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Sample records for productivity variations recorded

  1. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    PubMed

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  2. Late Holocene SST and primary productivity variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea as a recorder for winter monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Anna; Gaye, Birgit; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Variability in the oceanic environment of the Arabian Sea region is strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon cycle of alternating wind directions. Strong south-westerly winds during the summer monsoon induce upwelling of nutrient rich waters along the coast off Somalia, Oman and southwest India, which result in high rates of primary production. In the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan on the other hand, primary production and sea surface temperatures are linked to northeast monsoonal winds that cool the sea surface and drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity during the winter season. In this study, we analyzed alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) variations and proxies of primary productivity (organic carbon and δ15N) in a well-laminated sediment core from the Pakistan continental margin to establish the first high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene. Over the last 2400 years reconstructed SST in the northeastern Arabian Sea decreased whereas productivity increased, imaging a long-term trend of northeast monsoon strengthening in response to insolation-induced southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The comparison of our winter monsoon record with records of summer monsoon intensity suggests that summer and winter monsoon strength was essentially anti-correlated over the late Holocene throughout the Asian monsoon system. In addition, SST variations recorded off Pakistan match very well with Northern Hemisphere temperature records supporting the growing body of evidence that Asian climate is linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change. It reveals a consistent pattern of increased summer monsoon activity in the northeastern Arabian Sea during northern hemispheric warm periods (Medieval Warm Period, Roman Warm Period) and strengthened winter monsoon activity during hemispheric colder periods (Little Ice Age).

  3. Variations of the paleo-productivity in benthic foraminifera records in MIS 3 from western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Y.; Du, J.; Huang, B.; Chen, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding climate change of last glacial age as the background information of climate forecasting is particularly important in climate research. Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 61-24 ka B.P.) is a relative warm and unstable period in the last glacial. Millennium scale abrupt climate changes, such as Heinrich events and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles, are identified in this period. Research topic on the variations of monsoon during the glacial cycles, especially in MIS 3, is critical for understanding low latitude climatic change and the global paleo-environment as a whole. Fortunately, high resolution sedimentary records in western South China Sea provide us valuable materials to uncover how East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) system acts in a highly fluctuating climate ambient like MIS 3. Core 17954 is located in the modern summer upwelling area off the Vietnam coast in western South China Sea (SCS), its sediments record the variations of upwelling generated by EASM. In this work, we carry out paleo-ecological analyses on planktonic ( Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina bulloides) and benthic foraminifera (Bulimina aculeate, Uvigerina peregrina, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, ect.) sampled from Core 17954 to investigate paleo-productivity and nutrition change of western SCS and its relation to EASM. The results show that benthic and planktonic foraminifera have similar responses to nutrition change. Various indicators of productivity on the basis of benthic foraminiferal analyses reflect an overall three stage change trend: productivity gradually increases from the beginning of MIS 3 (60-40 ka) to its maximum during 35-30 ka, and finally declines after 30 ka. There is also another important discovery, if we observe the climate change in MIS 3 as a whole, we can also find western SCS and Northern Hemisphere High latitude have strong correspondences in such changes: Heinrich events coincided with high productivity events in the western SCS. Further, the result of

  4. Cosmogenic Beryllium Production from Ocean Sediment Sequences Help to Construct Accurate Records of the Geodynamo Variation at the Millennial to Million Year Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouveny, N.; Ménabréaz, L.; Bourles, D. L.; Demory, F.; Guillou, V.; Arnold, M.; Vidal, L.

    2013-12-01

    The possible contribution of the axial precession to the energy of the geodynamo was recently reintroduced by theoretical and experimental studies. It is supported by relative paleointensity stacks and deep sea floor magnetization records documenting series of geomagnetic dipole lows (GDL) with recurrence at periods ranging from 30 to 120 kyr, and intriguing phase relationships with obliquity variations and δ18O records (e.g. Fuller, 2006; Thouveny et al. 2008). Yet, these time-series are presently not precise and complete enough to validate this fundamental and debated relationship. The MAG-ORB project funded by the French "Agence nationale de la Recherche" aims at reconstructing the series of GDL over the last Ma, by coupling -on the very same sedimentary sequences- the reconstructions of paleomagnetic variations, cosmogenic10Be production variations and δ18O isotope variations. Recent results (e.g. Ménabréaz et al., 2012, 2013) demonstrate that 10Be overproduction events are systematically induced by the GDL linked with excursions and reversals -as awaited from the theoretical and empirical non linear inverse relationship established between the magnetic moment value and the penetration rate of cosmic rays and particles. The calibration of the authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signals using absolute Virtual (axial) Dipole Moment values allowed us to construct 10Be-derived Geomagnetic Dipole Moment records over the last millennium, the last 60 ka and the last Ma, allowing to assess the robustness of the GDL series by a method completely independent from rock and paleo-magnetic methods. These records are comparable with individuals RPI records obtained from the same cores, and with global RPI stacks (e.g. GLOPIS, SINT 800 and PISO-1500). Since the Beryllium atoms are adsorbed on the settling silicate particles, the measured 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of cosmogenic isotope overproductions accurately indicate the exact stratigraphic position of the GDL in the sedimentary

  5. 27 CFR 31.159 - Variations in format or preparation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Variations in format or... Wholesale Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.159 Variations in format or preparation of records. (a) Authorization. The appropriate TTB officer may approve variations in the type and format of records of receipt...

  6. 27 CFR 31.159 - Variations in format or preparation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Variations in format or... Wholesale Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.159 Variations in format or preparation of records. (a) Authorization. The appropriate TTB officer may approve variations in the type and format of records of...

  7. 27 CFR 17.164 - Production record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production record. 17.164... PRODUCTS Records § 17.164 Production record. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall keep a production record for each batch of intermediate product and for each batch of nonbeverage product. The...

  8. Modulation of fossil fuel production by global temperature variations, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, B.W.; Crosby, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The report includes the inverse modulation of global fossil production by variations in Northern Hemispheric temperatures. The present study incorporates recent revisions and extensions of the fuel production record and uses a much improved temperature record. The authors show that the new data are consistent with the predictions of the original Rust-Kirk model which they then extend to allow for time lag between variations in the temperature and the corresponding responses in fuel production. The modulation enters the new model through the convolution of a lagged averaging function with the temperature time-series. The authors also include explicit terms to account for the perturbations caused by the Great Depression and World War II. The final model accounts for 99.84% of the total variance in the production record. This modulation represents a feedback which is consistent with the carbon dioxide problem; climate change; fossil fuel production; global warming Gaia hypothesis; temperature variations.

  9. 36 CFR 228.50 - Production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production records. 228.50 Section 228.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.50 Production records. At least annually,...

  10. 36 CFR 228.50 - Production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production records. 228.50 Section 228.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.50 Production records. At least annually,...

  11. 36 CFR 228.50 - Production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production records. 228.50 Section 228.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.50 Production records. At least annually,...

  12. 36 CFR 228.50 - Production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production records. 228.50 Section 228.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.50 Production records. At least annually, the...

  13. 36 CFR 228.50 - Production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production records. 228.50 Section 228.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.50 Production records. At least annually, the...

  14. Records of River Variation in the Shells of Freshwater Bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, M.; Romanek, C.

    2005-12-01

    The skeletons of hard-shelled invertebrates such as corals and bivalves are commonly used in marine settings as archives of environmental information. They are less commonly used in freshwater settings where variability in water chemistry makes it more difficult to calibrate chemical proxies such as the Sr:Ca in a shell. Our objective is to evaluate whether trace element concentrations in freshwater bivalve shells contain information on environmental conditions. Multiple elements (Ba, Cu, Mn and Sr) were analyzed within the shells of modern bivalves from four streams on DOE's Savannah River Site in S.C. Laser Ablation ICP-MS was used to measure elemental concentrations across five aragonitic shells from each site. These elements were chosen because they are present in detectable concentrations (ppm) in the shell and they have been suggested as useful proxies for temperature, rainfall, productivity and pollution. Results were compared to historical monthly site records of water chemistry and chemical analyses of water samples collected from the streams where the clams were found. The average shell concentrations of Sr and Mn were significantly different between sites and increased proportionally to water concentration. This was not observed for Ba and Cu. For example, the Ba concentrations of shells collected at a site downstream of a lake were higher than those for shells from stream sites with significantly higher dissolved Ba concentrations. Copper was only detected at dark growth lines with the number of lines and shell material between them varying between shells within the same stream. Intrashell profiles of Ba, Sr and Mn concentrations exhibited cyclical variation. The magnitude of cyclical variation for Mn and Sr within a shell corresponds with the annual variation in monthly water sample concentrations. Again, this pattern was not observed for Ba, especially in shells from the site downstream of a lake. This supports suggestions that particulate organic

  15. Independently dated paleomagnetic secular variation records from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, T.; Henkel, K.; Kasper, T.; Ahlborn, M.; Su, Y.; Appel, E.; St-Onge, G.; Stoner, J. S.; Daut, G.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy has been serving as a valuable tool for dating and confirming chronologies of lacustrine sediments in many parts of the world. However, suitable paleomagnetic records on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and adjacent areas are extremely scarce. Here, independently radiocarbon dated sediments of two lakes on the southern central TP, Tangra Yumco and Taro Co some 250 km further west, were investigated for their potential to record paleomagnetic secular variations. Multiple sediment cores resemble a very similar inclination pattern for the past 4000 years. This demonstrates the high potential of inclination to compare records over the Tibetan Plateau and eventually date other Tibetan records stratigraphically. Comparisons to an existing record from Nam Co, a lake 350 km west of Tangra Yumco, a varve dated record from the Makran Accretionary Wedge, and a stack record from East Asia reveal many similarities. However, model output data of geomagnetic field models for the coordinates of Tangra Yumco do not agree with our findings.

  16. 21 CFR 225.102 - Master record file and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master record file and production records. 225.102....102 Master record file and production records. (a) The Master Record File provides the complete... record of drug components. (b) The Master Record File and production records shall comply with...

  17. Olivia Records: The Production of a Movement.

    PubMed

    Morris, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the early years of Olivia Records, setting the context for the historic release of the album Where Would I Be Without You. From its origins as a Washington, D.C.-based activist collective in 1973, Olivia became a hugely successful recording company, marketing radical lesbian recordings and performances that soon defined the "women's music" movement. Both artistically and politically, Olivia's woman-identified albums became the soundtrack for a generation awakening to lesbian activism. Pat Parker and Judy Grahn's 1976 spoken-word recording is a unique demonstration of Olivia's radical production values and expanding catalog.

  18. 14 CFR 21.142 - Production limitation record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production limitation record. 21.142... AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates § 21.142 Production limitation record. The FAA issues a production limitation record as part of a production certificate. The...

  19. Temperature Variations Recorded During Interinstitutional Air Shipments of Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syversen, Eric; Pineda, Fernando J; Watson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive guidelines and regulations that govern most aspects of rodent shipping, few data are available on the physical environment experienced by rodents during shipment. To document the thermal environment experienced by mice during air shipments, we recorded temperatures at 1-min intervals throughout 103 routine interinstitutional shipments originating at our institution. We found that 49.5% of shipments were exposed to high temperatures (greater than 29.4 °C), 14.6% to low temperatures (less than 7.2 °C), and 61% to temperature variations of 11 °C or more. International shipments were more likely than domestic shipments to experience temperature extremes and large variations in temperature. Freight forwarders using passenger airlines rather than their own airplanes were more likely to have shipments that experienced temperature extremes or variations. Temperature variations were most common during stopovers. Some airlines were more likely than others to experience inflight temperature extremes or swings. Most domestic shipments lasted at least 24 h, whereas international shipments lasted 48 to 72 h. Despite exposure to high and low temperatures, animals in all but 1 shipment arrived alive. We suggest that simple measures, such as shipping at night during hot weather, provision of nesting material in shipping crates, and specifying aircraft cargo-hold temperatures that are suitable for rodents, could reduce temperature-induced stress. Measures such as additional training for airport ground crews, as previously recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association, could further reduce exposure of rodents to extreme ambient temperatures during airport stopovers. PMID:18210996

  20. Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation records from the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Zheng, H.; Kissel, C.; Laj, C. E.; Deng, C.

    2011-12-01

    Paleomagnetic study on marine sediments can provide continuous, high-resolution records of short-term fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field, which can be used for inter-core correlations at regional scale. However, Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records from marine sediment are still rare. Detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies were conducted on u-channel samples from rapidly deposited sediment core MD06-3040 (27.72°N, 121.78°E; 46 m water depth), on the East China Sea (ECS) inner continental shelf Holocene marine sequence, during IMAGES XIV Marco Polo 2 cruise on the R. V. Marion Dufresne (IPEV). The 19.22 m long core spans the entire Holocene, with theoretical high-resolution of about 20-year for paleomagnetic studies, and paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) for the last 7500 years was retrieved from the uppermost 15.8 m fine-grained sediments. The dominant carrier of the remanent magnetization is magnetite, with some contributions from iron sulfide, such as greigite below 3.5 m, due to post-depositional diagenesis. The Characteristic Remanent magnetization (ChRM) is well defined by a single magnetization component and Maximum Angular Deviations (MAD) lower than 5°. Therefore, the information of paleomagnetic directions is still preserved after diagenetic alteration. Inclination of core MD06-3040 presents seven relatively high peaks, and declination presents four obvious eastern ward drifts during the last 7500 years. These variations can be well compared to that obtained from lakes in Japan, and some features are also comparable to the records from Europe with temporal offset. The power spectrum analysis shows that the inclination has significant power at the period of ~660 years, and declination at the period of ~3500 years and 1300 years. These periods are similar to that from Japan and North America, in which the period of ~1300 years for declination has been reported in many areas around the world. The observed PSV from

  1. Biomarker records of Holocene climate variations in Asian interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Liu, Z.; Liu, W.; Zhao, C.; Li, S.; He, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding Holocene climate fluctuation may provide clues to projection of future climate change. Lake sediments in the arid central Asia (ACA), as an archive of past climate information, keep attracting considerable interest. We have retrieved several sediment cores from Lake Manas, an endorheic lake in Zunggar desert, Xinjiang Province, China. Biomarker proxies including alkenone Uk'37, %C37:4 and C37 concentration (C37 Conc), and physical proxies including density and magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been analyzed. We have found substantial climatic and environmental changes during the late Holocene. Density, MS and Uk'37 values are high during Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and C37 Conc is very low. During the Little Ice Age, density and MS decrease, Uk'37 values drop to near 0.1, C37 Conc is increased by 2 to 3 magnitude. Thus, warm and dry conditions dominated MWP while cold and wet conditions dominated LIA, a typical "Westerly" pattern which is opposite to the hydrological variation in Asian monsoonal regions. Biomarker records' correlation with solar irradiance (SI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the 1000year ACA Moisture Index (ACAM), and the North Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) suggests SI as one of the forcing factor on temperature fluctuation and cold and wet LIA possibly resulting from westerly-jet shift, negative NAO oscillation and the lower evaporation induced by the decrease of temperature. Biomarker records for the whole Holocene will be also presented.

  2. 21 CFR 211.186 - Master production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master production and control records. 211.186... Reports § 211.186 Master production and control records. (a) To assure uniformity from batch to batch, master production and control records for each drug product, including each batch size thereof, shall...

  3. Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations during the Brunhes period.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménabréaz, Lucie; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier; Demory, François

    2010-05-01

    Over millennial time scales, the atmospheric production of the cosmonuclid 10Be (half-life 1.387 ± 0.012 Ma [Shmeleff et al., 2009; Korschinek et al., 2009]) is modulated by the geomagnetic field strength, following a negative power law (e.g. Lal, 1988; Masarik and Beer, 2009). With respect to paleomagnetic reconstructions, 10Be-derived paleointensity records can therefore constitute an alternative, global and independent reading of the dipole moment variations. During the last years, efforts have been made to extract a geomagnetic signal from single and stacked 10Be records in natural archives such as ice and marine sediments (e.g. Carcaillet et al., 2004; Christl et al., 2007; Muscheler et al., 2005). In marine sediments, the 10Be concentration results from complex interplay of several processes: cosmogenic production, adsorption on sediment particles, redistribution by fluviatile and oceanic transport, and deposition. Therefore, a correction procedure is required to consider both sediment redistribution and enhanced scavenging, which can alter the primary signatures. To reconstruct the succession of field intensity lows accompanying excursions during the Brunhes chron, we investigated authigenic 10Be/9Be record of marine sequences also studied for paleomagnetism and oxygen isotopes. Mid and low latitude sites were preferred in order to benefit from the most efficient modulation by the magnetospheric shielding. We present a high resolution authigenic 10Be/9Be record of the last 50 ka recovered from the Portuguese Margin, that deciphers the cosmonuclide 10Be overproduction created by the geomagnetic dipole low associated with the Laschamp excursion. This record is compared to other proxy records of the geomagnetic field variations for the same time interval: (1) the relative paleointensity (RPI) reconstructed from the same sediments and the GLOPIS-75 record (Laj et al., 2004), (2) the absolute VDM record based on absolute paleointensities measured on lava flows

  4. Physician Specialty and Variations in Adoption of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Grinspan, Z. M.; Banerjee, S.; Kaushal, R.; Kern, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Efforts to promote adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have focused on primary care physicians, who are now expected to exchange data electronically with other providers, including specialists. However, the variation of EHR adoption among specialists is underexplored. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the association between physician specialty and the prevalence of EHR adoption, and a retrospective serial cross-sectional study to determine the association of physician specialty and the rate of EHR adoption over time. We used the 2005–2009 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We considered fourteen specialties, and four definitions of EHR adoption (any EHR, basic EHR, full EHR, and a novel definition of EHR sophistication). We used multivariable logistic regression, and adjusted for several covariates (geography, practice characteristics, revenue characteristics, physician degree). Results Physician specialty was significantly associated with EHR adoption, regardless of the EHR definition, after adjusting for covariates. Psychiatrists, dermatologists, pediatricians, ophthalmologists, and general surgeons were significantly less likely to adopt EHRs, compared to the reference group of family medicine / general practitioners. After adjustment for covariates, these specialties were 44 – 94% less likely to adopt EHRs than the reference group. EHR adoption increased in all specialties, by approximately 40% per year. The rate of EHR adoption over time did not significantly vary by specialty. Conclusions Although EHR adoption is increasing in all specialties, adoption varies widely by specialty. In order to insure each individual’s network of providers can electronically share data, widespread adoption of EHRs is needed across all specialties. PMID:23874360

  5. Can Dental Microwear Textures Record Inter-Individual Dietary Variations?

    PubMed Central

    Merceron, Gildas; Escarguel, Gilles; Angibault, Jean-Marc; Verheyden-Tixier, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental microwear analyses are commonly used to deduce the diet of extinct mammals. Conventional methods rely on the user identifying features within a 2D image. However, recent interdisciplinary research has lead to the development of an advanced methodology that is free of observer error, based on the automated quantification of 3D surfaces by combining confocal microscopy with scale-sensitive fractal analysis. This method has already proved to be very efficient in detecting dietary differences between species. Focusing on a finer, intra-specific scale of analysis, the aim of this study is to test this method's ability to track such differences between individuals from a single population. Methodology/Principal Findings For the purposes of this study, the 3D molar microwear of 78 individuals from a well-known population of extant roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) is quantified. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate significant seasonal and sexual differences in individual dental microwear design. These are probably the consequence of seasonal variations in fruit, seed and leaf availability, as well as differences in feeding preference between males and females due to distinct energy requirements during periods of rutting, gestation or giving birth. Nevertheless, further investigations using two-block Partial Least-Squares analysis show no strong relationship between individual stomach contents and microwear texture. This is an expected result, assuming that stomach contents are composed of food items ingested during the last few hours whereas dental microwear texture records the physical properties of items eaten over periods of days or weeks. Conclusions/Significance Microwear 3D scale-sensitive fractal analysis does detect differences in diet ranging from the inter-feeding styles scale to the intra-population between-season and between-sex scales. It is therefore a possible tool, to be used with caution, in the further exploration of the feeding

  6. 27 CFR 19.736 - Daily production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily production records. 19.736 Section 19.736 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Account §...

  7. 5 CFR 1631.41 - Production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production of records. 1631.41 Section... Administrative Subpoenas § 1631.41 Production of records. A subpoena may require the production of designated... control of the subpoenaed party when the individual signing the subpoena has determined that production is...

  8. 5 CFR 1631.41 - Production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production of records. 1631.41 Section... Administrative Subpoenas § 1631.41 Production of records. A subpoena may require the production of designated... control of the subpoenaed party when the individual signing the subpoena has determined that production is...

  9. Late Quaternary Productivity Records from Coccolith Sr/Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, H. M.; Burke, A.; Mejia Ramirez, L. M.; Shimizu, N.; Ziveri, P. P. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Sr/Ca of coccoliths has been proposed as an indicator of productivity on the basis of correlation with export production in sediment traps and across upwelling productivity gradients, although the mechanism responsable for this relationship is not clear. For diverse oceanographic settings in the Late Quaternary, we compare coccolith Sr/Ca productivity records with those of other productivity indicators and proxies for mechanisms of productivity forcing. For the Somalia Basin in the Arabian Sea, coccolith Sr/Ca shows a large variation coherent with precessional forcing of wind strength as a mechanism for productivity regulation. During the glacial, the Sr/Ca peak is decoupled from productivity indicators based on organic C accumulation rate. For the Northern Bay of Bengal, coccolith Sr/Ca, Ba/Ti, and relative abundance of G. bulloides, all suggest greater productivity during the interglacial periods, consisted with Nd isotopic evidence for greater riverine nutrient inputs. In the Andaman Sea, coccolith Sr/Ca is highest during precessional maxima in the summer monsoon, consistent with proxies for chemical weathering in the Irawaddy rivershed. In the Eastern Mediterranean, coccolith Sr/Ca is on average low, and peaks during the E. Holocene interval characterized by deposition of sapropel S1. The peak in Sr/Ca however is comparable to the level maintained throughout the Holocene in the Western Mediterranean, where no sapropel occurs, implicating deepwater oxygen levels as a significant contributor to sapropel formation. Finally, on the Agulhas Bank, minima in coccolith Sr/Ca occur during obliquity minima which are periods of anomalous equatorward deposition of IRD in the Southern Ocean. Northward explansion of the westerly wind field during these cold intervals, block upwelling on the Agulhas Bank and result in low productivity.

  10. Variations in the Zn/Si record over the Last Interglacial Glacial Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Michael J.; Hunter, Keith A.

    2000-10-01

    We examined the zinc content of diatom frustules as an indicator of past changes in surface seawater Zn2+ concentration. Zn/Si data of samples from three cores located in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean spanning the last interglacial-glacial transition are presented. Changes in the Zn/Si record are linked to changes in the surface water Zn2+ concentration. The source of variation in Zn2+ concentration appears to be via changes in deep water upwelling and circulation. We rule out changes in phytoplankton productivity and aeolian dust input as a source of variation in the Zn/Si record. Likewise, the Zn/Si data are not linked to shifts in the diatom species composition of the sediment or sediment preservation effects. The Zn/Si results presented do not support the zinc hypothesis. There is no link between the uptake of CO2 by phytoplankton, as inferred from the δ13C record, and the Zn/Si record.

  11. Independently dated paleomagnetic secular variation records from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, Torsten; Henkel, Karoline; Kasper, Thomas; Ahlborn, Marieke; Su, Youliang; Wang, Junbo; Appel, Erwin; St-Onge, Guillaume; Stoner, Joseph; Daut, Gerhard; Zhu, Liping; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostratigraphy has been serving as a valuable tool for dating and confirming chronologies of lacustrine sediments in many parts of the world. Suitable paleomagnetic records on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and adjacent areas are, however, extremely scarce. Here, we derive paleomagnetic records from independently radiocarbon-dated sediments from two lakes separated by 250 km on the southern central TP, Tangra Yumco and Taro Co. Studied through alternating field demagnetization of u-channel samples, characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions document similar inclination patterns in multiple sediment cores for the past 4000 years. Comparisons to an existing record from Nam Co, a lake 350 km east of Tangra Yumco, a varve-dated record from the Makran Accretionary Wedge, records from Lakes Issyk-Kul and Baikal, and a stack record from East Asia reveal many similarities in inclination. This regional similarity demonstrates the high potential of inclination to compare records over the Tibetan Plateau and eventually date other Tibetan records stratigraphically. PSV similarities over such a large area (>3000 km) suggest a large-scale core dynamic origin rather than small scale processes like drift of the non-dipole field often associated with PSV records.

  12. Variations in exopolysaccharide production by Rhizobium tropici.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Ann K; Wolfe, Lawrence G; Shrout, Joshua D

    2012-03-01

    Rhizobium tropici, a legume-symbiont soil bacterium, is known for its copious production of exopolysaccharide (EPS). Many aspects of this organism's growth and EPS production, however, remain uncharacterized, including the influence of environment and culturing conditions upon EPS. Here, we demonstrate that R. tropici EPS chemical composition and yield differ when grown with different substrates in a defined minimal medium in batch culture. Exopolysaccharide was quantified from R. tropici grown using arabinose, glucose, sucrose, mannitol, fructose, or glutamate as a sole carbon source. All tested substrates produced plenteous amounts of exopolysaccharide material. Variations in pH and carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio also resulted in assorted cell growth and exopolysaccharide production differences. We found that optimizing the C/N ratio has a greater impact upon R. tropici EPS production than upon R. tropici growth. A maximum EPS yield of 4.08 g/L was realized under optimized conditions, which is large even in comparison with other known rhizobia. We provide evidence that the chemical composition of R. tropici EPS can vary with changes to the growth environment. The composition of glucose-grown EPS contained rhamnose-linked residues that were not present in arabinose-grown EPS.

  13. 27 CFR 17.164 - Production record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be shown separately. If spirits from Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, containing at least 92% rum, were used, the record shall indicate their place of origin. If rum was used, the record shall indicate whether it was from Puerto Rico, from the U.S. Virgin Islands, imported from other...

  14. 27 CFR 17.164 - Production record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be shown separately. If spirits from Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, containing at least 92% rum, were used, the record shall indicate their place of origin. If rum was used, the record shall indicate whether it was from Puerto Rico, from the U.S. Virgin Islands, imported from other...

  15. 27 CFR 17.164 - Production record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall be shown separately. If spirits from Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, containing at least 92% rum, were used, the record shall indicate their place of origin. If rum was used, the record shall indicate whether it was from Puerto Rico, from the U.S. Virgin Islands, imported from other...

  16. 27 CFR 17.164 - Production record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be shown separately. If spirits from Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, containing at least 92% rum, were used, the record shall indicate their place of origin. If rum was used, the record shall indicate whether it was from Puerto Rico, from the U.S. Virgin Islands, imported from other...

  17. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE RECORD BOOK FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    FORMS ARE PROVIDED FOR RECORDING FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT SUPERVISED FARM PROGRAM ENTERPRISES BY INDIVIDUAL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS. THE BOOK IS DESIGNED ON AN ENTERPRISE BASIS AND PROVIDES SPACE FOR AGREEMENTS, INVENTORIES, EXPENSES, INCOME, SUMMARIES, AND ANALYSES. ASSISTANCE FOR TEACHERS USING THIS RECORD BOOK IS AVAILABLE IN "GUIDE…

  18. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.22 Maintaining required production records. (a) If you engage in or conduct a surface...

  19. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.22 Maintaining required production records. (a) If you engage in or conduct a surface...

  20. 27 CFR 19.585 - Production and withdrawal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production...; (10) Transfer to storage operations; (11) Transfer to processing operations; and (12) Research...

  1. 27 CFR 19.585 - Production and withdrawal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production...; (10) Transfer to storage operations; (11) Transfer to processing operations; and (12) Research...

  2. 27 CFR 24.322 - Allied products record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allied products record. 24.322 Section 24.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and disposition of other allied products. If sugar, acids, or chemicals are used in allied products...

  3. 27 CFR 24.322 - Allied products record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allied products record. 24.322 Section 24.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and disposition of other allied products. If sugar, acids, or chemicals are used in allied products...

  4. 27 CFR 24.322 - Allied products record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allied products record. 24.322 Section 24.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and disposition of other allied products. If sugar, acids, or chemicals are used in allied products...

  5. 27 CFR 24.322 - Allied products record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allied products record. 24.322 Section 24.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and disposition of other allied products. If sugar, acids, or chemicals are used in allied products...

  6. 27 CFR 24.322 - Allied products record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allied products record. 24.322 Section 24.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and disposition of other allied products. If sugar, acids, or chemicals are used in allied products...

  7. Tape Recording and the End Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, A. W.

    1970-01-01

    Intended to provide intense and immediate classroom experiences, tape recording projects of students can take several different forms: (1) unscripted plays and improvised situations (e.g., such "biographies" as "The Life of Charlie MacHerckumdingle: An Awkward Cuss"); (2) plays based on stories or poems (e.g., dramatizations of episodes from "The…

  8. 27 CFR 19.601 - Finished products records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 19.601 Section 19.601 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records § 19.601... the processing account at the distilled spirits plant. These records must show: (1) The beginning...

  9. 27 CFR 19.601 - Finished products records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 19.601 Section 19.601 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records § 19.601... the processing account at the distilled spirits plant. These records must show: (1) The beginning...

  10. 27 CFR 19.601 - Finished products records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 19.601 Section 19.601 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records § 19.601... the processing account at the distilled spirits plant. These records must show: (1) The beginning...

