as provided by satellite imagery. Productivity variations were quantitatively estimated and were interpreted on the basis of the relocation of the nutricline within the photic zone, led by the dynamics of the summer thermocline. Productivity changes were compared with oceanographic, atmospheric, and cosmogenic nuclide proxies. The good match with Holocene master records, as with ice-rafted detritus in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the near-1500-year periodicity suggest that the Sicily Channel environment responded to worldwide climate anomalies. Enhanced Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, which has been reported as one of the most important forcing mechanisms for Holocene coolings in previous Mediterranean studies, had a remarkable impact on the water column dynamics of the Sicily Channel.

  3. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S.; Malhi, Y.; Zutta, B.; Buermann, W.; Anderson, L. O.; Araujo, A. M.; Phillips, O. L.; Peacock, J.; Ter Steege, H.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; Baker, T.; Arroyo, L.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D.; Pitman, N.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Laurance, W.; Ramírez, H. A.

    2009-06-01

    Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent) model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  4. Efficacy of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner for cats against adult Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence.

    PubMed

    Vatta, Adriano F; Everett, William R; Holzmer, Susan J; Cherni, Judith A; King, Vickie L; Rugg, Douglas; Geurden, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    A new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner was evaluated against fleas for adulticidal efficacy, and for the effect on egg production and hatching when applied to flea-infested cats. Ten male and ten female adult domestic shorthair cats were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment flea counts. Cats received topical treatment on Day 0 in a single spot to the dorsal scapular area with either a placebo formulation or with the combination formulation at the minimal dose of 6.0mg selamectin plus 1.0mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. On Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33, cats were infested with approximately 100 (±5) unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas. At 24h after treatment or 48h after subsequent flea infestation, cats were housed for a 20-h period in a cage to allow collection of flea eggs. At the end of this period, flea eggs were collected from the cages and cats were combed to remove and count live fleas. Emerged viable larvae and emerged adult fleas were counted 3days and 35days, respectively, after egg collection. The new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner provided 100% efficacy against adult fleas up to Day 36 following a single application. Fleas on placebo-treated cats produced large numbers of eggs throughout the study, with individual counts ranging from 110 to 1256 eggs. Following treatment, four flea eggs were collected from a single selamectin/sarolaner-treated cat on Day 29, but there were no eggs collected from any other selamectin/sarolaner-treated animal during the study. No larvae or adult fleas developed from these four eggs. From the eggs collected from the placebo-treated cats, the mean percentage of live larvae and adults that emerged ranged from 67.3% to 84.2% and from 50.7% to 81.8%, respectively. A single topical treatment with a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner at the minimum label dose thus controlled fleas on cats and was 100% effective in preventing flea reproduction

  5. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat(®) for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Shivappa, Raghunath B; Christian, Larry S; Law, Jerry M; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat(®) on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat(®) were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat(®), when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat(®) without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Shivappa, Raghunath B.; Christian, Larry S.; Law, Jerry M.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells. PMID:28894641

  7. Recent developments on new formulations based on nutrient-dense ingredients for the production of healthy-functional bread: a review.

    PubMed

    Rahaie, Somayeh; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2014-11-01

    Bread is one of the oldest functional foods which its health effects have been investigated in many studies. The current communication presents a review of published studies in recent years on the topic and looks at possible future trends in the improved nutritional and health qualities which have been applied in the bakery industry, directing it further to the formulation design and production of functional breads. The results show that many beneficial ingredients such as dietary fibers, phenolic antioxidants, marine ingredients, and n-3 fatty acids can be used in the bread industry to increase its functionality and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and celiac disease. Moreover, the use of psyllium seed, amaranth seed, chestnut flour and prebiotics in gluten-free bread (GFB) baking may be the promising frontier to improve overall appearance, quality, sensory properties, and shelf-life of GFB.

  8. Improving simulated Amazon forest biomass and productivity by including spatial variation in biophysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanho, A. D. A.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Malhi, Y.; Galbraith, D.; Quesada, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models forced with spatially homogeneous biophysical parameters are capable of producing average productivity and biomass values for the Amazon basin forest biome that are close to the observed estimates, but these models are unable to reproduce observed spatial variability. Recent observational studies have shown substantial regional spatial variability of above-ground productivity and biomass across the Amazon basin, which is believed to be primarily driven by a combination of soil physical and chemical properties. In this study, spatial heterogeneity of vegetation properties is added to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) land surface model, and the simulated productivity and biomass of the Amazon basin are compared to observations from undisturbed forest. The maximum RuBiCo carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the woody biomass residence time (τw) were found to be the most important properties determining the modeled spatial variation of above-ground woody net primary productivity and biomass, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of these properties may lead to simulated spatial variability of 1.8 times in the woody net primary productivity (NPPw) and 2.8 times in the woody above-ground biomass (AGBw). The coefficient of correlation between the modeled and observed woody productivity improved from 0.10 with homogeneous parameters to 0.73 with spatially heterogeneous parameters, while the coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed woody above-ground biomass improved from 0.33 to 0.88. The results from our analyses with the IBIS dynamic vegetation model demonstrated that using single values for key ecological parameters in the tropical forest biome severely limits simulation accuracy. Clearer understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that drive the spatial variability of carbon allocation, τw and Vcmax is necessary to achieve further improvements to simulation accuracy.

  9. The Development of Expanded Snack Product Made from Pumpkin Flour-Corn Grits: Effect of Extrusion Conditions and Formulations on Physical Characteristics and Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Nor, Norfezah Md; Carr, Alistair; Hardacre, Allan; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-05-14

    Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extruding corn grits with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pumpkin flour. Snacks made from 100% corn grits were used as control products for this work. The effect of formulation and screw speeds of 250 rpm and 350 rpm on torque and specific mechanical energy (SME, kWh/kg), physical characteristics (expansion ratio, bulk density, true density and hardness) and the microstructure of the snacks were studied. Increasing the screw speed resulted in a decrease of torque for all formulations. When pumpkin flour was added the specific mechanical energy (SME) decreased by approximately 45%. Increasing the percentage of pumpkin flour at the higher screw speed resulted in a harder texture for the extruded products. X-ray tomography of pumpkin flour-corn grit snacks showed that increased levels of pumpkin flour decreased both the bubble area and bubble size. However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in bubble wall thickness were measured. By understanding the conditions during extrusion, desirable nutritional characteristics can be incorporated while maximizing expansion to make a product with low bulk density, a fine bubble structure and acceptable organoleptic properties.

  10. The Development of Expanded Snack Product Made from Pumpkin Flour-Corn Grits: Effect of Extrusion Conditions and Formulations on Physical Characteristics and Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Md Nor, Norfezah; Carr, Alistair; Hardacre, Allan; Brennan, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extruding corn grits with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pumpkin flour. Snacks made from 100% corn grits were used as control products for this work. The effect of formulation and screw speeds of 250 rpm and 350 rpm on torque and specific mechanical energy (SME, kWh/kg), physical characteristics (expansion ratio, bulk density, true density and hardness) and the microstructure of the snacks were studied. Increasing the screw speed resulted in a decrease of torque for all formulations. When pumpkin flour was added the specific mechanical energy (SME) decreased by approximately 45%. Increasing the percentage of pumpkin flour at the higher screw speed resulted in a harder texture for the extruded products. X-ray tomography of pumpkin flour-corn grit snacks showed that increased levels of pumpkin flour decreased both the bubble area and bubble size. However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in bubble wall thickness were measured. By understanding the conditions during extrusion, desirable nutritional characteristics can be incorporated while maximizing expansion to make a product with low bulk density, a fine bubble structure and acceptable organoleptic properties. PMID:28239106

  11. Critical processing parameters of carbon dioxide spray drying for the production of dried protein formulations: A study with myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Nuchuchua, O; Every, H A; Jiskoot, W

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain fundamental insight into protein destabilization induced by supercritical CO2 spray drying processing parameters. Myoglobin was used as a model protein (5mg/ml with 50mg/ml trehalose in 10mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.2). The solution was exposed to sub- and supercritical CO2 conditions (65-130bar and 25-50°C), and CO2 spray drying under those conditions. The heme binding of myoglobin was determined by UV/Vis, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, while myoglobin aggregation was studied by using size-exclusion chromatography and flow imaging microscopy. It was found that pressure and temperature alone did not influence myoglobin's integrity. However, when pressurized CO2 was introduced into myoglobin solutions at any condition, the pH of the myoglobin formulation shifted to about 5 (measured after depressurization), resulting in heme binding destabilization and aggregation of myoglobin. When exposed to CO2, these degradation processes were enhanced by increasing temperature. Heme binding destabilization and myoglobin aggregation were also seen after CO2 spray drying, and to a greater extent. Moreover, the CO2 spray drying induced the partial loss of heme. In conclusion, pressurized CO2 destabilizes the myoglobin, leading to heme loss and protein aggregation upon spray drying.

  12. Selected physical and chemical properties of Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) extracts important for formulated product quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ping; Madieh, Shadi; Augsburger, Larry L

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to assess selected formulation-relevant physical properties of several commercial Feverfew extracts, including flowability, hygroscopicity, compressibility and compactibility (2) to develop and validate a suitable extraction method and HPLC assay, and (3) to determine the parthenolide content of several commercial Feverfew extracts. Carr's index, minimum orifice diameter and particle-particle interaction were used to evaluate powder flowability. Hygroscopicity was evaluated by determining the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) after storage at various % relative humidities. Heckle analysis and compression pressure-radial tensile strength relationship were used to represent compression and compaction properties of feverfew extracts. An adapted analytical method was developed based on literature methods and then validated for the determination of parthenolide in feverfew. The commercial extracts tested exhibited poor to very poor flowability. The comparatively low mean yield pressure suggested that feverfew extracts deformed mainly plastically. Hygroscopicity and compactibility varied greatly with source. No commercial feverfew extracts tested contained the label claimed parthenolide. Even different batches from the same manufacturer showed significantly different parthenolide content. Therefore, extract manufactures should commit to proper quality control procedures that ensure accurate label claims, and supplement manufacturers should take into account possible differences in physico-chemical properties when using extracts from multiple suppliers.

  13. Prediction of Seasonal Climate-induced Variations in Global Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are therefore exposed to variations in yields, production, and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of major food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We assessed the reliability of hindcasts (i.e., retrospective forecasts for the past) of crop yield loss relative to the previous year for two lead times. Pre-season yield predictions employ climatic forecasts and have lead times of approximately 3 to 5 months for providing information regarding variations in yields for the coming cropping season. Within-season yield predictions use climatic forecasts with lead times of 1 to 3 months. Pre-season predictions can be of value to national governments and commercial concerns, complemented by subsequent updates from within-season predictions. The latter incorporate information on the most recent climatic data for the upcoming period of reproductive growth. In addition to such predictions, hindcasts using observations from satellites were performed to demonstrate the upper limit of the reliability of crop forecasting.

  14. DNA-based methodologies for the quantification of live and dead cells in formulated biocontrol products based on Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2.

    PubMed

    Soto-Muñoz, Lourdes; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Solsona, Cristina; Teixidó, Neus

    2015-10-01

    Pantoea agglomerans strain CPA-2 is an effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against the major postharvest pathogens present on pome and citrus fruits. Dehydration, such as freeze-drying, spray-drying and fluidized bed drying is one of the best ways to formulate BCAs. In this work, the survival of CPA-2 cells after formulation was determined by dilution plating and molecular methods as qPCR alone and combined with a sample pretreatment with a propidium monoazide dye (PMA-qPCR) and they were used to calculate treatment concentrations in efficacy trials on postharvest oranges. Furthermore, no significant differences in CPA-2 survival were observed as determined by dilution plating and PMA-qPCR after both the freeze drying and fluidized bed drying processes; however, an interesting significant difference was observed in the spray dried product comparing all quantitative methods. A difference of 0.48 and 2.17 log10 CFU or cells g/dw was observed among PMA-qPCR with qPCR and dilution plating, respectively. According to our study, dilution plating was shown to be an unreliable tool for monitoring the survival of CPA-2 after spray drying. In contrast, the combination of PMA and qPCR enabled a quick and unequivocal methodology to enumerate viable and VBNC CPA-2 cells under stress-dried conditions. Efficacy trials showed that, after 3 days, spray drying formulation rehydrated with 10% non-fat skimmed milk (NFSM) was as effective as fresh cells to control Penicillium digitatum in oranges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitoring the effect of supercooling on lyophilization product and process parameters of model monoclonal antibody formulations.

    PubMed

    Awotwe Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Formulation of fermentation media from flour-rich waste streams for microbial lipid production by Lipomyces starkeyi.

    PubMed

    Tsakona, Sofia; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kookos, Ioannis K; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2014-11-10

    Flour-rich waste (FRW) and by-product streams generated by bakery, confectionery and wheat milling plants could be employed as the sole raw materials for generic fermentation media production, suitable for microbial oil synthesis. Wheat milling by-products were used in solid state fermentations (SSF) of Aspergillus awamori for the production of crude enzymes, mainly glucoamylase and protease. Enzyme-rich SSF solids were subsequently employed for hydrolysis of FRW streams into nutrient-rich fermentation media. Batch hydrolytic experiments using FRW concentrations up to 205 g/L resulted in higher than 90% (w/w) starch to glucose conversion yields and 40% (w/w) total Kjeldahl nitrogen to free amino nitrogen conversion yields. Starch to glucose conversion yields of 98.2, 86.1 and 73.4% (w/w) were achieved when initial FRW concentrations of 235, 300 and 350 g/L were employed in fed-batch hydrolytic experiments, respectively. Crude hydrolysates were used as fermentation media in shake flask cultures with the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 reaching a total dry weight of 30.5 g/L with a microbial oil content of 40.4% (w/w), higher than that achieved in synthetic media. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures led to a total dry weight of 109.8 g/L with a microbial oil content of 57.8% (w/w) and productivity of 0.4 g/L/h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal variation of the satellite-derived phytoplankton primary production in the Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, A. B.; Sheberstov, S. V.; Gagarin, V. I.; Khlebopashev, P. V.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal variation of the integrated primary production (IPP) and surface chlorophyll (Chl0) in different regions of the Kara Sea was studied from satellite data obtained by the MODIS-Aqua colour scanner and averaged for 2003-2015. The minimum variation of Chl0 concentration during the growing season (from April to October) was 1.5 times in southwestern region and 2 times in the northern region of the sea. It was found that the Chl0 concentration increased slightly in all regions by the end of the growing season. The maximum IPP value recorded in June coincided with the peak level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and maximum river discharge. The IPP value varied in a wider range compared with the Chl0 concentration. The ratio of the maximum and minimum monthly average IPP values varied from 8.9 times in Southwestern region to 11.7 times in the Northern region of the sea. The average increase in the Chl0 concentration was 1.7 times (from 0.78 mg/m3 in April to 1.29 mg/m3 in October). The IPP value varied by a factor of 10.7 (from 26 mg C/m2 per day in October to 279 mg C/m2 per day in June). The article also discusses the influence of water column stratification, the concentration of nutrients, the PAR level, and river discharge on the seasonal IPP dynamics in the Kara Sea.

  18. [Variation trends of natural vegetation net primary productivity in China under climate change scenario].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-sheng; Wu, Shao-hong; Yin, Yun-he

    2011-04-01

    Based on the widely used Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ) for climate change study, and according to the features of natural environment in China, the operation mechanism of the model was adjusted, and the parameters were modified. With the modified LPJ model and taking 1961-1990 as baseline period, the responses of natural vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) in China to climate change in 1991-2080 were simulated under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) B2 scenario. In 1961-1990, the total NPP of natural vegetation in China was about 3.06 Pg C a(-1); in 1961-2080, the total NPP showed a fluctuant decreasing trend, with an accelerated decreasing rate. Under the condition of slight precipitation change, the increase of mean air temperature would have definite adverse impact on the NPP. Spatially, the NPP decreased from southeast coast to northwest inland, and this pattern would have less variation under climate change. In eastern China with higher NPP, especially in Northeast China, east of North China, and Loess Plateau, the NPP would mainly have a decreasing trend; while in western China with lower NPP, especially in the Tibetan Plateau and Tarim Basin, the NPP would be increased. With the intensive climate change, such a variation trend of NPP would be more obvious.

  19. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products--Part II.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Johncock, S I; Taylor, B J; Wyles, L T

    1982-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents of 220 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1979-1981 have been determined by gas chromatography. During that period there was a general increase in the quality of both cannabis and cannabis resin, but with wide variations in THC contents both within and between countries. Some very high quality samples of cannabis, cannabis resin and cannabis oil from the Indian sub-continent have been analysed. There have been considerable changes in the number of fresh samples from several countries, compared with the previous survey. Fresh cannabis oil samples were very rare during the period covered by this survey.

  20. Relevance of variation in use of terminology to define generic pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2015-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the use of generic drug policies to foster competition in the pharmaceutical sector, reduce drug prices, and increase access to therapeutic drugs. However, little is known about how countries implement these policies. This article describes different terminology adopted by national regulatory authorities to define generic versus proprietary drug products in developing countries, including those in Latin America, and challenges that arise in their application of WHO guidelines, such as labeling issues. The author concludes that variation in generics terminology in these countries is a result of institutional context (i.e., the public sector setting as well as the body of laws and regulations that exists in the country) and policy legacies, such as intellectual property regimes, and highlights the need for further analysis of pharmaceutical regulations to improve understanding of the barriers and political implications of generic drug policies.

  1. Separation and identification of degradation products in eprinomectin formulation using LC, LTQ FT-MS, H/D exchange, and NMR.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Atul; Razzak, Majid; Al-Kassas, Raida; Greenwood, David R; Harvey, Joanne; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-04-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the compendial active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) method for the analysis of finished products and characterization of degradation products in eprinomectin (EPM) samples. Heat stressed sample tests revealed a limitation of the API method in distinguishing an impurity merging with the principal analyte peak. A new selective, specific and sensitive method was therefore developed for the determination of EPM in formulations that separates its degradation products currently undetectable with the official method. The determination was carried out by reversed-phase HPLC using an isocratic solvent elution. The method was validated and found to be precise, accurate and specific; the detector response was linear over 50-150 μg/ml (EPM) and 0.1-3 μg/ml (degradation product) range of concentrations. Two major degradation products detected with the new method were isolated from sample matrices and characterized using LC-PDA, high resolution FT-ICR MS, NMR and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HX-MS) studies. FTMS analysis showed accurate mass of molecular ion peaks for EPM and its two degradation products at m/z 914.52505 (mass error ≤ 1 ppm) with almost identical fragmentation patterns. Given the isomeric nature of the compounds, all three were further evaluated by ¹H, ¹³C, 1D NOESY and 2D (COSY) NMR experiments. The interpretation of experimental data positively identified Unknown 1 as the 2-epimer of EPM and Unknown 2 as the structural isomer Δ2,3-EPM containing a conjugated enoate. The new HPLC method and identification exercise is useful for analysis of EPM and its degradation products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Investigation of variation of the production of biological and chemical compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Hajdú, Z; Veres, K; Máthé, I; Németh, E; Pluhár, Z; Bernáth, J

    1998-05-01

    Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae family) has been cultivated in Central Europe for a long time. This essential oil containing species serves not only as spice but in many countries including Hungary, it is used as a folk medicine against certain respiratory diseases. Despite this fact, little is known about the variation of its productivity under Central European climatic conditions. The cultivated populations of hyssop can be characterised by a significant heterogenity. In the course of its breeding the uniformity of flower colour (e.g. blue form), and increase in the oil content are the main achievable purposes. The purpose of this work was to investigate both the variability of strains of different crigin and the time-dependent variations of its production parameters. The optimum of phytomass was obtained at the beginning of July. The essential oil content as well as compounds of the non volatile fractions were also investigated. The non volatile fractions for rosmarinic, caffeic acids were analysed mainly by TLC and densitometry. Both compounds were present in all samples and they are suitable for the characterisation of the plant. The essential oils were gained with Water Steam Distillation (WSD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with CO2. The oils were analysed by GC, GC-MS techniques. In the essential oil composition of the populations studied significant heterogenity could be observed. In the case of applying SFE extraction the oil composition is more uniform, similarly to the obtained by WSD adding hexane. The heterogenity can be experienced in the offsprings, too. If only the main four components (beta-pinene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone) are regarded, among the offsprings clear and mixed lines alike can be found. Results of these experiments justify the necessity and usefulness of selection which is going on.

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  4. Contribution of Phenological and Physiological Variations on Northern Vegetation Productivity Changes over Last Three Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenology and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of gross primary productivity (GPP) of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts of phenology and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we investigate 1) how vegetation phenology and physiological status (maximum photosynthesis) are evolved over last three decades and 2) how such components (phenology and physiological status) contribute on inter-annual variation of the GPP during the last three decades. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed (GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies), NDVI3g (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index 3rd generation) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)) to extract larger scale phenology metrics (growing season start, end and duration); and productivity (i.e., growing season integrated vegetation index, GSIVI) to answer these questions. For evaluation purpose, we also introduced field-measured phenology and productivity datasets (e.g., FLUXNET) and possible remotely-sensed and modeled metrics at continental and regional scales. From this investigation, we found that onset of the growing season has advanced by 1.61 days per decade and the growing season end has delayed by 0.67 days per decade over the circumpolar region. This asymmetric extension of growing season results in a longer growing-season trend (2.96 days per decade) and widespread increasing vegetation-productivity trend (2.96 GSIVI per decade) over Northern land. However, the regionally-diverged phenology shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity, inter-annual variability and trend. We quantified that about 50 percent, 13 percent and 6.5 percent of Northern land's inter-annual variability are dominantly controlled by the onset of the growing season, the end of the growing season and the maximum

  5. The mechanisms of orbital and suborbital-scale productivity variations in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Beaufort, L.; Vidal, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) is known to exhibit high seasonal, interannual (ENSO-like) and longer-term climatic variability with possible worldwide consequences, however, the origin of the suborbital-scale changes in the region is still enigmatic. The centennial to millennial scale variations in the foraminiferal-based MAT-derived SST, productivity index (FP index estimated as the total faunal portion of the three productivity-related planktic foraminiferal species) and coccolithophore-based quantitative productivity record are investigated over MIS 3 and three glacial-interglacial terminations in the IMAGES Core MD02-2529 off Costa Rica (8°12.5' N, 84° 07.5' W, w.d. 1619 m). The stratigraphic framework over three climatic cycles is based on the benthic d 18O record performed on C. wuellerstorfi, and on the published time-scale for last 90 ka (Leduc et al. 2007). The results of the study provide new insight on the mechanisms of productivity variations in the EEP. FP index and total planktic foraminiferal abundance increase concurrently with the previously established salinity raise (Leduc et al.2007) at six H-events (from H-6 to H-1) and at the Younger Dryas relative to the adjacent values. SST record does not show any consistent positive or negative correlation with H-events. The longer-lasting events of enhanced FP index values associate with all three terminations, whereas SST and the total portion of foraminiferal oligotrophic species increase by the end of terminations. The recurrent increase in bioproductivity during H-events may be interpreted in terms of intensified nutrients supply at the core site. At present, bioproductivity at site MD02-2529 is influenced by the seasonal cycle and associated shifts of the Costa Rica Dome and by propagation of eddies and filaments from the nearby coastal upwellings in the Panama Bight and Gulf of Papagayo with the Ekman drift. As these seasonal upwellings are known to be driven by coastal wind jets associated

  6. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  7. Productivity of US Forests: Regional Sensitivity to Variation in Soil Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, J. M.; Coops, N. C.; Waring, R. H.

    2006-05-01

    The rates that forests accumulate biomass regionally differ substantially based on the environment and the frequency of disturbance. These dynamics significantly affect the terrestrial carbon balance globally. Since 2000, NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) has provided 1km spatial resolution estimates of 8-day gross and annual net primary production (GPP and NPP). MODIS productivity is computed as a simple function of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and a regionally assigned light-use conversion efficiency that is reduced if temperature or atmospheric vapor pressure deficits are suboptimal. We evaluated the extent that the MODIS productivity estimates might be improved if spatial information on soil water (ASW) storage capacity and soil fertility were available for forested areas across the USA. To accomplish this comparison we parameterized a forest growth model, 3-PGS (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth using Satellite data), which is similar to the MODIS model in operation, but also includes an explicit water balance and a direct link between soil fertility and light-use efficiency. The 3-PGS model was initially run with STATSGO-derived soils information provided by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis was expanded to include variation in ASW storage capacity of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mm. Annual 3-PGS estimates of NPP for forests across the USA are highly sensitive to limited ASW (<200mm), reducing estimates by up to 60%, as opposed to increasing the ASW capacity (>200mm), which yields an average increase in NPP of 30%. Changing ASW has more influence on forest GPP in the west, where summer drought is prevalent. Generally, productivity estimates from MODIS and 3-PGS were similar across most of the eastern US. However, the MODIS model consistently overestimated mid-summer GPP values in the west because of its insufficient drought constraints.

  8. Potential use of secondary products of the agri-food industry for topical formulations and comparative analysis of antioxidant activity of grape leaf polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Roger Remy; Dresch, Maria Terezinha Kreinecker; Biegelmeyer, Renata; Argenta, Débora Fretes; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha

    2017-04-13

    The aim of the present study was to develop a phytocosmetic using Vitis waste by-products, for use as a topical formulation for skin protection against ultraviolet radiation damage. The study also evaluates the free radical scavenger activity of the crude extracts of dried leaves of Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca, as well as the anthocyanins, flavonoid fraction and isolated compounds. Next, release and permeation studies of hydrogels were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Flavonoid acted more intensively in TRAP and conjugated dienes antioxidant assays, whereas anthocyanins had higher antioxidant activity in hydroxyl and nitric oxide assay. Only quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (5) was released from hydrogels, and the flavonoid retention in porcine ear skin after eight hours of permeation was below of limit of quantification for this compound. The polyphenols present in Vitis are capable of absorbing UV and visible light, justifying their potential as sunscreens for the development of a phytocosmetic.

  9. Formulation of yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content by using a Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Conte, Amalia; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lonigro, S Lisa; Padalino, Lucia; Pontonio, Erica; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2017-04-15

    A Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product (Bio21B), obtained after strain growth (14h) in a wheat flour-based medium, was applied in the bread-making process as taste enhancer, in order to obtain a yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content (20% and 50%) with respect to a reference bread (REF) not containing the fermentation product. Sensory analysis indicated that the Bio21B bread with salt reduced by 50% had a pleasant taste similar to the salt-containing bread (REF). l-Glutamate and total free amino acid content did not differ between REF and Bio21B breads, while the acids lactic, acetic, phenyllactic, 4-OH-phenyllactic and indole-3-lactic were present only in Bio21B breads. Moreover, the presence of several umami (uridine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate, adenosine, and guanosine) and kokumi (γ-l-glutamyl-l-valine) taste-related molecules was ascertained both in REF and in Bio21B breads. Therefore, a possible role of the acidic molecules in compensating the negative perception of salt reduction can be hypothesized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Odour characteristics of seafood flavour formulations produced with fish by-products incorporating EPA, DHA and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Peinado, I; Miles, W; Koutsidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Thermal degradation of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids was investigated. As a novelty, EPA, DHA or fish oil (FO) were incorporated as ω-fatty acid sources into model systems containing fish powder produced via Maillard reactions. Aroma composition of the resulting products was determined and complemented with sensory evaluation. Heating of the oils led to a fast decrease of both, EPA and DHA, and to the development of characteristic volatile compounds including hexanal, 2,4-heptadienal and 4-heptenal, the most abundant being (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal (132±44-329±122μmol/g). EPA and DHA addition to the model systems increased the concentration of these characteristic volatile compounds. However, it did not have a considerable impact on the development of characteristic Maillard reaction products, such as pyrazines and some aldehydes. Finally, the results of the sensory evaluation illustrated that panellists would chose samples fortified with FO as the ones with a more pleasant aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tree-ring widths are good proxies of annual variation in forest productivity in temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Wang, Xiangping; Liang, Penghong; An, Hailong; Sun, Han; Han, Wei; Li, Qiaoyan

    2017-05-16

    Tree rings have long been used to calibrate the net primary production (NPP) time-series predicted by process-based models, based on an implicit assumption that ring-width indices (RWI) can well reflect temporal NPP change. However, this assumption has seldom been tested systematically. In this study, 36 plots were set in three forest types from four sites along a latitudinal gradient in northeast China. For each plot, we constructed chronologies and stand NPP of the past 20 years to examine: is RWI a good proxy of inter-annual variation of forest NPP for different forest types under different climate? If it is, why? Our results indicate that RWI was closely related to stand NPP in most cases, and could be used as a good proxy of NPP in temperate forests. Standard and arstan chronologies were better related to NPP series than residual chronology. Stand NPP time-series were mainly determined by large trees, and the correlation between RWI and NPP was also higher for larger trees. We suggest that large trees and dominant species of canopy layer should be sampled for chronology construction. Large trees are major contributors of forest biomass and productivity, and should have priority in forest conservation in a rapid-warming world.

  12. Allometric scaling of production and life-history variation in vascular plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enquist, Brian J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Charnov, Eric L.; Brown, James H.

    1999-10-01

    A prominent feature of comparative life histories is the well documented negative correlation between growth rate and life span. Patterns of resource allocation during growth and reproduction reflect life-history differences between species. This is particularly striking in tropical forests, where tree species can differ greatly in their rates of growth and ages of maturity but still attain similar canopy sizes. Here we provide a theoretical framework for relating life-history variables to rates of production, dM/dt, where M is above-ground mass and t is time. As metabolic rate limits production as an individual grows, dM/dt ~ M3/4. Incorporating interspecific variation in resource allocation to wood density, we derive a universal growth law that quantitatively fits data for a large sample of tropical tree species with diverse life histories. Combined with evolutionary life-history theory, the growth law also predicts several qualitative features of tree demography and reproduction. This framework also provides a general quantitative answer to why relative growth rate (1/M)(dM/df) decreases with increasing plant size (~M-1/4) and how it varies with differing allocation strategies.

  13. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  14. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-08-07

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K.; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. PMID:26203001

  16. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy. PMID:28281668

  17. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-10

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  18. Targeted Application of Human Genetic Variation Can Improve Red Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Giani, Felix C; Fiorini, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ludwig, Leif S; Salem, Rany M; Jobaliya, Chintan D; Regan, Stephanie N; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Liang, Ge; Steinberg-Shemer, Orna; Guo, Michael H; Esko, Tõnu; Tong, Wei; Brugnara, Carlo; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Weiss, Mitchell J; Zon, Leonard I; Chou, Stella T; French, Deborah L; Musunuru, Kiran; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-01-07

    Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo. Targeted suppression of SH2B3 in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells enhanced the maturation and overall yield of in-vitro-derived RBCs. Moreover, inactivation of SH2B3 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells allowed enhanced erythroid cell expansion with preserved differentiation. Our findings therefore highlight the potential for combining human genome variation studies with genome editing approaches to improve cell and tissue production for regenerative medicine.

  19. Marginal Lands Gross Primary Production Dominate Atmospheric CO2 Interannual Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlström, A.; Raupach, M. R.; Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Smith, B.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1960s terrestrial ecosystems have acted as a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2, sequestering about one quarter of anthropogenic emissions in an average year. Variations in this land carbon sink are also responsible for most of the large interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While most evidence places the majority of the sink in highly productive forests and at high latitudes experiencing warmer and longer growing seasons, the location and the processes governing the interannual variations are still not well characterised. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that the long-term trend and the variability in the land CO2 sink are respectively dominated by geographically distinct regions: the sink by highly productive lands, mainly forests, and the variability by semi-arid or "marginal" lands where vegetation activity is strongly limited by water and therefore responds strongly to climate variability. Using novel analysis methods and data from both upscaled flux-tower measurements and a dynamic global vegetation model, we show that (1) the interannual variability in the terrestrial CO2 sink arises mainly from variability in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP); (2) most of the interannual variability in GPP arises in tropical and subtropical marginal lands, where negative anomalies are driven mainly by warm, dry conditions and positive anomalies by cool, wet conditions; (3) the variability in the GPP of high-latitude marginal lands (tundra and shrublands) is instead controlled by temperature and light, with warm bright conditions resulting in positive anomalies. The influence of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) on the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations is mediated primarily through climatic effects on GPP in marginal lands, with opposite signs in subtropical and higher-latitude regions. Our results show that the land sink of CO2 (dominated by forests) and its interannual variability (dominated by marginal lands) are

  20. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  1. Isolation, Identification, and Characterisation of Degradation Products and the Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Method for the Estimation of Impurities in the Tolterodine Tartrate Formulation.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Lakkireddy; Himaja, Malipeddi; Vasudev, Rudraraju

    2015-01-01

    A short and sensitive stability-indicating gradient RP-UPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of process-related impurities and degradation products of tolterodine tartrate in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was developed by using the Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH shield RP18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) column with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A and B at a detection wavelength of 210 nm. During the stress study, the degradation products of tolterodine tartrate were well-resolved from tolterodine and its impurities and the mass balances were found to be satisfactory in all the stress conditions, thus proving the stability-indicating capability of the method. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness. During the stability (40°C/75% RH, 3 months) analysis of the drug product, one unknown impurity was detected by the above stability-indicating method. The unknown impurity was isolated by preparative HPLC and subjected to mass and NMR studies. Based on the spectral data, the unknown impurity was characterised as 2-(3-amino-1-phenylpropyl)-4-methylphenol (des-N,N-diisopropyl tolterodine). Structural elucidation of the impurity by spectral data is discussed in detail.

  2. [Formulation and evaluation of the protein quality of a flour mixture of shark fillet by-products and shrimp heads].

    PubMed

    Lacera Rúa, A; Molina, M R; Mejía, L A; Gómez Brenes, R; Bressani, R

    1985-03-01

    A flour proposed as a protein source for chick feeding was evaluated. The flour consisted in a 1.00:1.15 dry mixture of by-products from shark filleting (dt) and shrimp by products (cc). It had a crude protein content of 55.66%, a Ca:P ratio of 5.76 and an essential amino acid pattern similar to that of fish meal and/or shark meat. Methionine proved to be the first limiting essential amino acid. The shark meat and the by-products from shark filleting had adequate levels of available lysine (from 337 to 383 mg/g N). The flour had a fineness modulus (F.M.) of 3.95, an average particle diameter of 0.0175 inches (0.444 mm) and a uniformity index of 1:5:4 (coarse:medium:fine parts). The flour was considered suitable for chick feeding. The protein quality of the flour mixture (dt-cc) was evaluated in rats using diets which contained 3, 6, 9 and 12% protein from the product, and determining the PER, NPR and NGI values. Diets containing similar protein levels prepared from dried shark meat flour, mixed with casein, were used as standards. The flour mixture (dt-cc) had a PER of 1.60, an NGIo of 2.46, an NGI of 2.49 and an apparent digestibility of 88.80%. These values proved to be significantly (p less than 0.05) lower than those found for the corresponding shark meat flour-casein standard diets. The above results are partially explained by the high mineral content, high Ca:P ratio and high Na and K of the dt-cc mixture, factors which could interfere with the utilization of the most limiting essential amino acids and other nutrients, as some vitamins, in these diets. The Kruskal-Wallis test of the feed efficiency (EA) data obtained in growing chicks revealed that there was a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between the EA values obtained with the dried shark meat-containing diets and the standard commercial diets (Purina and a diet based on a 1.6:1.0 soybean meal:cottonseed meal mixture). No significant differences were found between the dt-cc mixture

  3. Variation of effective elastic thickness and melt production along the Deccan Reunion hotspot track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Singh, B.; Phipps Morgan, J.

    2007-12-01

    We estimate the effective elastic thickness (Te) along the Deccan-Reunion hotspot track using admittance analysis of seafloor topography and the free-air gravity field, both corrected for the thermal effects of a cooling lithosphere. Our results reveal that the volcanic edifices (Saya de Malha Bank, Chagos-Maldives-Laccadives Ridge) formed in the first 30 Myr after the Deccan volcanism [˜ 65 Myr], on lithosphere with Te values of 4 ± 2 km, while the younger volcanic edifices on the African plate (Reunion, Mauritius, Nazareth Bank) were emplaced on lithosphere with Te values of 17 ± 9 km. These estimates suggest that the hotspot volcanism occurred on juvenile lithosphere in the first 30 Myr, implying that the mid-ocean ridge remained near the hotspot for ˜ 30 Myr. In contrast, in the last 30 Myr volcanism occurred on aged lithosphere in an intraplate setting, which might indicate that the mid-ocean ridge migrated rapidly to the north after the African plate moved over the hotspot. This conclusion of a rapid shift from plume-influenced mid-ocean ridge (MOR) volcanism to intraplate plume volcanism is supported by geochemical (major and trace element) interpretations of data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 115. An estimate of the melt-production rate shows a striking increase in the small Te region relative to the large Te region of the hotspot track, which suggest a strong interrelation between Te and melt production. However, there is also variation of melt emplacement rates within the region of low Te that may be due to unknown changes in the rates of plate motions or somewhat episodic melt production.