  11. 27 CFR 19.601 - Finished products records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 19.601 Section 19.601 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records § 19.601... the processing account at the distilled spirits plant. These records must show: (1) The beginning...

  12. Variations in global thunderstorm activity inferred from the OTD records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickolaenko, A. P.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.

    2006-03-01

    We use the data on the planetary distribution of thunderstorms collected by optical transient detector (OTD) to derive the properties of global electric activity. Processing of optical data indicates that modern observations from space confirm the general concept of thunderstorm distribution and motion. Close similarity is demonstrated between the World Meteorological Organization data and modern records including Carnegie curve. Departures noted might be caused by thunderstorms redistribution owing to climate change; the issue deserves a special examination.

  13. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  14. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  15. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  16. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  17. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  18. [Qualitative evaluation of blood products records in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Lartigue, B; Catillon, E

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the qualitative performance of blood products traceability from paper and electronic medical records in a hospital. Quality of date/time documentation was assessed by detection, for 20minutes or more, of chronological errors and inter-source inconsistencies, in a random sample of 168 blood products transfused during 2009. A receipt date/time was confirmed in 52% of paper records; a data entry error was attested in 25% of paper records, and 21% of electronic records. A transfusion date/time was notified in 93% of paper records, with a data entry error in 26% of paper records and 25% of electronic records. The patient medical record held at least one date/time error in 18% and 17%, for receipt and transfusion respectively. Environmental factors (clinical setting, urgency, blood product category) did not contributed to data error rates. Although blood products traceability has good quantitative results, the recorded documentation is not qualitative. In our study, data entry errors are similar in electronic or paper records, but the global failure rate is lesser in electronic records because omissions are controlled. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Holocene geomagnetic secular variation recorded by volcanic deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Hoblitt, R.P.; Gardner, C.A.; Gray, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    A compilation of paleomagnetic data from volcanic deposits of Mount St. Helens is presented in this report. The database is used to determine signature paleomagnetic directions of products from its Holocene eruptive events, to assign sampled units to their proper eruptive period, and to begin the assembly of a much larger database of paleomagnetic directions from Holocene volcanic rocks in western North America. The paleomagnetic results from Mount St. Helens are mostly of high quality, and generally agree with the division of its volcanic deposits into eruptive episodes based on previous geologic mapping and radiocarbon dates. The Muddy River andesite's paleomagnetic direction, however, indicates that it is more likely part of the Pine Creek eruptive period rather than the Castle Creek period. In addition, the Two-Fingers andesite flow is more likely part of the Middle Kalama eruptive period and not part of the Goat Rocks period. The paleomagnetic data from Mount St. Helens and Mount Hood document variation in the geomagnetic field's pole position over the last ~2,500 years. A distinct feature of the new paleosecular variation (PSV) record, similar to the Fish Lake record (Oregon), indicates a sudden change from rapid clockwise movement of the pole about the Earth's spin axis to relatively slow counterclockwise movement at ???800 to 900 years B.P.

  20. Arctic tree rings as recorders of variations in light availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stine, A. R.; Huybers, P.

    2014-05-01

    Annual growth ring variations in Arctic trees are often used to reconstruct surface temperature. In general, however, the growth of Arctic vegetation is limited both by temperature and light availability, suggesting that variations in atmospheric transmissivity may also influence tree-ring characteristics. Here we show that Arctic tree-ring density is sensitive to changes in light availability across two distinct phenomena: explosive volcanic eruptions (P<0.01) and the recent epoch of global dimming (P<0.01). In each case, the greatest response is found in the most light-limited regions of the Arctic. Essentially no late 20th century decline in tree-ring density relative to temperature is seen in the least light-limited regions of the Arctic. Consistent results follow from analysis of tree-ring width and from individually analysing each of seven tree species. Light availability thus appears an important control, opening the possibility for using tree rings to reconstruct historical changes in surface light intensity.

  1. Arctic tree rings as recorders of variations in light availability.

    PubMed

    Stine, A R; Huybers, P

    2014-05-07

    Annual growth ring variations in Arctic trees are often used to reconstruct surface temperature. In general, however, the growth of Arctic vegetation is limited both by temperature and light availability, suggesting that variations in atmospheric transmissivity may also influence tree-ring characteristics. Here we show that Arctic tree-ring density is sensitive to changes in light availability across two distinct phenomena: explosive volcanic eruptions (P<0.01) and the recent epoch of global dimming (P<0.01). In each case, the greatest response is found in the most light-limited regions of the Arctic. Essentially no late 20th century decline in tree-ring density relative to temperature is seen in the least light-limited regions of the Arctic. Consistent results follow from analysis of tree-ring width and from individually analysing each of seven tree species. Light availability thus appears an important control, opening the possibility for using tree rings to reconstruct historical changes in surface light intensity.

  2. Arctic tree rings as recorders of variations in light availability

    PubMed Central

    Stine, A. R.; Huybers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Annual growth ring variations in Arctic trees are often used to reconstruct surface temperature. In general, however, the growth of Arctic vegetation is limited both by temperature and light availability, suggesting that variations in atmospheric transmissivity may also influence tree-ring characteristics. Here we show that Arctic tree-ring density is sensitive to changes in light availability across two distinct phenomena: explosive volcanic eruptions (P<0.01) and the recent epoch of global dimming (P<0.01). In each case, the greatest response is found in the most light-limited regions of the Arctic. Essentially no late 20th century decline in tree-ring density relative to temperature is seen in the least light-limited regions of the Arctic. Consistent results follow from analysis of tree-ring width and from individually analysing each of seven tree species. Light availability thus appears an important control, opening the possibility for using tree rings to reconstruct historical changes in surface light intensity. PMID:24805143

  3. 27 CFR 31.159 - Variations in format or preparation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports..., when it is shown that variations from the requirements are necessary in order to use data processing...

  4. 9 CFR 381.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing and production records. 381.306 Section 381.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.... Container conveyor speed, and for agitating hydrostatic retorts, the rotative chain speed, shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing and production records. 318.306 Section 318.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... retort operation. Container conveyor speed, and for agitating hydrostatic retorts, the rotative chain...

  6. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing and production records. 318.306 Section 318.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... retort operation. Container conveyor speed, and for agitating hydrostatic retorts, the rotative chain...

  7. 9 CFR 381.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing and production records. 381.306 Section 381.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.... Container conveyor speed, and for agitating hydrostatic retorts, the rotative chain speed, shall be...

  8. A coral record of seawater barium concentration recording variations in continental freshwater input to the Gulf of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, A.; Grottoli, A. G.; Kozdon, R.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Panama (GP) experiences strong wind-driven cool upwelling conditions in early spring, and non-upwelling, warm, rainy conditions in summer-fall. The coral proxy Ba/Ca has been used previously as an upwelling tracer, since [Ba] increases with depth in the upper ocean. Recent work by LaVigne et al. (GCA, in review) presents an absolute calibration of Ba/Ca against seawater [Ba] for three GP coral species; their single-year record shows that continental runoff in summer-fall is the main driver of seasonal [Ba] variations, despite the strong seasonal upwelling. We investigated temporal variations in freshwater-driven surface water [Ba] by determining Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca by ICP-OES in a Pavona clavus coral core from Contadora Island, GP covering the period 1999-2004. Sampling at 1mm intervals over a 10cm section of the core yielded 20 samples per year, allowing a high-resolution reconstruction of the period 1999-2004. Variations in Sr/Ca show seasonal and interannual variations that compare well to independent GP sea surface temperature (SST) records for this period, indicating that Sr/Ca records variations in upwelling intensity, and providing the age model for the core. Using the recent Ba/Ca calibration, we find that surface water [Ba] varies from 40-90nM, with lowest concentrations during maximum upwelling and highest concentration peaks corresponding to high SST in the rainy late summer-fall before the onset of the following upwelling season. Preliminary comparisons of derived surface water [Ba] to regional rainfall records suggest that Ba/Ca holds promise as a rainfall (runoff) proxy, with potential to track longer term variations in regional eastern equatorial climate. Minima in [Ba] show interannual variations from 40-52nM, correlated to upwelling intensity (SST minima), indicating that upwelling strength, related to winds, is after all recorded in this coral, even though runoff has the larger effect on seasonal [Ba] variations.

  9. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  10. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  11. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  12. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  13. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  14. 21 CFR 211.192 - Production record review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production record review. 211.192 Section 211.192 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports § 211.192...

  15. 21 CFR 211.192 - Production record review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production record review. 211.192 Section 211.192 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports § 211.192...

  16. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188 Section 211.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and...

  17. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188 Section 211.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and...

  18. 21 CFR 211.186 - Master production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Master production and control records. 211.186 Section 211.186 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and...

  19. Centennial Scale Variations in Lake Productivity Linked to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englebrecht, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar variations on both decadal and centennial timescales have been associated with climate phenomena (van Loon et al., 2004; Hodell et al., 2001; White et al., 1997). The energy received by the Earth at the peak of the solar cycle increases by <0.1%; so the question has remained of how this could be amplified to produce an observable climate response. Recent modeling shows that the response of the Earth's climate system to the 11-year solar cycle may be amplified through stratosphere and ocean feedbacks and has the potential to impact climate variability on a multidecadal to centennial timescales (Meehl et al., 2009). Here, we report a 1000-year record of changes in the stratigraphy and carbon isotope composition of varved lake sediment from Isla Isabela (22°N, 106°W) in the subtropical northeast Pacific. Stable carbon isotopes and carbonate stratigraphy can be used to infer surface productivity in the lake. Our analysis shows variations in primary productivity on centennial timescales and suggests that solar activity may be an important component of Pacific climate variability. A possible response during solar maxima acts to keep the eastern equatorial Pacific cooler and drier than usual, producing conditions similar to a La Niña event. In the region around Isla Isabela peak solar years were characterized by decreased surface temperatures and suppressed precipitation (Meehl et al., 2009), which enhance productivity at Isabela (Kienel et al. 2011). In the future, we plan to analyze the data using advanced time series analysis techniques like the wavelets together with techniques to handle irregularly spaced time series data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-571672

  20. Photographs in archives: the production and meaning of visual records.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Aline Lopes de

    2012-03-01

    Based on discussions dealing with archival theory and methodology, the intention is to discuss the status of the photograph as an archival record. By means of the analysis of some attributes and characteristics of the photographic record, its specificity as a record is highlighted, as well as the need for a contextual approach to its production and its roles in the process of constituting the archives per se. The scope of this work is to question traditional methods of organizing photographs into archives, which perceive these records as being removed from the remaining documentation and which value the factual content of the images above any other elements of meaning.

  1. RESEARCH NOTE: A Late Holocene geomagnetic secular variation record from Erhai Lake, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Yoshihara, Arata; Kashiwaya, Kenji; Okimura, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Shingo; Xing, Tang Bang; Qing, Liu Su; Jian, Liu Shi

    1999-03-01

    A secular variation record of the geomagnetic field direction for the last 6.5 kyr has been obtained from the magnetization of sediment cores from Erhai Lake, southwest China. In order to make a comparison with this record, secular variation in east-central China was investigated by combining available magnetic field data from historical records and archaeomagnetic measurements since about 350 bc. The secular variation in Erhai Lake shows features consistent with the combined record, except for the oldest three observed declination swings in Sian from 720 to 900 ad. Many features of declination and inclination in China also occur in Japan. From 500 to 1000 ad, declination was westerly ranging from about -20° to -5° in Erhai Lake, east-central China, and Japan.

  2. Controls, variation, and a record of climate change in detailed stable isotope record in a single bryozoan skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Key, Marcus M., Jr.

    2004-03-01

    The long-lived (about 20 yr) bryozoan Adeonellopsis sp. from Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, precipitates aragonite in isotopic equilibrium with seawater, exerting no metabolic or kinetic effects. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ 18O) in 61 subsamples (along three branches of a single unaltered colony) range from -0.09 to +0.68‰ PDB (mean = +0.36‰ PDB). Carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C) range from +0.84 to +2.18‰ PDB (mean = +1.69‰ PDB). Typical of cool-water carbonates, δ 18O-derived water temperatures range from 14.2 to 17.5 °C. Adeonellopsis has a minimum temperature growth threshold of 14 °C, recording only a partial record of environmental variation. By correlating seawater temperatures derived from δ 18O with the Southern Oscillation Index, however, we were able to detect major events such as the 1983 El Niño. Interannual climatic variation can be recorded in skeletal carbonate isotopes. The range of within-colony isotopic variability found in this study (0.77‰ in δ 18O and 1.34 in δ 13C) means that among-colony variation must be treated cautiously. Temperate bryozoan isotopes have been tested in less than 2% of described extant species — this highly variable phylum is not yet fully understood.

  3. Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations of the 20-50ka interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménabréaz, L.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    To better constrain the Earth's dipole moment changes at the time of the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, we reconstructed the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production variations in the atmosphere using authigenic 10Be/9Be records measured along two marine sediment sequences from the north-east Atlantic (Portuguese margin) and west-equatorial Pacific (Papua-New Guinea margin) oceans. These two records evidence an almost doubling of the 10Be production at ~41 ka, thus assignable to the geomagnetic dipole low associated to the Laschamp excursion. The compilation of authigenic 10Be/9Be marine records provides a stack which indicates that the global 10Be production rates at 41 ka were enhanced by a ~1.5 factor compared to the average over the 20-50 ka interval. The comparison of this authigenic 10Be/9Be marine stack with the Greenland 10Be flux record (smoothed by 1000-year averaging) evidences a good coherency of the timing and amplitude of 10Be production recorded at high, mid and low latitudes. This confirms that the 10Be overproduction signal has a global significance, as expected from a geomagnetic dipole moment loss. The calibration of the 10Be/9Be stack using absolute virtual dipole moment values provides an independent tool to reconstruct geomagnetic dipole moment variations. This allows computing the loss rate leading to the Laschamp dipole minimum (~ -1.5 x 1022 A.m2.ka-1), which constitutes an interesting criterion to assess the loss rate of the historical field. In constrast with relative paleointensity records and absolute paleointensity data sets, the absence of significant cosmogenic enhancement at the age of 34 ka suggests that the Mono Lake dipole low was not sufficient to trigger a significant cosmogenic overproduction. This demonstrates that if the Mono lake excursion really occurred at that time, the duration and amplitude of the dipole weakening were very limited compared to that of the Laschamp. The 10Be overproduction quantified in this study

  4. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION...

  5. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintaining required production records. 870.22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION...

  6. 27 CFR 19.751 - Records of finished products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products. 19.751 Section 19.751 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing... free of tax or without payment of tax; (4) Dumping for further processing; (5) Transfer to...

  7. Cycle 23 Variation in Solar Flare Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh; Fletcher, Lyndsay; McTiernan, Jim

    2014-04-01

    The NOAA listings of solar flares in cycles 21 - 24, including the GOES soft X-ray magnitudes, enable a simple determination of the number of flares each flaring active region produces over its lifetime. We have studied this measure of flare productivity over the interval 1975 - 2012. The annual averages of flare productivity remained approximately constant during cycles 21 and 22, at about two reported M- or X-flares per region, but then increased significantly in the declining phase of cycle 23 (the years 2004 - 2005). We have confirmed this by using the independent RHESSI flare catalog to check the NOAA events listings where possible. We note that this measure of solar activity does not correlate with the solar cycle. The anomalous peak in flare productivity immediately preceded the long solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24.

  8. Variation of solar activity recorded in Korean chronicles during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Jin; Jeon, Junhyeok

    2015-08-01

    Korea has a long history in astronomy, which is proved by many observational records written in Korean chronicles. There are 43 sunspot records in Goryeo dynasty (918-1392) and 13 records in Joseon dynasty (1392-1910). According to analysis of Korean historical records, it is known that sunspot records in Goryeo dynasty show well in match with the well-known solar activity of 11.3 years. It means that Korean historical sunspot records show real solar phenomena. Korean sunspot records also show that solar activity decrease in Joseon dynasty compared with the previous ~500 years. In order to know the change of solar activity in detail, we examine Korean historical atmospheric records which can indicate climate change. We first analyze historical frost records. Korean chronicles have around 600 frost records during the last millennium. We find that the climate change shows sign of cooling down when check the variation of epoch that the first and last frost events in each year are written. This result is well in accord with that of historical sunspot records. Therefore, we claim that solar activity decrease during the last thousand years.

  9. Ancient central eclipse records of China and variation of the Earth's rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yanben; Li, Zhisen; Yang, Xihong

    Tidal friction leads to a long-term deceleration of the rotational speed of the Earth. Some of the ancient fossils and ancient astronomical records may be used to study the long-term variations of the Earth's rotation. There is a lot of ancient astronomical records in Chinese history. The authors briefly describe a method to study the rate of variations of the Earth's rotation with the aid of the records of central solar eclipses. About 200 records in Chinese annals from the Spring and Autumn Period (700 B.C.) to the beginning of the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 700) have been analyzed and calculated, but only the results of 13 eclipses that have definite descriptions about the observed phenomena of central eclipses are presented.

  10. Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    Suggestions for studying the topic of variation of individuals and objects (balls) to help develop elementary school students' measurement, comparison, classification, evaluation, and data collection and recording skills are made. General suggestions of variables that can be investigated are made for the study of human variation. Twelve specific…

  11. Centennial-scale variations in diatom productivity off Peru over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Sophie; Crosta, Xavier; Schneider, Ralph; Blanz, Thomas; Ther, Olivier; Martinez, Philippe; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The Peruvian coastal upwelling is one of the most productive systems in the global ocean, with important impacts on the carbon cycle. Primary productivity there displays strong variations at the inter-annual to decadal timescales. However, down-core investigations rarely reach sufficient temporal resolution to assess the response of productivity to climatic variations at these timescales beyond the instrumental and historical periods. We here analyzed diatom assemblages, sea-surface temperatures, nitrogen and organic carbon contents on a laminated sediment core from the Peruvian continental shelf to trace variations in regional productivity over the last 3000 years. Our record provides evidence for different climatic and oceanic conditions with more humid and less productive conditions older than 2500 Cal years BP and drier and more productive conditions younger than 2500 Cal years BP. The last 2500 years also present much stronger centennial-scale variability with the occurrence of six intervals with higher total diatom abundances and stronger percentages in upwelling-related diatom species, representative of intensified productivity, congruent to lower percentages in benthic diatoms, indicative of reduced rainfall. These six periods were synchronous to intervals of enhanced Walker circulation, suggesting a strong imprint of the Pacific zonal circulation on productivity variations off Peru. Our record also demonstrates that SSTs did not vary in phase with productivity, arguing against the idea of regional SSTs controlled by the upwelling intensity, but were rather in agreement to SST records off southern Chile, suggesting that Peruvian SSTs variations were largely controlled by oceanic currents at southern high latitudes.

  12. 21 CFR 211.192 - Production record review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports § 211.192... been distributed. The investigation shall extend to other batches of the same drug product and other... of the investigation shall be made and shall include the conclusions and followup. ...

  13. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION THERMALLY PROCESSED LOW-ACID FOODS PACKAGED IN HERMETICALLY SEALED...

  14. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION THERMALLY PROCESSED LOW-ACID FOODS PACKAGED IN HERMETICALLY SEALED...

  15. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION THERMALLY PROCESSED LOW-ACID FOODS PACKAGED IN HERMETICALLY SEALED...

  16. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION THERMALLY PROCESSED LOW-ACID FOODS PACKAGED IN HERMETICALLY SEALED...

  17. 49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313 Section 229.313 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics §...

  18. 49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313 Section 229.313 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics §...

  19. 49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313 Section 229.313 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics §...

  20. Farm Business and Production Management Program Course Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Area Technical Coll., WI.

    This course competency record is intended to help teachers rate development of student competencies in a farm business and production management program. Competencies are listed for six courses: operating the farm business, soil management, crop management, livestock nutrition, livestock management/farmstead equipment management, and farm records…

  1. Further studies on the modulation of fossil fuel production by global temperature variations

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, B.W.; Crosby, F.J. )

    1994-01-01

    This study extends the earlier work of Rust and Kirk (1982) on the inverse modulation of global fossil fuel production by variations in Northern Hemispheric temperatures. Recent revisions and extensions of the fuel production record are incorporated and a much improved temperature record in used. The new data are consistent with the predictions of the original Rust-Kirk model which is extended to allow for time lags between variations in the temperature and the corresponding responses in fuel production. The modulation enters the new model through the convolution of a lagged averaging function with the temperature time-series. Explicit terms account for the perturbations caused by the Great Depression and World War II. The final model accounts for 99.84% of the total variance in the production record. The temperature modulation produces variations of as much as 30% in the total production. This modulation represents a feedback which is consistent with the predictions of the Gaia hypothesis for a planetary greenhouse temperature control. The new model calculates 20-y fuel production predictions for three temperature scenarios which hopefully bracket the possibilities for temperature behavior during that time.

  2. A new Holocene record of geomagnetic secular variation from Windermere, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Rachael S.; Xuan, Chuang; Kemp, Alan E. S.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Cotterill, Carol J.; Fielding, J. James; Pearce, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records serve as valuable independent stratigraphic correlation and dating tools for marine and terrestrial sediment sequences. The master Holocene UK PSV record, used to date regional Holocene sediment sequences, was established over three decades ago using older radiocarbon techniques and discrete sediment samples from Windermere and two other lakes (Turner and Thompson, 1981). We present a new radiocarbon-dated record of Holocene geomagnetic secular variation from Windermere, with a view to updating the UK master PSV curve. Our analyses used u-channel samples taken from the centre of four sediment cores retrieved from Windermere in 2012.The natural remnant magnetisation (NRM) of each U-channel was measured before and after stepwise alternating field demagnetisation on a 2G Enterprises superconducting rock magnetometer at 0.5 cm resolution for the first core, and 1 cm resolution for the remaining cores. The NRM data reveal a stable and well-defined primary magnetization. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) directions of the four Windermere cores, especially the inclination records, appear to correlate well on their independent radiocarbon age models. The new Windermere PSV records compare well with the existing UK master curve on millennial timescales, as well as with records from other European lakes and northern North Atlantic marine records. These observations suggest that millennial scale secular variations of the Earth's magnetic field in the Europe- North Atlantic region shared common driving mechanisms during the Holocene. The new Windermere PSV record may thus be used in a regional context for correlating and dating sediment sequences through the Holocene.

  3. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Crowley, John W; Katz, Richard F; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2015-03-13

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between oceans and continents, causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with consequences for the melting of Earth's interior. Using Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations as a forcing function, theoretical models of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that include melt transport predict temporal variations in crustal thickness of hundreds of meters. New bathymetry from the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows statistically significant spectral energy near the Milankovitch periods of 23, 41, and 100 thousand years, which is consistent with model predictions. These results suggest that abyssal hills, one of the most common bathymetric features on Earth, record the magmatic response to changes in sea level. The models and data support a link between glacial cycles at the surface and mantle melting at depth, recorded in the bathymetric fabric of the sea floor.

  4. Variations in parthenolide content and daily dose of feverfew products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael H; Cobb, Sarah E; Shelton, Jon

    2002-08-15

    Variations in the parthenolide content of feverfew products available to consumers were studied. Feverfew products were analyzed for the content of parthenolide, the purported active component. The actual weight of feverfew was determined only in those products containing dried feverfew leaf. The total daily doses of feverfew leaf and parthenolide were calculated by using the instructions on each product label. Parthenolide content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The quantity of feverfew leaf in each capsule was similar to that stated on the label and ranged from 25 to 500 mg. Parthenolide content per dosage form varied 150-fold (from 0.02 to 3.0 mg), while percent parthenolide varied 5.3-fold (from 0.14% to 0.74%). If a person consumed the daily dose recommended on the label, intake of dried feverfew leaf would range from 225 to 2246 mg/day, a 10-fold variation, while intake of parthenolide would range from 0.06 to 9.7 mg/day, a 160-fold variation. Large variations were observed in the parthenolide contents and daily intake as recommended by the labeling in commercial feverfew products.

  5. 32 CFR 720.30 - Production of official records in response to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NAVY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL; SERVICE OF PROCESS AND SUBPOENAS; PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS Production of Official Records § 720.30 Production of official records in response to court order. (a... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production of official records in response to...

  6. Towards Structural Analysis of Audio Recordings in the Presence of Musical Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Meinard; Kurth, Frank

    2006-12-01

    One major goal of structural analysis of an audio recording is to automatically extract the repetitive structure or, more generally, the musical form of the underlying piece of music. Recent approaches to this problem work well for music, where the repetitions largely agree with respect to instrumentation and tempo, as is typically the case for popular music. For other classes of music such as Western classical music, however, musically similar audio segments may exhibit significant variations in parameters such as dynamics, timbre, execution of note groups, modulation, articulation, and tempo progression. In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient algorithm for audio structure analysis, which allows to identify musically similar segments even in the presence of large variations in these parameters. To account for such variations, our main idea is to incorporate invariance at various levels simultaneously: we design a new type of statistical features to absorb microvariations, introduce an enhanced local distance measure to account for local variations, and describe a new strategy for structure extraction that can cope with the global variations. Our experimental results with classical and popular music show that our algorithm performs successfully even in the presence of significant musical variations.

  7. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M.; Stubbs, Joanne M.; Guevarra, Veth M.; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  8. The impact of electronic health record use on physician productivity.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Huckman, Robert S

    2013-11-01

    To examine the impact of the degree of electronic health record (EHR) use and delegation of EHR tasks on clinician productivity in ambulatory settings. We examined EHR use in primary care practices that implemented a web-based EHR from athenahealth (n = 42) over 3 years (695 practice-month observations). Practices were predominantly small and spread throughout the country. Data came from athenahealth practice management system and EHR task logs. We developed monthly measures of EHR use and delegation to support staff from task logs. Productivity was measured using work relative value units (RVUs). Using fixed effects models, we assessed the independent impacts on productivity of EHR use and delegation. We then explored the interaction between these 2 strategies and the role of practice size. Greater EHR use and greater delegation were independently associated with higher levels of productivity. An increase in EHR use of 1 standard deviation resulted in a 5.3% increase in RVUs per clinician workday; an increase in delegation of EHR tasks of 1 standard deviation resulted in an 11.0% increase in RVUs per clinician workday (P <.05 for both). Further, EHR use and delegation had a positive joint impact on productivity in large practices (coefficient, 0.058; P <.05), but a negative joint impact on productivity in small practices (coefficient, -0.142; P <.01). Clinicians in practices that increased EHR use and delegated EHR tasks were more productive, but practice size determined whether the 2 strategies were complements or substitutes.

  9. Coccolith Sr/Ca records of productivity during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, H. M.; Arevalos, A. L.; Grocke, D.; Bains, S.

    2003-04-01

    The intense but transient greenhouse warming event known as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is linked with a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle, believed to result from release of 1000--2000 Gt of C from methane hydrates. Questions remain about the initial timing of warming and methane release and the nature of negative feedbacks in the carbon cycle which aided the rapid recovery of the climate system. Using Sr/Ca in coccolith carbonate, a new indicator of the productivity of coccolithophorid algae, we examine whether enhanced marine productivity may have been an important feedback in carbon cycle recovery. Recent advances in separating restricted fractions of coccoliths allow us to obtain species-specific Sr/Ca records across the PETM in sediments from ODP site 690 in the Weddell Sea and ODP 1209 at Shatsky Rise in the Pacific. At site 690, in the dominant coccolithophorid genus Toweius, a large (40%) Sr/Ca increase immediately after the carbon isotope excursion signals a dramatic productivity increase. Productivity levels remain high for 60,000 years but decrease to pre-event levels within 120,000 years. Productivity levels during the PETM are higher than observed at any other time in our -400,000 year record. Other coccolithophorid genera Chiasmolithus and Discoaster show a brief, modest (25% Sr/Ca increase) increase in productivity that lags behind the methane event by 50,000 years and is within the range of productivity variation elsewhere in the record. The timing of the Toweius productivity increase in Site 690 agrees well with Os isotope records of increased weathering intensity, which may have provided higher nutrient fluxes to stimulate algal productivity. If this type of productivity response occurred globally, it would also be consistent with the timing of C drawdown that may have returned temperatures to near pre-event levels. Results from ODP 1209 are pending. Details of the relative timing of PETM warming and methane release

  10. Stable Isotopic Variations in Columnar Cacti: are Responses to Climate Recorded in Spines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Dettman, D. L.; Williams, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    The behavior of the North American monsoon (NAM), particularly with respect to times of continental drought and its relationship to the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is of great interest to paleoclimatologists and water managers. Long-term instrumental precipitation and tree ring records in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico at low elevations are sparse and this has hindered research on NAM variability at interannual timescales. Saguaro cacti (Carnegiea gigantea) and other columnar cacti in North and South America are long-lived and have the potential to record climate variability on land with high temporal and spatial resolution. The vertical sequence of spines on the saguaro's exterior represents a high resolution (4 to 6 per year), and long (over 150 years) record of environmental change. We present results from an experiment where we tracked the oxygen isotopic values in the source waters, stem tissue waters and spine tissue for three treatments over the course of three months. These data are then compared to a previously developed mechanistic model of isotopic variation that reflects the physiological responses of Saguaro to climate variation over seasonal to century long time-scales. We also present the rationale for a new method to determine the growth rate of columnar cacti using the radiocarbon bomb spike. Our measurements reveal that oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variation among the sequentially produced and persistent spines covering the saguaro body record fluctuations in saguaro water balance. The model successfully predicts isotopic variation in spines and constrains controlling variables, yielding a powerful and high-resolution stable isotope index of water stress in the low desert. The development and refinement of an isotopic model for saguaro will serve as the basis for models applied to other species of columnar cacti in North and South America. The role of the

  11. Sustained production of multi-decadal climate records - Lessons from the NOAA Climate Data Record Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's Climate Data Record (CDR) Program was designed to be responsive to the needs of climate monitoring, research, and services with the ultimate aim of serving decision making across a spectrum of users for the long term. It requires the sustained production of high quality, multidecadal time series data describing the global atmosphere, oceans, and land surface that can be used for informed decision making. The challenges of a long-term program of sustaining CDRs, as contrasted with short-term efforts of traditional three-year research programs, are substantial and different. The sustained production of CDRs requires collaboration between experts in the climate community, data management, and software development and maintenance. It is also informed by scientific application and associated user feedback on the accessibility and usability of the produced CDRs. The CDR Program has developed a metric for assessing the maturity of CDRs with respect to data management, software, and user application and applied it to over 28 CDRs. The main/primary lesson learned over the past seven years is that a rigorous, team approach to data management, employing subject matter experts at every step, is critical to open and transparent production. This approach also makes it much easier to support the needs of users who want near-real-time production of "interim" CDRs for monitoring and users who want to use CDRs for tailored authoritative information, such as a drought index. This talk will review of the history of the CDR program, current status, and plans.

  12. New and revised palaeomagnetic secular variation records from post-glacial volcanic materials in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Annika; Turner, Gillian M.

    2017-08-01

    Global databases suffer from a paucity of palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) data from the SW Pacific region and are often affected by inconsistencies in data quality, or available age control of the sampled units. Here we present new PSV records obtained from post-glacial (≤15 kyrs BP) volcanic materials (mainly lavas) from New Zealand. The new dataset incorporates a compilation and critical assessment of all previous discrete PSV data and their age controls, and the results of new sampling in the Taupo Volcanic Zone. The overall dataset includes 23 directional and 10 absolute palaeointensity records primarily from lavas of rhyolitic or andesitic composition. Age constraints on the rhyolitic lavas are available from correlation with distal, radiocarbon dated tephra deposits, age controls on the andesites from field relationships or from 40Ar/39Ar dating. Directional swings, ranging from 326.5° to 26.0° declination and -81.4 to -46.3° inclination and intensity variations from 37.0 to 71.6 μT, fall well into the range of PSV expected for this time-frame in New Zealand and reproduce features of continuous sediment records.

  13. Variation among individuals in cone production in Pinus palustris (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Haymes, Kelly L; Fox, Gordon A

    2012-04-01

    Reproductive output varies considerably among individuals within plant populations, and this is especially so in cone production of conifers. While this variation can have substantial effects on populations, little is known about its magnitude or causes. We studied variation in cone production for 2 years within a population of Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine; Pinaceae). Using hurdle models, we evaluated the importance of burn treatments, tree size (dbh), canopy status (open, dominant, subordinate), and number of conspecific neighbors within 4 m (N(4)). Cone production of individuals-even after accounting for other variables-was strongly correlated between years. Trees in plots burned every 1, 2, or 5 years produced more cones than those burned every 7 years, or unburned. Larger trees tend to produce more cones, but the large effects of the other factors studied caused substantial scatter in the dbh-cone number relationship. Among trees in the open, dbh had little explanatory power. Subordinate trees with three neighbors produced no cones. Tree size alone was a weak predictor of cone production. Interactions with neighbors play an important role in generating reproductive heterogeneity, and must be accounted for when relating cone production to size. The strong between-year correlation, together with the large variance in cone production among trees without neighbors, suggests that still more of the variance may be explainable, but requires factors outside of our study.

  14. The environmental magnetic record of palaeoenvironmental variations during the past 3100 years: A possible solar influence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K.; Shankar, R.; Warrier, Anish K.; Weijian, Z.; Xuefeng, Lu

    2015-07-01

    Sediments from Pookot Lake (PK) in southern India have provided a record of local environmental changes and catchment processes during the past 3100 cal. years B.P. Variations in the rock magnetic parameters (χlf, χfd, χARM and IRM's at different field strengths) of sediments from two AMS 14C-dated cores reflect climate-induced changes in the catchment of Pookot Lake. Assuming that rainfall is most likely the dominant driving mechanism behind the rock magnetic variations of PK sediments, the environmental history of the site has been reconstructed. Rock magnetic parameters exhibit significant variations during the past 3100 years. The palaeoenvironmental history of the Pookot Lake region may be divided into three phases. During the first phase (~ 3100 to 2500 cal. years B.P.), catchment erosion and detrital influx were high, indicating a strong monsoon. The second phase, which lasted from 2500 to 1000 cal. years B.P., was characterised by low and steady rainfall, resulting in a low and uniform catchment erosion and detrital influx. Phase 2 was interspersed with brief intervals of strong monsoon and characterised by frequent drying up of the lake. During Phase 3 (~ 1000 cal. years B.P. to the present), catchment erosion was high, indicating a shift to strong monsoonal conditions. It appears that monsoonal rainfall in the region is influenced by solar activity, with periods of high total solar irradiance being characterised by high rainfall and vice versa; it was relatively low during the Little Ice Age and high during the Medieval Warm Period. The magnetic susceptibility (χlf) data exhibit a number of periodicities which might have a solar origin. The χlf record exhibits similarities with other continental and marine palaeoclimatic records from the region, indicating that regional trends in the monsoon during the Late Holocene are broadly similar.

  15. Geomagnetic secular variation recorded by sediments deposited during the Cretaceous normal superchron at low latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Julia; Gilder, Stuart A.

    2011-08-01

    Paleosecular variation of the Earth's magnetic field reflects the convective vigor of the geodynamo. To investigate the energy regime of the geodynamo during the Cretaceous normal superchron, we collected 534 samples for a paleosecular variation study from a 1400 m-long, paleontologically well-described section in northern Peru. Thermal demagnetization isolates stable magnetization directions carried by greigite. Arguments are equivocal whether this remanence is syn-diagenetic, acquired during the Cretaceous normal superchron, or a secondary overprint, acquired during a chron of solely normal polarity in the upper Cenozoic, yet pre-Bruhnes (>800 kyr). We explore the ramifications on the S value, which quantifies paleosecular variation, that arises from directional analysis, sun compass correction, bedding correction, sampling frequency, outlying directions and different recording media. The sum of these affects can readily raise the S value by more than 20%. S values from northern Peru are indistinguishable from other S values for the Cretaceous normal superchron as well as those for the last 5 Ma. Summing over all the potential uncertainties, we come to the pessimistic conclusion that the S value is an unsuitable parameter to constrain geodynamo models. Alternatively, no statistical difference in paleosecular variation exists during much of the Cretaceous normal superchron and during the last 5 Ma.

  16. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  17. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers' production and listeners' comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions.

  18. Historic records on the commercial production of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized food production first appeared in 1856, pioneered by Borden in the USA, Liebig in Germany, Nestlé in Switzerland, and Mellin in the UK. Their products differed remarkably and deviated from human and cow's milk, and physicians discussed the importance of minute variations in protein, fat and carbohydrates. Proprietary formulas were free of bacteria, and the companies prospered with mass production, international marketing and aggressive advertising. From 1932 on, medical societies restricted advertising to the laity. In 1939 Williams in Singapore and in 1970 Jelliffe in Jamaica suspected that commercial formula may be increasing infant mortality in the Third World. Breastfeeding continued to decline during the early 20th century, falling in 1970 below 10% in the USA. The Swiss 'Third World Group' and the US 'Infant Formula Action Coalition' linked infant mortality and industry marketing in the Third World. The controversy of 1970-1984 led to the WHO Code, which regulated the advertising and marketing of baby food. This was one of several public health statements contributing to the resurgence of breastfeeding.

  19. Automated analysis of child phonetic production using naturalistic recordings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A; Gilkerson, Jill

    2014-10-01

    Conventional resource-intensive methods for child phonetic development studies are often impractical for sampling and analyzing child vocalizations in sufficient quantity. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on early language development by an automated analysis of child phonetic production using naturalistic recordings. The new approach was evaluated relative to conventional manual transcription methods. Its effectiveness was demonstrated by a case study with 106 children with typical development (TD) ages 8-48 months, 71 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 16-48 months, and 49 children with language delay (LD) not related to ASD ages 10-44 months. A small digital recorder in the chest pocket of clothing captured full-day natural child vocalizations, which were automatically identified into consonant, vowel, nonspeech, and silence, producing the average count per utterance (ACPU) for consonant and vowel. Clear child utterances were identified with above 72% accuracy. Correlations between machine-estimated and human-transcribed ACPUs were above 0.82. Children with TD produced significantly more consonants and vowels per utterance than did other children. Children with LD produced significantly more consonants but not vowels than did children with ASD. The authors provide new information on typical and atypical language development in children with TD, ASD, and LD using an automated computational approach.

  20. New records of Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia, with discussion on the morphological variations of some species.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alava, Javier O; Serna, Francisco; Norrbom, Allen L

    2017-06-07

    Rhagoletis jamaicensis Foote, 1981 and an undetermined species of the psalida group, are recorded for the first time in Colombia. The morphological variations of the Colombian specimens of these species and of other species closely related are discussed.

  1. New records of Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia, with discussion on the morphological variations of some species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhagoletis jamaicensis Foote, 1981 and an undetermined species of the psalida group, are recorded for the first time in Colombia. The morphological variation of the Colombian specimens of these species and of other species closely related are discussed....

  2. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS Records § 212.110 How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? (a) Record availability. Records must be maintained at the PET drug production facility or another location...

  3. 21 CFR 226.102 - Master-formula and batch-production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master-formula and batch-production records. 226... Records and Reports § 226.102 Master-formula and batch-production records. (a) For each Type A medicated article(s) master-formula records shall be prepared, endorsed, and dated by a competent and...

  4. High resolution Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation records from Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usapkar, A.; Dewangan, P.; Badesab, F. K.; Mazumdar, A.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K. S.; Basavaiah, N.

    2016-03-01

    We present high resolution paleosecular variation (PSV) records up to 8 cal. kyr BP from three piston cores, MD161/8, MD161/11 and MD161/13 acquired in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, Bay of Bengal. During the Holocene period, high sedimentation rates are recorded at MD161/8 (38.8-248.3 cm/kyr), MD161/11 (137-336 cm/kyr) and MD161/13 (∼573 cm/kyr). Rock magnetic data analysis suggests that the remanence signal is carried by titanomagnetite/titanohematite grains in stable single domain (SSD)/pseudo single domain (PSD) state. The PSV records of MD161/11 and MD161/13 show good correlation in the uppermost sediments despite significant variation in the sedimentation rates; however, poor correlation of PSV records is observed for the core MD161/8 probably due to local effects. Paleoinclination records of MD161/8, MD161/11 and MD161/13 show a low between ∼2.4 and 2.0 cal. kyr BP, an increase between 2.0 and 1.4 cal. kyr BP and a decrease towards the present. To varying degrees these trends can be observed in the other Asian PSV records of Shuangchiling (SCL) and Biwa lakes. However, the magnitude of the observed inclination anomaly in KG basin is higher (∼40°) compared to those reported from SCL (∼25°) and Biwa (∼10°) lakes. Paleodeclination records of MD161/11 and MD161/13 show a decline between ∼4.0 and 2.9 cal. kyr BP, an increase between 2.9 and 2.1 cal. kyr BP, a substantial decrease between ∼2.1 and 1.0 cal. kyr BP and an increase towards the present. Similar trends can be observed in the other Asian PSV records of SCL and Biwa lakes with a minor age offset of 0.2-0.5 kyr. The available models CALS7k.2 and CALS10k.1 are evaluated for their capability in predicting the inclination and declination anomalies from the Asian regions. The CALS7k.2 model can predict most of the inclination anomalies while the CALS10k.1 is unable to predict many of them. The CALS7k.2 model shows that the observed inclination anomalies can be attributed to the presence of

  5. Solar total irradiance variations and the global sea surface temperature record

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, G.C. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder )

    1991-02-20

    The record of globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total irradiance (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating an earlier conclusion by Eddy (1976) that such variations could have played a major role in climate change over the past millennium. Measurements of the total irradiance from spacecraft, rockets, and balloons over the past 25 years have provided evidence of long-term variations and have been used to develop a simple linear relationship between irradiance and the envelope of the sunspot cycle. This relationship has been used to force a one-dimensional model of the thermal structure of the ocean, consisting of a 100-m mixed layer coupled to a deep ocean and including a thermohaline circulation. The model was started in the mid-seventeenth century, at the time of the Maunder Minimum of solar activity, and mixed-layer temperatures were calculated at 6-month intervals up to the present. The total range of irradiance values during the period was about 1%, and the total range of SST was about 1C. Cool periods, when temperatures were about 0.5C below present-day values, were found in the early decades of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The results can be taken as indicating that solar variability has been an important contributor to global climate variations in recent decades. The growing atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases may well have played an important role in the immediate past.

  6. Variations in seawater Sr/Ca recorded in deep-sea bamboo corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. M.; Lavigne, M.; Spero, H. J.; Guilderson, T.; Gaylord, B.; Clague, D.

    2012-09-01

    A depth transect of deep-sea bamboo corals along the California margin provides evidence that coral strontium to calcium ratios (Sr/Cacoral) record seawater Sr/Ca ratios (Sr/Casw). A calibration was constructed utilizing Sr/Cacoral ratios and previously published Pacific Sr/Casw data (R2 = 0.53, n = 12, p < 0.01): Sr/Cacoral (mmol/mol) = 4.62*Sr/Casw (mmol/mol) - 36.64. Sr/Casw is ultimately governed by the remineralization of Sr-containing shells of surface water-derived marine organisms (e.g., Acantharia) at intermediate water depths. California margin Sr/Cacoral records from 792 and 1295 m document fluctuations in Sr/Casw that appear decadal-scale. These results suggest that Sr/Casw may not be as stable as previously assumed and may be influenced by surface productivity on short timescales.

  7. Resolving Variations in Continental Weathering Flux From Changes in Continental Source Using Marine Radiogenic Isotope Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, K. W.; Gannoun, A.; Allegre, C. J.; Christensen, J. N.; Hein, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Determining the past record of chemical weathering is essential for understanding changes in climate and atmospheric CO2, such as those that occur throughout the Cenozoic (the last 65 Million years) (e.g. 1). Many natural radiogenic isotopes in seawater are sensitive to variations in chemical weathering (e.g. 2), but none alone can distinguish such changes from those caused by variations in erosional source. Comparison of isotope systems with different sources and different behaviour in seawater can however resolve such effects. This study presents multi-isotope records for both long (Cenozoic) and short (glacial-interglacial) timescales, and these are used to deconvolve changes in the balance of continental weathering from those related to changes in source. Comparison of a high-resolution marine 187Os/188Os record for the Cenozoic with Pb, Hf and Nd isotopes (from the same sample [3-5]) strongly suggests that for much of the Cenozoic isotope variations reflect a simple change in the balance of continental versus hydrothermal input, with little change in continental source. Changes in this relationship at the middle Miocene climate transition, at least to some extent, reflect a major reorganisation of ocean circulation [6] resulting in a shift of the geographical sources of weathered continental material. Comparison of Sr, Os and Nd records for the past 140 ka from the Bay of Bengal suggest that changes in the Nd isotope composition of seawater are climatically driven by local changes in the composition of riverine input, whereas variations in Os likely reflect a change in the balance of continental weathering. These studies highlight the difficulties of using a single radiogenic isotope system as a proxy for continental weathering or source, but show that by using a combination of radiogenic isotopes with different sources to the oceans, different behaviour during weathering, and different residence times in the oceans it may sometimes be possible to resolve such

  8. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... functioning of the condensate bleeder(s) and the retort or reel speed. (3) Continuous rotary retorts. Record.... Functioning of the condensate bleeder(s) shall be observed and recorded at the time the first container...

  9. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R. F.; Crowley, J. W.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between the oceans and continents, causing long-wavelength changes of static pressure in the upper mantle. Previous work has shown that subaerial, glaciated volcanoes respond to these changes with variation in eruption rates (Jull & McKenzie 1996, Huybers & Langmuir 2009), and has suggested that the magmatic flux at mid-ocean ridges may vary with changes in sea-level (Huybers & Langmuir 2009, Lund & Asimow 2011). The latter is speculative, however, because previous theory has assumed highly simplified melt transport and neglected the dependence of the ridge thermal structure on spreading rate. Moreover, it remains a challenge to connect model predictions of variations arising from sea-level change with sea-floor observations. Here we present results from a theoretical model of a mid-ocean ridge based on conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and composition for two phases (magma & mantle) and two thermodynamic components (enriched & depleted) (Katz 2008, 2010). The model is driven by imposed variations in the static pressure within the mantle. We consider both the geochemically inferred record of past sea-level variation, as well as simpler harmonic and instantaneous variations. The output of these models is compared with observations of bathymetry at ridges that are undisturbed by off-axis volcanism. The comparison is preliminary but suggests that some abyssal hills on the sea-floor are, at least in part, the result of glacial cycles. To understand the simulation results in more detail, we develop analytical solutions for a reduced-complexity model. This model is derived according to the idea that the melting induced by sea-level changes can be thought of as a small perturbation to a steady-state system. We obtain a Green's function solution for crustal thickness as a function of sea-level change with the associated dependencies on geophysical parameters of the magma/mantle system. We show that this solution captures much of the

  10. 9 CFR 381.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... read at the same time at least once during process timing and the observed temperatures recorded. (2... retort or reel speed. (3) Continuous rotary retorts. Record the retort system number, the approximate... can exits the retort. The retort or reel speed shall be determined and recorded at intervals not to...

  11. Cosmogenic production vs. climate for the nitrate record in the TALDICE Antarctic ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluianov, Stepan; Usoskin, Ilya; Traversi, Rita

    Reconstructions of solar activity on the multimillennial scale are based usually on records of two cosmogenic isotopes (14) C and (10) Be, measured in tree trunks or ice cores. In addition to these well-known proxies, a chemical tracer was recently proposed (Traversi et al., 2012), viz. nitrate, measured in an Antarctic ice sheet with moderate snow deposition rate. Tropo-stratospheric production of nitrate by cosmic rays is significant in polar regions because of the effect of energetic galactic cosmic rays. However, some climatic factors can influence a nitrate record there. Since the strongest source of nitrate is located at low and middle latitudes as driven by thunderstorm activity, the possible air transport from the lower latitudes to the polar region may significantly distort the signal of solar activity in a nitrate record. The present work is focused on a statistical study of the relation between the air transport from low and middle latitudes and the nitrate deposition in the polar region. We used the data from the TALDICE drilling project (Talos Dome, Antarctica). As galactic cosmic ray indices we used the reconstructions of heliospheric moderation parameter based on (14) C from INTCAL09 and (10) Be from GRIP. The data series cover the age range from 675 till 12000 years BP (i.e. before 1950). We applied the wavelet coherence analysis to compare the nitrate series with a number of substances/proxies: Na(+) , Ca(2+) , MSA (methanesulphonic acid), delta(18) O, no-sea-salt-SO_4(2-) and reconstructions of heliospheric modulation parameter from the (14) C and (10) Be records. We found (1) a confirmation that the multimillennial variability of nitrate is in inverse relation with cosmic ray flux; (2) no sign of the nitrate transport from lower latitudes to the site of deposition. This suggests that variations in the nitrate record in the time scale of hundreds-thousands of years are most likely caused by local production and deposition processes.

  12. Geographic Variation in Ambulatory Electronic Health Record Adoption: Implications for Underserved Communities

    PubMed Central

    King, Jennifer; Furukawa, Michael F; Buntin, Melinda B

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe small area variation in ambulatory electronic health record (EHR) adoption and assess evidence of a “digital divide” in whether adoption is lagging in traditionally underserved communities. Data Sources. Survey data on U.S. ambulatory health care sites (261,973 sites representing 716,160 providers) collected by SK&A Information Services in 2011. Study Design. We examined cross-sectional variation in two measures of local area EHR adoption: share of providers at sites using an EHR with e-prescribing functionality; and predicted probability of EHR adoption for the average site. Local areas were defined as Public Use Microdata Areas (n = 2,068). Using multivariate regression, we examined the association between adoption and three area characteristics: high concentration of minority population; high concentration of low-income population; and metropolitan status. Principal Findings. EHR adoption varied significantly across local areas, ranging from 8 to 88 percent with a median of 41 percent. Adoption was lower in large metropolitan areas; areas with high concentration of minority population in the Northeast and West; and areas with high concentration of low-income population in the Midwest. Conclusions. Our 2011 estimates suggest there was substantial room for increased EHR adoption across the United States, including some underserved areas with relatively low EHR adoption rates. Further research should monitor policy initiatives in these areas and examine sources of heterogeneity in low- and high-adoption communities. PMID:23800087

  13. Six centuries of geomagnetic intensity variations recorded by royal Judean stamped jar handles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yosef, Erez; Millman, Michael; Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Lipschits, Oded

    2017-02-01

    Earth’s magnetic field, one of the most enigmatic physical phenomena of the planet, is constantly changing on various time scales, from decades to millennia and longer. The reconstruction of geomagnetic field behavior in periods predating direct observations with modern instrumentation is based on geological and archaeological materials and has the twin challenges of (i) the accuracy of ancient paleomagnetic estimates and (ii) the dating of the archaeological material. Here we address the latter by using a set of storage jar handles (fired clay) stamped by royal seals as part of the ancient administrative system in Judah (Jerusalem and its vicinity). The typology of the stamp impressions, which corresponds to changes in the political entities ruling this area, provides excellent age constraints for the firing event of these artifacts. Together with rigorous paleomagnetic experimental procedures, this study yielded an unparalleled record of the geomagnetic field intensity during the eighth to second centuries BCE. The new record constitutes a substantial advance in our knowledge of past geomagnetic field variations in the southern Levant. Although it demonstrates a relatively stable and gradually declining field during the sixth to second centuries BCE, the new record provides further support for a short interval of extreme high values during the late eighth century BCE. The rate of change during this “geomagnetic spike” [defined as virtual axial dipole moment > 160 ZAm2 (1021 Am2)] is further constrained by the new data, which indicate an extremely rapid weakening of the field (losing ˜27% of its strength over ca. 30 y).

  14. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What production-line testing records... Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a...: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line vehicles or engines and state its location....

  15. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What production-line testing records... Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a... information: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2)...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What production-line testing records... EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a...) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2) State the total...

  17. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What production-line testing records... Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a...: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line vehicles or engines and state its location....

  18. 40 CFR 1054.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What production-line testing records... EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a...) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2) State the total...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What production-line testing records... EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a...) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2) State the total...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What production-line testing records... Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a...: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line vehicles or engines and state its location....

  1. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What production-line testing records... Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a... information: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2)...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What production-line testing records... Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a... information: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2)...

  3. Secular variation of the Earth magnetic field recorded in Holocene lava flows from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Chauvin, Annick; Lara, Luis; Moreno, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    -966AD). The steep inclination is also observed in dated lava flows of the same age range to the north of the Llaima volcano (calibrated age range from 720 to 980AD). The VGP associated with the steep inclination is not much different from the VGP recorded at European sites suggesting a significant dipole wobble at that time. Mean PIs of 63, 60.3 and 57.5µT obtained in three dated units in the time range 0-2000BC confirm the high geomagnetic dipole moment of the Earth's magnetic field for the two millennia BC. In contrast, paleointensity results from the Lican ignimbrite at Villarrica and the Curacautin ignimbrite at Llaima volcano show that the magnetic field strength was low just prior to the Holocene (-14000 -15000 BC). The available paleomagnetic results from Chile indicate little geomagnetic secular variation in direction during the Holocene. Thus the large and rapid secular variation during the last three centuries appears to be a recent anomalous feature of the Earth's magnetic field. Jackson, A. et al. (2000). Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 358, 957-99. Korte, M, et al., (2011). Reconstructing the Holocene geomagnetic field. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505. Roperch et al. (2014). Paleomagnetic study of juvenile basaltic-andesite clasts from Andean pyroclastic density current deposits. Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 227, 20-29.

  4. Annual, orbital, and enigmatic variations in tropical oceanography recorded by the Equatorial Atlantic amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Equatorial Atlantic surface waters respond directly to changes in zonal and meridional lower tropospheric winds forced by annual insolation. This mechanism has its maximum effect along the equatorial wave guide centered on 10 deg W. The result is to amplify even subtle tropical climate changes such that they are recorded by marked amplitude changes in the proxy signals. Model realizations, NCAR AGCM and OGCM for 0 Ka and 126 Ka (January and July), and paleoceanographic proxy data show that these winds are also forced by insolation changes at the orbital periods of precession and obliquity. Perhelion in boreal summer produces a strengthened monsoon, e.g., increase meridional and decrease zonal wind stress. This reduces oceanic Ekman divergence and thermocline/nutricline shallowing. The result, in the equatorial Atlantic, is reduced primary productivity and higher euphotic zone temperatures; vice versa for perihelion in boreal winter. Perihelion is controlled by precession. Thus, the dominant period in spectra from a stacked SST record (0-252 Ka BP) at the site of the equatorial Atlantic amplifier is 23 Ky (53 percent of the total variance). This precessional period is coherent (k = 0.920) and in phase with boreal summer insolation. Oscillations of shorter period are present in records from cores sited beneath the amplifier region. These occur between 12.5 and 74.5 Ka BP, when eccentricity modulation of precession is at a minimum. Within this time interval there are 21 cycles with mean periods of 3.0 plus or minus 0.5 Ky. Similar periods have been documented from high latitude regions, e.g., Greenland ice cores from Camp Century. The Camp Century signal in this same time interval contains 21 cycles. A subjective correlation was made between the Camp Century and the equatorial records; the signals were statistically similar, r = 0.722 and k = 0.960.

  5. Mid-Late Holocene Asian monsoon variations recorded in the Lake Rara sediment, western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Maemoku, H.; Yagi, H.; Okamura, M.; Matsuoka, H.; Miyake, N.; Adhikari, D.; Dangol, V.; Miyairi, Y.; Obrochta, S.; Matsuzaki, H.; Ikehara, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Asian monsoon is an important component of the Earth's climate system to understand regional and global climate dynamics. While geological reconstructions indicate that the Asian summer monsoon intensity gradually decreased through the Holocene, a clear and coherent picture of millennial and centennial scale variability has yet to emerge (e.g., Overpeck and Cole, 2007). The Himalayas are a key location for understanding centennial to millennial scale variations in the Asian monsoon, yet few studies of the Holocene have been conducted in this sensitive area. Direct evidence for shifts in monsoonal wind strength is often limited to marine proxy records, while terrestrial reconstructions (e.g., lake levels and spleothems) focus on precipitation. Here, we present the first evidence of terrestrial summer monsoon wind strength changes from Lake Rara, western Nepal. The lake is located at 3,000m above sea level and has a maximum water depth of 168m. Lake Rara Mn/Ti data, a proxy for lake stratification, provide the first direct comparison of the Indian summer monsoon wind intensity between the terrestrial Himalayan region and the marine Arabian sea region (Gupta et al., 2003) during mid-late Holocene. Centennial to millennial scale variability found in those records are synchronous, with the weak wind intervals corresponding to drier periods of East Asian. Strong similarities between the Lake Rara monsoon record and the Dongge cave speleothems precipitation record (Wang et al., 2005) suggest that the influence of Indian summer monsoon penetrates into southeastern China, which should be taken into account when interpreting paleomonsoon reconstructions. Overpeck JT, Cole JE. 2007. Climate change - Lessons from a distant monsoon. Nature 445: 270-271. Gupta AK, Anderson DM, Overpeck JT. 2003. Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 421: 354-357. Wang YJ, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He YQ, Kong XG, An

  6. [Historical records and modern studies on agarwood production method and overall agarwood production method].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun-Qing; Wei, Jian-He; Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yun; Liu, Yang-Yang; Meng, Hui; Zhang, Xing-Li; Zhang, Jin-Lian

    2013-02-01

    Agarwood is a precious traditional Chinese medicine with the efficacy of promoting qi circulation and relieving pain, warming middle-jiao, controlling nausea and vomiting, governing inspiration and relieving asthma, therefore it is widely applied in the clinic. Meanwhile, agarwood is also a precious spice. Aquilaria sinensis is the only source of agarwood production in China. Under natural conditions, a healthy A. sinensis tree produces no agarwood. Only if being wounded or infected with fungus can it synthetize and accumulate agarwood. It takes a decade or even several decades to produce agarwood, thus natural agarwood can not meet market demands. The essay summarizes historical records of agarwood production method and modern agarwood production method, in order to provide basis and reference for large-scale production of agarwood.

  7. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... later. (e) If you do not maintain or make available your books and records as required in this section... may inspect and copy any of your books or records that are necessary to substantiate the accuracy of....S.C. 552a) and the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). (d) You must maintain your books...