  4. Assessing Interannual Variation in Net Ecosystem Production over a Coniferous Forest Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D.; Guzy, M.; Lefsky, M.; Daly, C.; Law, B.

    2001-12-01

    Spatial estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP) can be attained by constraining ecosystem process models with remote sensing and hierarchical plot data (intensive measurements and survey data). In temperate coniferous forests, NEP varies widely 1) over the course of secondary succession, 2) in response to environmental gradients associated with elevation, and 3) in response to interannual variation in climate. These factors should therefore be included in spatially explicit estimates of NEP that are of interest in relation to assessing current biologically driven carbon flux. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region we are using a combination of satellite remote sensing, gridded meteorological data, and ecosystem process models to account for these factors. The Landsat ETM+ sensor, with a spatial resolution of about 30 m, generally captures the scale of the spatial heterogeneity associated with disturbances such as fire and logging. In PNW forests, ETM+ can resolve multiple age classes, and multiyear analysis that employs change detection permits dating of clearcuts generated since the 1970s. This fine temporal resolution early in succession is important because of the rapid changes in NEP with stand age. ETM+ is also effective in mapping leaf area index, although the algorithms tend to be asymptotic at the high LAIs found in some coniferous forests. Multiyear gridded meteorological data, based on interpolated meteorological station observations, provides the basis for model "spin ups" which bring simulated soil organic matter pools into near equilibrium with the local climate. Opportunities for validating NEP surfaces or component fluxes include georeferenced forest inventory data for bole wood carbon storage and production, eddy covariance flux data for daily gross primary production and net ecosystem exchange, and chronosequence studies in a variety of bioclimatic zones for characterizing carbon pools and fluxes over succession. Results of multiyear simulations

  5. Variations in triple isotope composition of dissolved oxygen and primary production in a subtropical reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurikova, Hana; Guha, Tania; Abe, Osamu; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Wang, Chung-Ho; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Lakes and reservoirs play an important role in the carbon cycle, and therefore monitoring their metabolic rates is essential. The triple oxygen-isotope anomaly of dissolved O2 [17Δ = ln(1+δ17O) - 0.518 × ln(1 + δ18O)] offers a new, in situ, perspective on primary production, yet little is known about 17Δ from freshwater systems. We investigated the 17Δ together with the oxygen : argon ratio [Δ(O2 / Ar)] in the subtropical Feitsui Reservoir in Taiwan from June 2014 to July 2015. Here, we present the seasonal variations in 17Δ, GP (gross production), NP (net production) and the NP / GP (net to gross ratio) in association with environmental parameters. The 17Δ varied with depth and season, with values ranging between 26 and 205 per meg. The GP rates were observed to be higher (702 ± 107 mg C m-2 d-1) in winter than those (303 ± 66 mg C m-2 d-1) recorded during the summer. The overall averaged GP was 220 g C m-2 yr-1 and NP was -3 g C m-2 yr-1, implying the reservoir was net heterotrophic on an annual basis. This is due to negative NP rates from October to February (-198 ± 78 mg C m-2 d-1). Comparisons between GP rates obtained from the isotope mass balance approach and 14C bottle incubation method (14C-GP) showed consistent values on the same order of magnitude with a GP / 14C-GP ratio of 1.2 ± 1.1. Finally we noted that, although typhoon occurrences were scarce, higher than average 17Δ values and GP rates were recorded after typhoon events.

  6. Formulation and Evaluation of New Glimepiride Sublingual Tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Madhagi, Wafa; Abdulbari Albarakani, Ahmed; Khaled Alhag, Abobakr; Ahmed Saeed, Zakaria; Mansour Noman, Nahlah; Mohamed, Khaldon

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucosal delivery of drugs promotes rapid absorption and high bioavailability, with a subsequent immediate onset of pharmacological effect. However, many oral mucosal deliveries are compromised by the possibility of the patient swallowing the active substance before it has been released and absorbed locally into the systemic circulation. The aim of this research was to introduce a new glimepiride formula for sublingual administration and rapid drug absorption that can be used in an emergency. The new sublingual formulation was prepared after five trials to prepare the suitable formulation. Two accepted formulations of the new sublingual product were prepared, but one of them with disintegration time of 1.45 min and searching for preferred formulation, the binder, is changed with Flulac and starch slurry to prepare formula with disintegration time of 21 seconds that supports the aim of research to be used in an emergency. The five formulations were done, after adjusting to the binder as Flulac and aerosil with disintegration time of 21 seconds and accepted hardness as well as the weight variation. The assay of a new product (subglimepiride) is 103% which is a promising result, confirming that the formula succeeded. The new product (subglimepiride) is accepted in most quality control tests and it is ready for marketing.

  7. Formulation and Evaluation of New Glimepiride Sublingual Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Abdulbari Albarakani, Ahmed; Khaled Alhag, Abobakr; Ahmed Saeed, Zakaria; Mansour Noman, Nahlah; Mohamed, Khaldon

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucosal delivery of drugs promotes rapid absorption and high bioavailability, with a subsequent immediate onset of pharmacological effect. However, many oral mucosal deliveries are compromised by the possibility of the patient swallowing the active substance before it has been released and absorbed locally into the systemic circulation. The aim of this research was to introduce a new glimepiride formula for sublingual administration and rapid drug absorption that can be used in an emergency. The new sublingual formulation was prepared after five trials to prepare the suitable formulation. Two accepted formulations of the new sublingual product were prepared, but one of them with disintegration time of 1.45 min and searching for preferred formulation, the binder, is changed with Flulac and starch slurry to prepare formula with disintegration time of 21 seconds that supports the aim of research to be used in an emergency. The five formulations were done, after adjusting to the binder as Flulac and aerosil with disintegration time of 21 seconds and accepted hardness as well as the weight variation. The assay of a new product (subglimepiride) is 103% which is a promising result, confirming that the formula succeeded. The new product (subglimepiride) is accepted in most quality control tests and it is ready for marketing. PMID:28261517

  8. Study of non-thermal photon production under different scenarios in solar flares. 1: Scenarios and formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the overall phenomenology involved in solar flares, it is necessary to understand their individual manifestation before building a corresponding description of the global phenomenon. Here the concern is with the production of X and gamma rays in solar flares. Flares are initiated very often within the closed magnetic field configurations of active centers. According (2) when beta = kinetic energy density/magnetic energy density approximately 0.2, the magnetic trap configuration is destructed within the time scale of the impulsive phase of flares ( 100 s). A first particle acceleration stage occurs during this phase as indicated by impulsive microwave and hard X-rays bursts. In some flare events, when the field strength beta is very high, the broken field lines may close again, such that later, in the course of the flash and main phases more hot plasma of very high conductivity is created, and so, the field and frozen plasma expand outward, as the kinetic pressure inside the closed loops increases. The magnetically trapped particles excite strong Alfven wave turbulence of small transverse scale.

  9. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    1.The objective was to identify the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in annual production (PA) and turnover (production/biomass) ratio (P/BA) of resident brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Rio Esva (Cantabrian Mountains, Asturias, north-western Spain). We examined annual production (total production of all age-classes over a year) (PA) and turnover (P/BA) ratios, in relation to year-class production (production over the entire life time of a year-class) (PT) and turnover (P/BT) ratio, over 14years at a total of 12 sites along the length of four contrasting tributaries. In addition, we explored whether the importance of recruitment and site depth for spatial and temporal variations in year-class production (PT), elucidated in previous studies, extends to annual production. 2.Large spatial (among sites) and temporal (among years) variation in annual production (range 1.9-40.3gm-2 per year) and P/BA ratio (range 0.76-2.4per year) typified these populations, values reported here including all the variation reported globally for salmonids streams inhabited by one or several species. 3.Despite substantial differences among streams and sites in all production attributes, when all data were pooled, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios were tightly linked. Annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) were similar but not identical, i.e. PT=0.94 PA, whereas the P/BT ratios were 4+P/BA ratios. 4.Recruitment (Rc) and mean annual density (NA) were major density-dependent drivers of production and their relationships were described by simple mathematical models. While year-class production (PT) was determined (R2=70.1%) by recruitment (Rc), annual production (PA) was determined (R2=60.3%) by mean annual density (NA). In turn, variation in recruitment explained R2=55.2% of variation in year-class P/BT ratios, the latter attaining an asymptote at P/BT=6 at progressively higher levels of recruitment

  10. Mutagenic, recombinogenic and carcinogenic potential of thiamethoxam insecticide and formulated product in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Cássio Resende; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Carvalho Naves, Maria Paula; Araujo, Galber; de Rezende, Alexandre Azenha Alves; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Spanó, Mário Antônio

    2017-11-01

    Thiamethoxam (TMX) belongs to a class of neuro-active insecticides referred as neonicotinoids, while actara(®) (AC) is one of the most popular TMX-based products in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic, recombinogenic and carcinogenic potential of TMX and AC insecticides. The mutagenic and recombinogenic effect of TMX and AC were evaluated in vivo by the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) while carcinogenic effects were evaluated through the Test for Detection of Epithelial Tumor Clones (wts test), both in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. In the SMART, third instar larvae from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses were treated with different concentrations of TMX and AC (2.4; 4.8; 9.7 × 10(-4) mM and 1.9 × 10(-3) mM). The results revealed mutagenic effects at the highest concentrations tested in the HB cross. In the test for the detection of epithelial tumor, third instar larvae resulting from the cross between wts/TM3, Sb(1) virgin females and mwh/mwh males were treated with the same concentrations of TMX and AC used in the SMART. No carcinogenic effect was observed at any of the concentrations tested. In this work, the inhibition of the mechanism of repair by homologous recombination was observed in flies exposed to 9.7 × 10(-4) and 1.9 × 10(-3) mM of AC. In conclusion, TMX and AC demonstrated to be a promutagen in the highest concentrations tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of the diurnal variation of the cold productivity of an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyshchaeva, O.; Kakabaev, A.; Redzhepov, G.

    The paper examines various modes of operation of an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system, which make it possible to extend the operation of the system, which make it possible to extend the operation of the system to periods when there is no sunlight. It is shown that the diurnal variation of cold productivity can be determined through the establishment of the time variation of the water content of the solution. Cold-productivity plots are presented for characteristic modes of operation of the system. Consideration is given to the mode of operation where the period of operation of the refrigeration part coincides with the period of sunlight.

  12. Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton and Primary Production in the Thames River, Southeastern Connecticut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainright, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    A year-long study was performed to investigate seasonal changes in the phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the Thames River, a salt wedge estuary that empties into Long Island Sound in southeastern CT. Chlorophyll measurements were made on discrete filtered samples collected above and below the 1-3 m deep pycnocline at a 5-meter deep station. Surface chlorophyll concentrations, primarily from diatoms, averaged approx. 2 mg m-3, with maxima (up to 10 mg m-3) during summer months (Jun to Aug) and minima during October through March (as low as 0.3 mg m-3). The lower water layer had nearly the same annual average but a smaller range (0.7-3.3 mg m-3) and a winter/spring bloom (Jan-Apr) that was not seen in surface water. During most of the winter, chlorophyll concentrations were higher in the lower layer. Primary production, as measured by 13C uptake in bottle incubations, averaged 67 mgC m-3 h-1 in surface water [range 0.1 (Jan 2012) to 800 mgC m-3 h-1 (Aug 2011)], and 3 mgC m-3 h-1 [range 0.04 (Jan 2012) to 17 mgC m-3 h-1 (Aug 2011)] in the lower layer. On most occasions, deep water incubated near the surface had a higher primary production rate than surface water incubated at the surface; apparently the light-limited phytoplankton in the lower layer were released from light-limitation during these incubations. During the study period there were over a dozen heavy wind or heavy rain events, including Hurricane Irene in August and a freak Nor'easter snow storm in October 2011. Hurricane Irene was associated with a large decline in phytoplankton biomass and primary production. With significant storms as frequent as the rate of sampling, it is difficult to separate a "storm effect" from a background seasonal pattern. The study reveals that phytoplankton, especially those in the lower layer, are light-limited in the Thames River estuary, and that the effects of significant storm events are superimposed on significant seasonal variation.

  13. Variation in pesticide hazard from vegetable production in Great Britain from 1991 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Cross, Paul; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2006-11-01

    Pesticides pose a difficult problem for policy makers as society generally seeks to reduce any adverse impacts of their use, while industry claims they are important contributors to economic success. Attempts to direct policy according to scientific findings are hampered by the multidimensionality of the potential impacts of pesticides which may affect consumers, operators, wildlife and the environment. Pesticide risk indices seek to reduce these multidimensional impacts into a single dimension and have been increasingly used to understand variation in the hazard posed by pesticides at both field and regional level. This study uses one such risk index, the environmental impact quotient (EIQ), to estimate the hazard posed by pesticide usage from 1991 to 2003 on several vegetable crops grown in the UK. Results are reported for the EIQ and for the environmental impact (EI) for brassicas, peas, beans, onions, leeks, lettuce and endives. The EIQ is a dimensionless estimate of the toxicity of a product, while the EI, which combines the EIQ with data on actual usage, estimates the overall hazard of the use of a product. The exact trends in EIQ and EI varied with crop over the period 1991-2003, but overall the EIQ decreased by 19% and the EI decreased by 34%. However, the mean EI per hectare decreased by only 3%. This suggests that some of the observed reduction in EI at the national level may be related more to decrease in crop area than changes in pesticide use and management. If these observed losses in crop area are being replaced by vegetable imports from overseas, then this raises the possibility that the UK is effectively exporting any problems related to pesticide use. The ethics of this remain unclear. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Permeation of topically applied caffeine from a food by-product in cosmetic formulations: Is nanoscale in vitro approach an option?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Ana Catarina; Nunes, Claudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, M Helena; Reis, Salette; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-11-20

    The aim of the present work was to develop and evaluate the potential of nanostructured lipid carriers associated with caffeine extracted from Coffee Silverskin (NLC-CS), a food by-product, as a new possible topical therapy of cellulitis. Caffeine gain increasing research interest due to their cosmetic potential, particularly in gynoid lipodystrophy, commonly known as cellulite. NLC-CS were prepared via double emulsion technique using polysorbate 60 as surfactant and characterized for their morphology, particle size, zeta potential, association encapsulation and stability. The in vitro skin permeation studies were performed on Franz diffusion cells using pig skin ear as permeation membrane and the optimized formulation was compared with a hydroalcoholic solution of Coffee silverskin (CS) extract. NLC-CS were within the nanosized range (≈200nm), with a low polydispersity index (<0.25) and zeta potential values around -30Mv, presenting storage stability up to 180days at 25°C/65% relative humidity (RH) and 40°C/75% RH. The association efficiency (AE) of caffeine was about 30% at production time and after storage period. Cryo-SEM images confirmed the spherical shape of NLC-CS. The in vitro skin permeation study demonstrated that NLC-CS had a similar skin permeation profile when compared to caffeine in CS extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal variation of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in influents, effluents and sludge from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in southern California was studied in winter and summer. All 14 compounds were detected in influent samples from the five WWTPs except for estrone. Paracetamol, naproxen and ibuprofen were the dominant compounds, with mean concentrations of 41.7, 35.7 and 22.3 μg/L, respectively. The treatment removal efficiency for most compounds was more than 90% and concentrations in the effluents were relatively low. Seasonal variation of the compounds' concentration in the wastewater was significant: the total concentration of each compound in the wastewater was higher in winter than in summer, which is attributed to more human consumption of pharmaceuticals during winter and faster degradation of the compounds in summer. The highest concentrations of triclosan and octylphenol were detected in sewage sludge, with mean concentrations of 1505 and 1179 ng/g, respectively. Risk quotients (RQs), expressed as the ratios of environmental concentrations and the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), were less than unity for all the compounds except for estrone in the effluents, indicating no immediate ecological risk is expected. However, RQs were higher than unity for 2 EDCs (estrone and octylphenol) and carbamazepine in sludge samples, indicating a significant ecotoxicological risk to human health. Therefore, appropriate treatment of sewage sludge is required before its application.

  16. Variations in productivity and eolian fluxes in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the past 110 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, Ali; Marcantonio, Franco; Schulz, Hartmut

    2004-04-01

    High-resolution (one to two samples/ka) radionuclide proxy records from core 93KL in the northeastern Arabian Sea provide evidence for millennial climate variability over the past 110 ka. We interpret 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes as a proxy for eolian input, and authigenic uranium concentrations as a proxy for past productivity. We attribute orbital and suborbital variations in both proxies to changes in the intensity of the southwest Indian Ocean monsoon. The highest 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes occur at times that are consistent with the timing of the Younger Dryas, Heinrich events 1-7 and cold Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial events recorded in the GISP2 ice core. Such high dust fluxes may be due to a weakened southwest monsoon in conjunction with strengthened northwesterlies from the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia. Authigenic uranium concentrations, on the other hand, are highest during warm Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials when the southwest monsoon is intensified relative to the northwesterly winds. Our results also indicate that on orbital timescales maximum average eolian fluxes coincide with the timing of marine isotopic stage (MIS) 2 and 4, while minimum fluxes occur during MIS 1, 3 and 5. Although the forcing mechanism(s) controlling suborbital variabilities in monsoonal intensity is still debated, our findings suggest an atmospheric teleconnection between the low-latitude southwest monsoon and North Atlantic climate.

  17. Variation in Alkaloid Production from Genetically Diverse Lolium Accessions Infected with Epichloë Species.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph R; Pratley, James E; Mace, Wade J; Weston, Leslie A

    2015-12-09

    Widespread infection of Epichloë occultans in annual ryegrass in Australia suggests that infection provides its weedy host, Lolium rigidum, some ecological advantage. Initial studies determined the distribution and profiles of known Epichloë alkaloids (epoxy-janthitrems, ergovaline, lolines, lolitrem B, and peramine) in plant extracts using a combination of GC-FID and HPLC techniques utilizing a single accession of Australian L. rigidum. However, the lolines N-acetylnorloline (NANL) and N-formylloline (NFL) were the only alkaloids detected and were highly concentrated in the immature inflorescences of mature plants. Additional glasshouse studies subjected a wide range of Australian L. rigidum haplotypes and international annual Lolium accessions to a suite of analyses to determine alkaloid levels and profiles. Again, NFL and NANL were the key lolines produced, with NFL consistently predominating. Considerable variation in alkaloid production was found both within and between biotypes and accessions evaluated under identical conditions, at the same maturation stage and on the same tissue type. The pyrrolopyrazine alkaloid peramine was also present in 8 out of 17 Australian biotypes of L. rigidum and 7 out of 33 international accessions infected with Epichloë spp.; the highest peramine concentrations were observed in seed extracts from L. rigidum collected from Australia. This study represents the first report of alkaloids from a geographically diverse collection of annual ryegrass germplasm infected with Epichloë spp. when grown under identical controlled conditions.

  18. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application.

  19. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  20. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  1. Variational filtering.

    PubMed

    Friston, K J

    2008-07-01

    This note presents a simple Bayesian filtering scheme, using variational calculus, for inference on the hidden states of dynamic systems. Variational filtering is a stochastic scheme that propagates particles over a changing variational energy landscape, such that their sample density approximates the conditional density of hidden and states and inputs. The key innovation, on which variational filtering rests, is a formulation in generalised coordinates of motion. This renders the scheme much simpler and more versatile than existing approaches, such as those based on particle filtering. We demonstrate variational filtering using simulated and real data from hemodynamic systems studied in neuroimaging and provide comparative evaluations using particle filtering and the fixed-form homologue of variational filtering, namely dynamic expectation maximisation.

  2. Long-term variations in primary production in a eutrophic sub-estuary: Contribution of short-term events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Charles L.; Neale, Patrick J.

    2015-09-01

    We determined the role of events in generating short-term variability in production, how they contribute to interannual variability, and their relationship to variability in the determinants of production, primarily biomass and photo-physiological parameters. We examined residuals from the seasonal and spatial mean daily rate in a 20-year time series of primary production in a eutrophic sub-estuary of Chesapeake Bay. The seasonal and spatial means of production and residuals were based on natural log-transformed measurements of daily primary production calculated from measurements of light saturation curves of photosynthesis for 20 years at 6 stations on the Rhode River, Maryland (USA). The variance of the residuals was greater than that explained by the seasonal and spatial statistical model, so that the event scale was the largest single source of variance. Residuals were classified as events if they exceeded ±ln(2), signifying a multiplier or divisor of 2 above or below the seasonal-spatial mean. Spatially, events were most frequent at the most upstream station affected by runoff from the local watershed, and temporally most frequent in spring at all stations. Principal component analysis (PCA) of monthly averaged residuals revealed 3 characteristic temporal modes of residual variance, the first of which was associated with variability in spring due to the occurrence of extremely large spring blooms or their complete absence. Interannual variation in annual production was correlated with the strength of expression of these modes. Production events were analyzed in relation to residuals in the determinants of productivity, i.e. phytoplankton chlorophyll biomass, B, the light-saturated photosynthetic maximum normalized to chlorophyll, PmaxB , the diffuse attenuation coefficient for light, and the depth integral of the dimensionless photosynthesis profile. Negatively correlated changes in B and PmaxB were the most common mode of variation among the determinants

  3. Does lowering evening rectal temperature to morning levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William R; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Giacomoni, Magali; Robertson, Colin M; Burniston, Jatin G; Waterhouse, James M; Edwards, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral, and central factors and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether decreasing evening resting rectal temperatures to morning values, by immersion in a water tank, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to morning values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 1.3 yrs; body mass, 80.1 ± 7.8 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) completed the study, which was approved by the local ethics committee of the university. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed three sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up on a cycle ergometer at 150 W) and then a further session at 17:30 h but preceded by an immersion in cold water (~16.5 °C) to lower rectal temperature (Trec) to morning values. During each trial, three measures of grip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and three measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric dynamometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Trec, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal comfort (TC) were also measured after the subjects had reclined for 30 min at the start of the protocol and prior to the measures for grip, isokinetic, and isometric dynamometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up or water immersion and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Data were analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures. Trec values were higher at rest in the evening (by 0.37 °C; p < 0.05) than the morning, but

  4. Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

    2013-05-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative

  5. Individual variation and repeatability of methane production from dairy cows estimated by the CO₂ method in automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Haque, M N; Cornou, C; Madsen, J

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the individual variation, repeatability and correlation of methane (CH4) production from dairy cows measured during 2 different years. A total of 21 dairy cows with an average BW of 619 ± 14.2 kg and average milk production of 29.1 ± 6.5 kg/day (mean ± s.d.) were used in the 1st year. During the 2nd year, the same cows were used with an average BW of 640 ± 8.0 kg and average milk production of 33.4 ± 6.0 kg/day (mean ± s.d.). The cows were housed in a loose housing system fitted with an automatic milking system (AMS). A total mixed ration was fed to the cows ad libitum in both years. In addition, they were offered concentrate in the AMS based on their daily milk yield. The CH4 and CO2 production levels of the cows were analysed using a Gasmet DX-4030. The estimated dry matter intake (EDMI) was 19.8 ± 0.96 and 23.1 ± 0.78 (mean ± s.d.), and the energy-corrected milk (ECM) production was 30.8 ± 8.03 and 33.7 ± 5.25 kg/day (mean ± s.d.) during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively. The EDMI and ECM had a significant influence (P<0.001) on the CH4 (l/day) yield during both years. The daily CH4 (l/day) production was significantly higher (P<0.05) during the 2nd year compared with the 1st year. The EDMI (described by the ECM) appeared to be the key factor in the variation of CH4 release. A correlation (r=0.54) of CH4 production was observed between the years. The CH4 (l/day) production was strongly correlated (r=0.70) between the 2 years with an adjusted ECM production (30 kg/day). The diurnal variation of CH4 (l/h) production showed significantly lower (P<0.05) emission during the night (0000 to 0800 h). The between-cows variation of CH4 (l/day, l/kg EDMI and l/kg ECM) was lower compared with the within-cow variation for the 1st and 2nd years. The repeatability of CH4 production (l/day) was 0.51 between 2 years. In conclusion, a higher EDMI (kg/day) followed by a higher ECM (kg/day) showed a higher CH4 production

  6. A quantitative analysis for the ADP-ribosylation activity of pertussis toxin: an enzymatic-HPLC coupled assay applicable to formulated whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine products.

    PubMed

    Cyr, T; Menzies, A J; Calver, J; Whitehouse, L W

    2001-06-01

    The majority of the biological effects of pertussis toxin (PT) are the result of a toxin-catalyzed transfer of an adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADP-ribose) moiety from NAD(+)to the alpha-subunits of a subset of signal-transducing guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). This generally leads to an uncoupling of the modified G-protein from the corresponding receptor and the loss of effector regulation. This assay is based on the PT S1 subunit enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to the cysteine moiety of a fluorescent tagged synthetic peptide homologous to the 20 amino acid residue carboxyl-terminal sequence of the alpha-subunit of the G(i3)protein. The tagged peptide and the ADP-ribosylated product were characterized by HPLC/MS and MS/MS for structure confirmation. Quantitation of this characterized ADP-ribosylated fluorescently tagged peptide was by HPLC fluorescence using Standard Addition methodology. The assay was linear over a five hr incubation period at 20 degrees C at PT concentrations between 0.0625 and 4.0 microg/ml and the sensitivity of the assay could be increased several fold by increasing the incubation time to 24 h. Purified S1 subunit of PT exhibited 68.1+/-10.1% of the activity of the intact toxin on a molar basis, whereas the pertussis toxin B oligomer, the genetically engineered toxoid, (PT-9K/129G), and several of the other components of the Bordetella pertussis organism possessed little (<0.6%) or no detectable ribosylation activity. Commonly used pertussis vaccine reference materials, US PV Lot #11, BRP PV 66/303, and BRP PV 88/522, were assayed by this method against Bordetella pertussis Toxin Standard 90/518 and demonstrated to contain, respectively, 0.323+/-0.007, 0.682+/-0.045, and 0.757+/-0.006 microg PT/ml (Mean+/-SEM) or in terms of microg/vial: 3.63, 4.09 and 4.54, respectively. A survey of several multivalent pertussis vaccine products formulated with both whole cell as well as acellular components indicated that

  7. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products. Chemical characterization and computer modeling of the exhaust products from four propellant formulations: Final report, September 23, 1987--April 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army`s Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  8. Data assimilation in a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the California Current System using an incremental lognormal 4-dimensional variational approach: Part 1-Model formulation and biological data assimilation twin experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hajoon; Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Fiechter, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    A quadratic formulation for an incremental lognormal 4-dimensional variational assimilation method (incremental L4DVar) is introduced for assimilation of biogeochemical observations into a 3-dimensional ocean circulation model. L4DVar assumes that errors in the model state are lognormally rather than Gaussian distributed, and implicitly ensures that state estimates are positive definite, making this approach attractive for biogeochemical variables. The method is made practical for a realistic implementation having a large state vector through linear assumptions that render the cost function quadratic and allow application of existing minimization techniques. A simple nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model is coupled to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and configured for the California Current System. Quadratic incremental L4DVar is evaluated in a twin model framework in which biological fields only are in error and compared to G4DVar which assumes Gaussian distributed errors. Five-day assimilation cycles are used and statistics from four years of model integration analyzed. The quadratic incremental L4DVar results in smaller root-mean-squared errors and better statistical agreement with reference states than G4DVar while maintaining a positive state vector. The additional computational cost and implementation effort are trivial compared to the G4DVar system, making quadratic incremental L4DVar a practical and beneficial option for realistic biogeochemical state estimation in the ocean.

  9. Yeast and lactic acid flora of tej, an indigenous Ethiopian honey wine: variations within and between production units.

    PubMed

    Bahiru, Bekele; Mehari, Tetemke; Ashenafi, Mogessie

    2006-05-01

    A total of 200 samples of tej, an indigenous Ethiopian honey wine, were collected from ten production units at different production times. The samples were analysed for their microbial flora. Mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and aerobic spores for the different production units were <3 log cfu/ml. Coliforms and other members of Enterobacteriaceae were below detectable levels basically due to the low pH of the samples (<4.0). Yeasts were among the dominant micro-organisms in all samples with mean counts of 6 log cfu/ml for all production units. Over 25% of the yeast isolates belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae followed by Kluyvermyces bulgaricus (16%), Debaromyces phaffi (14%) and K. veronae (10%). Yeast counts showed significant variation within samples of a production unit (CV>10%) and difference in counts among all samples was also significant (P<0.01). The lactic acid bacteria had counts of 6 log cfu/ml with a significant variation within samples of a production unit (CV>10%) or among all samples (P<0.01). In most production units, the heterolactics had higher counts than the homolactics. The lactic flora consisted of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus species. The lactobacilli were, however, the most frequently encountered groups. In most of the samples, the lactic flora was dominated by two (49.5%) or three (46%) groups of lactic acid bacteria.

  10. The effect of platelet-rich plasma formulations and blood products on human synoviocytes: implications for intra-articular injury and therapy.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hillary J; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Chu, Constance R; Dragoo, Jason L

    2014-05-01

    The effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on chondrocytes has been studied in cell and tissue culture, but considerably less attention has been given to the effect of PRP on synoviocytes. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) compose 80% of the normal human synovium and produce cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases that can mediate cartilage catabolism. To compare the effects of leukocyte-rich PRP (LR-PRP), leukocyte-poor PRP (LP-PRP), red blood cell (RBC) concentrate, and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on human FLS to determine whether leukocyte and erythrocyte concentrations of PRP formulations differentially affect the production of inflammatory mediators. Controlled laboratory study. Peripheral blood was obtained from 4 donors and processed to create LR-PRP, LP-PRP, RBCs, and PPP. Human synoviocytes were cultured for 96 hours with the respective experimental conditions using standard laboratory conditions. Cell viability and inflammatory mediator production were then evaluated. Treatment with LR-PRP resulted in significantly greater synoviocyte death (4.9% ± 3.1%) compared with LP-PRP (0.72% ± 0.70%; P = .035), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (0.39% ± 0.27%; P = .018), and PPP (0.26% ± 0.30%; P = .013). Synoviocytes treated with RBC concentrate demonstrated significantly greater cell death (12.5% ± 6.9%) compared with PBS (P < .001), PPP (P < .001), LP-PRP (P < .001), and LR-PRP (4.9% ± 3.1%; P < .001). Interleukin (IL)-1β content was significantly higher in cultures treated with LR-PRP (1.53 ± 0.86 pg/mL) compared with those treated with PBS (0.22 ± 0.295 pg/mL; P < .001), PPP (0.11 ± 0.179 pg/mL; P < .001), and RBCs (0.64 ± 0.58 pg/mL; P = .001). IL-6 content was also higher with LR-PRP (32,097.82 ± 22,844.300 pg/mL) treatment in all other groups (P < .001). Tumor necrosis factor-α levels were greatest in LP-PRP (9.97 ± 3.110 pg/mL), and this was significantly greater compared with all other culture conditions (P < .001). Interferon-γ levels were

  11. Individual variation in acorn production by five species of southern Appalachian oaks

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2000-01-01

    Acorns are an important wildlife food resource and seed source for oak regeneration. Most acorn production studies note wide and consistent differences in acorn productivity among individuals, but none clearly demonstrate determinants of productivity. Acorn production by black, northern red, scarlet, chestnut, and white oak was measured from 1993 to 1997 in the...

  12. Genotype-Specific Variation in the Structure of Root Fungal Communities Is Related to Chickpea Plant Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Knight, Joan Diane

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the existence of variations in the association of plant roots with symbiotic fungi that can improve plant growth and inhibit pathogens. However, it is unclear whether intraspecific variations in the symbiosis exist among plant cultivars and if they can be used to improve crop productivity. In this study, we determined genotype-specific variations in the association of chickpea roots with soil fungal communities and evaluated the effect of root mycota on crop productivity. A 2-year field experiment was conducted in southwestern Saskatchewan, the central zone of the chickpea growing region of the Canadian prairie. The effects of 13 cultivars of chickpea, comprising a wide range of phenotypes and genotypes, were tested on the structure of root-associated fungal communities based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 18S rRNA gene markers using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Chickpea cultivar significantly influenced the structure of the root fungal community. The magnitude of the effect varied with the genotypes evaluated, and effects were consistent across years. For example, the roots of CDC Corrine, CDC Cory, and CDC Anna hosted the highest fungal diversity and CDC Alma and CDC Xena the lowest. Fusarium sp. was dominant in chickpea roots but was less abundant in CDC Corrine than the other cultivars. A bioassay showed that certain of these fungal taxa, including Fusarium species, can reduce the productivity of chickpea, whereas Trichoderma harzianum can increase chickpea productivity. The large variation in the profile of chickpea root mycota, which included growth-promoting and -inhibiting species, supports the possibility of improving the productivity of chickpea by improving its root mycota in chickpea genetic improvement programs using traditional breeding techniques. PMID:25616789

  13. Plant diversity maintains long-term ecosystem productivity under frequent drought by increasing short-term variation.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Cameron; O'Brien, Michael J; Vogel, Anja; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico; Schmid, Bernhard; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2017-09-04

    Increasing frequency of extreme climatic events can disrupt ecosystem processes and destabilize ecosystem functioning. Biodiversity may dampen these negative effects of environmental perturbations to provide greater ecosystem stability. We assessed the effects of plant diversity on the resistance, recovery and stability of experimental grassland ecosystems in response to recurring summer drought over seven years. Plant biomass production was reduced during the summer drought treatment compared with control plots. However, the negative effect of drought was relatively less pronounced at high than at low plant diversity, demonstrating that biodiversity increased ecosystem resistance to environmental perturbation. Furthermore, more diverse plant communities compensated for the reduced productivity during drought by increasing spring productivity compared to control plots. The drought-induced compensatory recovery led to increased short-term variations in productivity across growing seasons in more diverse communities that stabilized the longer-term productivity across years. Our findings show that short-term variation between seasons in the face of environmental perturbation can lead to longer-term stability of annual productivity in diverse ecosystems compared to less diverse ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Wide Variations in Blood Product Transfusion Practices among Providers Who Care for Patients with Acute Leukemia in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Alexander B; Lee, Eun-Ju; Sekeres, Mikkael; Steensma, David P; Zelterman, Daniel; Prebet, Thomas; DeZern, Amy; Komrokji, Rami; Litzow, Mark; Luger, Selina; Stone, Richard; Erba, Harry P; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Lee, Alfred I; Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Barbarotta, Lisa; Kasberg, Stephanie; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Gore, Steven D; Zeidan, Amer M

    2017-01-01

    Background Transfusion of blood products is a key component of the supportive management in patients with acute leukemia (AL). However high-quality trial evidence and clinical outcome data to support specific transfusion goals for blood products for patients with AL remain limited leading to diverse transfusion practices. The primary objective of this study was to determine the spectrum of transfusion patterns in a variety of care settings among providers who treat AL patients. Study design and Methods A 31-question survey queried providers caring for AL patients about the existence of institutional guidelines for transfusion of blood products, transfusion triggers for hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLTs), and fibrinogen in various settings including inpatient, outpatient, and before procedures. Results We analyzed 130 responses and identified divergent transfusion Hb goals in hospitalized and ambulatory patients, fibrinogen goals for cryoprecipitate transfusions, and variation in practice for use of certain PLTs and red blood cell products. The least variable transfusion patterns were reported for PLT goals in thrombocytopenia and in the setting of invasive procedures such as bone marrow biopsy and lumbar punctures. Conclusions This survey confirmed wide variations in blood product transfusion practices across several clinical scenarios in patients with AL. The findings emphasized the need for large prospective randomized trials to develop standardized evidence-based guidelines for blood product transfusions in patients with AL with the goal of limiting unnecessary transfusions without compromising outcomes. PMID:27878822

  15. Time variation of radiation use efficiency of a semiarid grassland: consequences for remotely sensed estimation of primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Seen, Danny L.; Rambal, S.; Begue, Agnes; Moran, M. Susan; Kerr, Yann H.; Qi, Jiaguo

    1998-12-01

    A reliable estimation of primary production of terrestrial ecosystems is often a prerequisite for carrying out land management, while being important also in ecological and climatological studies. At a regional scale, grassland primary production estimates are increasingly being made using satellite data. In a currently used approach, regional Gross, Net and Above-ground Net Primary Productivity (GPP, NPP and ANPP) are derived from the parametric model of Monteith and are calculated as the product of the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the canopy (fAPAR) and gross, net and above-ground net production (radiation-use) efficiencies ((epsilon) g, (epsilon) n, (epsilon) an); fAPAR being derived from indices calculated from satellite measured reflectances in the red and near infrared. The accuracy and realism of the primary production values estimated by this approach therefore largely depend on an accurate estimation of (epsilon) g, (epsilon) n and (epsilon) an. However, data are scarce for production efficiencies of semi-arid grasslands, and their time and spatial variations are poorly documented, leading to often large errors on the estimates. In this paper a modeling approach taking into account relevant ecosystem processes and based on extensive field data, is used to estimate sub- seasonal and inter-annual variations of (epsilon) g, (epsilon) n and (epsilon) an of a shortgrass site of Arizona, and to quantitatively explain these variations by these of plant water stress, temperature, leaf aging, and processes such as respiration and changes in allocation pattern. For example, over the 3 study years, the mean (epsilon) g, (epsilon) n, and (epsilon) an were found to be 1.92, 0.74 and 0.29 g DM (MJ APAR)-1 respectively. (epsilon) g and epsilonn exhibited very important inter- annual and seasonal variations mainly due to different water stress conditions during the growing season. Inter-annual variations of (epsilon) an were much

  16. New European commission regulation on variations to the terms of marketing authorization for medicinal products and its impact on Croatian legislation.