  8. Evidence for Solar-Cycle Forcing and Secular Variation in the Armagh Observatory Temperature Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    A prominent feature of previous long-term temperature studies has been the appearance of warming since the 1880s, this often being taken as evidence for anthropogenic-induced global warming. In this investigation, the long-term, annual, mean temperature record (1844-1992) of the Armagh Observatory (Armagh, North Ireland), a set of temperature data based on maximum and minimum thermometers that predates the 1880s and correlates well with northern hemispheric and global standards, is examined for evidence of systematic variation, in particular, as related to solar-cycle forcing and secular variation. Indeed, both appear to be embedded within the Armagh data. Removal of these effects, each contributing about 8% to the overall reduction in variance, yields residuals that are randomly distributed. Application of the 10-year moving average to the residuals, furthermore, strongly suggests that the behavior of the residuals is episodic, inferring that (for extended periods of time) temperatures at Armagh sometimes were warmer or cooler (than expected), while at other times they were stable. Comparison of cyclic averages of annual mean temperatures against the lengths of the associated Hale cycles (i.e., the length of two, sequentially numbered, even-odd sunspot cycle pairs) strongly suggests that the temperatures correlate inversely (r = -0.886 at less than 2% level of significance) against the length of the associated Hale cycle. Because sunspot cycle 22 ended in 1996, the present Hale cycle probably will be shorter than average, implying that temperatures at Armagh over this Hale cycle will be warmer (about 9.31 q 0.23 C at the 90% confidence level) than average (= 9.00 C).

  9. Explaining Spatial Variation in the Recording Effort of Citizen Science Data across Multiple Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Louise; Ruete, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The collation of citizen science data in open-access biodiversity databases makes temporally and spatially extensive species’ observation data available to a wide range of users. Such data are an invaluable resource but contain inherent limitations, such as sampling bias in favour of recorder distribution, lack of survey effort assessment, and lack of coverage of the distribution of all organisms. Any technical assessment, monitoring program or scientific research applying citizen science data should therefore include an evaluation of the uncertainty of its results. We use ‘ignorance’ scores, i.e. spatially explicit indices of sampling bias across a study region, to further understand spatial patterns of observation behaviour for 13 reference taxonomic groups. The data is based on voluntary observations made in Sweden between 2000 and 2014. We compared the effect of six geographical variables (elevation, steepness, population density, log population density, road density and footpath density) on the ignorance scores of each group. We found substantial variation among taxonomic groups in the relative importance of different geographic variables for explaining ignorance scores. In general, road access and logged population density were consistently important variables explaining bias in sampling effort, indicating that access at a landscape-scale facilitates voluntary reporting by citizen scientists. Also, small increases in population density can produce a substantial reduction in ignorance score. However the between-taxa variation in the importance of geographic variables for explaining ignorance scores demonstrated that different taxa suffer from different spatial biases. We suggest that conservationists and researchers should use ignorance scores to acknowledge uncertainty in their analyses and conclusions, because they may simultaneously include many correlated variables that are difficult to disentangle. PMID:26820846

  10. Explaining Spatial Variation in the Recording Effort of Citizen Science Data across Multiple Taxa.

    PubMed

    Mair, Louise; Ruete, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The collation of citizen science data in open-access biodiversity databases makes temporally and spatially extensive species' observation data available to a wide range of users. Such data are an invaluable resource but contain inherent limitations, such as sampling bias in favour of recorder distribution, lack of survey effort assessment, and lack of coverage of the distribution of all organisms. Any technical assessment, monitoring program or scientific research applying citizen science data should therefore include an evaluation of the uncertainty of its results. We use 'ignorance' scores, i.e. spatially explicit indices of sampling bias across a study region, to further understand spatial patterns of observation behaviour for 13 reference taxonomic groups. The data is based on voluntary observations made in Sweden between 2000 and 2014. We compared the effect of six geographical variables (elevation, steepness, population density, log population density, road density and footpath density) on the ignorance scores of each group. We found substantial variation among taxonomic groups in the relative importance of different geographic variables for explaining ignorance scores. In general, road access and logged population density were consistently important variables explaining bias in sampling effort, indicating that access at a landscape-scale facilitates voluntary reporting by citizen scientists. Also, small increases in population density can produce a substantial reduction in ignorance score. However the between-taxa variation in the importance of geographic variables for explaining ignorance scores demonstrated that different taxa suffer from different spatial biases. We suggest that conservationists and researchers should use ignorance scores to acknowledge uncertainty in their analyses and conclusions, because they may simultaneously include many correlated variables that are difficult to disentangle.

  11. Decadal climate variation recorded in modern global carbonate archives (brachiopods, molluscs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanin, Marco; Zaki, Amir H.; Davis, Alyssa; Shaver, Kristen; Wang, Lisha; Aleksandra Bitner, Maria; Capraro, Luca; Preto, Nereo; Brand, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The progress of the Earth's warming trend has rapidly accelerated in the last few decades due to the increase in emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The exchange of heat between the atmosphere and seawater has consequently elevated the rate of temperature buildup in the low and high latitude ocean. Records of the variation in seawater temperature in response to local and global changes in climate are preserved within the carbonate structures of marine biogenic archives. Investigating the isotopic composition of the archives' growth increments documents the magnitude of sea surface temperature (SST) change. A long-term (1956-2012) record of temperature change in sub-tropical seawater was acquired from the giant clam Tridacna maxima collected from the Red Sea in conjunction with published results of the oyster Hyotissa hyotis (Titschack et al., 2010). Variation in polar-subpolar SST was obtained from the brachiopod Magellania venosa recovered from the coastal area of southern Chile, and from the proxy record of Hemithiris psittacea of Hudson Bay (Brand et al., 2014). The former reveals a long-term (1961-2012) time-series of Antarctic-induced oceanographic change in the southern hemisphere, while the latter represents a trend of Hudson Bay seawater SST in the northern hemisphere. Evaluation of the isotopic compositions confirms the equilibrium incorporation of oxygen isotopes with respect to ambient seawater in brachiopods and some bivalves. A general trend of decreasing δ18O values in the Red Sea molluscs is observed, indicating an increase in tropical seawater temperature of about 0.79°C since 1988. The δ18O values of the polar-subpolar brachiopods display similar depletion slopes but of larger magnitudes than that of the Red Sea archives. This signifies a rise in seawater temperature of about 1.47°C in Hudson Bay since 1991, and about 2.08°C in southern Chile since 1988. The 2013 IPCC report suggests an increase in SST of +0.094°C per decade (average

  12. Inclusion variations and calcium treatment optimization in pipeline steel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Hua; Wu, Hua-Jie; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Min

    2011-10-01

    SiCa line and SiCaBaFe alloy were injected into liquid pipeline steel at the end of LF refining as calcium treatment, and samples were taken from the ladles, mould, and slabs. Analysis of Ca content and inclusions shows that Ca content in steel decreases obviously in the following process after calcium treatment; the compositions, morphology, and sizes of inclusions also vary much in the production; primary inclusions in the ladles prior to calcium treatment are mainly Al2O3 inclusions, but they turn to fine irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 compound inclusions after the treatment, then become fine globular CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in the mould, and finally change to a few larger irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 complex inclusions in the slabs. Thermodynamic study reveals that inclusion variations are related with the preferential reactions among Ca, Al2O3, and S and the precipitation of S in CaO-Al2O3 inclusions with high sulfur capacity. New evaluation standards for calcium treatment in high-grade pipeline steel were put forward according to the inclusion variations and requirements of pipeline steel on inclusion controlling, and the calcium process was studied and optimized.

  13. The origin of variations in the isotopic record of scleractinian corals: II. Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, P. K.; Leder, J. J.; Szmant, A. M.; Dodge, R. E.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between the δ13C of the skeleton of a zooxanthellate coral ( Montastraea annularis) growing on the Florida Reef Tract and environmental variables (insolation and temperature), physiological variables (growth rate, respiration, calcification, and photosynthesis). Colonies of this species were grown in the field for a 2 1/2 year study period, during which the rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification were measured on fifteen separate occasions, spaced approximately equally throughout the study period. The corals were stained with alizarin-red S within seven days after each set of physiological measurements. At the end of the period the corals were sacrificed and their skeletal extension, density, and skeletal δ13C determined. Despite substantial high-frequency variations, a strong seasonal cycle was evident in the skeletal δ13C records of all the corals throughout the experimental period. The skeletal δ13C and δ18O values varied approximately in phase, and showed a weak, but statistically significant positive relationship with each other. The δ13C of the coral skeletons, when corrected for changes in the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), exhibited an inverse correlation with P/R, a finding opposite to what was expected based on current models of isotopic fractionation in coral skeletons. Although such findings tend to support the model of Erez (1978) that increases in photosynthesis act to isotopically deplete the δ13C of the coral skeleton, we note that the inverse association between δ13C and P/R arises because of a slight positive association between δ13C and respiration. We therefore believe that the association may be a result of seasonal variation in some parameters of the system which was not constrained in our study. Alternatives include (1) variations in the δ13C of the DIC which are translated into the δ13C of the food chain, (2) changes from heterotrophy to autotrophy, and (3) changes

  14. 30 CFR 250.804 - Production safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production safety-system testing and records. 250.804 Section 250.804 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.804 Production safety-system testing and records. (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 250.804 - Production safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production safety-system testing and records. 250.804 Section 250.804 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.804 Production safety-system testing and records. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production record? 111.255 Section 111.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... batch of a dietary supplement; (b) Your batch production record must include complete information...

  17. Genome-wide association analyses using electronic health records identify new loci influencing blood pressure variation.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Thomas J; Ehret, Georg B; Nandakumar, Priyanka; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Iribarren, Carlos; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Risch, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal electronic health records on 99,785 Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort individuals provided 1,342,814 systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements for a genome-wide association study on long-term average systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure. We identified 39 new loci among 75 genome-wide significant loci (P ≤ 5 × 10(-8)), with most replicating in the combined International Consortium for Blood Pressure (ICBP; n = 69,396) and UK Biobank (UKB; n = 152,081) studies. Combining GERA with ICBP yielded 36 additional new loci, with most replicating in UKB. Combining all three studies (n = 321,262) yielded 241 additional genome-wide significant loci, although no replication sample was available for these. All associated loci explained 2.9%, 2.5%, and 3.1% of variation in systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure, respectively, in GERA non-Hispanic whites. Using multiple blood pressure measurements in GERA doubled the variance explained. A normalized risk score was associated with time to onset of hypertension (hazards ratio = 1.18, P = 8.2 × 10(-45)). Expression quantitative trait locus analysis of blood pressure loci showed enrichment in aorta and tibial artery.

  18. 16 CFR 1015.9 - Fees for production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sending records from field locations to headquarters for review will be included in search fees, billed at... magnetic tapes or discs, direct costs. (6) Postage: Direct-cost basis for mailing requested materials,...

  19. 9 CFR 381.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... retorts in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, record the functioning of the condensate bleeder(s) and the... intervals not exceeding 30 minutes of continuous retort operation. Functioning of the condensate...

  20. Using the Deming quality improvement method to manage medical record department product lines.

    PubMed

    Postal, S N

    1990-06-01

    The above application of the quality improvement cycle provides insight into the use of the Deming method to address one of several identified customer needs and expectations obtained during the managing phase of product-line administration. Implementation of the quality improvement method requires a major commitment from all team members. Process improvement requires a willingness to be detail oriented. Gathering of statistics--such as analysis turn-around time--and evaluation are critical. This objective view of processes requires accountability and a commitment to change. Improvements focus on long-term problem resolution, not the quick fixes that result from addressing symptoms of problems. True problem resolution occurs by solving the root causes of variations. Medical record departments must move from being outcome oriented to being process focused. It is no longer feasible to be constantly putting out fires in an environment that demands well-planned and well-designed products that meet customers' expectations. The long-term management of product lines requires a systematic method of planning, doing, checking, and acting. The Deming quality improvement method provides a framework for positive change that focuses on quality processes resulting in a quality product that meets consumers' needs.

  1. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Laudon, M; Tauman, R; Zisapel, N

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of nocturnal urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6SMT) in a large sample of healthy full-term infants (8 and 16 wk old) and assess whether the endogenous production of melatonin changes with season. 6SMT was assessed in urine samples extracted from disposable diapers removed from full-term, 8- (n = 317) and 16-wk-old (n = 93) infants over the nocturnal period (19:00-08:00 h). In addition, 6SMT was assessed in 8-wk-old (n = 35) healthy infants over the entire 24-h period. 6SMT was determined by an ELISA assay. 6SMT excretion at 8 wk of age exhibited diurnal variations with (mean +/- SD) 61 +/- 18% of the daily production excreted during the nocturnal period regardless of season. The nocturnal 6SMT values in the entire cohort (at 8 as well as 16 wk of age) were found to significantly depart from normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). A normal distribution was obtained using a natural base logarithmic (ln) transformation of the data. The normal range (2.5-97.5 percentile of the ln 6SMT excretion per night) was thus defined as 4.66-8.64 (106-5646 ng/night) for 8-wk-old and 5.19-9.67 (180-15,820 ng/night) for 16-wk-old infants. A significant effect of the month of birth on 6SMT production at the age of 8 wk was found (ANOVA, p < 0.002) with maximal levels produced by infants born in June (summer solstice) and minimal excretion in infants born in December (winter solstice). Short-photoperiod-born infants excreted on average about threefold less 6SMT compared with long-photoperiod-born infants (t test, p = 0. 01). The seasonal variations were no longer present at 16 wk of age. No effect of breast-feeding at the time of sampling on seasonality of 6SMT was found. Normal ranges for the nocturnal urinary excretion of 6SMT in full-term infants at 8 and 16 wk of age are defined. This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor

  2. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... product temperature. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0583-0015)...

  3. Climate, productivity, and intermediate water nutrients: new records from bamboo coral Ba/Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Spero, H. J.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    A geochemical nutrient proxy from deep-sea corals would provide decadal to centennial scale records of intermediate-water nutrient dynamics. Such records could be used to determine how intermediate water masses (300-2000m) are affected by decadal scale climate change (e.g. Pacific Decadal Oscillation) via carbon cycling, export production, and intermediate water-mass circulation/ventilation. Because seawater barium (BaSW ) has a nutrient-like distribution in the water-column (similar to silicate), Ba/Ca records have been used to trace upwelled nutrient supply in shallow water surface corals isolated from terrestrial barium sources. Here we show the first calibration of a nutrient proxy from skeletal barium preserved in the calcitic internodes of bamboo corals. Our calibration was calculated from a depth transect (500-2000m) of Isidella and Keratoisis corals spanning a silicate and (BaSW ) gradient on the California Margin (Ba/Ca coral (µmol/mol) = 0.117 BaSW (nmol/kg ) + 0.835; R2 = 0.88; n = 29). The strong linear correlation between Ba/Ca coral and BaSW suggests that coral Ba/Ca is a reliable recorder of seawater barium (and, therefore, silicate). We find a distribution coefficient (DBa) for bamboo coral Ba/Ca of 1.3±0.1, similar to that of other corals (surface and deep-sea dwelling) and inorganic calcium carbonate precipitation experiments (DBa = 1.2-1.5). This implies that, as true for other carbonates, Ba incorporation is primarily driven by ionic substitution and holds promise as a globally applicable nutrient proxy in bamboo corals. High-resolution Ba/Ca timeseries records sampled via LA-ICP-MS in two co-located California Margin corals (Pioneer Seamount; 830m; 37°22’27”N) co-vary with ~decadal-scale variations in silicate and nitrate measured at 500m depth (CalCOFI line 80 sta. 60; 34°8’60”N). This suggests that high-resolution records of bamboo coral Ba/Ca can be used to reconstruct broad changes in intermediate water nutrients driven by

  4. Coccolith Sr/Ca records of productivity during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum from the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather M.; Bains, Santo

    2003-06-01

    A major perturbation of the global carbon cycle ˜55 million years ago, believed to result from release of 1000-2000 Gt of C from methane hydrates, correlates with an intense but transient greenhouse warming event known as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The rapid (105 years) recovery of global temperatures reflects important negative feedbacks in the climate system and carbon cycle. Enhanced marine productivity may be one important feedback, but indicators for productivity changes have yielded conflicting results. Here we use a new independent indicator, Sr/Ca in coccolith carbonate, which covaries with the productivity of coccolithophorid algae, to investigate the biotic response in the most complete PETM deep sea record which was recovered at ODP Site 690 in the Weddell Sea. In the dominant coccolithophorid genus Toweius a large (40%) Sr/Ca increase immediately after the gas hydrate release signals a dramatic productivity increase. Productivity levels remained high for 60,000 years but decreased to pre-event levels by 120,000 years after the gas hydrate release. Productivity levels during the PETM are higher than observed at any other time in our ˜400,000 year record. Other coccolithophorid genera Chiasmolithus and Discoaster show a brief modest (25% Sr/Ca increase) increase in productivity that lags behind the methane event by 50,000 years and is within the range of productivity variation elsewhere in the record. The timing of the Toweius productivity increase agrees well with Os isotope records of globally increased weathering intensity, which may have provided higher nutrient fluxes to stimulate algal productivity. If this type of productivity response occurred globally, it would also be consistent with the timing of C drawdown that may have returned temperatures to near pre-event levels.

  5. Product consistency testing of West Valley Compositional Variation Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.M.; Marschman, S.C.; Piepel, G.F.; Whiting, G.K.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear waste glass produced by the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) must meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) as developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist WVDP in complying with WAPS, the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) used the Product Consistency Test (PCT) to evaluate 44 West Valley glasses that had previously been tested in FY 1987 and FY 1988. This report summarizes the results of the PCTs. The glasses tested, which were fabricated as sets of Compositional Variation Glasses for studies performed by the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at PNL during FY 1987 and FY 1988, were doped with Th and U and were variations of West Valley reference glasses. In addition, Approved Reference Material-1 (ARM-1) was used as a test standard (ARM-1 is supplied by the MCC). The PCT was originated at Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by C. M. Jantzen and N. R. Bibler (Jantzen and Bibler 1989). The test is a seven-day modified MCC-3 test that uses crushed glass in the size range -100 +200 mesh with deionized water in a Teflon container. There is no agitation during the PCT, and no attempt to include CO{sub 2} from the test environment. Based on B and Li release, the glasses performed about the same as in previous modified MCC-3 testing performed in FY 1987 and FY 1988 (Reimus et al. 1988). The modified MCC-3 tests performed by Reimus et al. were similar to the PCT containers and the exclusion of CO{sub 2} from the tests.

  6. 16 CFR 1015.9 - Fees for production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...). (5) Computerized records: $0.10 per page of computer printouts or, for central processing, $0.32 per second of central processing unit (CPU) time; for printer, $10.00 per 1,000 lines; and for computer... payment if: (i) Charges are estimated to exceed $250.00 and the requester has no history of payment and...

  7. 16 CFR 1015.9 - Fees for production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...). (5) Computerized records: $0.10 per page of computer printouts or, for central processing, $0.32 per second of central processing unit (CPU) time; for printer, $10.00 per 1,000 lines; and for computer...) Before the Commission begins processing a request or discloses any information, it will require advance...

  8. 16 CFR 1015.9 - Fees for production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...). (5) Computerized records: $0.10 per page of computer printouts or, for central processing, $0.32 per second of central processing unit (CPU) time; for printer, $10.00 per 1,000 lines; and for computer...) Before the Commission begins processing a request or discloses any information, it will require advance...

  9. 9 CFR 381.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperatures in the hydrostatic water legs. Readings of the temperature indicating device, which is located in the steam/water interface, and the temperature recording device shall be observed and the temperatures... and should be performed at least every 4 hours. (b) Processing in water—(1) Batch still retorts....

  10. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., measurements of temperatures in the hydrostatic water legs. Readings of the temperature indicating device, which is located in the steam/water interface, and the temperature recording device shall be observed... the process schedule and should be performed at least every 4 hours. (b) Processing in water—(1)...

  11. Composition and variation of noise recorded at the Yellowknife Seismic Array, 1991-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koper, K.D.; De Foy, B.; Benz, H.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze seismic noise recorded on the 18 short-period, vertical component seismometers of the Yellowknife Seismic Array (YKA). YKA has an aperture of 23 km and is sited on cratonic lithosphere in an area with low cultural noise. These properties make it ideal for studying natural seismic noise at periods of 1-3 s. We calculated frequency-wave number spectra in this band for over 6,000 time windows that were extracted once per day for 17 years (1991-2007). Slowness analysis reveals a rich variety of seismic phases originating from distinct source regions: Rg waves from the Great Slave Lake; Lg waves from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans; and teleseismic P waves from the north Pacific and equatorial mid-Atlantic regions. The surface wave energy is generated along coastlines, while the body wave energy is generated at least in part in deep-water, pelagic regions. Surface waves tend to dominate at the longer periods and, just as in earthquake seismograms, Lg is the most prominent arrival. Although the periods we study are slightly shorter than the classic double-frequency microseismic band of 4-10 s, the noise at YKA has clear seasonal behavior that is consistent with the ocean wave climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The temporal variation of most of the noise sources can be well fit using just two Fourier components: yearly and biyearly terms that combine to give a fast rise in microseismic power from mid-June through mid-October, followed by a gradual decline. The exception is the Rg energy from the Great Slave Lake, which shows a sharp drop in noise power over a 2-week period in November as the lake freezes. The L g noise from the east has a small but statistically significant positive slope, perhaps implying increased ocean wave activity in the North Atlantic over the last 17 years. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. After record sales and production, international met markets plummet

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-03-15

    After surging in 2007 and most of 2008, both the demand and the pricing for coal collapsed in 2008's final quarter. The article discusses last year's market and gives some predictions on 2009's production and prices. The National Mining Association predicts that production of coking coal will fall 11% due to plunging demand for steel. 4 photos.

  13. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Bagon, K R; Gough, T A

    1980-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of 304 seizures of illicit Cannabis products was determined using gas chromatography. This procedure results in the conversion of THC acid to THC itself and thus gives the total THC content of the material, which reflects its potency as experienced by the smokers. The study was carried out over three years, thus enabling comparisons to be made between THC levels from a given country of origin over this time span in addition to any variations between the countries. In the early part of the study, herbal cannabis from South East Asia was consistently the best quality and that from the Caribbean the poorest quality. In the third year of the study, the material from South East Asia was in general no richer in THC than material from other areas of the world. Cannabis resins normally had higher THC contents than most herbal material, but the highest levels were found in "hash oil" from the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent.

  14. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  15. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  16. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  17. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  18. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  19. SPCZ- and ENSO-related Salinity Variations Recorded in the Skeletal Geochemistry of a Porites Coral from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Delcroix, T.; Gouriou, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) are important components of climate variability in the tropical ocean-atmosphere system. Instrumental SST time series are much more readily available than are instrumental SSS time series, which are exceedingly rare. SSS variations are strongly linked to seawater δ 18O variations in the tropics, thus coral-based reconstructions of seawater δ 18O offer an opportunity to reconstruct the history of SSS variations in the tropical oceans. Seawater δ 18O is obtained by combining coral skeletal δ 18O, which varies in response to changes in seawater δ 18O and SST, with coral skeletal Sr/Ca, which varies in response to SST changes. This method has great potential for reconstructing past salinity variations. We explore this potential using a monthly-resolved, 65-year record of skeletal δ 18O and Sr/Ca variations in a Porites coral from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (16.0° S, 166.7° E). Santo is well positioned for such a study because ENSO-related climate variability strongly influences local salinity through changes in the position of the center of South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) convection/precipitation and associated salinity front movements. Moreover, a 24-year record of SSS variations is available from this region, which permits a ground-truth assessment of the robustness of the coral-based seawater δ 18O-SSS reconstruction. Investigation into different methods of combining coral δ 18O and Sr/Ca to reconstruct SSS reveals that the coral δ 18O anomaly time series provides the best fit to the SSS time series. A post-1976/1977 freshening trend in the δ 18O anomaly time series, which has been documented in other proxy time series, increases our confidence that this time series accurately reflects changes in the hydrologic balance in the western tropical Pacific. The Vanuatu coral δ 18O anomaly time series also correlates strongly with the Southern Oscillation Index, the Niño 3.4 SST

  20. Variation in Recorded Child Maltreatment Concerns in UK Primary Care Records: A Cohort Study Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) Database

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Jenny; Freemantle, Nick; Allister, Janice; de Lusignan, Simon; Gilbert, Ruth; Petersen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine variation over time and between practices in recording of concerns related to abuse and neglect (maltreatment) in children's primary care records. Design Retrospective cohort study using a United Kingdom representative primary care database. Setting 448 General Practices. Participants In total 1,548, 972 children (<18 y) registered between 1995 and 2010. Main Outcome Measures Change in annual incidence of one or more maltreatment-related codes per child year of registration. Variation between general practices measured as the proportion of registered children with one or more maltreatment-related codes during 3 years (2008–2010). Results From 1995–2010, annual incidence rates of any coded maltreatment-related concerns rose by 10.8% each year (95% confidence interval 10.5, 11.2; adjusted for sex, age and deprivation). In 2010 the rate was 9.5 per 1000 child years (95%CI: 9.3, 9.8), equivalent to a prevalence of 0.8% of all registered children in 2010. Across all practices, the median prevalence of children with any maltreatment-related codes in three years (2008 to 2010) was 0.9% (range 0%–13.4%; 11 practices (2.5%) had zero children with relevant codes in the same period). Once we accounted for sex, age, and deprivation, the prevalence for each practice was within two standard errors of the grand mean. Conclusions General Practitioners (GPs) are far from disengaged from safeguarding children; they are consistently and increasingly recording maltreatment concerns. As these results are likely to underestimate the burden of maltreatment known to primary care, there is much scope for increasing recording in primary care records with implications for resources to respond to concerns about maltreatment. Interventions and policies should build on this evidence that the average GP in the UK is engaged in child safeguarding activity. PMID:23209604

  1. Tooth counts through growth in diapsid reptiles: implications for interpreting individual and size-related variation in the fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Caleb Marshall; VanBuren, Collin S; Larson, Derek W; Brink, Kirstin S; Campione, Nicolás E; Vavrek, Matthew J; Evans, David C

    2015-01-01

    Tooth counts are commonly recorded in fossil diapsid reptiles and have been used for taxonomic and phylogenetic purposes under the assumption that differences in the number of teeth are largely explained by interspecific variation. Although phylogeny is almost certainly one of the greatest factors influencing tooth count, the relative role of intraspecific variation is difficult, and often impossible, to test in the fossil record given the sample sizes available to palaeontologists and, as such, is best investigated using extant models. Intraspecific variation (largely manifested as size-related or ontogenetic variation) in tooth counts has been examined in extant squamates (lizards and snakes) but is poorly understood in archosaurs (crocodylians and dinosaurs). Here, we document tooth count variation in two species of extant crocodylians (Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus) as well as a large varanid lizard (Varanus komodoensis). We test the hypothesis that variation in tooth count is driven primarily by growth and thus predict significant correlations between tooth count and size, as well as differences in the frequency of deviation from the modal tooth count in the premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary. In addition to tooth counts, we also document tooth allometry in each species and compare these results with tooth count change through growth. Results reveal no correlation of tooth count with size in any element of any species examined here, with the exception of the premaxilla of C. porosus, which shows the loss of one tooth position. Based on the taxa examined here, we reject the hypothesis, as it is evident that variation in tooth count is not always significantly correlated with growth. However, growth trajectories of smaller reptilian taxa show increases in tooth counts and, although current samples are small, suggest potential correlates between tooth count trajectories and adult size. Nevertheless, interspecific variation in growth patterns

  2. Tooth counts through growth in diapsid reptiles: implications for interpreting individual and size-related variation in the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb Marshall; VanBuren, Collin S; Larson, Derek W; Brink, Kirstin S; Campione, Nicolás E; Vavrek, Matthew J; Evans, David C

    2015-04-01

    Tooth counts are commonly recorded in fossil diapsid reptiles and have been used for taxonomic and phylogenetic purposes under the assumption that differences in the number of teeth are largely explained by interspecific variation. Although phylogeny is almost certainly one of the greatest factors influencing tooth count, the relative role of intraspecific variation is difficult, and often impossible, to test in the fossil record given the sample sizes available to palaeontologists and, as such, is best investigated using extant models. Intraspecific variation (largely manifested as size-related or ontogenetic variation) in tooth counts has been examined in extant squamates (lizards and snakes) but is poorly understood in archosaurs (crocodylians and dinosaurs). Here, we document tooth count variation in two species of extant crocodylians (Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus) as well as a large varanid lizard (Varanus komodoensis). We test the hypothesis that variation in tooth count is driven primarily by growth and thus predict significant correlations between tooth count and size, as well as differences in the frequency of deviation from the modal tooth count in the premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary. In addition to tooth counts, we also document tooth allometry in each species and compare these results with tooth count change through growth. Results reveal no correlation of tooth count with size in any element of any species examined here, with the exception of the premaxilla of C. porosus, which shows the loss of one tooth position. Based on the taxa examined here, we reject the hypothesis, as it is evident that variation in tooth count is not always significantly correlated with growth. However, growth trajectories of smaller reptilian taxa show increases in tooth counts and, although current samples are small, suggest potential correlates between tooth count trajectories and adult size. Nevertheless, interspecific variation in growth patterns

  3. Pleistocene - Holocene Rainfall and Productivity Records in Alfonso Basin Baja California Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Perez, V. D. R.; Gonzalez-Yajimovich, O.; Mejia-Pina, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Northwesterly winds dominate the southern Gulf of California during most of the year and are associated with high primary productivity due to upwelling. The North American Monsoon causes the wind direction to reverse during the summer months and this brings humid and warms conditions to the region. This climatic temporal-variation generates alternate sedimentation and as a consequence laminated deposits of biogenic and terrigenous composition, preserved by the presence of an oxygen minimum zone. A 5.4 m long piston core (36N) was recovered from Cuenca Alfonso during the DIPAL IV cruise on May 2011. The core was sampled at 1 cm intervals to produce high-resolution proxy records of primary productivity (biogenic opal, total organic carbon and carbonate content) and rainfall (terrigenous content). The core spans from late Pleistocene to the present and it's the longest analyzed record for the basin for the above-mentioned proxies. In general, the proxies show a negative trend towards the present, suggesting a more productive basin and wetter climate in the past. During climatic events like the Bølling-Allerød and the Holocene climatic optimum (HCO) CaCO3 content decreased and opal content increased; suggesting the presence of stronger NW winds and nutrient-richer waters. In contrast, during the Younger Dryas and 8.2 Kyr events the opal content decrease and the CaCO3 increase. At 5.5 KyBP the negative trends in all components intensify, especially during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). An exception to this occurs during the little ice Age (LIA) where the opal and CaCO3 increase. The organic carbon content increases at the end of the HCO and during the MWP, and decreases during the BA, YD, 8.2 Kyr and LIA. The terrigenous content follows the 24°N summer insolation trend, but shows an increase during warm events (BA, HCO and MWP), and can be attributed to migration of the average position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone driven by variations in solar insolation.