    PubMed

    Martinac, Adrijana Ilić; Tomić, Sinisa; Simicić, Mirna

    2010-09-01

    Variations introduced to medicinal product documentation must not affect the quality, efficacy, and safety of the product. Croatian Medicinal Products Act and accompanying ordinances are largely aligned with the EU regulations. The EU has now tried to simplify the issue of variations with a new Regulation, creating differences in the definition of and approach to resolving certain types of variations between Croatia and the EU. These differences could hinder the approval procedure for variations in Croatia, particularly for medicines already approved in the EU. Amending the Croatian Ordinance on medicines already authorised in the EU would be one way of maintaining the efficiency of the Croatian regulatory system.

  17. Toxicity of agrochemical formulations.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Neil G

    2005-01-01

    Most agrochemicals have physicochemical properties that make it impractical to apply them directly to crops and other targets. It is necessary to provide a concentrate of the active ingredient, to which formulation agents have been added to allow dilution with water for spraying. These ingredients perform several functions, including emulsifying, solubilizing, antifoaming, and the like. The properties of these materials are not intended to include pesticidal activity. However, some of these materials may have intrinsic toxicologic properties that should be taken into account in an overall evaluation of the safety of the product. In agriculture, exposure to these materials is sporadic and seasonal. The testing of the complete formulation is based on the evaluation of this risk, and it is concentrated on the evaluation of the short-term exposure to the concentrated product. Many of these substances are rather banal and are generally regarded as safe. Exceptions to this rule do exist, particularly concerning solvents; in such cases a fuller data package is necessary to perform risk assessment.

  18. Elucidation of Formulation and Delivery Device-Related Effects on In Vitro Performance of Nasal Spray with Implication to Rational Product Specification Identification.

    PubMed

    Grmaš, Jernej; Stare, Katarina; Božič, Dane; Injac, Rade; Dreu, Rok

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work is to use an experimental design approach to identify and study influential formulation and delivery device properties, which can be controlled by final product manufacturer, to establish design space, within which desired in vitro performance can be reached. Combining three factors, viscosity of suspension, nozzle orifice diameter (OD), and shot weight (SW), at three levels resulted in D-optimal experimental design with 20 runs. Responses within this study were droplet size distribution (DSD) and spray pattern (SP) in vitro tests. In addition, the amount of mechanical work needed for actuation was integrated from force profiles and used as a response. Results were fit to quadratic model by regression, which allowed also for determination of second-order and interaction effects between factors. Models were further optimized by keeping significant terms only. Optimized models were used to create response surfaces and design space with confidence levels. Viscosity has a dominant effect on DSD and modest effect on SP, with lower viscosities related to generation of smaller DSD and larger SP. Orifice diameter was found to have the highest impact on SP, with larger diameter resulting in larger SP. This effect was additionally confirmed by results of Plume Geometry in vitro test. Shot weight factor exerts significant influence on all tested metrics. Work, however, did not vary greatly with suspension viscosity or orifice diameter. Shot weight is the most dominant factor for work and important for DSD having a positive effect on both responses. In the case of SP, its relationship with shot weight is described by second-order polynomial fit. Inspection of raw data revealed that density of droplets within SP area is different for different shot weights. Presented study elucidated an inherent relationship between factors and responses and established mathematical models (response surfaces) for predictive purposes to target specific in vitro performance

  19. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  20. Effect of a prolonged release formulation of recombinant bovine somatotropin on plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hodate, K; Ozawa, A; Johke, T

    1991-10-01

    The effect of a prolonged release formulation of recombinant DNA derived bovine somatotropin (rbST) on the plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and milk production in lactating dairy cows was studied. Eight cows were divided into two equal groups. One group was the noninjected control, and cows in the other group received a single subcutaneous injection of 640 mg rbST. Plasma GH levels in the rbST-treated cows were higher than in the control cows for 10 days after the injection. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were significantly higher in the rbST-treated cows than in the control for 14 days after the treatment. In the rbST-treated cows, the plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose tended to be higher than those in the control until 7 days after the injection. Also, plasma NEFA levels were higher in the rbST-treated cows for 10 days. In contrast, plasma BUN levels were significantly lower in the rbST-treated cows for 17 days after the treatment. For 28 days after the injection, the mean daily milk yield in rbST-treated cows was 4.5 kg (21.2%) more than that in the control cows. In the rbST-treated cows, a highly positive correlation was observed between the mean daily milk yield and the mean plasma concentration of IGF-I throughout the postinjection period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. High antioxidant activity mixture of extruded whole quality protein maize and common bean flours for production of a nutraceutical beverage elaborated with a traditional Mexican formulation.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Argüelles-López, Oscar D; Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Rivera-López, Javier; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; López-Valenzuela, José A; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the best combination of extrusion process variables for the production of whole quality protein maize (EQPMF) and common bean (ECBF) flours to prepare a high antioxidant activity mixture (EQPMF + ECBF) suitable to produce a nutraceutical beverage with high acceptability elaborated with a traditional Mexican formulation. Processing conditions were obtained from a factorial combination of barrel temperature (BT = 120-170 °C) and screw speed (SS = 120-200 rpm). Response surface methodology was applied to obtain maximum values for antioxidant activity (A ( ox ) A) of the flour mixture (EQPMF + ECBF) and acceptability (A) of the nutraceutical beverage. The best combinations of extrusion process variables for EQPMF and ECBF to prepare an optimized mixture (60%EQPMF + 40%ECBF) were BT = 98 °C/SS = 218 rpm and BT = 105 °C/SS = 83 rpm, respectively. The optimized mixture had A ( ox ) A = 14,320 μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g sample dry weight (dw) and a calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of 2.17. A 200 ml portion of a beverage prepared with 25 g of the optimized flour mixture had A ( ox ) A = 3,222 μmol TE, and A = 89 (level of satisfaction "I like it extremely"). This nutraceutical beverage could be used as an alternative to beverages with low nutritional/nutraceutical value, such as those prepared with water, simple sugars, artificial flavoring and colorants, which are widely offered in the market.

  2. Flow analysis-hydride generation-gas phase derivative molecular absorption spectrophotometric determination of antimony in oral homeopathic products ("AntimoniumTartaricum") formulated under alcoholic medium.

    PubMed

    Gallignani, Máximo; Ovalles, Fernando; Brunetto, Maria Del Rosario; Burguera, Marcela; Burguera, Jose Luis

    2005-12-15

    In this work, a flow analysis-hydride generation-gas phase derivative molecular absorption-(UV) spectrophotometric method has been developed for the direct determination of antimony in aqueous and hydro-alcoholic samples. Antimony (III) from undiluted samples is directly transformed into the gaseous stibine (SbH(3)) form by on-line reaction with sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH(4)) in acidic medium (HCl). The gaseous phase generated is separated from the liquid phase using a commercial gas-liquid separator, and swept - with the help of a carrier gas (N(2)) stream - into a quartz gas cell (10cm pathlength); where the corresponding absorption spectrum is acquired in a continuous mode over the 190-300nm wavelength range, using a conventional spectrophotometer. A derivative strategy was selected in order to avoid the strong spectral interference of the ethanol vapor on the gaseous SbH(3) absorption spectrum. In this way, the peak height at 223nm of the second order derivative spectrum appears as a clear, clean and interference free analytical signal, which allows the direct determination of antimony. The recovery values obtained from homeopathic formulations (prepared in alcoholic medium) spiked with know amounts of antimony ranged between 97.5 and 103%. The method provides a dynamic range from 0.20 to 30mgSbl(-1). The precision (RDS), evaluated by replicate analysis (n=5) of samples and standard solution containing between 2.5 and 15mgSbl(-1) was in all cases lower than 1.2%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of antimony in commercial homeopathic products ("Antimonium Tartaricum") prepared in hydro-alcoholic medium; and showed to be simple, precise, and accurate.

  3. Correction of in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates for geomagnetic field intensity variations during the past 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Jozef; Frank, Martin; Schäfer, Jörg M.; Wieler, Rainer

    2001-09-01

    We present integrated relative production rates for cosmogenic nuclides in rock surfaces, which take into account reported variations of the geomagnetic field intensity during the past 800,000 yr. The calculations are based on the model simulating cosmic ray particle interactions with the Earth's atmosphere given by Masarik and Beer ["Simulation of particle fluxes and cosmogenic nuclide production in the Earth's atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 104(D10), 12099-12111, 1999]. Corrections are nearly independent on altitude between sea level and at least 5000 m. The correction factors are essentially identical for all stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides with half-lives longer than a few hundred thousand years. At the equator, integrated production rates for exposure ages between ˜40,000 to 800,000 yr are 10 to 12% higher than the present-day values, whereas at latitudes >40°, geomagnetic field intensity variations have hardly influenced in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Correction factors for in situ 14C production rates differ from those of longer-lived nuclides. They are always smaller than ˜2% because the magnetic field intensity remained rather constant during the past ˜10 kyr, when the major fraction of the 14C extant today was produced.

  4. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwani, Meenakshi; Mishra, Sanjay K; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Sihota, Ramanjit; Kotnala, Ankita; Bhartiya, Shibal; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Comparative evaluation of pharmaceutical characteristics of three marketed generic vs branded travoprost formulations. Materials and methods: Three generic travoprost formulations and one branded (Travatan without benzalkonium chloride) formulation (10 vials each), obtained from authorized agents from the respective companies and having the same batch number, were used. These formulations were coded and labels were removed. At a standardized room temperature of 25°C, the drop size, pH, relative viscosity, and total drops per vial were determined for Travatan (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) and all the generic formulations. Travoprost concentration in all four brands was estimated by using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry LCMS. Results: Out of the four formulations, two drugs (TP 1 and TP 4) were found to follow the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) limits for ophthalmic formulation regarding drug concentration, while the remaining two drugs failed due to the limits being either above 110% (TP 2) or below 90% (TP 3). Two of them (TP 1 and TP 2) had osmolality of 313 and 262 mOsm respectively, which did not comply with the osmolality limits within 300 mOsm (+ 10%). The pH of all the formulations ranged between 4.7 and 5.9, and the mean drop size was 30.23 ± 6.03 uL. The total amount of drug volume in the bottles varied from 2.58 ± 0.15 to 3.38 ± 0.06 mL/bottle. Conclusion: There are wide variations in the physical properties of generic formulations available in India. Although some generic drugs are compliant with the pharmacopeia standards, this study underscores the need for a better quality control in the production of generic travoprost formulations. How to cite this article: Wadhwani M, Mishra SK, Angmo D, Velpandian T, Sihota R, Kotnala A, Bhartiya S, Dada T. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2016;10(2):49-55. PMID:27536047

  5. Continuous production of controlled release dosage forms based on hot-melt extruded gum arabic: Formulation development, in vitro characterization and evaluation of potential application fields.

    PubMed

    Kipping, Thomas; Rein, Hubert

    2016-01-30

    Controlled release matrices based on gum arabic are prepared by applying a continuous hot-melt extrusion technology: the pre-mixture consisting of gum arabic and the incorporated API is plasticized by a co-rotating twin-screw extruder, an intermediate strand is formed by a round nozzle. Single dosed matrices are prepared by cutting the semi elastic strand with a rotary fly cutter. Paracetamol and phenazone are used as model drug substances. High drug loadings up to 70% can be realized. Matrices are characterized concerning their crystalline structure, in vitro dissolution, disintegration time and various physical parameters including glass transition temperature (Tg). Release characteristic behavior is mainly influenced by erosion of the matrices. At higher drug loadings also diffusion based transport gain importance. The solubility of the API shows an influence on the erosion rate of the matrix and should therefore be considered during formulation development. Tg is mainly influenced by the solubility of the API in the surrounding matrix. High soluble phenazone shows a decrease, whereas paracetamol addition has nearly no influence on the Tg of the polymeric system. Activation energy (EA) of the glass transition is determined via dynamic mechanical analysis. The addition of APIs leads to a reduction of EA indicating an increased molecular movement at Tg region compared to placebo extrudates. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the crystalline state of the extruded matrices and interaction between matrix and incorporated APIs. The production of thin layer matrices is an interesting option to provide a fast drug delivery to the oral cavity. High mechanical strength combined with fast disintegration times can be a great advantage for the development of oro-dispersible tablets. A great benefit of the evaluated processing technology is the simple adaption of the final dose by varying either the cutting length or the diameter of the nozzle resulting in a cost

  6. Discovery of Genetic Variation that Enhances Improvement of Dairy Production and Health in Cattle and Buffalos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hypothesis underlying this project is that genome-wide information on genetic variation will increase accuracy of predictions of genetic merit; will enhance heritability and reliability of these predictions through improved pedigree information; and will improve detection of most quantitative tr...

  7. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  8. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  9. Production of different phenotypes from the same genotype in the same environment by developmental variation.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Günter; Huber, Martin; Thiemann, Markus; van den Boogaart, Gerald; Schmitz, Oliver J; Schubart, Christoph D

    2008-02-01

    The phenotype of an organism is determined by the genes, the environment and stochastic developmental events. Although recognized as a basic biological principle influencing life history, susceptibility to diseases, and probably evolution, developmental variation (DV) has been only poorly investigated due to the lack of a suitable model organism. This obstacle could be overcome by using the recently detected, robust and highly fecund parthenogenetic marbled crayfish as an experimental animal. Batch-mates of this clonal crayfish, which were shown to be isogenic by analysis of nuclear microsatellite loci, exhibited surprisingly broad ranges of variation in coloration, growth, life-span, reproduction, behaviour and number of sense organs, even when reared under identical conditions. Maximal variation was observed for the marmorated coloration, the pattern of which was unique in each of the several hundred individuals examined. Variation among identically raised batch-mates was also found with respect to fluctuating asymmetry, a traditional indicator of the epigenetic part of the phenotype, and global DNA methylation, an overall molecular marker of an animal's epigenetic state. Developmental variation was produced in all life stages, probably by reaction-diffusion-like patterning mechanisms in early development and non-linear, self-reinforcing circuitries involving behaviour and metabolism in later stages. Our data indicate that, despite being raised in the same environment, individual genotypes can map to numerous phenotypes via DV, thus generating variability among clone-mates and individuality in a parthenogenetic species. Our results further show that DV, an apparently ubiquitous phenomenon in animals and plants, can introduce components of randomness into life histories, modifying individual fitness and population dynamics. Possible perspectives of DV for evolutionary biology are discussed.

  10. Design and evaluation of a new formulation of enalapril maleate tablet.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Rehana; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Rahim, Najia

    2011-04-01

    Enalapril maleate, one of the Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor is effective in the treatment of hypertension. Enalapril maleate is selected for the present study. The aim of this study was to develop a new formulation of Enalapril maleate tablet and its comparative evaluation with other formulations of Enalapril maleate tablet that are listed in the local index of registered pharmaceutical products. To accomplish this task, a new formulation of Enalapril maleate tablet has been developed by direct compression method. All formulation tablets with 5mg potency were selected and the new formulation tablets were also developed with 5mg potency. For new formulation as well as for six available formulations of Enalapril maleate tablets, various pharmaceutical parameters namely weight variation, thickness, hardness test; friability test, disintegration test, dissolution test and pharmaceutical assay were performed in accordance with United States Pharmacopeias (USP). The results of all the above tests were within the specified limits as mentioned in USP, whereas hardness test results for two formulations were deviated from the specified limits. It is concluded that direct compression can be used as an alternate method for the manufacture of Enalapril maleate tablet.

  11. Development and experimental design of a novel controlled-release matrix tablet formulation for indapamide hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Antovska, Packa; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Petruševski, Gjorgji; Stefanova, Bosilka; Manchevska, Blagica; Petkovska, Rumenka; Makreski, Petre

    2017-11-01

    Development, experimental design and in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of controlled-release matrix formulation. Development of novel oral controlled delivery system for indapamide hemihydrate, optimization of the formulation by experimental design and evaluation regarding IVIVC on a pilot scale batch as a confirmation of a well-established formulation. In vitro dissolution profiles of controlled-release tablets of indapamide hemihydrate from four different matrices had been evaluated in comparison to the originator's product Natrilix (Servier) as a direction for further development and optimization of a hydroxyethylcellulose-based matrix controlled-release formulation. A central composite factorial design had been applied for the optimization of a chosen controlled-release tablet formulation. The controlled-release tablets with appropriate physical and technological properties had been obtained with a matrix: binder concentration variations in the range: 20-40w/w% for the matrix and 1-3w/w% for the binder. The experimental design had defined the design space for the formulation and was prerequisite for extraction of a particular formulation that would be a subject for transfer on pilot scale and IVIV correlation. The release model of the optimized formulation has shown best fit to the zero order kinetics depicted with the Hixson-Crowell erosion-dependent mechanism of release. Level A correlation was obtained.

  12. Process variation monitoring (PVM) by wafer inspection tool as a complementary method to CD-SEM for mapping field CDU on advanced production devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Jong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Kim, Chul Hong; Lee, Hak Kwon; Kim, Sung Su; Bae, Koon Ho; Spielberg, Hedvi; Lee, Yun Ho; Levi, Shimon; Bustan, Yariv; Rozentsvige, Moshe

    2010-03-01

    As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) have a dramatic effect on printed final lines and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, layer stack thickness, composition variations, and exposure variations. Process variations, in advanced VLSI production designs, specifically in memory devices, attributed to CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations. These variations significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or OCD metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time to set and cover only selected points of wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials and Hynix Semiconductor Inc. on the implementation of a complementary method to the CDSEM and OCD tools, to monitor defect density and post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM) is based on measuring variations in the scattered light from periodic structures. The application is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV bright field (BF) wafer inspection tool under optimized illumination and collection conditions. The UVisionTM has already passed a successful feasibility study on DRAM products with 66nm and 54nm design rules. The tool has shown high sensitivity to variations across an FEM wafer in both exposure and focus axes. In this article we show how PVM can help detection of Field to Field variations on DRAM wafers with 44nm design rule during normal production run. The complex die layout and the shrink in cell dimensions require high sensitivity to local variations within Dies or Fields. During normal scan of production wafers local Process variations are translated into GL (Grey Level) values

  13. An Investigation of the Effect of Production Rate Variation on Direct Labor Requirements for Missile Production Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Model Coefficient Variability Modelo B0 as0 1 A81 a Model Reduced Full (%) Reduced Full (%) 2 1 1775 1882 6 -.20 -.19 -5 -.04 2 1863 1890 1.4...b for Production Program Stretchouts," National Manage- ment Journal, Spring 1969, pp . 25-41. 9. Large, Joseph P., Karl Hoffmayer, and Frank

  14. Evidence for variations in magma production along oceanic spreading centers - A critical appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karson, J. A.; Elthon, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of the oceanic lithosphere near fracture zones have resulted in the proposal that the 'magma budget', defined as the amount of magma delivered to magma chambers or conduits beneath a spreading center for a given amount of spreading, decreases as fracture zones are approached. Geochemical variations in basaltic glasses collected near fracture zones are consistent with a decrease in partial melting as fracture zones are approached, but they could also be produced by variations in open-system magmatic processes with no change in the extent of partial melting. Although a decrease in the magma budget as fracture zones are approached is consistent with these data, so are alternative models that incorporate a constant magma budget.

  15. Variations in productivity and performance in grade lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia-1982

    Treesearch

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1987-01-01

    Sawmill effectiveness is crucial to the growth and development of wood industries among locales, states, regions, and countries. Productivity ratios, structural factors, and other indicators of economic performance were used to measure the relative productive efficiency of the grade hardwood lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Despite...

  16. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile; Gregg, Watson

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton is responsible for over half of the net primary production on earth. The knowledge on the contribution of various phytoplankton groups to the total primary production is still poorly understood. Data from satellite observations suggest that for upwelling regions, photosynthetic rates by microplankton is higher than that of nanoplankton but that when the spatial extent is considered, the production by nanoplankton is comparable or even larger than microplankton. Here, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (approx. 50%) followed by coccolithophores and chlorophytes. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (>45 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nino Index, MEI) and 'regional' climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability. These results provide a modeling and data assimilation perspective to phytoplankton partitioning of primary production and contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of the carbon cycle in the oceans at a global scale.

  17. Landscape variation in the diet and productivity of reindeer in Alaska based on stable isotope analyses

    Treesearch

    Gregory L. Finstad; Knut Kielland

    2011-01-01

    Productivity of a managed grazing system is dependent upon both the grazing strategy of ungulates and decisions made by humans. Herds of domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) graze on discrete ranges of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska with variable production rates. We show that the 15N natural abundance of reindeer...

  18. Comment on "Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust".

    PubMed

    Goff, John A

    2015-09-04

    Crowley et al. (Reports, 13 March 2015, p. 1237) propose that abyssal hill topography can be generated by variations in volcanism at mid-ocean ridges modulated by Milankovitch cycle-driven changes in sea level. Published values for abyssal hill characteristic widths versus spreading rate do not generally support this hypothesis. I argue that abyssal hills are primarily fault-generated rather than volcanically generated features.

  19. Mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequence variations: an approach to fish species identification in processed fish products.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Tiziana; Trotta, Michele; di Marco, Isolina; Cennamo, Paola; Anastasio, Aniello; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2005-02-01

    The identification of fish species in food products is problematic because morphological features of the fish are partially or completely lost during processing. It is important to determine fish origin because of the increasing international seafood trade and because European Community Regulation 104/2000 requires that the products be labeled correctly. Sequence analysis of PCR products from a conserved region of the cytochrome b gene was used to identity fish species belonging to the families Gadidae and Merluccidae in 18 different processed fish products. This method allowed the identification of fish species in all samples. Fish in all of the examined products belonged to these two families, with the exception of one sample of smoked baccalà (salt cod), which was not included in the Gadidae cluster.

  20. Irreversibility and entropy production in transport phenomena, IV: Symmetry, integrated intermediate processes and separated variational principles for multi-currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of entropy production in transport phenomena is discussed again by emphasizing the role of symmetry of non-equilibrium states and also by reformulating Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion to derive entropy production from it. This yields conceptual reviews of the previous papers [M. Suzuki, Physica A 390 (2011) 1904; 391 (2012) 1074; 392 (2013) 314]. Separated variational principles of steady states for multi external fields {Xi} and induced currents {Ji} are proposed by extending the principle of minimum integrated entropy production found by the present author for a single external field. The basic strategy of our theory on steady states is to take in all the intermediate processes from the equilibrium state to the final possible steady states in order to study the irreversible physics even in the steady states. As an application of this principle, Gransdorff-Prigogine’s evolution criterion inequality (or stability condition) dXP≡∫dr∑iJidXi≤0 is derived in the stronger form dQi≡∫drJidXi≤0 for individual force Xi and current Ji even in nonlinear responses which depend on all the external forces {Xk} nonlinearly. This is called “separated evolution criterion”. Some explicit demonstrations of the present general theory to simple electric circuits with multi external fields are given in order to clarify the physical essence of our new theory and to realize the condition of its validity concerning the existence of the solutions of the simultaneous equations obtained by the separated variational principles. It is also instructive to compare the two results obtained by the new variational theory and by the old scheme based on the instantaneous entropy production. This seems to be suggestive even to the energy problem in the world.

  1. Evidence for variations in magma production along oceanic spreading centers - A critical appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karson, J. A.; Elthon, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent geologic, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the oceanic lithosphere near fracture zones have resulted in the proposal that the 'magma budget,' defined as the amount of magma delivered to magma chambers or conduits beneath a spreading center for a given amount of spreading, decreases as fracture zones are approached. Seismic reflection and refraction studies indicate that the crust becomes anomalously thin near fracture zones, but reference must be made to the boundary between residual upper mantle peridotites and overlying cumulate rocks in order to assess potential variations in the magma budget. The position of this interface, however, generally is not constrained by geophysical studies. Geochemical variations in basaltic glasses collected near fracture zones are consistent with a decrease in partial melting as fracture zones are approached, but they could also be produced by variations in open-system magmatic processes with no change in the extent of partial melting. Although a decrease in the magma budget as fracture zones are approached is consistent with these data, so are alternative models that incorporate a constant magma budget.

  2. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-Specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2014-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (50, the equivalent of 20 PgC y-1. Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed to 20 (7 PgC y-1 of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10 (4 PgC y(sub-1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (45) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4 (1-2 PgC y-1. We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nio Index, MEI) and regional climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p 0.05) between the MEI and the class-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatomscyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect on the class-specific primary production in the Southern Ocean. These results provide a modeling and

  3. Titan-like exoplanets: Variations in geometric albedo and effective transit height with haze production rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checlair, Jade; McKay, Christopher P.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Extensive studies characterizing Titan present an opportunity to study the atmospheric properties of Titan-like exoplanets. Using an existing model of Titan's atmospheric haze, we computed geometric albedo spectra and effective transit height spectra for six values of the haze production rate (zero haze to twice present) over a wide range of wavelengths (0.2-2 μm). In the geometric albedo spectra, the slope in the UV-visible changes from blue to red when varying the haze production rate values from zero to twice the current Titan value. This spectral feature is the most effective way to characterize the haze production rates. Methane absorption bands in the visible-NIR compete with the absorbing haze, being more prominent for smaller haze production rates. The effective transit heights probe a region of the atmosphere where the haze and gas are optically thin and that is thus not effectively probed by the geometric albedo. The effective transit height decreases smoothly with increasing wavelength, from 376 km to 123 km at 0.2 and 2 μm, respectively. When decreasing the haze production rate, the methane absorption bands become more prominent, and the effective transit height decreases with a steeper slope with increasing wavelength. The slope of the geometric albedo in the UV-visible increases smoothly with increasing haze production rate, while the slope of the effective transit height spectra is not sensitive to the haze production rate other than showing a sharp rise when the haze production rate increases from zero. We conclude that geometric albedo spectra provide the most sensitive indicator of the haze production rate and the background Rayleigh gas. Our results suggest that important and complementary information can be obtained from the geometric albedo and motivates improvements in the technology for direct imaging of nearby exoplanets.

  4. Titan-Like Exoplanets: Variations in Geometric Albedo and Effective Transit Height with Haze Production Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Checlair, Jade; McKay, Christopher P.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies characterizing Titan present an opportunity to study the atmospheric properties of Titan-like exoplanets. Using an existing model of Titan's atmospheric haze, we computed geometric albedo spectra and effective transit height spectra for six values of the haze production rate (zero haze to twice present) over a wide range of wavelengths (0.2-2 microns). In the geometric albedo spectra, the slope in the UV-visible changes from blue to red when varying the haze production rate values from zero to twice the current Titan value. This spectral feature is the most effective way to characterize the haze production rates. Methane absorption bands in the visible-NIR compete with the absorbing haze, being more prominent for smaller haze production rates. The effective transit heights probe a region of the atmosphere where the haze and gas are optically thin and that is thus not effectively probed by the geometric albedo. The effective transit height decreases smoothly with increasing wavelength, from 376 km to 123 km at 0.2 and 2 microns, respectively. When decreasing the haze production rate, the methane absorption bands become more prominent, and the effective transit height decreases with a steeper slope with increasing wavelength. The slope of the geometric albedo in the UV-visible increases smoothly with increasing haze production rate, while the slope of the effective transit height spectra is not sensitive to the haze production rate other than showing a sharp rise when the haze production rate increases from zero. We conclude that geometric albedo spectra provide the most sensitive indicator of the haze production rate and the background Rayleigh gas. Our results suggest that important and complementary information can be obtained from the geometric albedo and motivates improvements in the technology for direct imaging of nearby exoplanets.

  5. Optimizing Photosynthetic and Respiratory Parameters Based on the Seasonal Variation Pattern in Regional Net Ecosystem Productivity Obtained from Atmospheric Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.; Ju, W.; Yuan, W.; Mo, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of optimizing ecosystem photosynthetic and respiratory parameters from the seasonal variation pattern of the net carbon flux. An optimization scheme is proposed to estimate two key parameters (Vcmax and Q10) by exploiting the seasonal variation in the net ecosystem carbon flux retrieved by an atmospheric inversion system. This scheme is implemented to estimate Vcmax and Q10 of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) to improve its NEP simulation in the Boreal North America (BNA) region. Simultaneously, in-situ NEE observations at six eddy covariance sites are used to evaluate the NEE simulations. The results show that the performance of the optimized BEPS is superior to that of the BEPS with the default parameter values. These results have the implication on using atmospheric CO2 data for optimizing ecosystem parameters through atmospheric inversion or data assimilation techniques.

  6. Methane production and diurnal variation measured in dairy cows and predicted from fermentation pattern and nutrient or carbon flow.

    PubMed

    Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Hellwing, A L F; Bannink, A; Lund, P

    2015-11-01

    ) production followed that of rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and the CH(4) to CO(2) production ratio, but was inverse to rumen pH and the rumen hydrogen balance calculated from 4×(acetate+butyrate)/2×(propionate+valerate). In conclusion, the amount of feed fermented was the most important factor determining variations in CH(4) production between animals, diets and during the day. Interactions between feed components, VFA absorption rates and variation between animals seemed to be factors that were complicating the accurate prediction of CH(4). Using a ruminal carbon balance appeared to predict CH(4) production just as well as calculations based on rumen digestion of individual nutrients.

  7. Temporal analysis of natural variation for the rate of leaf production and its relationship with flowering initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Vigo, Belén; de Andrés, M. Teresa; Ramiro, Mercedes; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative growth and flowering initiation are two crucial developmental processes in the life cycle of annual plants that are closely associated. The timing of both processes affects several presumed adaptive traits, such as flowering time (FT), total leaf number (TLN), or the rate of leaf production (RLP). However, the interactions among these complex processes and traits, and their mechanistic bases, remain largely unknown. To determine the genetic relationships between them, the natural genetic variation between A. thaliana accessions Fei-0 and Ler has been studied using a new population of 222 Ler×Fei-0 recombinant inbred lines. Temporal analysis of the parental development under a short day photoperiod distinguishes two vegetative phases differing in their RLP. QTL mapping of RLP in consecutive time intervals of vegetative development indicates that Ler/Fei-0 variation is caused by 10 loci whose small to moderate effects mainly display two different temporal patterns. Further comparative QTL analyses show that most of the genomic regions affecting FT or TLN also alter RLP. In addition, the partially independent genetic bases observed for FT and TLN appear determined by several genomic regions with two different patterns of phenotypic effects: regions with a larger effect on FT than TLN, and vice versa. The distinct temporal and pleiotropic patterns of QTL effects suggest that natural variation for flowering time is caused by different genetic mechanisms involved in vegetative and/or reproductive phase changes, most of them interacting with the control of leaf production rate. Thus, natural selection might contribute to maintain this genetic variation due to its phenotypic effects not only on the timing of flowering initiation but also on the rate of vegetative growth. PMID:20190039

  8. Diagenetic variation in the Oregon Coast Range: Implications for rock strength, soil production, hillslope form, and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2014-06-01

    The mechanisms by which lithology modulates geomorphic processes are poorly known. In the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), rhythmically bedded sandstones of the Eocene Tyee Formation underlie steep, soil-mantled hillslopes, with relatively uniform ridge-valley spacing. These characteristic landforms are perturbed where diagenetic variations manifest as resistant cliffs. Here we use petrology, rock mechanics, and lidar to characterize grain-scale variations in rock properties and their influence on rock strength, hillslope processes, and landscape morphology in two adjacent watersheds. Petrographic analyses suggest that a suite of diagenetic products in the "resistant" bedrock account for a 2.5 times increase in tensile strength relative to "typical" Tyee bedrock. Our reference catchment exhibits negligible resistant outcrops, and consistent hillslope gradients and longitudinal valley profiles. By contrast, the adjacent catchment teems with resistant, 1 to 10 m thick, noncontiguous sandstone beds that form hanging valleys with gentle upstream hillslopes and anomalously narrow valleys. Mechanical and topographic analyses suggest that the low fracture density characteristic of these resistant beds may render them relatively impervious to comminution by tree root activity, the dominant OCR soil production mechanism. Based on both hillslope gradient- and hilltop curvature-erosion models, we estimate that hillslopes perched above resistant beds erode at approximately half the pace of hillslopes unencumbered by downstream knickpoints. The diagenetic variations likely influence relief at the watershed scale. Depositional position and diagenetic processes appear to control the occurrence of resistant beds, providing a framework to quantify how seemingly subtle variations in rock properties can impose first-order controls on landscape form and evolution.

  9. Uncertainty of the global oceanic CO2 exchange at the air-water interface induced by the choice of the gas exchange velocity formulation and the wind product: quantification and spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roobaert, Alizee; Laruelle, Goulven; Landschützer, Peter; Regnier, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In lakes, rivers, estuaries and the ocean, the quantification of air-water CO2 exchange (FCO2) is still characterized by large uncertainties partly due to the lack of agreement over the parameterization of the gas exchange velocity (k). Although the ocean is generally regarded as the best constrained system because k is only controlled by the wind speed, numerous formulations are still currently used, leading to potentially large differences in FCO2. Here, a quantitative global spatial analysis of FCO2 is presented using several k-wind speed formulations in order to compare the effect of the choice of parameterization of k on FCO2. This analysis is performed at a 1 degree resolution using a sea surface pCO2 product generated using a two-step artificial neuronal network by Landschützer et al. (2015) over the 1991-2011 period. Four different global wind speed datasets (CCMP, ERA, NCEP 1 and NCEP 2) are also used to assess the effect of the choice of one wind speed product over the other when calculating the global and regional oceanic FCO2. Results indicate that this choice of wind speed product only leads to small discrepancies globally (6 %) except with NCEP 2 which produces a more intense global FCO2 compared to the other wind products. Regionally, theses differences are even more pronounced. For a given wind speed product, the choice of parametrization of k yields global FCO2 differences ranging from 7 % to 16 % depending on the wind product used. We also provide latitudinal profiles of FCO2 and its uncertainty calculated combining all combinations between the different k-relationships and the four wind speed products. Wind speeds >14 m s-1, which only account for 7 % of all observations, contributes disproportionately to the global oceanic FCO2 and, for this range of wind speeds, the uncertainty induced by the choice of formulation for k is maximum ( 50 %).

  10. Formulation verification study results for 241-AN-106 waste grout

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Morrison, L.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reference formulation and variations around the formulation are adequate for solidifying 241-AN-106 (106-AN) waste into a grout waste form. The reference formulation consists of 21 wt% type I/II Portland cement, 68 wt% fly ash, and 11 wt% attapulgite clay. The mix ratio is 8.4 lb/gal. Variations in dry blend component ratios, mix ratio, and waste concentration were assessed by using a statistically designed experimental matrix consisting of 44 grout compositions. Based on the results of the statistically designed variability study, the 106-AN grout formulations tested met all the formulation criteria except for the heat of hydration.

  11. Spatiotemporal variation of fruit digestible-nutrient production in Florida’s uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, James N.; Abrahamson, Warren G.

    2010-11-01

    We examined annual total digestible nutrient (TDN) production by fruits of eight species ( Quercus chapmanii, Quercus geminata, Quercus inopina, Quercus laevis, Quercus myrtifolia, Carya floridana, Sabal etonia, Serenoa repens) that account for the major proportion of TDN production by fruits and seeds in Florida's xeric upland associations (southern ridge sandhill, sand pine scrub, scrubby flatwoods). Mean annual fruit TDN of all species combined over a 27-year span in sandhill and scrub and 24 years in scrubby flatwoods was highest (45.4 kg/ha) and least variable across years in sandhill, intermediate in scrubby flatwoods (28.8 kg/ha), and lowest (14.2 kg/ha) and most variable in scrub. Oaks accounted for the major proportion (68-76%) of fruit TDN in all associations. Among oaks, Q. myrtifolia was the major producer (24-56%) and Q. laevis the poorest (0.2-3%). Although annual combined fruit TDN production varied similarly among associations across years, annual fruit TDN production of C. floridana, oaks, and palmettos within associations was not significantly correlated with the single exception of C. floridana vs. oaks in scrubby flatwoods. Among plant groups, correlations between fruit TDN productions across associations were significant for oaks in all cases and for C. floridana in most contrasts, but palmetto fruit TDN production was not significantly correlated across associations. Seven of eight species exhibited significant periodicities in fruit TDN production in one or more association ranging from 2.0 to 4.8 years. Potential vertebrate consumers of fruit TDN production recorded on the study area include 15 mammals, five birds, and one reptile.