  4. Climate Variations and Alaska Tundra Vegetation Productivity Declines in Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Bieniek, P.; Raynolds, M. K.; Epstein, H. E.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J. E.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    While sea ice has continued to decline, vegetation productivity increases have declined particularly during spring in Alaska as well as many parts of the Arctic tundra. To understand the processes behind these features we investigate spring climate variations that includes temperature, circulation patterns, and snow cover to determine how these may be contributing to spring browning. This study employs remotely sensed weekly 25-km sea ice concentration, weekly surface temperature, and bi-weekly NDVI from 1982 to 2014. Maximum NDVI (MaxNDVI, Maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), Time Integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI), Summer Warmth Index (SWI, sum of degree months above freezing during May-August), atmospheric reanalysis data, dynamically downscaled climate data, meteorological station data, and snow water equivalent (GlobSnow, assimilated snow data set). We analyzed the data for the full period (1982-2014) and for two sub-periods (1982-1998 and 1999-2014), which were chosen based on the declining Alaska SWI since 1998. MaxNDVI has increased from 1982-2014 over most of the Arctic but has declined from 1999 to 2014 southwest Alaska. TI-NDVI has trends that are similar to those for MaxNDVI for the full period but display widespread declines over the 1999-2014 period. Therefore, as the MaxNDVI has continued to increase overall for the Arctic, TI-NDVI has been declining since 1999 and these declines are particularly noteworthy during spring in Alaska. Spring declines in Alaska have been linked to increased spring snow cover that can delay greenup (Bieniek et al. 2015) but recent ground observations suggest that after an initial warming and greening, late season freezing temperature are damaging the plants. The late season freezing temperature hypothesis will be explored with meteorological climate/weather data sets for Alaska tundra regions. References P.A. Bieniek, US Bhatt, DA Walker, MK Raynolds, JC Comiso, HE Epstein, JE Pinzon, CJ Tucker, RL Thoman, H Tran, N M

  5. Automated Analysis of Child Phonetic Production Using Naturalistic Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Gilkerson, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Conventional resource-intensive methods for child phonetic development studies are often impractical for sampling and analyzing child vocalizations in sufficient quantity. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on early language development by an automated analysis of child phonetic production using naturalistic…

  6. Record of Some Chemical Residues in Poultry Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelman, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    How pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals might get into poultry meat or eggs is reviewed. Several case studies where chemicals were found in poultry products are discussed. It can be concluded that the poultry industry is striving and generally succeeding in producing safe and nutritious meat and eggs. (Author/EB)

  7. Record of Some Chemical Residues in Poultry Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelman, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    How pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals might get into poultry meat or eggs is reviewed. Several case studies where chemicals were found in poultry products are discussed. It can be concluded that the poultry industry is striving and generally succeeding in producing safe and nutritious meat and eggs. (Author/EB)

  8. Automated Analysis of Child Phonetic Production Using Naturalistic Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Gilkerson, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Conventional resource-intensive methods for child phonetic development studies are often impractical for sampling and analyzing child vocalizations in sufficient quantity. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on early language development by an automated analysis of child phonetic production using naturalistic…

  9. Actual timing of neodymium isotopic variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts in the western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, K.W.; Lee, D.-C.; Christensen, J.N.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the western North Atlantic record variations in the Nd and Pb isotopic composition of Cenozoic deep water preserved during their growth. The timing and cause of the most striking change have been the subject of debate. Some have proposed that the shift took place after 4 Ma in response to the closure of the Panama gateway. Others have argued that the major change in isotope composition occurred as early as 8 Ma. This study presents high-resolution Nd isotope records for crusts previously dated using 10Be/9Be chronology. These data confirm that the shifts in Nd occurred after 4 Ma, consistent with a likely relationship with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, and in accordance with changes seen in other physical and chemical records. These results illustrate the need for both a robust chronological framework and high-resolution records before a reliable paleoceanographic interpretation can be made of the variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts.

  10. The mechanisms of orbital and suborbital-scale productivity variations in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Beaufort, L.; Vidal, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) is known to exhibit high seasonal, interannual (ENSO-like) and longer-term climatic variability with possible worldwide consequences, however, the origin of the suborbital-scale changes in the region is still enigmatic. The centennial to millennial scale variations in the foraminiferal-based MAT-derived SST, productivity index (FP index estimated as the total faunal portion of the three productivity-related planktic foraminiferal species) and coccolithophore-based quantitative productivity record are investigated over MIS 3 and three glacial-interglacial terminations in the IMAGES Core MD02-2529 off Costa Rica (8°12.5' N, 84° 07.5' W, w.d. 1619 m). The stratigraphic framework over three climatic cycles is based on the benthic d 18O record performed on C. wuellerstorfi, and on the published time-scale for last 90 ka (Leduc et al. 2007). The results of the study provide new insight on the mechanisms of productivity variations in the EEP. FP index and total planktic foraminiferal abundance increase concurrently with the previously established salinity raise (Leduc et al.2007) at six H-events (from H-6 to H-1) and at the Younger Dryas relative to the adjacent values. SST record does not show any consistent positive or negative correlation with H-events. The longer-lasting events of enhanced FP index values associate with all three terminations, whereas SST and the total portion of foraminiferal oligotrophic species increase by the end of terminations. The recurrent increase in bioproductivity during H-events may be interpreted in terms of intensified nutrients supply at the core site. At present, bioproductivity at site MD02-2529 is influenced by the seasonal cycle and associated shifts of the Costa Rica Dome and by propagation of eddies and filaments from the nearby coastal upwellings in the Panama Bight and Gulf of Papagayo with the Ekman drift. As these seasonal upwellings are known to be driven by coastal wind jets associated

  11. Holocene millennial-scale productivity variations in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incarbona, Alessandro; di Stefano, Enrico; Patti, Bernardo; Pelosi, Nicola; Bonomo, Sergio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Rodolfo; Tranchida, Giorgio; Zgozi, Salem; Bonanno, Angelo

    2008-09-01

    The calcareous nannofossil assemblages of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 963D from the central Mediterranean Sea have been investigated to document oceanographic changes in surface waters. The studied site is located in an area sensitive to large-scale atmospheric and climatic systems and to high- and low-latitude climate connection. It is characterized by a high sedimentation rate (the achieved mean sampling resolution is <70 years) that allowed the Sicily Channel environmental changes to be examined in great detail over the last 12 ka BP. We focused on the species Florisphaera profunda that lives in the lower photic zone. Its distribution pattern shows repeated abundance fluctuations of about 10-15%. Such variations could be related to different primary production levels, given that the study of the distribution of this species on the Sicily Channel seafloor demonstrates the significant correlation to productivity changes as provided by satellite imagery. Productivity variations were quantitatively estimated and were interpreted on the basis of the relocation of the nutricline within the photic zone, led by the dynamics of the summer thermocline. Productivity changes were compared with oceanographic, atmospheric, and cosmogenic nuclide proxies. The good match with Holocene master records, as with ice-rafted detritus in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the near-1500-year periodicity suggest that the Sicily Channel environment responded to worldwide climate anomalies. Enhanced Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, which has been reported as one of the most important forcing mechanisms for Holocene coolings in previous Mediterranean studies, had a remarkable impact on the water column dynamics of the Sicily Channel.

  12. On baseline corrections and uncertainty in response spectra for baseline variations commonly encountered in digital accelerograph records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akkar, Sinan; Boore, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Most digital accelerograph recordings are plagued by long-period drifts, best seen in the velocity and displacement time series obtained from integration of the acceleration time series. These drifts often result in velocity values that are nonzero near the end of the record. This is clearly unphysical and can lead to inaccurate estimates of peak ground displacement and long-period spectral response. The source of the long-period noise seems to be variations in the acceleration baseline in many cases. These variations could be due to true ground motion (tilting and rotation, as well as local permanent ground deformation), instrumental effects, or analog-to-digital conversion. Very often the trends in velocity are well approximated by a linear trend after the strong shaking subsides. The linearity of the trend in velocity implies that no variations in the baseline could have occurred after the onset of linearity in the velocity time series. This observation, combined with the lack of any trends in the pre-event motion, allows us to compute the time interval in which any baseline variations could occur. We then use several models of the variations in a Monte Carlo procedure to derive a suite of baseline-corrected accelerations for each noise model using records from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and several earthquakes in Turkey. Comparisons of the mean values of the peak ground displacements, spectral displacements, and residual displacements computed from these corrected accelerations for the different noise models can be used as a guide to the accuracy of the baseline corrections. For many of the records considered here the mean values are similar for each noise model, giving confidence in the estimation of the mean values. The dispersion of the ground-motion measures increases with period and is noise-model dependent. The dispersion of inelastic spectra is greater than the elastic spectra at short periods but approaches that of the elastic spectra at longer periods

  13. Hospital Trusts productivity in the English NHS: Uncovering possible drivers of productivity variations.

    PubMed

    Aragon Aragon, María Jose; Castelli, Adriana; Gaughan, James

    2017-01-01

    Health care systems in OECD countries are increasingly facing economic challenges and funding pressures. These normally demand interventions (political, financial and organisational) aimed at improving the efficiency of the health system as a whole and its single components. In 2009, the English NHS Chief Executive, Sir David Nicholson, warned that a potential funding gap of £20 billion should be met by extensive efficiency savings by March 2015. Our study investigates possible drivers of differential Trust performance (productivity) for the financial years 2010/11-2012/13. Following accounting practice, we define Productivity as the ratio of Outputs over Inputs. We analyse variation in both Total Factor and Labour Productivity using ordinary least squares regressions. We explicitly included in our analysis factors of differential performance highlighted in the Nicholson challenge as the sources were the efficiency savings should come from. Explanatory variables include efficiency in resource use measures, Trust and patient characteristics, and quality of care. We find that larger Trusts and Foundation Trusts are associated with lower productivity, as are those treating a greater proportion of both older and/or younger patients. Surprisingly treating more patients in their last year of life is associated with higher Labour Productivity.

  14. Constructing a High-Resolution Temporal Record of Spreading-Rate Variations Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carchedi, C. J. W.; Dalton, C. A.; Herbert, T.

    2016-12-01

    Paleoclimate records provide an opportunity to investigate links between major changes in Earth's climate and long-term forcing mechanisms. While changes in atmospheric CO2 appear to drive trends in climate, global ocean cooling in the late Miocene remains an enigma: most CO2 proxies do not show a corresponding decline over this period. To improve constraints on the global carbon cycle over this time, we are constructing a new global synthesis of variations in ridge spreading rates with high temporal resolution over the past 20 Myr. We utilize newly available compilations of seafloor fabric and marine magnetic anomalies that are provided by the Global Seafloor Fabric and Magnetic Lineation Data Base Project (Matthews et al., 2011; Seton et al., 2014). Our initial focus is the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where spreading is preserved on both ridge flanks, and dense data sets of magnetic anomalies are available. To obtain accurate and precise values of time, we use a new orbital timescale for magnetic reversal ages. Tectonic flow lines are generated from seafloor fabric, using continuous fracture zones extending from transform faults along the current ridge out to seafloor > 30 Myr. The cumulative distance each point on the flow line has traveled from the ridge is computed. Nearby magnetic anomalies are projected onto the flow line along lines normal to the flow line. Spreading rate as a function of seafloor age is then determined from age-distance relationships; both ridge flanks are treated separately to investigate spreading asymmetry. To improve the profiles' signal to noise ratios, we then stack the anomaly crossings onto composite east and west spreading profiles. Our preliminary analysis shows that spreading rates have decreased significantly from the mid-Miocene to the present, beginning around 15 Ma and experiencing a pronounced reduction during 8 to 5 Ma. This trend mirrors the decline observed in global sea surface temperatures, suggesting that tectonic

  15. 46 CFR 159.007-13 - Production inspections and tests: Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Production Inspection and Tests of Approved Equipment and Materials § 159.007-13 Production inspections and tests... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production inspections and tests: Records....

  16. 46 CFR 159.007-13 - Production inspections and tests: Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Production Inspection and Tests of Approved Equipment and Materials § 159.007-13 Production inspections and tests... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production inspections and tests: Records....

  17. 46 CFR 159.007-13 - Production inspections and tests: Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Production Inspection and Tests of Approved Equipment and Materials § 159.007-13 Production inspections and tests... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production inspections and tests: Records....

  18. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a... information: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2) State...

  19. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? (a...: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line vehicles or engines and state its location. (2...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line vehicles or engines and state its location. (2... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?...

  1. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information: (1) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2) State... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?...

  2. Managing Variation in Services in a Software Product Line Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Oriented Domain Analysis ( FODA ) Feasibility Study (CMU/SEI-90-TR-021, ADA235785). Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1990...the systems in the product line, and a plan for building the systems. Product line scope and product line analysis define the boundaries and...systems, as well as expected ways in which they may vary. Product line analysis applies established modeling techniques to engineer the common and

  3. 28 CFR 16.33 - Fee for production of identification record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production of FBI Identification Records in Response to Written Requests by... directions of the Attorney General of the United States, the Director of the FBI may from time to...

  4. 28 CFR 16.33 - Fee for production of identification record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production of FBI Identification Records in Response to Written Requests by... directions of the Attorney General of the United States, the Director of the FBI may from time to...

  5. 28 CFR 16.33 - Fee for production of identification record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production of FBI Identification Records in Response to Written Requests by... directions of the Attorney General of the United States, the Director of the FBI may from time to...

  6. 28 CFR 16.33 - Fee for production of identification record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production of FBI Identification Records in Response to Written Requests by... directions of the Attorney General of the United States, the Director of the FBI may from time to...

  7. 28 CFR 16.33 - Fee for production of identification record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production of FBI Identification Records in Response to Written Requests by... directions of the Attorney General of the United States, the Director of the FBI may from time to...

  8. 29 CFR 1401.2 - Production of records or testimony by FMCS employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Information in Response to Subpoenas § 1401.2 Production of records or testimony by FMCS employees. (a) Public policy and the successful effectuation of the Federal Mediation...

  9. 19 CFR 163.6 - Production and examination of entry and other records and witnesses; penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.6 Production and... any person from whom Customs has demanded entry records encounter a problem in timely complying with... material omission of any information contained in the demanded record; or (ii) Disciplinary action...

  10. Holocene melt-water variations recorded in Antarctic coastal marine benthic assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, P.A.

    1992-03-01

    Climate changes can influence the input of meltwater from the polar ice sheets. In Antarctica, signatures of meltwater input during the Holocene may be recorded in the benthic fossils which exist at similar altitudes above sea level in emerged beaches around the continent Interpreting the fossils as meltwater proxy records would be enhanced by understanding the modern ecology of the species in adjacent marine environments. Characteristics of an extant scallop assemblage in West McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, have been evaluated across a summer meltwater gradient to provide examples of meltwater records that may be contained in proximal scallop fossils. Integrating environmental proxies from coastal benthic assemblages around Antarctica, over ecological and geological time scales, is a necessary step in evaluating the marginal responses of the ice sheets to climate changes during the Holocene.

  11. Variations in triple isotope composition of dissolved oxygen and primary production in a subtropical reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurikova, Hana; Guha, Tania; Abe, Osamu; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Wang, Chung-Ho; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Lakes and reservoirs play an important role in the carbon cycle, and therefore monitoring their metabolic rates is essential. The triple oxygen-isotope anomaly of dissolved O2 [17Δ = ln(1+δ17O) - 0.518 × ln(1 + δ18O)] offers a new, in situ, perspective on primary production, yet little is known about 17Δ from freshwater systems. We investigated the 17Δ together with the oxygen : argon ratio [Δ(O2 / Ar)] in the subtropical Feitsui Reservoir in Taiwan from June 2014 to July 2015. Here, we present the seasonal variations in 17Δ, GP (gross production), NP (net production) and the NP / GP (net to gross ratio) in association with environmental parameters. The 17Δ varied with depth and season, with values ranging between 26 and 205 per meg. The GP rates were observed to be higher (702 ± 107 mg C m-2 d-1) in winter than those (303 ± 66 mg C m-2 d-1) recorded during the summer. The overall averaged GP was 220 g C m-2 yr-1 and NP was -3 g C m-2 yr-1, implying the reservoir was net heterotrophic on an annual basis. This is due to negative NP rates from October to February (-198 ± 78 mg C m-2 d-1). Comparisons between GP rates obtained from the isotope mass balance approach and 14C bottle incubation method (14C-GP) showed consistent values on the same order of magnitude with a GP / 14C-GP ratio of 1.2 ± 1.1. Finally we noted that, although typhoon occurrences were scarce, higher than average 17Δ values and GP rates were recorded after typhoon events.

  12. Seasonal variation of the satellite-derived phytoplankton primary production in the Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, A. B.; Sheberstov, S. V.; Gagarin, V. I.; Khlebopashev, P. V.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal variation of the integrated primary production (IPP) and surface chlorophyll (Chl0) in different regions of the Kara Sea was studied from satellite data obtained by the MODIS-Aqua colour scanner and averaged for 2003-2015. The minimum variation of Chl0 concentration during the growing season (from April to October) was 1.5 times in southwestern region and 2 times in the northern region of the sea. It was found that the Chl0 concentration increased slightly in all regions by the end of the growing season. The maximum IPP value recorded in June coincided with the peak level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and maximum river discharge. The IPP value varied in a wider range compared with the Chl0 concentration. The ratio of the maximum and minimum monthly average IPP values varied from 8.9 times in Southwestern region to 11.7 times in the Northern region of the sea. The average increase in the Chl0 concentration was 1.7 times (from 0.78 mg/m3 in April to 1.29 mg/m3 in October). The IPP value varied by a factor of 10.7 (from 26 mg C/m2 per day in October to 279 mg C/m2 per day in June). The article also discusses the influence of water column stratification, the concentration of nutrients, the PAR level, and river discharge on the seasonal IPP dynamics in the Kara Sea.

  13. Multimillennial records of climatic variation in the Sierra Nevada inferred from tree rings

    SciTech Connect

    Graumlich, L.J.; Lloyd, A.H.; Hughes, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    Temporally precise, regional reconstructions of climatic variation provide a context in which to interpret population dynamics of long-lived (> 1000 yr) species. We use tree-ring data from living trees and subfossil material in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountains to infer climatic variations over the last 3000 years. Tree growth of foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana; upper treeline, Sierra Nevada) is influenced by summer temperature and winter precipitation. Tree growth of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum; west slope, Sierra Nevada) is influenced by short-term fluctuations in precipitation, especially extremely dry years, while growth of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva; lower forest border, White Mountains) reflects both short- and long-term variation in precipitation. Summer temperatures anomalies include an extended warm period from A.D. 1100 to 1375 and a cold period from A.D. 1450 to 1850. The precipitation reconstruction indicates severe drought from A.D. 1021 to 1070 and A.D. 1249 to 1365. These results are corroborated by radiocarbon dates of submerged and re-exposed tree stump at Mono Lake indicating severe drought from A.D. 900 to 1100 and A.D. 1200 to 1350. Our ongoing work seeks to understand the influence of long-term climatic variation on population dynamics in the subalpine zone of the Sierra Nevada.

  14. Variations in productivity and eolian fluxes in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the past 110 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, Ali; Marcantonio, Franco; Schulz, Hartmut

    2004-04-01

    High-resolution (one to two samples/ka) radionuclide proxy records from core 93KL in the northeastern Arabian Sea provide evidence for millennial climate variability over the past 110 ka. We interpret 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes as a proxy for eolian input, and authigenic uranium concentrations as a proxy for past productivity. We attribute orbital and suborbital variations in both proxies to changes in the intensity of the southwest Indian Ocean monsoon. The highest 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes occur at times that are consistent with the timing of the Younger Dryas, Heinrich events 1-7 and cold Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial events recorded in the GISP2 ice core. Such high dust fluxes may be due to a weakened southwest monsoon in conjunction with strengthened northwesterlies from the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia. Authigenic uranium concentrations, on the other hand, are highest during warm Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials when the southwest monsoon is intensified relative to the northwesterly winds. Our results also indicate that on orbital timescales maximum average eolian fluxes coincide with the timing of marine isotopic stage (MIS) 2 and 4, while minimum fluxes occur during MIS 1, 3 and 5. Although the forcing mechanism(s) controlling suborbital variabilities in monsoonal intensity is still debated, our findings suggest an atmospheric teleconnection between the low-latitude southwest monsoon and North Atlantic climate.

  15. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings record variation in precipitation δ18O and amount effects in the south of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brienen, Roel J. W.; Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gloor, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Natural archives of oxygen isotopes in precipitation may be used to study changes in the hydrological cycle in the tropics, but their interpretation is not straightforward. We studied to which degree tree rings of Mimosa acantholoba from southern Mexico record variation in isotopic composition of precipitation and which climatic processes influence oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18Otr). Interannual variation in δ18Otr was highly synchronized between trees and closely related to isotopic composition of rain measured at San Salvador, 710 km to the southwest. Correlations with δ13C, growth, or local climate variables (temperature, cloud cover, vapor pressure deficit (VPD)) were relatively low, indicating weak plant physiological influences. Interannual variation in δ18Otr correlated negatively with local rainfall amount and intensity. Correlations with the amount of precipitation extended along a 1000 km long stretch of the Pacific Central American coast, probably as a result of organized storm systems uniformly affecting rainfall in the region and its isotope signal; episodic heavy precipitation events, of which some are related to cyclones, deposit strongly 18O-depleted rain in the region and seem to have affected the δ18Otr signal. Large-scale controls on the isotope signature include variation in sea surface temperatures of tropical north Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In conclusion, we show that δ18Otr of M. acantholoba can be used as a proxy for source water δ18O and that interannual variation in δ18Oprec is caused by a regional amount effect. This contrasts with δ18O signatures at continental sites where cumulative rainout processes dominate and thus provide a proxy for precipitation integrated over a much larger scale. Our results confirm that processes influencing climate-isotope relations differ between sites located, e.g., in the western Amazon versus coastal Mexico, and that tree ring isotope records can help in disentangling the processes

  16. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings record variation in precipitation δ(18)O and amount effects in the south of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brienen, Roel J W; Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gloor, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    [1] Natural archives of oxygen isotopes in precipitation may be used to study changes in the hydrological cycle in the tropics, but their interpretation is not straightforward. We studied to which degree tree rings of Mimosa acantholoba from southern Mexico record variation in isotopic composition of precipitation and which climatic processes influence oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ(18)Otr). Interannual variation in δ(18)Otr was highly synchronized between trees and closely related to isotopic composition of rain measured at San Salvador, 710 km to the southwest. Correlations with δ(13)C, growth, or local climate variables (temperature, cloud cover, vapor pressure deficit (VPD)) were relatively low, indicating weak plant physiological influences. Interannual variation in δ(18)Otr correlated negatively with local rainfall amount and intensity. Correlations with the amount of precipitation extended along a 1000 km long stretch of the Pacific Central American coast, probably as a result of organized storm systems uniformly affecting rainfall in the region and its isotope signal; episodic heavy precipitation events, of which some are related to cyclones, deposit strongly (18)O-depleted rain in the region and seem to have affected the δ(18)Otr signal. Large-scale controls on the isotope signature include variation in sea surface temperatures of tropical north Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In conclusion, we show that δ(18)Otr of M. acantholoba can be used as a proxy for source water δ(18)O and that interannual variation in δ(18)Oprec is caused by a regional amount effect. This contrasts with δ(18)O signatures at continental sites where cumulative rainout processes dominate and thus provide a proxy for precipitation integrated over a much larger scale. Our results confirm that processes influencing climate-isotope relations differ between sites located, e.g., in the western Amazon versus coastal Mexico, and that tree ring isotope records can help in

  17. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings record variation in precipitation δ18O and amount effects in the south of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Brienen, Roel J W; Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gloor, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    [1] Natural archives of oxygen isotopes in precipitation may be used to study changes in the hydrological cycle in the tropics, but their interpretation is not straightforward. We studied to which degree tree rings of Mimosa acantholoba from southern Mexico record variation in isotopic composition of precipitation and which climatic processes influence oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18Otr). Interannual variation in δ18Otr was highly synchronized between trees and closely related to isotopic composition of rain measured at San Salvador, 710 km to the southwest. Correlations with δ13C, growth, or local climate variables (temperature, cloud cover, vapor pressure deficit (VPD)) were relatively low, indicating weak plant physiological influences. Interannual variation in δ18Otr correlated negatively with local rainfall amount and intensity. Correlations with the amount of precipitation extended along a 1000 km long stretch of the Pacific Central American coast, probably as a result of organized storm systems uniformly affecting rainfall in the region and its isotope signal; episodic heavy precipitation events, of which some are related to cyclones, deposit strongly 18O-depleted rain in the region and seem to have affected the δ18Otr signal. Large-scale controls on the isotope signature include variation in sea surface temperatures of tropical north Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In conclusion, we show that δ18Otr of M. acantholoba can be used as a proxy for source water δ18O and that interannual variation in δ18Oprec is caused by a regional amount effect. This contrasts with δ18O signatures at continental sites where cumulative rainout processes dominate and thus provide a proxy for precipitation integrated over a much larger scale. Our results confirm that processes influencing climate-isotope relations differ between sites located, e.g., in the western Amazon versus coastal Mexico, and that tree ring isotope records can help in disentangling the processes

  18. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W.; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A.; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2–71.2% during 1982–2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms.

  19. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A; Li, Yue

    2016-05-31

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2-71.2% during 1982-2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms.

  20. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W.; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A.; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2–71.2% during 1982–2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms. PMID:27243565

  1. Variation in Extrafloral Nectary Productivity Influences the Ant Foraging

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar is the main food source offered by plants to predatory ants in most land environments. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) to plant defense against herbivores, the influence of EFNs secretory activity pattern on predatory ants remains yet not fully understood. Here, we verified the relation between the extrafloral nectar production of a plant community in Cerrado in different times of the day, and its attractiveness to ants. The extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of seven plant species showed higher productivity overnight. Ant abundance was higher in times of large extrafloral nectar production, however, there was no positive relation between ant richness on plants and EFNs productivity. There was temporal resource partitioning among ant species, and it indicates strong resource competition. The nectar productivity varied among plant species and time of the day, and it influenced the visitation patterns of ants. Therefore, EFNs are a key ant-plant interaction driver in the studied system. PMID:28046069

  2. Variation in Extrafloral Nectary Productivity Influences the Ant Foraging.

    PubMed

    Lange, Denise; Calixto, Eduardo Soares; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar is the main food source offered by plants to predatory ants in most land environments. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) to plant defense against herbivores, the influence of EFNs secretory activity pattern on predatory ants remains yet not fully understood. Here, we verified the relation between the extrafloral nectar production of a plant community in Cerrado in different times of the day, and its attractiveness to ants. The extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of seven plant species showed higher productivity overnight. Ant abundance was higher in times of large extrafloral nectar production, however, there was no positive relation between ant richness on plants and EFNs productivity. There was temporal resource partitioning among ant species, and it indicates strong resource competition. The nectar productivity varied among plant species and time of the day, and it influenced the visitation patterns of ants. Therefore, EFNs are a key ant-plant interaction driver in the studied system.

  3. A 17,000 yr paleomagnetic secular variation record from the southeast Alaskan margin: Regional and global correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. H.; Stoner, J. S.; Mix, A. C.; Jaeger, J.; Rosen, G. P.; Channell, J. E. T.; Heslop, D.; Xuan, C.

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records on two cores from the Gulf of Alaska margin allow development of a ∼17,400-yr reconstruction of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV). General agreement between the two records on their independent chronologies confirms that local PSV is recorded, demonstrating that such archives, notwithstanding complexities due to variable sedimentary regimes, deposition rates, and diagenetic conditions, provide meaningful information on past changes of the geomagnetic field. Comparisons with other independently dated sedimentary paleomagnetic records from the NE Pacific indicate largely coherent inclination records that in combination create a NE Pacific sedimentary inclination anomaly stack (NEPSIAS) capturing the common signal over an area spanning >30° longitude and latitude from Alaska through Oregon to Hawaii. Comparisons of NEPSIAS with high quality declination records from the northern North Atlantic (NNA) show that negative (shallow) inclination anomalies in NEPSIAS are associated with eastward NNA declinations while positive (steep) inclination anomalies in NEPSIAS are associated with westward NNA declinations. Comparison of these directional records to regional geomagnetic intensities over the past ∼3000 yrs in North America and back nearly 8000 yrs in the Euro/Mediterranean region, are consistent with a driving mechanism of oscillations in the relative strength of the North American and Euro/Mediterranean flux lobes. The persistence of these dynamics through the Holocene implicates a long-lived organizing structure likely imposed on the geomagnetic field by the lower mantle and/or inner core. These observations underscore a fundamental connection between directional PSV in the North Pacific with that of the North Atlantic, supporting the potential for long-distance correlation of directional PSV as a chronostratigraphic tool.