  12. Secondary production in a Laminaria hyperborea kelp forest and variation according to wave exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norderhaug, Kjell M.; Christie, Hartvig

    2011-11-01

    The secondary production of mobile invertebrate fauna in the Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Foslie kelp forest increases with wave exposure level. This faunal group has a key function in transferring kelp carbon to higher levels in the food web. By using a size-frequency method the calculated production was 68 (±18) g D.W. m -2 yr -1 (±S.E.) at low, 250 (±57) at medium and 308 (±64) at high exposure levels. The calculations included 30 macrofauna species, which accounted for 96% of the specimens registered, with Gastropods, amphipods and bivalves being the most abundant taxa. The calculated secondary production is high, but comparable to that previously reported from other macrophyte systems and was 3%, 8% and 8% of the total primary production at low, medium and high exposure levels, respectively. Our results indicate that large quantities of Laminaria kelp are exported from the system, although the production of sessile animals was not taken into account. The most important factor in determining faunal densities and secondary production was probably habitat size but at low exposure levels the percentage of egg-carrying crustacean females and juveniles were lower than at medium and high exposure levels, thereby indicating lower fitness for animals at low exposure stations.

  13. Optimization of formulation and process parameters for the production of nanosuspension by wet media milling technique: effect of Vitamin E TPGS and nanocrystal particle size on oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Schenck, Daniel; Bose, Sonali; Ruegger, Colleen

    2012-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop nanosuspension formulations of a poorly soluble drug using a wet media milling technique. The milling process was optimized by studying the effects of critical process parameters on the size of nanoparticles using a factorial design approach. During the design of experiments (DOEs) study, different concentrations of Vitamin E TPGS in the suspensions were used to evaluate its influence on the stabilization of a nanosuspension. Once the final formulation was optimized, a pharmacokinetic study was performed in beagle dogs to investigate the effect of different ranges of particle size of nanocrystals on the plasma profile. A significant increase in AUC and C(max) was observed when the drug substance was converted into nanocrystals, likely due to the increase in dissolution rate. Results also revealed that the nanosuspension formulation (consists of nanocrystals with narrow size distribution, having a mean particle size<300 nm) produced less variability with regards to the individual plasma concentrations in the dogs when compared an alternate nanocrystal formulation (consists of nanocrystals with broad size distribution having a mean particle size<750 nm). This type of observation can be explained due to the Ostwald ripening phenomena between the nanocrystals when the particle size distribution was very broad (higher poly dispersity index). Surprisingly, the un-micronized suspension containing Vitamin E TPGS did not show any significant impact on pharmacokinetic parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the Crystallization Tendency of Commercially Available Amorphous Tacrolimus Formulations Exposed to Different Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Purohit, Hitesh S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-07-07

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant, is a poorly water soluble compound whereby the commercially available capsule formulations contain the drug in amorphous form. The goal of this study was to evaluate the robustness of the innovator product and five generic formulations to crystallization following storage at stress conditions. Products were purchased from a pharmacy and stored at 40°C/75% relative humidity (RH), open dish conditions. Crystallinity was determined using X-ray diffraction. The quantity of the ingredients in the formulations were determined using different approaches and the various factors that might cause instability in the formulations were studied. After 4 weeks of open dish storage at 40°C/75% RH, one of the generic formulations showed evidence of tacrolimus crystallization. Further investigations revealed batch-to-batch variations in crystallization tendency with the extent of crystallinity varying between 50 and 100% for different batches. Crystallization was also observed at lower storage temperatures (30°C) when the RH was maintained at 75%. It was found that crystallization could be induced in a model formulation by wet granulating an ethanolic solution of the drug with lactose and drying at 60-70°C followed by exposure to stress conditions. It seems probable that the generic that was susceptible to crystallization contains amorphous drug physically mixed with polymeric excipients, rather than as an amorphous solid dispersion. This study highlights the importance of considering the manufacturing process on the stability of the resultant amorphous product.

  15. Formulation of Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The enduring stages of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are infective juveniles, which require a high humidity and sufficient ventilation for survival. Formulations must account for these requirements. Nematodes may be formulated inside the insects in which they reproduced or they need to be cleaned and mixed with a suitable binder to maintain humidity but allowing for gas exchange. Another method for formulation is the encapsulation in beads of Ca-alginate. Generic procedures for these formulation techniques are described.

  16. Practices of pharmacies that compound extemporaneous formulations.

    PubMed

    Treadway, Angela K; Craddock, Deeatra; Leff, Richard

    2007-07-01

    A survey was conducted to characterize the standard of practice for extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding within community and institutional pharmacies. Extemporaneous compounding practices vary among pharmacies. Because of this, the survey inquired specifically about a single pharmaceutical product (caffeine citrate 20 mg/mL) to minimize variability among respondents. Survey questions were written to identify compounding practice variations with (1) policies and procedures, (2) process validation, (3) personnel education, training, and evaluation, (4) expiration dating, (5) storage and handling of compounded prescriptions within the pharmacy, (6) labeling, (7) facilities and equipment, (8) end-product evaluation, (9) handling of sterile products outside of the pharmacy, (10) aseptic technique and product preparation, and (11) documentation. A total of 522 surveys were mailed; 117 completed surveys were returned and included in the analyses. Over half of the pharmacies surveyed were large institutional pharmacies with daily prescriptions exceeding 300. Almost 71% of pharmacies reported having policies and procedures for compounding and providing compounding training for staff. Almost one third of the pharmacies that responded did not have compounding policies and procedures and did not provide staff training. For those pharmacies that provided training, the methods used were diverse (e.g., lectures and videotapes, external certificate programs). Formulations used to compound caffeine appeared to be diverse as evidenced by the varied addition of inactive ingredients. A survey of compounding pharmacies found variability in overall compounding practices and training and in practices specifically related to compounding preparations of caffeine citrate.

  17. Production of recombinant PvDBPII, receptor binding domain of Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein, and evaluation of immunogenicity to identify an adjuvant formulation for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Rukmini; Shakri, Ahmad Rushdi; Hans, Dhiraj; Gupta, Pankaj; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Pandey, Gaurav; Chitnis, Chetan E

    2017-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax is dependent on interaction with the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) for invasion of human erythrocytes. The P. vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) mediates interaction of P. vivax merozoites with DARC. The DARC receptor-binding domain lies in a conserved N-terminal cysteine-rich region of PvDBP referred to as region II (PvDBPII). PvDBPII is an attractive vaccine candidate since antibodies raised against PvDBPII block erythrocyte invasion by P. vivax. Here, we describe methods to produce recombinant PvDBPII in its correctly folded conformation. A synthetic gene optimized for expression of PvDBPII in Escherichia coli and fed batch fermentation process based on exponential feeding strategy was used to achieve high levels of expression of recombinant PvDBPII. Recombinant PvDBPII was isolated from inclusion bodies, refolded by rapid dilution and purified by ion exchange chromatography. Purified recombinant PvDBPII was characterized for identity, purity and functional activity using standardized release assays. Recombinant PvDBPII formulated with various human compatible adjuvants including glycosylpyranosyl lipid A-stable emulsion (GLA-SE) and alhydrogel was used for immunogenicity studies in small animals to downselect a suitable formulation for clinical development. Sera collected from immunized animals were tested for recognition of PvDBPII and inhibition of PvDBPII-DARC binding. GLA-SE formulations of PvDBPII yielded higher ELISA and binding inhibition titres compared to PvDBPII formulated with alhydrogel. These data support further development of a recombinant vaccine for P. vivax based on PvDBPII formulated with GLA-SE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Late Holocene SST and primary productivity variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea as a recorder for winter monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Anna; Gaye, Birgit; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Variability in the oceanic environment of the Arabian Sea region is strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon cycle of alternating wind directions. Strong south-westerly winds during the summer monsoon induce upwelling of nutrient rich waters along the coast off Somalia, Oman and southwest India, which result in high rates of primary production. In the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan on the other hand, primary production and sea surface temperatures are linked to northeast monsoonal winds that cool the sea surface and drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity during the winter season. In this study, we analyzed alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) variations and proxies of primary productivity (organic carbon and δ15N) in a well-laminated sediment core from the Pakistan continental margin to establish the first high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene. Over the last 2400 years reconstructed SST in the northeastern Arabian Sea decreased whereas productivity increased, imaging a long-term trend of northeast monsoon strengthening in response to insolation-induced southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The comparison of our winter monsoon record with records of summer monsoon intensity suggests that summer and winter monsoon strength was essentially anti-correlated over the late Holocene throughout the Asian monsoon system. In addition, SST variations recorded off Pakistan match very well with Northern Hemisphere temperature records supporting the growing body of evidence that Asian climate is linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change. It reveals a consistent pattern of increased summer monsoon activity in the northeastern Arabian Sea during northern hemispheric warm periods (Medieval Warm Period, Roman Warm Period) and strengthened winter monsoon activity during hemispheric colder periods (Little Ice Age).

  19. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  20. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Richardson, William B; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, John C; Vallazza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the USA and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: (1) How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and (2) Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee river mouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee river mouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee river mouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content

  1. Variation in home range size of red foxes Vulpes vulpes along a gradient of productivity and human landscape alteration.

    PubMed

    Walton, Zea; Samelius, Gustaf; Odden, Morten; Willebrand, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Home range size is a fundamental concept for understanding animal dispersion and ecological needs, and it is one of the most commonly reported ecological attributes of free-ranging mammals. Previous studies indicate that red foxes Vulpes vulpes display great variability in home range size. Yet, there has been little consensus regarding the reasons why home range sizes of red foxes vary so extensively. In this study, we examine possible causes of variation in red fox home range sizes using data from 52 GPS collared red foxes from four study areas representing a gradient of landscape productivity and human landscape alteration in Norway and Sweden. Using 90% Local Convex Hull home range estimates, we examined how red fox home range size varied in relation to latitude, elevation, vegetation zone, proportion of agricultural land and human settlement within a home range, and sex and age. We found considerable variation in red fox home range sizes, ranging between 0.95 km2 to 44 km2 (LoCoH 90%) and 2.4 km2 to 358 km2 (MCP 100%). Elevation, proportion of agricultural land and sex accounted for 50% of the variation in home range size found amongst foxes, with elevation having the strongest effect. Red foxes residing in more productive landscapes (those in more southern vegetation zones), had home ranges approximately four times smaller than the home ranges of foxes in the northern boreal vegetation zone. Our results indicate that home range size was influenced by a productivity gradient at both the landscape (latitude) and the local (elevation) scale. The influence of the proportion of agriculture land on home range size of foxes illustrates how human landscape alteration can affect the space use and distribution of red foxes. Further, the variation in home range size found in this study demonstrates the plasticity of red foxes to respond to changing human landscape alteration as well as changes in landscape productivity, which may be contributing to red fox population

  2. Variation in home range size of red foxes Vulpes vulpes along a gradient of productivity and human landscape alteration

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Home range size is a fundamental concept for understanding animal dispersion and ecological needs, and it is one of the most commonly reported ecological attributes of free-ranging mammals. Previous studies indicate that red foxes Vulpes vulpes display great variability in home range size. Yet, there has been little consensus regarding the reasons why home range sizes of red foxes vary so extensively. In this study, we examine possible causes of variation in red fox home range sizes using data from 52 GPS collared red foxes from four study areas representing a gradient of landscape productivity and human landscape alteration in Norway and Sweden. Using 90% Local Convex Hull home range estimates, we examined how red fox home range size varied in relation to latitude, elevation, vegetation zone, proportion of agricultural land and human settlement within a home range, and sex and age. We found considerable variation in red fox home range sizes, ranging between 0.95 km2 to 44 km2 (LoCoH 90%) and 2.4 km2 to 358 km2 (MCP 100%). Elevation, proportion of agricultural land and sex accounted for 50% of the variation in home range size found amongst foxes, with elevation having the strongest effect. Red foxes residing in more productive landscapes (those in more southern vegetation zones), had home ranges approximately four times smaller than the home ranges of foxes in the northern boreal vegetation zone. Our results indicate that home range size was influenced by a productivity gradient at both the landscape (latitude) and the local (elevation) scale. The influence of the proportion of agriculture land on home range size of foxes illustrates how human landscape alteration can affect the space use and distribution of red foxes. Further, the variation in home range size found in this study demonstrates the plasticity of red foxes to respond to changing human landscape alteration as well as changes in landscape productivity, which may be contributing to red fox population

  3. Temporal variation of biomass and productivity of Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) in Venezuela, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Daisy; Guevara, Marcel; Bone, David

    2006-06-01

    Annual biomass and productivity of Thalassia testudinum were determined during a year at a seagrass bed located in the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. Leaf, rhizome and root biomass were determined monthly, together with short-shoot density, from February 1992 to January 1993, from nine replicated core samples. Productivity was measured using the methodology by Zieman (1974) with minor modifications, and leaf turnover rate was calculated. Leaf biomass values ranged between 101.73 dry g m(-2) in February and 178.11 dry g m(-2) in August. Productivity ranged from 1.69 dry g m(-2) d(-1) in April and October to 3.30 dry g m(-2) d(-1) in July, showing two annual peaks: one in July and one in March. The leaf turnover rate showed the highest value in June (2.41% d(-1)) and the lowest in May (1.23% d(-1)). Sampling time differences in leaf biomass, productivity and turnover rate were statistically significant. Short-shoot density values varied between 811.10 shoots m(-2) in April and 1226.08 shoots m(-2) in December, but the differences were not significant along the year. These results indicated seasonal trends for leaf biomass, productivity and turnover rate of T. testudinum in the Southern Caribbean (latitude 10 degrees N).

  4. Intraspecific variation in production of astringent phenolics over a vegetation-resource availability gradient.

    PubMed

    Muller, R N; Kalisz, P J; Kimmerer, T W

    1987-05-01

    The chemical constituency of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) foliage was analyzed over a species compositional gradient to test the hypothesis that over subtle gradients of moisture and nutrient availability production of phenolic compounds will be increased on sites of greatest stress. Calcium and nitrogen concentrations declined along the gradient in both species, while phosphorus showed a significant decline only in red maple. Lignin concentrations in both species were unrelated to the vegetation gradient, but astringent phenolics increased by 156% and 159% in dogwood and red maple, respectively. The correlation between production of polyphenolds and site quality supports previous observations that under conditions of environmental stress production of many secondary compounds is increased, and suggests that this relationship is significant over subtle environmental gradients.

  5. Variation in artificial heart acceleration and sound production with prosthetic valve selection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pantalos, G M; Kim, C H; Flatau, A

    1996-03-01

    In an attempt to explore methods to reduce total artificial heart (TAH) acceleration and sound production, in vitro measurements of TAH acceleration and sound were made when using a variety of prosthetic valves in a test ventricle. A miniature, uniaxial, high fidelity accelerometer was glued to the housing of a UTAH-100 left ventricle adjacent to the inflow and outflow ports and parallel to the axis of diaphragm excursion. A miniature, high fidelity contact microphone was glued to the opposite side of the ventricular housing between the inflow and outflow ports. Data was collected over a range of heart rates, ventricular filling volumes and control modes while using tilting disc valves (TDV) and polymer trileaflet valves (PTV). For both valve types, the peak systolic acceleration impulse was lower (approximately equal to 50%) when the ventricle was fully rather than partially filled and the peak diastolic acceleration impulse was lower (approximately equal to 50%) when the ventricle was fully rather than partially ejected. The magnitude of the acceleration with PTVs was approximately equal to 20x less than the TDVs (0.5 to 2.2 g vs. 10 to 49g). The magnitude of the sound production was also considerably less with the PTVs (28 to 49 db vs. 50 to 64 db). Diastolic acceleration and sound production was approximately twice the systolic value for the TDVs; the reserse was true for PTV sound production. These data demonstrate the substantial reduction in TAH impulse acceleration and sound production by selecting PTVs over TDSs. With PTVs, the TAH impulse acceleration is the same as the natural heart. Consequently, this ability to lower TAH acceleration and sound production to the level of the natural heart may lead to a reduction in component wear, patient discomfort and other undesirable consequences of TAH implantation.

  6. Time-dependent Variation in Life Cycle Assessment of Microalgal Biorefinery Co-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, Mahdokht

    Microalgae can serve as a highly productive biological feedstock for fuels and chemicals. The lipid fraction of algal seeds has been the primary target of research for biofuel production. However, numerous assessments have found that valorization of co-products is essential to achieve economic and environmental goals. The relative proportion of co-products depends on the biomolecular composition of algae at the time of harvesting. In the present study the productivity of lipid, starch, and protein fractions were shown through growth experiments to vary widely with species, feeding regime, and harvesting time. Four algae species were cultivated under nitrogen-replete and -deplete conditions and analyzed at regular harvesting intervals. Dynamic growth results were then used for life cycle assessment using the U.S. Department of Energy's GREET model to determine optimal growth scenarios that minimize life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, eutrophication, and cumulative energy demand (CED), while aiming for an energy return on investment (EROI) greater than unity. Per kg of biodiesel produced, C. sorokiniana in N-replete conditions harvested at 12 days was most favorable for GHG emissions and CED, despite having a lipid content of <20%. N. oculata under the same conditions had the lowest life cycle eutrophication impacts, driven by efficient nutrient cycling and valorization of microalgal protein and anaerobic digester residue co-products. The results indicate that growth cycle times that maximize a single fraction do not necessarily result in the most favorable environmental performance on a life cycle basis, underscoring the importance of designing biorefinery systems that simultaneously optimize for lipid and non-lipid fractions.