  4. Palaeomagnetic investigations on lake sediments from NE China: a new record of geomagnetic secular variations for the last 37 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Ute

    2007-04-01

    Detailed palaeomagnetic investigations were carried out on two 23 m long sediment cores from Erlongwan maar lake, NE China. The sediment composition of both cores is nearly identical. Based on a macroscopical inspection of the cores 410 graded layers intercalated into the laminated sediments were identified. Measurements of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility revealed that these layers have not disturbed the sediment structure in general, but only in intervals where their thicknesses exceeds 50 cm. The age model for Erlongwan is based on 15 AMS 14C-datings on bulk sediment, showing that the sediment profile spans the last 37 ka cal BP. Although one of the sediment cores has been slightly deformed during core recovery, similar inclination and declination records could be obtained by standard palaeomagnetic methods. The stacked inclination and declination records show both variations similar to those known from palaeosecular variation records from Eastern China and Japan. Therefore, the presented study is a contribution to the ongoing process of compiling a PSV mastercurve for East Asia.

  5. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2013-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of four phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First, we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production ((is)approximately 50%, the equivalent of 20 PgC·y1). Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed approximately 20% ((is) approximately 7 PgC·y1) of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10% ((is) approximately 4 PgC·y1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in the high latitudes ((is) greater than 40 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4% (1-2 PgC·y1). We assessed the effects of climate variability on group-specific primary production using global (i.e., Multivariate El Niño Index, MEI) and "regional" climate indices (e.g., Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p (is) less than 0.05) between the MEI and the group-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatoms/cyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect

  6. 33 CFR 1.20-1 - Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records. 1.20-1 Section 1.20-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Testimony by Coast Guard Personnel and Production...

  7. 33 CFR 1.20-1 - Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records. 1.20-1 Section 1.20-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Testimony by Coast Guard Personnel and Production...

  8. 33 CFR 1.20-1 - Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records. 1.20-1 Section 1.20-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Testimony by Coast Guard Personnel and Production...

  9. 33 CFR 1.20-1 - Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records. 1.20-1 Section 1.20-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Testimony by Coast Guard Personnel and Production...

  10. 33 CFR 1.20-1 - Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testimony by Coast Guard personnel and production of records. 1.20-1 Section 1.20-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Testimony by Coast Guard Personnel and Production...

  11. 46 CFR 159.007-13 - Production inspections and tests: Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production inspections and tests: Records. 159.007-13 Section 159.007-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Production Inspection and Tests of Approved Equipment and...

  12. 46 CFR 159.007-13 - Production inspections and tests: Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production inspections and tests: Records. 159.007-13 Section 159.007-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Production Inspection and Tests of Approved Equipment and...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., regardless of the procedure or type of engine. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1045.315 and the... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., regardless of the procedure or type of engine. (8) Provide the CumSum analysis required in § 1045.315 and the... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.345 What production-line testing records must I send to EPA...

  15. EPR adoption and dual record maintenance in the U.S.: assessing variation in medical systems infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel P; Spink, Amanda; Richards, Michael C

    2002-10-01

    The growing adoption of evidence-based medicine in the United States is acting to cause fundamental changes in the delivery of healthcare management services. With the increasing incorporation of electronic patient records (EPRs) into the day-to-day practice of medicine, it necessitates greater dependence on adequate functioning of such resources, as they become more frequently used as a clinical complement in the practice of medicine. Assessing the patterns of adoption of EPRs is likewise of increasing importance, with the recent imposition of uniform government data collection and management requirements. The medium of data storage and maintenance within many organizations is a critical factor in the ultimate delivery of service, with a like need for an integrated, designated medium for the management of data becoming paramount. This study examines, on a nationwide basis, variation in reported adoption of EPRs within U.S. healthcare organizations, and the related maintenance of dual electronic/paper record systems.

  16. Distribution and morphological variation of Eleutherodactylus mercedesae Lynch & McDiarmid, 1987 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae) with first record for Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padial, J.M.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    We report new distributional information for Eleutherodactylus mercedesae in Bolivia, and provide the first record for Peru based on an adult female. This species, previously endemic to Bolivia, now ranges across about 1000 km in cloud forests on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes from southern Peru to central Bolivia. We provide the first morphological description of females based on two specimens, compare them with the male type and paratype, add some observations to the original description, and comment on variation in the species.

  17. Genetic variation in and relationships among faecal worm eggs recorded in different seasons of the year at the Tygerhoek farm in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mpetile, Ziyanda; Dzama, Kennedy; Cloete, Schalk W P

    2017-07-07

    Gastrointestinal nematodes result in severe economic and production losses to the sheep industry. An increase in resistance of the nematodes to chemicals used for control, as well as a demand of consumers for meat products free from chemicals, has fostered research on alternative control strategies. Breeding for resistance to nematodes offers an alternative to control parasitism but its effectiveness depends on genetic variation in faecal worm egg count (FWEC), an indirect measure of parasite resistance. A historic dataset of FWEC from four Merino lines subjected to natural parasite challenge was used to estimate genetic parameters for FWEC in three seasons (autumn, winter and spring) using a repeated records animal model, followed by a three-trait animal model analysis treating FWEC in different seasons as separate traits. The effects of selection line, birth year, sex, the sex x birth year interaction, season and the season x year interaction were significant when using 4994 records recorded from 1997 to 2000 (p < 0.001). The heritability of log-transformed FWEC amounted to 0.09 ± 0.02, with no contribution from the animal permanent environmental variance to the between animal variation across seasons. Three-trait heritability estimates for log-transformed FWEC amounted to 0.07 ± 0.05 in autumn, 0.13 ± 0.05 in winter and 0.19 ± 0.05 in spring. These results suggest sufficient genetic variation in FWEC to support selection for lower log-transformed FWEC. However, the best time to record data for selection is after the break of the season in winter and in spring, when sheep are stimulated by a greater intake of infective larvae from the pasture after the first rains. Genetic correlations among FWEC in the respective seasons were moderate to high, ranging from 0.55 to 0.89. Phenotypic correlations, on the other hand, were significant but lower in magnitude, ranging from 0.09 to 0.16. These results provide useful information for developing strategies for the

  18. Characteristics of solar diurnal variations: A case study based on records from the ground magnetic station at Vassouras, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausner, V.; Papa, A. R. R.; Mendes, O.; Domingues, M. O.; Frick, P.

    2013-01-01

    The horizontal component amplitudes of magnetograms recorded by ground-based observatories of the INTERMAGNET network have been used to analyze the global pattern variance of the solar diurnal variations. Those kinds of data present gaps in records and consequently we explore them via a time-frequency gapped wavelet algorithm. We propose a new approach to analyze magnetograms based on scale correlation. The results show that the magnetic records have a latitudinal dependence affected by the season of year and by the level of solar activity. We have found a disparity on the latitudinal response at Southern and Northern Hemispheres during solstices, which is expected due to the asymmetry of the Sq field. On the other hand at equinoxes, records from stations located at approximately the same latitude but at different longitudes presented peculiar dissimilarities. The achieved results suggest that quiet day patterns and the physical processes involved in their formation are strongly affected by the conductivity of the E-region, the geomagnetic field intensity and its configuration, and the thermospheric winds.

  19. Refining the Late Quaternary Paleomagnetic Secular Variation record in the Mediterranean Region as a Chronologic Tool for Marine Geology Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, M.; Liddicoat, J. C.; Budillon, F.; Incoronato, A.; Coe, R.; Insinga, D.; Lubritto, C.; Cassata, W. S.; Tiano, P.; Petruccione, E.

    2011-12-01

    Together, piston cores C1067, C1201 and C1202 from the continental shelf and slope in the Salerno Gulf and Cilento offshore in the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea record long-term change (Paleomagnetic Secular Variation - PSV) of Earth's magnetic field during the last approximately 115,000 years. Each core contains the last 24,000 years except for the interval from about 20,000 to 11,000 years that is absent in C1067 and C1202 because of erosion on the continental slope. The PSV for the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea is correlated to curves of global relative paleomagnetic field intensity in other marine cores (Stoner et al., 2002) and dated lacustrine records of PSV for western Europe (Thouveny et al., 1990) and Great Britain (Turner and Thompson, 1981). Tephrochronolgy and radiometric dates (C14 and Ar/Ar) also are used for assigning an age to the record. Along with an improved record of PSV for the Mediterranean region, the PSV in the Salerno Gulf and Cilento offshore piston cores has application for placing time constraints on the marine geology and stratigraphy on the continental shelf and slope. The result is that catastrophic events such as large-scale submarine slumps, volcanic eruptions, turbidite deposition, and abrupt changes in sedimentation rate are dated. The changes in sedimentation rate seem to be linked to global rapid sea-level pulses and climate events that induced concurrent reduction and/or abundance in the sediment supply from the adjacent coastal margin.

  20. Stature variation in the British American Colonies: French and Indian War records, 1755-1763.

    PubMed

    Steegmann, A T; Haseley, P A

    1988-03-01

    Personnel records kept by military units of American colonials during the French and Indian War (1755-1763) are analyzed for relationships between environmental factors and stature. A robust American economy and direct access to high-quality food were apparently critical to tallness of this white American male sample. American-born men were taller at all ages than those who had migrated from Europe. January temperatures, rural versus urban birth, and ethnicity also showed stature relationships within the American-born group; thermal effects were by far the strongest of the non-nutritional factors.

  1. A 33 kyr Paleomagnetic Secular Variation Record from Fish Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, B. T.; Stoner, J. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Ziegler, L. B.; Abbott, M. B.; Larsen, D. J.; Hillman, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new North American lacustrine PSV record spanning the last ~ 33 ka from Fish Lake, Utah. Eleven meters of sediment were recovered from three holes with overlapping drives using a UWITECH coring system. Magnetic susceptibility was measured in the field to ensure stratigraphic completeness and to provide real time information on the material recovered. The recovered lake stratigraphy includes three distinct facies, interpreted to represent the post-glacial (0.75-6.75 m), last glacial maximum (LGM)/deglaciation (6.75-9.5 m), and pre-LGM period (9.5-11.75 m), with an initial chronology constrained by ten radiocarbon dates. CT scans were made on each section and used to monitor for coring deformation and establish precise stratigraphic correlation. Magnetic remanence was studied using AF demagnetization of u-channel samples measured on the OSU 2-G Enterprises u-channel magnetometer. The NRM is characterized by a viscous remanent magnetization (VRM), present throughout the core but successfully removed by 20 mT AF demagnetization. Weak NRM intensities in the post-glacial interval (3-6 x 10-4 A/m before AF demagnetization and 1-3 x 10-4 A/m following 20 mT AF demagnetization) approach the sensitivity of the u-channel magnetometer with increasing demagnetization and result in high MAD values during PCA analysis. Accordingly, we choose to use the NRM measured after 20 mT AF demagnetization for the post-glacial sediments to avoid both the VRM overprint and noise introduced due to week intensities at higher demagnetization steps. Major inclination features are consistent with other western North American PSV records providing confidence in this approach. NRM intensities are significantly higher below 6.75 m, reflecting increased terrigenous input during the LGM/deglaciation and pre LGM periods. A stable magnetization is isolated using a PCA over the 20-60 mT AF demagnetization steps, yielding MAD values of <1 and ~2, respectively. Declination is rotated to a mean

  2. Inter-annual Variations and Decadal Trends in Surface Equatorial Pacific Phosphate Concentrations: Coral Records from the Line Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.; LaVigne, M.; Tudhope, A. W.; Cobb, K.

    2011-12-01

    Coralline P/Ca is a newly-calibrated proxy for oceanic phosphate concentration (LaVigne et al. 2010, Anagnostuou et al. 2011). This proxy is an important tool for reconstructing tropical ocean nutrient dynamics, especially in remote regions, such as the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which are poorly covered by instrumental records. Here we present P/Ca records in 4 Porites corals from the Line Islands in the central Equatorial Pacific spanning the last ~ 30 years. The coral from Jarvis Island (0°22'S) has a significantly higher P/Ca concentration than two independent coral records from Christmas Island (1°53'N), and a coral from Fanning Island (3°51'N). This is consistent with the strong meridional gradient in surface phosphate in the central equatorial Pacific. All corals record a long-term 2-fold decrease in phosphate concentration from the mid 1970s to the mid 1990s, in agreement with observed slowing of the Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation (McPhadden and Zhang 2002). On inter-annual time scales, the corals all capture strong El Niño events as a decrease in surface phosphate consistent with deepening of the eastern Pacific thermocline. The magnitude of this suppression is significantly larger in the Jarvis Island coral, again consistent with its location in the high phosphate tongue in the equatorial Pacific. The Jarvis Island coral record shows hints of a decadal oscillation in P which so far does not appear to be captured by the Christmas Island coral. Further analyses are underway to extend these records and to study P dynamics in other Line Island corals. Our preliminary results suggest that Porites corals are recording P variations in the central Pacific which accord with known oceanographic changes. This study demonstrates the potential for reconstructing nutrient dynamics at annual to multidecadal resolutions. Citations LaVigne M., Matthews K. A., Grottoli A. G., Cobb K. M., Anagnostou E., Cabioch G., and Sherrell R. M. (2010) Coral skeleton P

  3. Speleothem records decadal to multidecadal hydroclimate variations in southwestern Morocco during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Brahim, Yassine; Cheng, Hai; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Khodri, Myriam; Sha, Lijuan; Pérez-Zanón, Núria; Beraaouz, El Hassane; Apaéstegui, James; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine

    2017-10-01

    This study presents the first well-dated high resolution stable isotope (δ18 O and δ13 C) and trace element (Mg and Sr) speleothem records from southwestern Morocco covering the last 1000 yrs. Our records reveal substantial decadal to multidecadal swings between dry and humid periods, consistent with regional paleorecords with prevailing dry conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), wetter conditions during the second part of the Little Ice Age (LIA), and a trend towards dry conditions during the current warm period. These coherent regional climate signals suggest common climate controls. Statistical analyses indicate that the climate of southwestern Morocco remained under the combined influence of both the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) over the last millennium. Interestingly, the generally warmer MCA and colder LIA at longer multidecadal timescales probably influenced the regional climate in North Africa through the influence on Sahara Low which weakened and strengthened the mean moisture inflow from the Atlantic Ocean during the MCA and LIA respectively.

  4. δ18O in the Tropical Conifer Agathis robusta Records ENSO-Related Precipitation Variations

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Bjorn M. M.; Evans, Michael N.; Baker, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived trees from tropical Australasia are a potential source of information about internal variability of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), because they occur in a region where precipitation variability is closely associated with ENSO activity. We measured tree-ring width and oxygen isotopic composition (O) of -cellulose from Agathis robusta (Queensland Kauri) samples collected in the Atherton Tablelands, Queensland, Australia. Standard ring-width chronologies yielded low internal consistency due to the frequent presence of false ring-like anatomical features. However, in a detailed examination of the most recent 15 years of growth (1995–2010), we found significant correlation between O and local precipitation, the latter associated with ENSO activity. The results are consistent with process-based forward modeling of the oxygen isotopic composition of -cellulose. The O record also enabled us to confirm the presence of a false growth ring in one of the three samples in the composite record, and to determine that it occurred as a consequence of anomalously low rainfall in the middle of the 2004/5 rainy season. The combination of incremental growth and isotopic measures may be a powerful approach to development of long-term (150+ year) ENSO reconstructions from the terrestrial tropics of Australasia. PMID:25062034

  5. δ18O in the tropical conifer Agathis robusta records ENSO-related precipitation variations.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Bjorn M M; Evans, Michael N; Baker, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived trees from tropical Australasia are a potential source of information about internal variability of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), because they occur in a region where precipitation variability is closely associated with ENSO activity. We measured tree-ring width and oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of α-cellulose from Agathis robusta (Queensland Kauri) samples collected in the Atherton Tablelands, Queensland, Australia. Standard ring-width chronologies yielded low internal consistency due to the frequent presence of false ring-like anatomical features. However, in a detailed examination of the most recent 15 years of growth (1995-2010), we found significant correlation between δ18O and local precipitation, the latter associated with ENSO activity. The results are consistent with process-based forward modeling of the oxygen isotopic composition of α-cellulose. The δ18O record also enabled us to confirm the presence of a false growth ring in one of the three samples in the composite record, and to determine that it occurred as a consequence of anomalously low rainfall in the middle of the 2004/5 rainy season. The combination of incremental growth and isotopic measures may be a powerful approach to development of long-term (150+ year) ENSO reconstructions from the terrestrial tropics of Australasia.

  6. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  7. Annual and Geographic variations in cone production by longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1987-01-01

    Abstract.Cone production by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) has been monitored on sample trees in shelterwood stands since 1966. Eleven locations, three each-in Alabama and Florida and one in Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina were included in the study. Each location had two test areas, with...

  8. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J

    2011-03-04

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  9. Oxygen Isotope Variations at the Margin of a CAI Records Circulation Within the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Simon, Steven B.; Matzel, Jennifer E. P.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-03-01

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of 16O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely 16O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  10. Does sedimentary organic delta 13C record variations in quaternary ocean [CO2(aq)]?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, G. H.; Froelich, P. N.; Takahashi, T.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Ocean surface water [CO2(aq)] variations based on glacial/interglacial changes in sediment delta 13Corg are shown to compare favorably with reconstructions based on ice core [CO2]. In particular, an approximate 80 microatmospheres increase in atmospheric pCO2 during the last glacial-interglacial transition is calculated to correspond to a 3-4 micromolar increase in ocean surface water [CO2(aq)] at atmospheric equilibrium. A widespread marine delta 13Corg decrease of 1-2% accompanied this event and was not preceded by an equivalent isotopic change in surface water total dissolved inorganic carbon. These observations support the hypothesis that [CO2(aq)] influences photosynthetic isotope fractionation between marine inorganic and organic carbon pools, and therefore that plankton/sediment delta 13Corg may serve as a proxy for surface water [CO2(aq)].

  11. Does sedimentary organic delta 13C record variations in quaternary ocean [CO2(aq)]?

    PubMed

    Rau, G H; Froelich, P N; Takahashi, T; Des Marais, D J

    1991-06-01

    Ocean surface water [CO2(aq)] variations based on glacial/interglacial changes in sediment delta 13Corg are shown to compare favorably with reconstructions based on ice core [CO2]. In particular, an approximate 80 microatmospheres increase in atmospheric pCO2 during the last glacial-interglacial transition is calculated to correspond to a 3-4 micromolar increase in ocean surface water [CO2(aq)] at atmospheric equilibrium. A widespread marine delta 13Corg decrease of 1-2% accompanied this event and was not preceded by an equivalent isotopic change in surface water total dissolved inorganic carbon. These observations support the hypothesis that [CO2(aq)] influences photosynthetic isotope fractionation between marine inorganic and organic carbon pools, and therefore that plankton/sediment delta 13Corg may serve as a proxy for surface water [CO2(aq)].

  12. Heat flow measurement in lacustrine or oceanic sediments without recording bottom temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Beck, A. E.

    1987-11-01

    Water bottom temperature variations (BTV) introduce many uncertainties into heat flow density (HFD) values determined from the temperature-depth (T-z) plot from a one-time probe insertion into the top few meters of sediments. The BTV have to be carefully monitored for a number of years up to the date of the probe measurements; this makes the method time consuming and economically unattractive. In this paper we present the theory for a promising new technique. The method does not require monitoring of the BTV but does require at least two T-z profiles separated in time by only a few months. A generalized inversion of the BTV history using the separated T-z data, and any other a priori information that is available, is then performed in the frequency domain to give the most probable Bayesian estimates of various parameters and their error bounds. Numerical examples show that the inversion can resolve not only the HFD but also the mean sediment surface temperature and gives information on the longer-term trend as well as details of the BTV over the previous year; these, together with thermal properties structure, are the factors that contribute most to the shape of the time-dependent T-z profiles used. In a typical situation where a uniform half-space with a background HFD = 60 mW m-2 has been perturbed by complex BTV with a maximum variation of ±1.8 K, using a misguessed HFD of 90 ± 100 mW m-2 in the inversion of two T-z profiles taken 3 months apart over a 2- to 5-m section results in a posteriori HFD of 58 ± 11 m W m-2. Although the technique gives an optimally determined mean HFD, its principal value lies in the ability to place reliable error bounds on the mean.

  13. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Brian T. Sullivan; Matthew P. Ayres

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signaling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxica1. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An...

  14. Vegetation productivity during Termination III inferred from a speleothem δ13C record (Ejulve Cave, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Mejías, Carlos; Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Bartolomé, Miguel; Stoll, Heather; Cacho, Isabel; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    The timing of Termination III, in contrast to TI and TII, is poorly known. Although TIII has been described in pollen sequences from marine cores whose chronology was tuned to orbital parameters, only few continental records with absolute dates have been published. Then, new records of this period are particularly required to test the hypothetical synchronicity at planetary scale of this event or to explore leads and lags between different proxies. Here we present the record of ARTEMISA stalagmite from Ejulve cave (NE Spain) that covers this period with exceptional resolution and constrained by a robust chronological framework obtained from 24 U-Th dates. The largest shift in δ13C record (3 per mil of variation) occurs at 241±2.3 kyr evidencing the TIII inception, in agreement with both Sanbao Cave record in China (within age uncertainties) and the shift to interglacial values of CH4 and CO2 in Antarctica, thus supporting its global synchrony. Interpreting δ13C data in Ejulve Cave is supported by 3 years of monitoring tasks allowing the association of this proxy with vegetation productivity. Thus, more positive values of δ13C, together with higher values in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in present-day farmed calcite occurred during dry summer seasons. Besides, these periods are also characterized by the lowest amount of calcite precipitating in the cave. On the contrary, more negative values are obtained during wetter periods, even if they are cooler, showing the highest calcite precipitation rates. During TIII, a spectacular increase in growth rate in the stalagmite is observed, that reaches its maximum (20-30 mm/kyr) during the following 4 kyr. Coherently, both δ13C and trace elements ratios (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) mark an increase in humidity at 242 kyr that would last until 227 kyr BP delineating the duration of Stage 7e in this Mediterranean region. Other dry events highlighted by this record are shown at 247 kyr, 245-243 kyr and 221-219 kyr BP suggesting periods of forest

  15. Dynamic Oligopolistic Market Equilibrium Problems with Production Excesses: A Variational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, Annamaria; Mauro, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    This paper is devoted to study, through a variational approach, the behaviour and the equilibrium conditions for a noncooperative oligopolistic market when production excesses occur. Then, existence and continuity results are shown.

  16. Product-line administration: a framework for redefining medical record department services.

    PubMed

    Postal, S N

    1990-06-01

    Product-line administration is a viable approach for managing medical records services in an environment that demands high quantity and quality service levels. Product-line administration directs medical record department team members to look outside of the department and seek input from the customers it is intended to serve. The feedback received may be alarming at first, as the current state of products usually reveals a true lack of customer input. As the planning, defining, managing, and marketing phases are implemented, the road will not be easy and rewards will be slow to come. Product-line administration does not provide quick fixes, but it does provide long-term problem resolution as products are refined and new products developed to meet customer needs and expectations. In addition to better meeting the needs of the department's external customers, the department's internal customers' needs and expectations will be addressed. The participative management approach will help nurture each team member's creativity. The team members will have the opportunity to reach their full potential while reaping the rewards and benefits of providing products and services that meet the needs and expectations of all department customers. The future of the health care industry promises more changes as the country moves toward some form of prospective payment in the ambulatory setting. Reactive management and the constant struggle to catch up can no longer be accepted as a management approach. It is imperative that the medical record department be viewed as a business with product lines composed of quality products. The planning, defining, managing, and marketing components of product-line administration afford responsiveness to the current situation and the development of quality products that will ensure that medical record departments are prepared for the future.

  17. High-resolution records of soil humification and paleoclimate change from variations in speleothem luminescence excitation and emission wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Andy; Genty, Dominique; Smart, Peter L.

    1998-10-01

    Recent advances in the precision and accuracy of the optical techniques required to measure luminescence permit the nondestructive analysis of solid geologic samples such as speleothems (secondary carbonate deposits in caves). In this paper we show that measurement of speleothem luminescence demonstrates a strong relationship between the excitation and emission wavelengths and both the extent of soil humification and mean annual rainfall. Raw peat with blanket bog vegetation has the highest humification and highest luminescence excitation and emission matrix wavelengths, because of the higher proportion of high-molecular-weight organic acids in these soils. Brown ranker and rendzina soils with dry grassland and woodland cover have the lowest wavelengths. Detailed analysis of one site where an annually laminated stalagmite has been deposited over the past 70 yr during a period with instrumental climate records and no vegetation change suggests that more subtle variations in luminescence emission wavelength correlate best with mean annual rainfall, although there is a lag of ˜10 yr. These results are used to interpret soil humification and climate change from a 130 ka speleothem at an upland site in Yorkshire, England. These data provide a new continuous terrestrial record of climate and environmental change for northwestern Europe and suggest the presence of significant variations in wetness and vegetation within interglacial and interstadial periods.

  18. Variation of F-2 toxin production on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Kallela, K; Hintikka, E L; Ylimäki, A

    1978-10-01

    The F-2 producing capacity of one Fusarium graminearum strain (strain No. 13) and of three hyphal tip transverse lines (a b and c) isolated from the original strain and of a mixture of these lines (a b and c) was studied in two successive years on different substrates: oats, barley, wheat, grain mixture and wheat bran. In the first year the original strain produced high amounts of F-2 but was heterogenous in toxin production. The F-2 producing capacity of one of the hyphal tip transverse lines (a) was high and that of two lines (b and c) and of the mixture of the three lines (a+b+c) was poor. In the following year the F-2 producing capacity of the fungal cultures had changed: the F-2 producing capacity of the original strain (No. 13) was greatly reduced, that of one hyphal tip transverse line (b) remained poor and that of two hyphal tip transverse lines (a and c) and of the mixture of the lines clearly increased. The F-2 production was changed in all the substrates and in about the same proportion. In general oats was the best substrate for F-2 production. The possible causes of the changed F-2 production are discussed. The estrogenic effect of F-2 produced in different substrates was studied by using as criteria the uterine weight, vaginal opening and liquid content in the uterus of immature female rats. The effect was in direct proportion to the amount of F-2 ingested by the rats. The substrate was without any influence on the physiological effect of F-2, and in this respect our results deviate from some earlier findings.

  19. A Middle-Late Pleistocene lacustrine record of humidity variation at the SE Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, E.; Hu, S.; Goddu, S. R.; Herb, C.

    2013-12-01

    Both the East-Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) affect the SE Tibetan Plateau (TP). The fine-grained lacustrine sediments from Heqing basin in NW Yunnan provide an excellent archive for long-term high-resolution paleoclimate studies. We analysed data from a 168 m core that spans the period from 900-30 ka, and performed a catchment study. Carbonate content (CC) and magnetic susceptibility (χ) data show clear 100 kyr eccentricity variations. The carbonate (mean CC 38.7%) stems from weathering of the widely occurring and very weakly magnetic limestones (mostly χ<0) in the catchment. Modern red soils around the basin are carbonate-free and strongly magnetic (χ ~10-5 m3kg-1). Magnetite (Mt) and maghemite (Mgh) mainly control χ, but hematite (Ht) is also present. Superparamagnetic (SP) ultra-fine particles (probably pedogenic) are dominating, evidenced by high xfd (7.5-16.7%), in addition to a larger-sized fraction (likely inherited from bedrocks). Much lower χ values and very low xfd (1.1%) in sediments from a stream entering the basin suggest that SP particles are easily dissolved in surface water. The catchment study delivers some clues for the interpretation of the proxy parameters: (i) During more humid times stronger chemical weathering caused higher CC. Soil material was transported into the lake by surface water and wind; river water led to strong dissolution of SP particles. (ii) During less humid times (less vegetation cover) a relatively higher fraction of soil material was transported by wind and a larger fraction of SP particles was preserved, leading to higher χ values. (iii) Humidity has another impact through low-temperature oxidation (LTO) of Mt that can be semi-quantified by magnetic parameters (ARM/SIRM, S-ratio). LTO will be stronger during more humid times, and as CC increases in such phases we can explain the observed first-order anti-correlation of CC and χ. From FCM cluster analysis and a suitable humidity index

  20. Osmium isotope variations in the oceans recorded by Fe-Mn crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, K.W.; Bourdon, B.; Birck, J.-L.; Allegre, C.J.; Hein, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This study presents osmium (Os) isotope data for recent growth surfaces of hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In general, these data indicate a relatively uniform Os isotopic composition for modern seawater, but suggest that North Atlantic seawater is slightly more radiogenic than that of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The systematic difference in the Os isotopic composition between the major oceans probably reflects a greater input of old continental material with a high Re/Os ratio in the North Atlantic Ocean, consistent with the distribution of Nd and Pb isotopes. This spatial variation in the Os isotope composition in seawater is consistent with a residence time for Os of between 2 and 60 kyr. Indian Ocean samples show no evidence of a local source of radiogenic Os, which suggests that the present-day riverine input from the Himalaya-Tibet region is not a major source for Os. Recently formed Fe-Mn crusts from the TAG hydrothermal field in the North Atlantic yield an Os isotopic composition close to that of modern seawater, which indicates that, in this area, the input of unradiogenic Os from the hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crust is small. However, some samples from the deep Pacific (???4 km) possess a remarkably unradiogenic Os isotope composition (187Os/186Os ratios as low as 4.3). The compositional control of Os incorporation into the crusts and mixing relationships suggest that this unradiogenic composition is most likely due to the direct incorporation of micrometeoritic or abyssal peridotite particles, rather than indicating the presence of an unradiogenic deep-water mass. Moreover, this unradiogenic signal appears to be temporary, and local, and has had little apparent effect on the overall evolution of seawater. These results confirm that input of continental material through erosion is the dominant source of Os in seawater, but it is not clear whether global Os variations are due to the input

  1. Paleosecular variation record of geomagnetic full vector during late Miocene, from the Nayarit area, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Alva Valdivia, Luis M.; Elguera, Jose Rosas; Fucugauchi, Jaime Urrutia; Cervantes, Miguel Angel; Morales, Juan

    2002-11-01

    We have sampled a sequence of 45 late Miocene consecutive lava flows in the Tepic area (Nayarit State, Mexico). The age of the volcanic units lies between 8 and 9 million years (Ma) according to available radiometric data. All samples were stepwise demagnetized, partly with alternating field (AF), partly thermally with very similar results. Most of the rocks exhibited well-defined one component remanent magnetisation with high unblocking temperatures (mostly above 525 °C) and high median destructive fields (MDF) (40-50 mT). Rock-magnetic experiments combined with microscopy show that, in most cases, the main magnetic mineral is Ti-poor titanomagnetite associated with exsoluted ilmenite. Continuous susceptibility measurements with temperature and hysteresis experiments yield in most cases nearly reversible curves with Curie points close to that of magnetite and pseudo-single-domain characteristics. Characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM) isolated after the first steps of demagnetisation are all normal polarity. According to the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) directions, paleosecular variation was abnormally lower than the one observed in general during Miocene. Considering our paleomagnetic results together with available radiometric data, it seems that the volcanic units have been emplaced during a very short time span of about 0.08 million years. The mean paleomagnetic directions obtained from this study do not differ significantly from that expected for the middle Miocene. Thirty-one samples from eight individual flows yielded acceptable paleointensity estimates. The site mean paleointensities range from 27.8±0.9 to 42.0±7.9 μT. The virtual dipole moments (VDM) range from 5.9 to 9.5×10 22 Am 2. This corresponds to a mean value of 7.6±1.4×10 22 Am 2, which is higher than the average VDM value for late Miocene. Altogether our data suggest the existence of relatively high geomagnetic field strength undergoing low fluctuations. These

  2. The study of morphological variation in the hominid fossil record: biology, landmarks and geometry

    PubMed Central

    O'HIGGINS, PAUL

    2000-01-01

    This review considers some recent advances in shape analysis based on landmark data, and focuses on the application of these methods to the study of skeletal evolution in primates. These advances have provoked some controversy. The major aims of this review are to put these debates in context and to provide an overview for the nonmathematician. The purpose of morphometric studies is considered, together with issues relating to the nature, significance and identification of landmarks before turning to a review of available technologies for the analysis of morphological variation. These are considered in terms of underlying models and assumptions in order to clarify when each is appropriate. To illustrate the application of these methods, 3 example studies are presented. The first examines differences amongst ancient and modern adult human crania using 2-dimensional data. The second illustrates the extension of these methods into 3 dimensions in a study of facial growth in monkeys. The third presents an application to the analysis of the form of the hominoid talus. The review ends with an account of available software resources for shape analysis. PMID:10999273

  3. Late Holocene Indian summer monsoon variations recorded at Lake Erhai, Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hai; Zhou, Xinying; Lan, Jianghu; Liu, Bin; Sheng, Enguo; Yu, Keke; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Feng; Hong, Bin; Yeager, Kevin M.; Xu, Sheng

    2015-03-01

    In this study we report changes in Indian summer monsoon (ISM) intensity during the past ~ 3500 yr inferred from proxy indices at Lake Erhai, southwestern China. Both the pollen concentrations and other proxy indices, including sediment grain size, total organic carbon contents (TOC), and elemental contents (e.g., Fe, Al), clearly indicate a long term decreasing trend in ISM intensity over the late Holocene. During the period from approximately AD 750 to AD 1200, pollen concentrations of conifer and broadleaf trees, and herbs reached the lowest levels over the past ~ 3500 yr; while the pollen percentages of both herbs and broadleaf trees increased, suggesting a significant medieval drought. The grain size, TOC, and elemental contents also support an arid climate during the medieval period. The Little Ice Age (LIA) at Lake Erhai was characterized as cold and wet. The medieval and LIA climatic patterns at Lake Erhai were similar to those over most of the ISM areas, but anti-phase with those over East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) areas. We suspect that sea surface temperature variations in the Indo-Pacific oceans and the related land-sea thermal contrasts may be responsible for such hydroclimatic differences between EASM and ISM areas.

  4. Trace metal variations in the shells of Ensis siliqua record pollution and environmental conditions in the sea to the west of mainland Britain.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Nicholas J G; Mann, Victoria L

    2006-07-01

    Shells of the pod razor shell (Ensis siliqua) from 13 locations around the west coast of mainland Britain have been analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for a range of trace metals including Zn, Cd, Pb, U, Ba, Sr and Mg. The trace metal record in these shells is a proxy record for changes in seawater chemistry during the 1990s. Regional variations exist in the median concentrations of the analysed metals. Barium concentrations are related to increased productivity from sewage sludge dumping at sea. Strontium shows a local relationship to salinity, but there is no clear relationship over the study area, instead high Sr is often associated with high Ba, and may reflect ontogenetic factors such as growth rate. Magnesium shows a seasonal variation within individual shells and can be used to calculate sea surface temperatures from groups of shells. Contaminant metals show a clear regional relationship with known sources, thus high Pb and Zn are typically associated with former metal mining areas (e.g. Cardigan Bay, Anglesey), and high Pb, Zn, Cd and U are associated with industrial activity in Liverpool Bay. Anomalies such as the high U in shells from northern Scotland cannot at present be explained. A seasonal variation of Pb is also seen in Cardigan Bay and Liverpool Bay, relating to increased winter fluxes of these metals to the marine environment. The regional distribution of these metals is consistent with known sources of contamination and patterns of seawater migration around the coast of Britain.

  5. Variations in atmospheric sulphate recorded in stalagmites by synchrotron micro-XRF and XANES analyses [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisia, Silvia; Borsato, Andrea; Fairchild, Ian J.; Susini, Jean

    2005-07-01

    We report here the first speleothem time-series of the variability of sulphate, a species whose abundance in catchments is strongly influenced by atmospheric anthropogenic and volcanic sources. Annually-resolved archives of S, Mg, Si and P were generated by applying synchrotron radiation micro X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to two speleothems from different sites in northern Italy. X-ray absorption-edge spectrometry proves that the S is in the form of sulphate and XRF mapping demonstrates that S is within calcite and enriched zones are predominantly as layers. A post-1850 A.D. record from the Ernesto cave shows a substantial rise in sulphate, interpreted as reflecting the largely anthropogenically-forced variation of sulphate of the atmospheric boundary layer, moderated by some ecosystem storage. Analysis of the circa 5.2 to circa 5.0 ka interval of a speleothem from Savi cave, where ecosystem retention of S is likely to have been minimal, shows a spiky sulphate record, resembling that of ice cores. A series of sulphate peaks suggest that multiple volcanic sulphate aerosol emissions at that time. This probably enhanced summer temperature cooling thus favouring the preservation of the human mummy of Neolithic-Copper age, the "Iceman" on the watershed between Italy and Austria. Both examples illustrate the power of speleothems to record atmospheric sulphate variability.

  6. Trace metals in contemporary and seventeenth-century Galapagos coral: Records of seasonal and annual variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linn, L. J.; Delaney, M. L.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    1990-02-01

    We report trace element/calcium ratios for modern ( Cu/Ca, Mn/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Pb/Ca) and seventeenth-century ( Cu/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Pb/Ca) specimens of Pavona clavus collected in the Galapagos Islands. These data include the first reliable measurements of Cu/Ca ratios in coralline aragonite. We estimate that the ratio of Cu/Ca in the lattice to that in seawater (i.e., the effective distribution coefficient) is ~0.3, lower than the value of 1 observed for several other divalent elements; we estimate the effective distribution coefficient for Mn is ~ 1. Distribution coefficients in coral aragonite for 8 divalent metals are near unity despite different ionic radii and chemical speciation in seawater. Investigation of where these substituents are incorporated in the aragonite lattice is clearly warranted. In a modern Hood Island coral, quarter-annually sampled from 1964-73, Cu/Ca ratios decrease twofold from the late 1960s to early 1970s. Mn/Ca and Cd/Ca ratios vary seasonally with upwelling and the generic El Niño. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events of 1965, 1969, and 1972 are marked by suppression of Cd/Ca ratios by about 2.5 nmol/mol, while the Mn/Ca ratio is highest during the strong 1972 ENSO. Pb/Ca ratios were relatively constant throughout this period. From the Cu/Ca record of a seventeenth-century Urvina Bay coral annually sampled from 1600-1725 and the estimated Cu distribution coefficient, surface seawater Cu concentrations at Galapagos during the seventeenth century were similar to present day at 0.7-1.4 nmol/kg. Estimated Pb concentrations were lower at 5-20 pmol/kg, and Mn concentrations were slightly higher at 1.6-2.8 nmol/kg.

  7. Variations of local seismic response in Benevento (Southern Italy) using earthquakes and ambient noise recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, Luigi; di Giulio, Giuseppe; Rovelli, Antonio

    The city of Benevento (Southern Italy) has been repeatedly struck by large historical earthquakes. A heterogeneous geologic structure and widespread soft soil conditions make the estimation of site effects crucial for the seismic hazard assessment of the city. From 2000 until 2004, we installed seismic stations to collect earthquake data over zones with different geological conditions. Despite the high level of urban noise, we recorded more than 150 earthquakes at twelve sites. This data set yields the first, well documented experimental evidence for weak to moderate local amplifications. We investigated site effects primarily by the classical spectral ratio technique (CSR) using a rock station placed on the Benevento hill as reference. All sites in the Calore river valley and in the eastern part of the Benevento hill show a moderate high-frequency (f > 4 Hz) amplification peak. Conversely, sites in the Sabato river valley share weak-to-moderate amplification in a wide frequency band (from 1-2 to 7-10 Hz), without evident frequency peaks. Application of no-reference-site techniques to earthquake and noise data confirms the results of the CSRs in the sites of the Calore river valley and of the eastern part of the Benevento hill, but fails in providing indications for site effects in the Sabato river valley, being the H/V ratios nearly flat. One-dimensional modeling indicates that the ground motion amplification can be essentially explained in terms of a vertically varying geologic structure. High-frequency narrow peaks are caused by the strong impedance contrast existing between near-surface soft deposits and stiff cemented conglomerates. Conversely, broad-band amplifications in the Sabato river valley are likely due to a more complex layering with weak impedance contrasts both in the shallow and deep structure of the valley.

  8. Deep-sea weathering and erosion records of monsoon variations in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, P. D.; Hu, D.; Böning, P.; Wan, S.; Brumsack, H.

    2012-04-01

    In this study we have examined the changes in a number of commonly used proxies for chemical weathering intensity in the northern South China Sea at ODP Site 1144 and in the delta of the Pearl River. Sediment at ODP Site 1144 is dominantly eroded from Taiwan and shows a sharp increase in the state of weathering of sediment deposited after 12 ka, reaching a peak at 10 ka and then decreasing to a lower background level after ~7 ka. The higher hematite/goethite values suggest more arid weathering despite the monsoon intensification at this time. Mass accumulation rates, Sr isotopes, Rb/K, kaolinite/(illite + chlorite) and Ti/Ca all show increases in this time period, although the frequently used CIA does not show a clear response. We suggest that the pulse of sediment represents enhanced erosion of the exposed continental shelf during a period of strong monsoon. This erosion was brought to an end by the flooding of the Taiwan Strait during sealevel rise after 8 ka. Although the sediment was originally from Taiwan the strong weathering is not an immediate response to climate change but represents the accumulated weathering of the shelf during sealevel low stands. As a result deep-water sedimentary weathering records provide us with a history that cannot be directly matched to the climatic history at the time of sedimentation. In contrast, sediment buffering appears to be less important in the Pearl River delta. In this setting provenance is clear and the deposits show sediment with intensity weathering in the Early Holocene, decreasing in strength during the Holocene as the summer rains weakened.

  9. Trace metals in contemporary and seventeenth-century Galapagos coral: Records of seasonal and annual variations

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, L.J.; Delaney, M.L.; Druffel, E.R.M. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors report trace element/calcium ratios for modern (Cu/Ca, Mn/Ca, Cd/Ca and Pb/Ca) and seventeenth-century (Cu/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Pb/Ca) specimens of Pavona clavus collected in the Galapagos Islands. These data include the first reliable measurements of Cu/Ca ratios in coralline aragonite. They estimate that the ratio of Cu/Ca in the lattice to that in seawater (i.e., the effective distribution coefficient) is {approx} 0.3, lower than the value of 1 observed for several other divalent elements; they estimate the effective distribution coefficient for Mn is {approx} 1. Distribution coefficients in coral aragonite for 8 divalent metals are near unity despite different ionic radii and chemical speciation in seawater. In a modern Hood Island coral, quarter-annually sampled from 1964-73, Cu/Ca ratios decrease twofold from the late 1960s to early 1970s. Mn/Ca and Cd/Ca ratios vary seasonally with upwelling and the generic El Nino. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events of 1965, 1969, and 1972 are marked by suppression of Cd/Ca ratios by about 2.5 nmol/mol, while the Mn/Ca ratio is highest during the strong 1972 ENSO. Pb/Ca ratios were relatively constant throughout this period. From the Cu/Ca record of a seventeenth-century Urvina Bay coral annually sampled from 1600-1725 and the estimated Cu distribution coefficient, surface seawater Cu concentrations at Galapagos during the seventeenth century were similar to present day at 0.7-1.4 nmol/kg. Estimated Pb concentrations were lower at 5-20 pmol/kg, and Mn concentrations were slightly higher at 1.6-2.8 nmol/kg.

  10. Can exploiting natural genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis contribute to increasing rice productivity? A simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Rice productivity can be limited by available photosynthetic assimilates from leaves. However, the lack of significant correlation between crop yield and leaf photosynthetic rate (A) is noted frequently. Engineering for improved leaf photosynthesis has been argued to yield little increase in crop productivity because of complicated constraints and feedback mechanisms when moving up from leaf to crop level. Here we examined the extent to which natural genetic variation in A can contribute to increasing rice productivity. Using the mechanistic model GECROS, we analysed the impact of genetic variation in A on crop biomass production, based on the quantitative trait loci for various photosynthetic components within a rice introgression line population. We showed that genetic variation in A of 25% can be scaled up equally to crop level, resulting in an increase in biomass of 22-29% across different locations and years. This was probably because the genetic variation in A resulted not only from Rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase)-limited photosynthesis but also from electron transport-limited photosynthesis; as a result, photosynthetic rates could be improved for both light-saturated and light-limited leaves in the canopy. Rice productivity could be significantly improved by mining the natural variation in existing germ-plasm, especially the variation in parameters determining light-limited photosynthesis.

  11. A Nine-year Record of Groundwater Environmental Tracer Variations in a Weathered Sandstone Plateau Aquifer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendon, D. I.; Hankin, S. I.; Hughes, C. E.; Meredith, K.; Peterson, M.; Scheiber, L.; Shimizu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Most groundwater isotopic studies are limited to one snapshot in time due to high costs associated with sampling and analytical procedures. The timing of sampling within long-term seasonal climatic cycles may affect interpretations, particularly in unconfined or semi-confined aquifer systems. To test the potential influence of decadal climatic trends, particularly on groundwater residence time, we have combined results from a multi-year sampling programme. Hydrogeochemistry and isotopic tracer analysis including H2O stable isotopes, δ13CDIC, 3H, 14CDIC for all samples and 87Sr/86Sr and NO3-δ15N, have been applied to groundwater recovered from the Kulnura - Mangrove Mountain aquifer hosted by a weathered sandstone plateau within the Sydney Basin (Australia). In general, the study area is characterised by alternating dry and wet periods that can be prolonged as they are linked to wider climatic events such as El Niño, La Niña and modulated by the Indian Ocean Dipole. The region experienced above average rainfall from 1985-1990 followed by generally drier conditions (1991-2007) and slightly wetter conditions to 2015. Groundwater results from the first years (2006-2010), under generally dry conditions resulted in lower groundwater levels, revealed important inter-annual variations. These are interpreted to be locally driven by groundwater extraction, resulting in a progressive influx of modern groundwater. The progressive input of modern water has exposed deeper parts of the aquifer to increased NO3- concentrations of anthropogenic origin. The change in chemistry of the groundwater, particularly the lowering of groundwater pH, has accelerated the dissolution of carbonate mineral phases that in turn affects 14C residence time assessments. Subsequent sampling results (2012-2015), under higher rainfall conditions, suggest modern recharge in areas previously without measurable tritium activities. The complex interplay between recharge, anthropogenic influences and

  12. The origin of variations in the isotopic record of scleractinian corals: I. Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, J. J.; Swart, P. K.; Szmant, A. M.; Dodge, R. E.

    1996-08-01

    Previous investigations of the δ18O of the skeletons of Florida specimens of the reef coral Montastraea annularis have failed to produce the full temperature range suggested by calibration studies of other corals. Explanations for this phenomenon include different relationships between temperature and the δ18O of skeletons of Floridian corals, changing δ18O of the water, physiological variables ("vital effects"), and an insufficient number of samples taken per year with consequent superposition of calcium carbonate precipitated at different times within an individual sample. In this study, we investigate all of these hypotheses, by measuring the δ18O of corals grown in the field which were periodically stained with alizarin-red S and where the δ18O of the water was measured and the temperature continuously recorded. We compare the effect of sampling the coral skeletons at different resolutions and the effect of sampling within different skeletal elements. Our study shows that discrete, high-resolution sampling of coral exotheca (fifty samples a year) is necessary to reproduce temperatures for this species in Florida waters. Coral skeletons sampled using lower resolution methods showed an artificial attenuation of the annual range in skeletal δ18O, with similar δ18O minima during the skeleton represented by the summer months, but larger differences in the winter δ18O maxima. Replicate isotope transects from fast and slow growing areas and different regions of the corallite were also compared. The δ18O of rapidly growing (8 mm/y) portions of the colony was 0.1 to 0.2‰ heavier than the slowest growing (1.1 mm/y) portions of the colony. This difference as well as the difference between the skeleton sampled at high and low resolutions appears to result in part from the attenuation of the δ18O signal as a result of the reduced sampling rate in slower growing sections of the coral and is not solely a result of variable kinetic effects.

  13. Do High-elevation Lakes Record Variations in Snowfall and Atmospheric Rivers in the Sierra Nevada of California?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashford, J.; Sickman, J. O.; Lucero, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the underlying causes of interannual variation in snowfall and extreme hydrologic events in the Sierra Nevada is hampered by short instrumental records and the difficulties in reconstructing climate using a traditional paleo-record such as tree-rings. New paleo proxies are needed to provide a record of snowpack water content and extreme precipitation events over millennial timescales which can be used to test hypotheses regarding teleconnections between Pacific climate variability and water supply and flood risk in California. In October 2013 we collected sediment cores from Pear Lake (z = 27 m), an alpine lake in Sequoia National Park. The cores were split and characterized by P-wave velocity, magnetic susceptibility and density scanning. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the Pear Lake cores contain a 13.5K yr record of lake sediment. In contrast to other Sierra Nevada lakes previously cored by our group, high-resolution scanning revealed alternating light-dark bands (~1 mm to 5 mm thick) for most of the Pear Lake core length. This pattern was interrupted at intervals by homogenous clasts (up to 75 mm thick) ranging in grain size from sand to gravel up to 1 cm diameter. We hypothesize that the light-dark banding results from the breakdown of persistent hypolimnetic anoxia during spring snowmelt and autumn overturn. We speculate that the thicknesses of the dark bands are controlled by the duration of anoxia which in turn is controlled by the volume and duration of snowmelt. The sand to gravel sized clasts are most likely associated with extreme precipitation events resulting from atmospheric rivers intersecting the southern Sierra Nevada. We hypothesize that centimeter-sized clasts are deposited in large avalanches and that the sands are deposited in large rain events outside of the snow-cover period.

  14. Topographic Variation and Methane Production in Siberian Arctic Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, J.; Kuhn, M. A.; Dunn, S.; Spawn, S.; Schade, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the fate of soil carbon when permafrost soils begin to thaw is critical for predicting the impact of permafrost thaw on global climate change. Microbial metabolism of soil carbon can produce carbon dioxide or methane, depending on soil conditions, and which pathway dominates has great significance for the strength of climate feedbacks since methane is a much more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. In Arctic ecosystems, methane production from upland environments is not well understood and generally assumed to be low because conditions there are generally not favorable for methanogenesis. Small changes in topography, however, can lead to great heterogeneity in soil conditions at small scales that may lead to higher methane flux than generally recognized. In this study, we investigated patterns in methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in in surface waters of 15 small ponds in the Kolyma River watershed in Northeast Siberia. The ponds were distributed across a topographic gradient from upland tundra high in the landscape to low-lying ponds in the floodplain of the Kolyma River. In addition, we used chambers to measured methane fluxes from a variety of topographic depressions that ranged from pools to moss-dominated saturated soils lacking surface water, to dry soils dominated by sedges. Dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations in ponds showed no trend down the topographic gradient while methane concentrations decreased downslope. The decrease in methane production may be the result of a switch from green moss to brown moss, which may act as a host for methanotrophic bacteria. Ponds with green moss had significantly higher concentrations of methane than the ponds with brown moss. In addition, we found significantly higher methane fluxes from pools and saturated soils then from drier soils, which showed very low fluxes. These results suggest that upland tundra may be a significant source of methane, and that methane fluxes are driven

  15. Temperature variation records at diffuse and focused outflow in Lucky Strike hydrothermal field: toward a characterization of the outflow dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, T.; Escartin, J.; Sohn, R. A.; Cannat, M.; Ballu, V.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity along mid-ocean ridges accounts for a large proportion of the Earth's heat loss, but the space-time variation of both heat and chemical fluxes of venting at individual sites remains largely unconstrained. As part of the MOMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity, we used an ROV to deploy autonomous temperatures sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas throughout the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012. We deployed a set of high- and low-temperature thermal probes (<350°C and <125°C respectively) sampling at intervals that varied from <1 min to 24 min. Microseismicity and bottom pressure was also recorded with an ocean bottom seismometer network and a pressure gauge. We place particular emphasis on temporal variability at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and use poroelastic theory to constrain hydrologic parameters of the sub-surface circulation system. We identify two main types of temporal variability in the temperature records : (1) episodic variability with rapid temperature changes of ~5-150°C over time periods of few hours to several days, and (2) systematic variability at tidal periods with amplitudes ranging from a few tens of a degree to a few degrees, depending largely on mean outflow temperature. The episodic variability is stochastic (i.e., typically not correlated between mutitple probes among vents at the scale of the site), and does not appear to be correlated with local nor regional seismicity. The episodic events are observed primarily in diffuse flow records. The lack of spatial and temporal correlation of these events among probes, even at distances of <5 m within the same mound, suggests that they represent episodes of seawater mixing within the shallowmost crust underlying individual vents, or within the hydrothermal edifice itself. Most temperature records display systematic tide-related variability, with the strongest signal at

  16. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  17. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  18. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  19. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? 1045.345 Section 1045.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? 1045.345 Section 1045.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What production-line testing records must I send to EPA? 1045.345 Section 1045.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES...

  3. 78 FR 11114 - Production of FHFA Records, Information, and Employee Testimony in Legal Proceedings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...; ] FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1215 RIN 2590-AA51 Production of FHFA Records, Information, and Employee Testimony in Legal Proceedings; Correction AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION.... Jordan, Senior Counsel, 202- 649-3075 (not a toll-free number), Federal Housing Finance Center...

  4. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the requirement to establish a batch production record? 111.255 Section 111.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  5. The Technique of the Sound Studio: Radio, Record Production, Television, and Film. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Alec

    Detailed explanations of the studio techniques used in radio, record, television, and film sound production are presented in as non-technical language as possible. An introductory chapter discusses the physics and physiology of sound. Subsequent chapters detail standards for sound control in the studio; explain the planning and routine of a sound…

  6. 32 CFR 720.30 - Production of official records in response to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production of official records in response to court order. 720.30 Section 720.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... the suit so notified. Any release of classified information for civil court proceedings (whether...

  7. 32 CFR 720.30 - Production of official records in response to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production of official records in response to court order. 720.30 Section 720.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... the suit so notified. Any release of classified information for civil court proceedings (whether...

  8. 800-year ice-core record of nitrogen deposition in Svalbard linked to ocean productivity and biogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendl, I. A.; Eichler, A.; Isaksson, E.; Martma, T.; Schwikowski, M.

    2015-07-01

    We present the records of the two nitrogen species nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) analysed in a new ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, in the Eurasian Arctic covering the period 1222-2009. Changes in melt at the Lomonosovfonna glacier are assumed to have a negligible effect on the decadal variations of the investigated compounds. Accordingly, we use decadal records to investigate the major emission sources of NO3- and NH4+ precursors and find that during the twentieth century both records are influenced by anthropogenic pollution from Eurasia. In pre-industrial times NO3- is highly correlated with methane sulfonate (MSA), which we explain by a fertilising effect. We propose that enhanced atmospheric NO3- concentrations and the corresponding nitrogen input to the ocean trigger the growth of dimethyl-sulfide-(DMS)-producing phytoplankton. Increased DMS production results in elevated fluxes to the atmosphere where it is oxidised to MSA. Eurasia was presumably the main source area also of pre-industrial NO3-, but a more exact source apportionment could not be performed based on our data. This is different for NH4+, where biogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions from Siberian boreal forests were identified as the dominant source of pre-industrial NH4+.

  9. Effect of a huge crustal conductivity anomaly on the H-component of geomagnetic variations recorded in central South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio L.; Alves, Livia R.; Silva, Graziela B. D.; Espinosa, Karen V.

    2017-04-01

    We describe here an analysis of the H-component of the geomagnetic field recorded in several temporary stations operating simultaneously in the central-eastern region of Brazil during nighttime pulsation events in 1994 and the sudden commencement of the St. Patrick's Day magnetic storm in 2015. A significant amplification in the amplitude of the geomagnetic variations is consistently observed in one of these stations. Magnetovariational analysis indicates that the amplification factor is period dependent with maximum amplitude around 100 s. Integrated magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth soundings (GDS) have shown that this station is positioned just over a huge 1200-km-long crustal conductor (estimated bulk conductivity greater than 1 S/m). We propose that the anomalous signature of the geomagnetic field at this station is due to the high reflection coefficient of the incident electromagnetic wave at the interface with the very good conductor and by skin effects damping the electromagnetic wave in the conducting layers overlying the conductor. There are some indication from the GDS data that the conductor extends southward beneath the sediments of the Pantanal Basin. In this region is being planned the installation of a new geomagnetic observatory, but its preliminary data suggest anomalous geomagnetic variations. We understand that a detailed MT survey must be carried out around the chosen observatory site to evaluate the possible influence of induced currents on the local geomagnetic field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Variation in aeolian environments recorded by the particle size distribution of lacustrine sediments in Ebinur Lake, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Long; Wu, Jinglu; Abuduwaili, Jilili

    2016-01-01

    Particle size analysis of lacustrine core sediments and atmospheric natural dust were conducted in the drainage area of Ebinur Lake in arid northwest China. Using a combination of (137)Cs and (210)Pb dating, a continuous record of aeolian transportation to the lake sediments and related factors over about the past 150 years was analyzed. Factor analysis revealed the particle-size distributions of riverine and aeolian sediments composed of the terrigenous materials of the lake deposits. Compared with the grain-size distributions of natural dust samples, the results showed that the coarser particle size fraction of lake sediments was mainly derived from the sediments that had experienced aeolian transport to the drainage surface, and the finer sediments came from hydraulic inputs. Then, the method of variations in particle-size standard deviation was used to extract the grain size intervals with the highest variability along a sedimentary sequence. The coarser grain-size populations dominated the variation patterns of the sedimentary sequence. During the last 150 years, strong intensity aeolian transportation occurred during three periods, 1915-1935, 1965-1975 and since the beginning of the 2000s. The climate was dry around 1910s-1930s in this region associated with the appropriate dynamic condition, which provided the enhanced source materials and wind power for the aeolian dust transport. Since 1950s, the climate controlled the foundation of aeolian dust transport, and the aeolian dust transport won't be increased under the humid climate.