  7. Why organic resources and current fertilizer formulations in Southern Africa cannot sustain maize productivity: Evidence from a long-term experiment in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mtangadura, Tongai J.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability of maize-based cropping systems is a major challenge for southern Africa, yet the demand for maize as staple food and animal feed in the region continues to increase. A study was conducted on a sandy clay loam (220 g clay kg-1 soil) at Domboshawa in Zimbabwe to investigate the long-term effects of organic resource quality and application rate, and nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil chemical properties and maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. Crotalaria juncea (high quality), Calliandra calothyrsus (medium quality), cattle manure (variable quality), maize stover and Pinus patula sawdust (both low quality) were incorporated into soil at 4.0 t C ha-1 (high rate) and 1.2 t C ha-1 (low rate) at the start of each cropping season for nine consecutive years. At both high and low application rates, each of the five organic resources was applied in combination with or without mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer at 120 kg N ha-1. The nine-year period saw maize grain yields declining by 22% to 84% across treatments despite increases in soil organic carbon, total N and available P from 6% to 80%. Crotalaria, Calliandra and manure led to a less steep yield decline. Exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K), and soil pH explained much of the variation in yield patterns observed under the different organic resource applications. Maize grain yield was positively correlated with exchangeable Ca (r = 0.51), Mg (r = 0.62) and K (r = 0.53), and soil pH (r = 0.49), but negatively correlated with other soil properties over the 9-year period. We concluded that declining soil exchangeable basic cations were the underlying causes of decreasing maize productivity, and was aggravated by use of low rates of organic resource inputs, particularly with N fertilization. Current nutrient management and fertilizer recommendations that emphasize inorganic N, P and K significantly undervalue the role played by organic resources in sustainability of maize cropping systems in

  8. Modelling the impact of variations in ice sheet runoff on fjord and coastal biological productivity over annual to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, A. J.; Cowton, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Each summer, vast quantities of surface-derived ice sheet meltwater runs off from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Much of this runoff is injected into glaciated fjords at depth beneath marine-terminating glaciers. Due to its low relative density, the runoff rises as a buoyant plume up the glaciers' calving fronts, entraining deep fjord water as it does so. This deep, ambient water tends to be relatively rich in nutrients and so the runoff plumes act to fertilise the surface layers of the fjord, leading to an observed late season spike in biological productivity in the fjord's surface layers. Although surface melting and runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet are predicted to increase significantly in the coming years and decades, the potential effect of this on fjord and coastal biological productivity is yet to be quantified. Here we present simulations of fjord circulation and biological productivity using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), and a new coupled representation of buoyant runoff plumes which enables decadal time period experiments of large three dimensional fjords. We investigate the effect on biological productivity of varying ice sheet runoff, ocean properties, near-surface winds and fjord geometry and bathymetry. We find that variations in ice sheet runoff are particularly important for biological productivity because the rate of discharge controls the depth at which the plumes reach neutral buoyancy and therefore whether the nutrient-rich deep water is delivered to the photic zone.

  9. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Physicochemical Property Variation in Spider Silk: Ecology, Evolution, and Synthetic Production.

    PubMed

    Blamires, Sean J; Blackledge, Todd A; Tso, I-Min

    2017-01-31

    The unique combination of great stiffness, strength, and extensibility makes spider major ampullate (MA) silk desirable for various biomimetic and synthetic applications. Intensive research on the genetics, biochemistry, and biomechanics of this material has facilitated a thorough understanding of its properties at various levels. Nevertheless, methods such as cloning, recombination, and electrospinning have not successfully produced materials with properties as impressive as those of spider silk. It is nevertheless becoming clear that silk properties are a consequence of whole-organism interactions with the environment in addition to genetic expression, gland biochemistry, and spinning processes. Here we assimilate the research done and assess the techniques used to determine distinct forms of spider silk chemical and physical property variability. We suggest that more research should focus on testing hypotheses that explain spider silk property variations in ecological and evolutionary contexts.

  11. Interannual Variation in Root Production in Grasslands Affected by Artificially Modified Amount of Rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different amounts of rainfall on the below-ground plant biomass was studied in three grassland ecosystems. Responses of the lowland (dry Festuca grassland), highland (wet Cirsium grassland), and mountain (Nardus grassland) grasslands were studied during five years (2006–2010). A field experiment based on rainout shelters and gravity irrigation simulated three climate scenarios: rainfall reduced by 50% (dry), rainfall increased by 50% (wet), and the natural rainfall of the current growing season (ambient). The interannual variation in root increment and total below-ground biomass reflected the experimentally manipulated amount of precipitation and also the amount of current rainfall of individual years. The effect of year on these below-ground parameters was found significant in all studied grasslands. In comparison with dry Festuca grassland, better adapted to drought, submontane wet Cirsium grassland was more sensitive to the different water inputs forming rather lower amount of below-ground plant matter at reduced precipitation. PMID:22629201

  12. Interannual variation in root production in grasslands affected by artificially modified amount of rainfall.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different amounts of rainfall on the below-ground plant biomass was studied in three grassland ecosystems. Responses of the lowland (dry Festuca grassland), highland (wet Cirsium grassland), and mountain (Nardus grassland) grasslands were studied during five years (2006-2010). A field experiment based on rainout shelters and gravity irrigation simulated three climate scenarios: rainfall reduced by 50% (dry), rainfall increased by 50% (wet), and the natural rainfall of the current growing season (ambient). The interannual variation in root increment and total below-ground biomass reflected the experimentally manipulated amount of precipitation and also the amount of current rainfall of individual years. The effect of year on these below-ground parameters was found significant in all studied grasslands. In comparison with dry Festuca grassland, better adapted to drought, submontane wet Cirsium grassland was more sensitive to the different water inputs forming rather lower amount of below-ground plant matter at reduced precipitation.

  13. Advancing nursery production of big sagebrush seedlings: Cold storage and variation in subspecies growth

    Treesearch

    Emily C. Overton

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush is an essential component of shrub-steppe ecosystems that is rapidly disappearing from the landscape. Recognizing this, it has become a target of restoration; however, current efforts using direct seeding have shown variable success and planting seedlings may provide a better option. Nonetheless, limited information is available on the nursery production...

  14. Variation in the production rate of biosonar signals in freshwater porpoises.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Satoko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ding; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Yoda, Ken

    2013-05-01

    The biosonar (click train) production rate of ten Yangtze finless porpoises and their behavior were examined using animal-borne data loggers. The sound production rate varied from 0 to 290 click trains per 10-min time interval. Large individual differences were observed, regardless of body size. Taken together, however, sound production did not differ significantly between daytime and nighttime. Over the 172.5 h of analyzed recordings, an average of 99.0% of the click trains were produced within intervals of less than 60 s, indicating that during a 1-min interval, the number of click trains produced by each porpoise was typically greater than one. Most of the porpoises exhibited differences in average swimming speed and depth between day and night. Swimming speed reductions and usage of short-range sonar, which relates to prey-capture attempts, were observed more often during nighttime. However, biosonar appears to be affected not only by porpoise foraging, but also by their sensory environment, i.e., the turbid Yangtze River system. These features will be useful for passive acoustic detection of the porpoises. Calculations of porpoise density or abundance should be conducted carefully because large individual differences in the sound production rate will lead to large estimation error.

  15. Preliminary response of primary production and community composition to precipitation variation in a temperate grassland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    a) Background/Questions/Methods Grassland ecosystems are water-limited and show the highest interannual ANPP variability across biomes. Changes in annual amounts or seasonality of rainfall may interact with soil texture to impact grassland ecosystem functions including net primary productivity (NPP...

  16. Evaluation of Bovine chemerin (RARRES2) Gene Variation on Beef Cattle Production Traits1

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Rempel, Lea A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Cushman, Robert A.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Shackelford, Steven D.; King, David A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2012-01-01

    A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in steers (P < 0.008). Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P < 0.05) and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG) and residual feed intake (RFI), respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW), adjusted fat thickness (AFT), and marbling (P < 0.05). Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit

  17. Analysis of the spatial variation in the net ecosystem production of rice paddy fields using the diagnostic biosphere model BEAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Nakai, S.; Setoyama, Y.; Ono, K.; Kato, S.; Mano, M.; Miyata, A.; Saigusa, N.; Nemani, R. R.; Nasahara, K. N.

    2012-12-01

    To realistically understand spatial and temporal variations in the net ecosystem production (NEP) of rice paddies in Japan, we enhanced the existing diagnostic-type biosphere model with the addition of agricultural processes. Validated with a comparison of seasonal and annual variations over 5 years, the NEP estimations bore good agreement with the measurements. In regional-scale analyses, we targeted all rice paddy fields in Japan from January 2001 to December 2009. Before and after the model enhancement, the NEP showed very different spatial variations and absolute values, suggesting that the most effective improvements were the introduction of harvest and soil oxidation-reduction processes. In annual anomaly analyses covering a 9-year period, the NEP was found to be negative in 2003 and 2006 (-0.11 and -0.25 TgC/year) and positive in 2004 and 2007 (+0.02 and +0.21 TgC/year). We found that the negative values were caused by decreases in solar radiation and air temperature and the positive values were caused by increases in these two parameters and precipitation. In response to the NEP, our obtained harvested grain biomass values in 2003 and 2006 were lower than usual. The results were in good agreement with the results from reports of the Japan Meteorological Agency and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries.

  18. Latitudinal variation of leaf stomatal traits from species to community level in forests: linkage with ecosystem productivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    To explore the latitudinal variation of stomatal traits from species to community level and their linkage with net primary productivity (NPP), we investigated leaf stomatal density (SDL) and stomatal length (SLL) across 760 species from nine forest ecosystems in eastern China, and calculated the community-level SD (SDC) and SL (SLC) through species-specific leaf area index (LAI). Our results showed that latitudinal variation in species-level SDL and SLL was minimal, but community-level SDC and SLC decreased clearly with increasing latitude. The relationship between SD and SL was negative across species and different plant functional types (PFTs), but positive at the community level. Furthermore, community-level SDC correlated positively with forest NPP, and explained 51% of the variation in NPP. These findings indicate that the trade-off by regulating SDL and SLL may be an important strategy for plant individuals to adapt to environmental changes, and temperature acts as the main factor influencing community-level stomatal traits through alteration of species composition. Importantly, our findings provide new insight into the relationship between plant traits and ecosystem function. PMID:26403303

  19. Latitudinal variation of leaf stomatal traits from species to community level in forests: linkage with ecosystem productivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei; Ge, Jianping

    2015-09-25

    To explore the latitudinal variation of stomatal traits from species to community level and their linkage with net primary productivity (NPP), we investigated leaf stomatal density (SDL) and stomatal length (SLL) across 760 species from nine forest ecosystems in eastern China, and calculated the community-level SD (SDC) and SL (SLC) through species-specific leaf area index (LAI). Our results showed that latitudinal variation in species-level SDL and SLL was minimal, but community-level SDC and SLC decreased clearly with increasing latitude. The relationship between SD and SL was negative across species and different plant functional types (PFTs), but positive at the community level. Furthermore, community-level SDC correlated positively with forest NPP, and explained 51% of the variation in NPP. These findings indicate that the trade-off by regulating SDL and SLL may be an important strategy for plant individuals to adapt to environmental changes, and temperature acts as the main factor influencing community-level stomatal traits through alteration of species composition. Importantly, our findings provide new insight into the relationship between plant traits and ecosystem function.

  20. Mass variation tests for coating tablets and hard capsules: rational application of mass variation tests.

    PubMed

    Katori, Noriko; Aoyagi, Nobuo; Kojima, Shigeo

    2002-09-01

    The mass variation test is a simplified alternative test version of the content uniformity test. In the case of coating tablets and capsules, the mass variation test is principally applied to test the inner cores or fillings containing the active ingredient. However, some exceptions exist in pharmacopoeias. The effects of tablet coating and capsule shell on the results of the mass variation test were studied. The mass variation of outer crusts (coatings, capsule shells) and inner cores (core tablets, fillings) was measured separately in several products. The effects of coating on weight variability were very large for sugar-coated tablets. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of the formulation weight (RSD(W)) of sugar-coated tablets (2.73%) was larger than that of plain tablets (0.77%). The cause of the large RSD(W) is the large variation the weight of sugar-coating accounting for 44% of formulation weight. In the case of film-coated tablets, the effect of coating weight on the mass variation test was very small because the rate of coating in comparison to the whole weight was small. In the case of hard capsules, the usage of whole formulation weight resulted in underestimation of variations of filling weight. The differences between dosage forms in the applicability of the mass variation test are caused by differing weight proportions and variability of the outer coatings or shells. To avoid the underestimation of mass variation for hard capsules, a corrected acceptance value is useful. For all the dosage units, the mass variation test can principally be applied to determine which mass is expected to be proportional to the content of the active ingredient. However, some modification of acceptance values enables application of the mass variation tests to inapplicable cases, such as when the RSD of drug concentration (RSD(C)) is larger than 2%.

  1. Variations in cercarial production and the level of in vitro activation of metacercariae of two different isolates of Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Norbury, Luke J; Wilkowski, Przemysław; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-09-01

    Fasciola hepatica infections cause large economic losses and are a serious veterinary medicine problem in many regions of the world. Recent studies examining fascioliasis in the bison population from Bialowieza National Park have shown that the prevalence of infection with this parasite is up to 100%. Liver flukes isolated from bison from Bialowieza National Park in Poland were compared with a fluke strain originally obtained from the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, UK, to determine variations in cercarial production and establish the ability of their metacercariae to activate in vitro. Some small differences in cercarial production between the two isolates are shown, while significant differences in the ability of their metacercariae to activate in vitro were observed.

  2. Variations in mitochondrial membrane potential correlate with malic acid production by natural isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake strains.

    PubMed

    Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kichise, Yuki; Izumoto, Eiji; Nakayama, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Research on the relationship between mitochondrial membrane potential and fermentation profile is being intensely pursued because of the potential for developing advanced fermentation technologies. In the present study, we isolated naturally occurring strains of yeast from sake mash that produce high levels of malic acid and demonstrate that variations in mitochondrial membrane potential correlate with malic acid production. To define the underlying biochemical mechanism, we determined the activities of enzymes required for malic acid synthesis and found that pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase activities in strains that produce high levels of malic acid were elevated compared with the standard sake strain K901. These results inspired us to hypothesize that decreased mitochondrial membrane potential was responsible for increased malic acid synthesis, and we present data supporting this hypothesis. Thus, the mitochondrial membrane potential of high malic acid producers was lower compared with standard strains. We conclude that mitochondrial membrane potential correlates with malic acid production.

  3. Toward using millennial-scale geomagnetic field models to constrain in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rate variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    The geomagnetic field exerts a strong influence on the trajectories of charged primary cosmic-ray particles incident on the Earth's atmosphere (and therefore, on the geographic distribution of their progeny). The resulting cascade of secondary particles then interacts with the top few meters of the Earth's surface to produce various nuclides in situ (in situ cosmogenic nuclides, or CNs). With appropriate interpretive models, concentrations of these nuclides measured in terrestrial materials can be used to infer the duration of surface exposure (or of burial following exposure) and rates of various surficial processes. However, the potential precision with which CNs can be applied is limited by how well their production rates are known. Nuclide production rates are typically determined by measuring CN concentrations in surficial rocks with well-constrained exposure histories. Scaling these time-integrated production rates to other locations with different exposure durations, though, requires knowledge or assumptions of how instantaneous production rates have varied in space and time. Spatial scaling of CN production rates is typically described by models based on modern secondary cosmic-ray measurements, ordered by parameters linked to the geomagnetic field. In general, the most robust parameter for ordering these measurements is the effective vertical cutoff rigidity (RC), a measure of the energy required for primary cosmic rays to penetrate the geomagnetic and magnetospheric fields and interact with the atmosphere at a given location. Temporal variations in CN production rates at a given site result primarily from changes in the orientation and intensity of the geomagnetic field. These geomagnetic variations have been modeled for CN applications using estimates of Holocene variations in dipole orientation combined with records of global dipole intensity variations. It has typically been assumed in CN research that secular variation of the geomagnetic pole averages

  4. 40 CFR 152.85 - Formulators' exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the formulators' exemption applies usually will concern the safety of one or more of the product's... to data on the applicant's product itself, including the safety or efficacy of the product, unless... a registered manufacturing-use product whose label does not prohibit its use for making an end-use...

  5. Ethnic Variation in Consumption of Traditional Tobacco Products and Lung Cancer Risk in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Raspanti, Greg A; Hashibe, Mia; Siwakoti, Bhola; Wei, Mei; Thakur, Binay Kumar; Pun, Chin Bahadur; Milrod, Charles; Adhikari, Subodh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Sapkota, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading contributor to cancer deaths in the developing world. Within countries, significant variability exists in the prevalence of lung cancer risk, yet limited information is available whether some of the observed variability is associated with differences in the consumption pattern of local tobacco products with differing potency. We recruited 606 lung cancer cases and 606 controls from the B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital in Nepal from 2009-2012. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with different tobacco products, using unconditional logistic regression. Unfiltered cigarettes tended to be the most frequently used products across ethnic subgroup with about 53.7% of Brahmins, 60.1% of Chettris, and 52.3% of Rai/Limbu/Magar/others. In contrast, about 39.9% of Madishe/Tharu smokers reported using bidi compared with only 27.7% who smoked unfiltered cigarettes. Among those who only smoked one type of product, choor/kankat smokers had the highest lung cancer risk (OR 10.2; 95% CI 6.2-16.6), followed by bidi smokers (OR 5.6; 95% CI 3.6-8.7), unfiltered cigarettes (OR 4.9; 95% CI 3.4-7.2), and filtered cigarettes (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.2-5.3). A clear dose-response relationship was observed between increased frequency of smoking and lung cancer risk across all ethnic subgroups. These results highlight the important role of traditional tobacco products on lung cancer risk in the low income countries.

  6. A systematic approach to expound the variations in taxane production under different dissolved oxygen conditions in Taxus chinensis cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfang; Song, Guanghao; Fu, Chunhua; Dong, Yanshan; Xu, Hang; Zhang, Hua; Yu, Long Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Our results provide an evidence that the changes in taxane production caused by dissolved oxygen shifts could be associated with the global variations in the cell central carbon metabolism. Taxol is an important taxane synthesized by the Taxus plant. A two-stage culture of Taxus in vitro has been considered as an attractive alternative approach to produce Taxol and its precursors. To investigate the consequences of dissolved oxygen (DO) shifts for cell primary and secondary metabolism, we conducted metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling analyses under low dissolved oxygen (LDO), medium dissolved oxygen (MDO), and high dissolved oxygen (HDO) conditions in a suspension culture of Taxus chinensis cells. Under LDO, the results indicate a significant increase in the production of Taxol and its main precursors by 3.4- to 1.4-fold compared with those under MDO and HDO on 9th day. Multiple acyl taxanes (MAT) are abundant taxanes in the cells, and exhibited only a slight increase under the same conditions. Metabolomic analysis based on 209 primary metabolites indicated that several pathways in central carbon metabolism were involved, including the enhancement of the glycolysis pathway of glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate and pyruvate and the mevalonate pathway of terpene biosynthesis, and decline in the tricarboxylic acid pathway under LDO. These results indicate the mechanism by which related taxanes accumulate through enhancing the supplies of substrates and expression levels of hydroxylases. Excess acetyl-CoA supply induced by high oxygen stress was found to be correlated with high productivity of MAT. Our results provide an evidence that the changes in taxane production caused by DO shifts could be associated with the global variations in the cell central carbon metabolism.