  11. Appropriate threshold levels of cardiac beat-to-beat variation in semi-automatic analysis of equine ECG recordings.

    PubMed

    Flethøj, Mette; Kanters, Jørgen K; Pedersen, Philip J; Haugaard, Maria M; Carstensen, Helena; Olsen, Lisbeth H; Buhl, Rikke

    2016-11-28

    Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriate threshold levels of maximum acceptable deviation of RR intervals in equine ECG analysis, and to evaluate a novel two-step timing algorithm by quantifying the frequency of arrhythmias in a cohort of healthy adult endurance horses. Beat-to-beat variation differed considerably with heart rate (HR), and an adaptable model consisting of three different HR ranges with separate threshold levels of maximum acceptable RR deviation was consequently defined. For resting HRs <60 beats/min (bpm) the threshold level of RR deviation was set at 20%, for HRs in the intermediate range between 60 and 100 bpm the threshold was 10%, and for exercising HRs >100 bpm, the threshold level was 4%. Supraventricular premature beats represented the most prevalent arrhythmia category with varying frequencies in seven horses at rest (median 7, range 2-86) and six horses during exercise (median 2, range 1-24). Beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm varies according to HR, and threshold levels in equine ECG analysis should be adjusted accordingly. Standardization of the analysis criteria will enable comparisons of studies and follow-up examinations of patients. A small number of supraventricular premature beats appears to be a normal finding in endurance horses. Further studies are required to validate the findings and determine the clinical significance of premature beats in horses.

  12. Variations of magnetic properties in thin lava flow profiles: Implications for the recording of the Laschamp Excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vérard, Christian; Leonhardt, Roman; Winklhofer, Michael; Fabian, Karl

    2012-06-01

    Two blocks have been cut in two lava flows from the Skalamaelifell Hill (Iceland) known to have recorded the Laschamp magnetic excursion (40.4 ± 2.0 ka). Detailed sampling and analyses have revealed multiple magnetic components. The high temperature/coercivity component corresponds to the primary magnetisation, with corresponding pole position close to the equator in the Pacific Ocean (φ = 251.90°/λ = -06.49°; dp = 0.74°/dm = 2.12°) and palaeo-intensity determinations below 5 μT. The different VGPs, however, vary in relation with the position of samples in the profiles. It could not be firmly established whether this distribution is associated with a change in the Earth magnetic field during lava cooling. In any case, variations are related with zones in the profiles marked, in particular, by the presence of vesicles. Moreover, the other components are interpreted to be linked with alteration inside the rocks, caused by interactions between vesicles content and the surrounding matrix. Secondary component, however, is interpreted as recording an excursional magnetic field, and should be of greater consideration in studies of Earth magnetic field excursions or reversals.

  13. The anatomy of Last Glacial Maximum climate variations in south Westland, New Zealand, derived from pollen records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Denton, George H.; Blaauw, Maarten; Barrell, David J. A.

    2013-08-01

    Westland occurred sometime between ca 18,490 and ca 17,370 cal. yr BP. A similar general pattern of stadials and interstadials is seen, to varying degrees of resolution but generally with lesser chronological control, in many other paleoclimate proxy records from the New Zealand region. This highly resolved chronology of vegetation changes from southwestern New Zealand contributes to the examination of past climate variations in the southwest Pacific region. The stadial and interstadial episodes defined by south Westland pollen records represent notable climate variability during the latter part of the Last Glaciation. Similar climatic patterns recorded farther afield, for example from Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, imply that climate variations during the latter part of the Last Glaciation and the transition to the Holocene interglacial were inter-regionally extensive in the Southern Hemisphere and thus important to understand in detail and to place into a global context.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Seasonal and Anthropogenic Ground Movements Recorded by Continuous GPS in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H. E.; Harper, H.; Marshall, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in many locations around the world record mm-scale quasiperiodic motions that may arise due to seasonal variations in precipitation, and/or anthropogenic groundwater removal. The causes and spatial patterns of these motions are difficult to determine because diffuse GPS station spacing. In southern California, a dense GPS network, large seasonal motions, and seasonally variable precipitation make the region ideal for characterizing both seasonal and anthropogenic motions. In this study, we utilize data from 57 permanent GPS sites in the Plate Boundary Observatory network. In order to quantify periodic seasonal motions, we perform a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) on detrended GPS time series to calculate the phases and amplitudes of the annual harmonics. To compare ground motions to precipitation patterns, we also perform a DFT on monthly NOAA precipitation data, which allows us to calculate phase differences between the rainfall and GPS recorded motions. Phase calculations show that sites overlying the Santa Ana aquifer and sites not overlying the aquifer have phase differences of 45 and 180 days suggesting that many sites respond quickly to seasonal rainfall patterns. We find that ground movement above the Santa Ana aquifer has significantly different characteristics than the surrounding ground movement suggesting an anthropogenic source. Furthermore, existing InSAR data shows significant localized motions, which have been proposed to be anthropogenic. This suggests that anomalous annual phases and/or amplitudes in GPS time series may help to identify stations that are recording significant anthropogenic motions without the need for other data. To remove these hydrologic motions from the secular velocity estimates, we use inverse dislocation models that simulate aquifer compaction. These models are then used to effectively "correct" the GPS velocities to yield more accurate tectonic estimates of motion.

  15. Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Environmental Data Records: Algorithm Status and Product Maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Feeley, J.; Zhou, L.; Gottshall, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System's (JPSS) Data Processing Segment generates a number of environmental data products from measurements by sensors on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched on October 28, 2011. The JPSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) Algorithm Development and Validation teams have been carrying out detailed evaluation of the products. This work is stabilizing the EDR products and proposing the implementation of product improvements and major algorithm changes. Building on validation stages established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for their Earth Observing System program and adapted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation, the JPSS program defined program-specific algorithm maturity stages. The JPSS definitions provide the rigor and comprehensiveness necessary for algorithm validation while serving the compliance needs for product requirements verification. Based on specific algorithm readiness levels, the JPSS EDR product teams established a schedule of anticipated dates for the algorithms to achieve Beta, Provisional and Validated Stage 1, 2 and 3 statuses. These schedules account for the products' dependencies on the maturity of input Sensor Data Records (SDRs), Intermediate Products, and upstream EDRs. Declaring EDR product maturity is the result of a specific review of artifacts that document that the products meet a series of criteria defined for each maturity stage. During 2012, after the SDR products achieved Beta maturity, a number of fundamental EDRs also achieved Beta status. They are now or will shortly become available to the public through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest EDR algorithm updates and the maturity schedule going forward.

  16. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory.

  17. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production.

  18. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.

    PubMed

    Hansen Axelsson, H; Thomasen, J R; Sørensen, A C; Rydhmer, L; Kargo, M; Johansson, K; Fikse, W F

    2015-02-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits – milk production, functional trait and environmental impact – with economic values of €83, €82 and €-83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (NoIT). The other scenarios included all three breeding goal traits and one indicator trait (IT) for EI. The indicator traits were recorded on a large scale (stayability after first lactation and stature), medium scale (live weight and greenhouse gases (GHG) measured in the breath of the cow during milking) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national milk recording system, and its use as an indicator trait for EI would not generate any additional recording costs. Therefore, stayability would be a good indicator trait to use to mitigate EI. The highest genetic gain in EI (23% higher compared to NoIT) was achieved when the GHG measured in the breath of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic records for the indicator trait is high enough to achieve a moderately high reliability of direct genomic values. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions.

  20. Removal of muscle artifacts from EEG recordings of spoken language production.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Maarten; Vos, De Maarten; Riès, Stephanie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Vanrumste, Bart; Alario, Francois-Xavier; Van Huffel, Sabine; Huffel, Van Sabine; Burle, Boris

    2010-06-01

    Research on the neural basis of language processing has often avoided investigating spoken language production by fear of the electromyographic (EMG) artifacts that articulation induces on the electro-encephalogram (EEG) signal. Indeed, such articulation artifacts are typically much larger than the brain signal of interest. Recently, a Blind Source Separation technique based on Canonical Correlation Analysis was proposed to separate tonic muscle artifacts from continuous EEG recordings in epilepsy. In this paper, we show how the same algorithm can be adapted to remove the short EMG bursts due to articulation on every trial. Several analyses indicate that this method accurately attenuates the muscle contamination on the EEG recordings, providing to the neurolinguistic community a powerful tool to investigate the brain processes at play during overt language production.

  1. Rhodolith-forming coralline red algae from New Caledonia (SW Pacific) record half a century of sea-surface temperature variations and mining history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrenougue, N.; De Deckker, P.; Eggins, S. M.; Payri, C. E.; Fallon, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    We present a continuous, high-resolution tropical record of Mg/Ca and trace elements back to the 1960s, using laser ablation ICP-MS on rhodoliths (i.e. free living forms of coralline red algae) of the species Sporolithon durum. The analysed rhodoliths are composed entirely of branched system forming mostly spherical specimens of 8-10 cm in diameter. Chronology was constrained by 20 radiocarbon dates calibrated with the 1960s-70s atomic bomb-spike curve, in conjunction with commonly used growth band counting and Mg/Ca minima-maxima peaks. Mg/Ca variations are reproducible between different branches of a single specimen as well as between three distinct rhodoliths from the same site in the SW lagoon of New Caledonia. All records present a significant correlation with the local sea-surface temperatures at a monthly to inter-annual resolution (respectively, 0.59< r <0.70 and 0.62< r <0.72; p<0.0001), thus confirming the global potential of coralline red algae for palaeo-temperature reconstructions, as suggested by recent studies from the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans (e.g. Halfar et al. 2000, Kamenos et al. 2008, Hetzinger et al., 2009). Compared to the youngest part of the record, Mn/Ca, Fe/Ca and Ni/Ca ratios present significantly higher values for the period prior to 1980, which corresponds to the high production period of an open-air, Ni-extraction mine located in the water catchment area of the Coulée River, ~10km from the studied rhodolith bed. The mining production at the site ceased in 1981. After that date, Mn, Fe and Ni concentrations in the rhodoliths show a steady decline. Co/Ca, however, shows no such trend, indicating different behaviour and availability for these metals, all related to the weathering of exposed laterite formations. Average metal records corrected from the anthropogenic mining effect (except for Co/Ca) present significant correlations with the inter-annual local rainfall signal (r=0.62, r=0.60, r=0.48; p<0.0001 for Mn/Ca, Fe

  2. Crowdsourcing: It Matters Who the Crowd Are. The Impacts of between Group Variations in Recording Land Cover

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Peter; Purves, Ross S.; Rocchini, Duccio; Walz, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Volunteered geographical information (VGI) and citizen science have become important sources data for much scientific research. In the domain of land cover, crowdsourcing can provide a high temporal resolution data to support different analyses of landscape processes. However, the scientists may have little control over what gets recorded by the crowd, providing a potential source of error and uncertainty. This study compared analyses of crowdsourced land cover data that were contributed by different groups, based on nationality (labelled Gondor and Non-Gondor) and on domain experience (labelled Expert and Non-Expert). The analyses used a geographically weighted model to generate maps of land cover and compared the maps generated by the different groups. The results highlight the differences between the maps how specific land cover classes were under- and over-estimated. As crowdsourced data and citizen science are increasingly used to replace data collected under the designed experiment, this paper highlights the importance of considering between group variations and their impacts on the results of analyses. Critically, differences in the way that landscape features are conceptualised by different groups of contributors need to be considered when using crowdsourced data in formal scientific analyses. The discussion considers the potential for variation in crowdsourced data, the relativist nature of land cover and suggests a number of areas for future research. The key finding is that the veracity of citizen science data is not the critical issue per se. Rather, it is important to consider the impacts of differences in the semantics, affordances and functions associated with landscape features held by different groups of crowdsourced data contributors. PMID:27458924

  3. Crowdsourcing: It Matters Who the Crowd Are. The Impacts of between Group Variations in Recording Land Cover.

    PubMed

    Comber, Alexis; Mooney, Peter; Purves, Ross S; Rocchini, Duccio; Walz, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Volunteered geographical information (VGI) and citizen science have become important sources data for much scientific research. In the domain of land cover, crowdsourcing can provide a high temporal resolution data to support different analyses of landscape processes. However, the scientists may have little control over what gets recorded by the crowd, providing a potential source of error and uncertainty. This study compared analyses of crowdsourced land cover data that were contributed by different groups, based on nationality (labelled Gondor and Non-Gondor) and on domain experience (labelled Expert and Non-Expert). The analyses used a geographically weighted model to generate maps of land cover and compared the maps generated by the different groups. The results highlight the differences between the maps how specific land cover classes were under- and over-estimated. As crowdsourced data and citizen science are increasingly used to replace data collected under the designed experiment, this paper highlights the importance of considering between group variations and their impacts on the results of analyses. Critically, differences in the way that landscape features are conceptualised by different groups of contributors need to be considered when using crowdsourced data in formal scientific analyses. The discussion considers the potential for variation in crowdsourced data, the relativist nature of land cover and suggests a number of areas for future research. The key finding is that the veracity of citizen science data is not the critical issue per se. Rather, it is important to consider the impacts of differences in the semantics, affordances and functions associated with landscape features held by different groups of crowdsourced data contributors.

  4. Temporal δ13C records from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) reflect variation in foraging location and global carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossman, S. L.; Barros, N. B.; Ostrom, P. H.; Gandhi, H.; Wells, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    With four decades of data on a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay (SB), The Sarasota Dolphin Research Program offers an unparalleled platform for ground-truthing stable isotope data and exploring bottlenose dolphin ecology in a natural setting. We explored carbon isotope value fidelity to habitat utilization by comparing δ13C data from whole teeth and muscle to the individual dolphin's proclivity towards foraging in seagrass beds based on observational data. We then examined variation in habitat use based on temporal isotope records. Whole tooth protein isotope values do not show a significant correlation with the observed percentage of foraging in seagrass habitat. In contrast, δ13C values from muscle showed a significant positive relationship with the observational data. Differences in the degree of tissue turn over may account for this distinction between tooth and muscle. Dolphin teeth consist of annually deposited layers that are inert once formed. Thus, the isotopic composition of protein in annuli reflect foraging at the time of deposition. In addition to incorporating variation associated with differences in foraging over the lifetime of the individual, whole tooth isotope values are confounded because a disproportionate amount of tooth protein derives from the first few years of life. Given the turnover time of muscle tissue, isotope values reflect diet over the past several months. From 1991 to 2008, muscle δ13C values showed a significant decline, -13.5‰ to -15.1‰.This time period encompasses a state wide net fishing ban (1995) however other factors such as a series of red tide harmful algal blooms, a decline in predators, increases in shallow water boat traffic and an increase in string ray abundance may also contribute to the temporal isotope trend. To examine changes in dolphin foraging habitat further back in time we analyzed the tip of crown of the tooth which records the isotopic signal from the

  5. Climate and Low Latitude Water Cycle Variations Over the Last 300 ka Using Ice Core Records and iLOVECLIM Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extier, Thomas; Landais, Amaelle; Roche, Didier; Bréant, Camille; Bazin, Lucie; Prie, Frederic; François, Louis

    2017-04-01

    The Quaternary is characterized by a succession of glacial and interglacial periods recorded in various climatic archives from high to low latitudes. Antarctic ice cores provide high latitude climate reconstruction from water isotopes as well as global proxy records such as greenhouse gas concentrations. Within global tracers, δ18O of O2 or δ18Oatm is a quite complex tracer which reflects global variations of the low latitude water cycle and vegetation changes. The last two terminations (TI 20-11 ka and TII 136-128 ka) are already well documented and display a high resolution δ18Oatm signal with large amplitude changes, whereas the changes are smaller and poorly documented for the TIII (around 245 ka). Here we display new δ18Oatm data over the last 300 ka on the Dome C ice core in order to compare the δ18Oatm dynamics over the last three terminations. The new high resolution δ18Oatm data covering the Termination III confirm the smaller δ18Oatm amplitude changes compared to TI and TII. Moreover, the δ18Oatm changes of TIII appear to be divided in several steps. The δ18Oatm trapped in Dome C ice cores also shows strong similarity with the 65°N summer insolation and the precession signal on orbital timescales as well as with the δ18Ocalcite measured in the Asian speleothems, suggesting a link with the monsoon dynamics. However, the quantitative interpretation of δ18Oatm is limited by our knowledge of past oxygen fluxes. We present here the first step toward a more quantitative interpretation of δ18Oatm variations through the use of the iLOVECLIM intermediate complexity model with a new vegetation module CARAIB (Warnant et al., 1994; Otto et al., 2002; Laurent et al., 2008; Dury et al., 2011). Through considering more plant functional types (PFTs) and more accurate biosphere productivity variations than the previous module, CARAIB will be helpful to quantify the impact of the biosphere changes on the δ18Oatm.

  6. Extended record of 10Be at EPICA Dome C during the last 800 000 years and its synchronization with geomagnetic paleointensity variations from marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, Alexandre; Raisbeck, Grant; Jouzel, Jean; Bard, Edouard; Aster Team

    2013-04-01

    Polar ice cores are exceptional archives that permit the reconstruction of many parameters (variations of temperature, atmospheric composition...) and the reconstitution of the past variations of the Earth climate and environment. They also give access to beryllium-10 (10Be) fallout, an isotope of cosmogenic origin, created by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR, constituted of high energy charged particles) with the upper atmosphere. The cosmic rays being modulated by solar activity and Earth's magnetic field intensity, the 10Be production is inversely related to the intensity of these two parameters. Most 10Be produced is quickly removed from the atmosphere (residence time in the stratosphere ~1-2 years) and, on the Antarctic plateau, falls mainly by dry deposition as aerosols. So, 10Be can be used as a proxy of paleointensity. It has allowed the improvement of ice cores chronologies thanks to absolute stratigraphic markers linked to excursions and inversions of the geomagnetic field such as the Laschamp excursion [1] or the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal [2, 3]. EPICA Dome C (75° 06' S, 123° 21' E) is a 3270 meter ice core drilled in East Antarctica in the framework of an international project. It offers a complete climate record over the last 800 000 years. As shown at the IPICS 2012 meeting, for the 355 - 800 ka period [4], a continuous high-resolution (11 cm) 10Be profile in this core can be synchronized with continuous variations of paleointensity (PISO-1500) recorded in marine sediments [5] in order to obtain a continuous relative chronology of climate proxies (δD and δ18O respectively) for these two reservoirs. Here, we extend this synchronization down to 269 ka, thus including termination IV and interstadial MIS 9. [1]. Raisbeck et al. (2007) Clim.Past, 3, 541 - 547. [2]. Raisbeck et al. (2006) Nature, 444, 82 - 84. [3]. Dreyfus et al. (2008) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 274, 151 - 156. [4]. G.Raisbeck et al. (2012) IPICS Open Science Conference

  7. A 350 Kyr Record of Geomagnetic Paleosecular Variation and Excursions From Giant Sedimentary Cores Collected Off Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouveny, N.; Moreno, E.; Carcaillet, J.; Bourles, D.

    Sedimentary cores collected off the Iberian margin (between 37° and 40° lat N) by the french R.V. Marion Dufresne containing sequences of clays and carbonaceous clays deposited between 2000 and 3200 m depth, have been studied for rock- magnetic and paleomagnetic purposes. Cubic discrete specimens and Uchannel were subsampled from 4 giant (30 to 35 m long) piston cores (MD952039, -2040 and - 2042) and from 3 shorter (5 to 15 m long ) gravity cores (MD99-2334K, MD012440G and MD01-2441). NRM measurements were performed on a 2G cryogenic magnetometer (type 760R) before and after an upgrade from large (120 mm) to small (45 mm) diameter and from RF to DC SQUIDS. Main carriers of the natural remanent magnetization have been identified by SEM coupled with a semi- quantitative chemical probe, as titano-magnetites in the size range 0.1-10 mm. The removal of a soft viscous overp rint leaves a stable single component interpreted as the characteristic remanence acquired through (p)DRM processes. Detailed intercore correlation of susceptibility peaks leads to the construction of a composite sequence dated by radiocarbon and by correlation of delta O-18 profiles with the SPECMAP chronology. A continuous record of paleosecular variation of the direction and relative paleointensity through the last 350 ka (i.e. since isotopic stage 10) is obtained. The major paleomagnetic excursions known from this interval, i.e. Laschamp (ca 40 ka BP), Blake ( 105-120 ka BP), Jamaica (ca 180 ka BP) and Levantine (ca 290 ka BP).are described as anomalies of the direction of the stable magnetization, accompanied by large and lasting drops of relative paleointensity (NRM/ARM; NRM/SIRM). A cosmonuclide Be-10 record (see contribution by Carcaillet et al.) obtained for the same time-interval from the same cores further confirms the link between the drastic reduction of the geomagnetic dipole moment and departures from the near axial dipole configuration. Slight shifts between the paleomagnetic and

  8. An Application of Variational Theory to an Integrated Walrasian Model of Exchange, Consumption and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, M. B.; Milasi, M.; Vitanza, C.

    2010-09-01

    An existence result of a Walrasian equilibrium for an integrated model of exchange, consumption and production is obtained. The equilibrium model is characterized in terms of a suitable generalized quasi-variational inequality; so the existence result comes from an original technique which takes into account tools of convex and set-valued analysis.

  9. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  10. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Pureswaran, Deepa S; Sullivan, Brian T; Ayres, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  11. Daily, seasonal and monthly variations in ozone levels recorded at the Turia river basin in Valencia (Eastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Castell-Balaguer, Nuria; Téllez, Laura; Mantilla, Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The Turia river basin, located in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, drains into the Mediterranean Sea near the city of Valencia (population, 814,208). The predominance of sea-breeze fluxes favours the inland transport of pollutants from the city up the basin where ozone concentrations exceeding the threshold for protection of human health are systematically recorded during the summer months. This work analyses the variability in ozone levels by examining their spatial and temporal distribution in a Mediterranean river basin downwind from a city within the period 2005-2008. Orographic determinants and atmospheric fluxes induce strong variations in ozone measurements, even on relatively close locations. Results show a different behaviour of the monthly means and the daily cycles depending on the season of the year and the measuring environment, with summer/winter ratios ranging from 2.4 in cities to 1.6 inland, and mean values always higher in the interior of the basin. Daily cycles show significant summer/winter differences related to the predominant situations of anticyclonic stability in winter, which limit ventilation, and the predominant breeze circulations in summer. Results also show a "weekend effect" at urban and medium-distance stations. At the most inland station, the weekend/weekday behaviour differs according to the season of the year; weekend ozone levels are higher in spring, autumn and winter, and lower in summer, coinciding with the predominance of local wind cycles that favour air mass penetration inland from the coast.

  12. Are the past variations of the stratospheric sulfate burden recorded in central Antarctic snow and ice layers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmas, Robert; Boutron, Claude

    1980-10-01

    Thirty-two snow samples, taken from a pit dug at Dome C (central Antarctica) and covering a continuous time period of about 100 years from 1880 (±5 years) up to the present, have been subjected to sulfate analysis. The concentrations determined range from 50 to 150·10-9g g,-1 of snow, with no apparent increase because of global sulfur pollution. The more important fluctuations observed on the sulfate concentration profile seem to be linked to major volcanic eruptions which occurred in the southern hemisphere during the studied time period, in particular Krakatoa in 1883 and Agung in 1963. The experimental and calculated contributions of this last eruption to the sulfate deposition in Antarctica agree satisfactorily. The sulfate background (about ? of the overall sulfate deposition during the last 100 years) has most likely a marine origin (`excess sulfate'.) It is suggested that the past variations of the stratospheric sulfate burden are recorded in Antarctic snow and ice layers and that they could be reconstructed by analyzing the sulfate content in deep ice cores.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen isotope variations in tree-rings as records of perturbations in regional carbon and nitrogen cycles.

    PubMed

    Bukata, Andrew R; Kyser, T Kurtis

    2007-02-15

    Increasing anthropogenic pollution from urban centers and fossil fuel combustion can impact the carbon and nitrogen cycles in forests. To assess the impact of twentieth century anthropogenic pollution on forested system carbon and nitrogen cycles, variations in the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of tree-rings were measured. Individual annual growth rings in trees from six sites across Ontario and one in New Brunswick, Canada were used to develop site chronologies of tree-ring delta 15N and delta 13C values. Tree-ring 615N values were approximately 0.5% per hundred higher and correlated with contemporaneous foliar samples from the same tree, but not with delta 15N values of soil samples. Temporal trends in carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of these tree-rings are consistent with increasing anthropogenic influence on both the carbon and nitrogen cycles since 1945. Tree-ring delta 13C values and delta 15N values are correlated at both remote and urban-proximal sites, with delta 15N values decreasing since 1945 and converging on 1% per hundred at urban-proximal sites and decreasing but not converging on a single delta 15N value in remote sites. These results indicate that temporal trends in tree-ring nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions record the regional extent of pollution.

  14. An Inter-calibrated Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Data Record and Ocean Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilburn, K. A.; Wentz, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Inter-calibration of passive microwave sensors has been the subject of on-going activity at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) since 1974. RSS has produced a brightness temperature TB data record that spans the last 28 years (1987-2014) from inter-calibrated passive microwave sensors on 14 satellites: AMSR-E, AMSR2, GMI, SSMI F08-F15, SSMIS F16-F18, TMI, WindSat. Accompanying the TB record are a suite of ocean products derived from the TBs that provide a 28-year record of wind speed, water vapor, cloud liquid, and rain rate; and 18 years (1997-2014) of sea surface temperatures, corresponding to the period for which 6 and/or 10 GHz measurements are available. Crucial to the inter-calibration and ocean product retrieval are a highly accurate radiative transfer model RTM. The RSS RTM has been continually refined for over 30 years and is arguably the most accurate model in the 1-100 GHz spectrum. The current generation of TB and ocean products, produced using the latest version of the RTM, is called Version-7. The accuracy of the Version-7 inter-calibration is estimated to be 0.1 K, based on inter-satellite comparisons and validation of the ocean products against in situ measurements. The data record produced by RSS has had a significant scientific impact. Over just the last 14 years (2000-2013) RSS data have been used in 743 peer-reviewed journal articles. This is an average of 4.5 peer-reviewed papers published every month made possible with RSS data. Some of the most important scientific contributions made by RSS data have been to the study of the climate. The AR5 Report "Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis" by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the internationally accepted authority on climate change, references 20 peer-reviewed journal papers from RSS scientists. The report makes direct use of RSS water vapor data, RSS atmospheric temperatures from MSU/AMSU, and 9 other datasets that are derived from RSS data. The RSS TB data record is

  15. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-11-01

    Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 (10Be) production rates. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and MD05-2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05-2920, MD05-2930 and MD90-0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest 10Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 1022 Am2) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant 10Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The 10Be-derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes-Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial-scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities.

  16. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold

  17. Explaining maximum variation in productivity requires phylogenetic diversity and single functional traits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Xinxin; Song, Feifan; Zhou, Shurong; Cadotte, Marc W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-01-01

    Many community experiments have shown a positive relationship between plant biodiversity and community productivity, with biodiversity measured in multiple ways based on taxonomy, function, and phylogeny. Whether these different measures of biodiversity and their interactions explain variation in productivity in natural assemblages has rarely been tested. In a removal experiment using natural alpine assemblages in the Tibetan Plateau, we manipulated species richness and functional diversity to examine how different measures of biodiversity predict aboveground biomass production. We combined different biodiversity measures (functional, phylogenetic, richness, evenness) in generalized linear models to determine which combinations provided the most parsimonious explanations of variation in biomass production. Although multivariate functional diversity indices alone consistently explained more variation in productivity than other single measures, phylogenetic diversity and plant height represented the most parsimonious combination. In natural assemblages, single metrics alone cannot fully explain ecosystem function. Instead, a combination of phylogenetic diversity and traits with weak or no phylogenetic signal is required to explain the effects of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function.

  18. Evolutionary and ecological consequences of multiscale variation in pollen receipt for seed production.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Sebastian J; Rosenheim, Jay A; Williams, Neal W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability can select for traits that reduce the negative impacts of this variability on mean fitness. Such selection may be particularly potent for seed production in flowering plants, as they often experience variation in pollen receipt among individuals and among flowers within individuals. Using analytically tractable models, we examine the optimal allocations for producing ovules, attracting pollen, and maturing seeds in deterministic and stochastic pollen environments. In deterministic environments, the optimal strategy attracts sufficient pollen to fertilize every ovule and mature every zygote into a seed. Stochastic environments select for allocations proportional to the risk of seed production being limited by zygotes or seed maturation. When producing an ovule is cheap and maturing a seed is expensive, among-plant variation selects for attracting more pollen at the expense of producing fewer ovules and having fewer resources for seed maturation. Despite this increased allocation, such populations are likely to be pollen limited. In contrast, within-plant variation generally selects for an overproduction of ovules and, to a lesser extent, pollen attraction. Such populations are likely to be resource limited and exhibit low seed-to-ovule ratios. These results highlight the importance of multiscale variation in the evolution and ecology of resource allocations.

  19. 4000 clicks: a productivity analysis of electronic medical records in a community hospital ED.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert G; Sears, Lynn Marie; Melanson, Scott W

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate physician productivity using electronic medical records in a community hospital emergency department. Physician time usage per hour was observed and tabulated in the categories of direct patient contact, data and order entry, interaction with colleagues, and review of test results and old records. The mean percentage of time spent on data entry was 43% (95% confidence interval, 39%-47%). The mean percentage of time spent in direct contact with patients was 28%. The pooled weighted average time allocations were 44% on data entry, 28% in direct patient care, 12% reviewing test results and records, 13% in discussion with colleagues, and 3% on other activities. Tabulation was made of the number of mouse clicks necessary for several common emergency department charting functions and for selected patient encounters. Total mouse clicks approach 4000 during a busy 10-hour shift. Emergency department physicians spend significantly more time entering data into electronic medical records than on any other activity, including direct patient care. Improved efficiency in data entry would allow emergency physicians to devote more time to patient care, thus increasing hospital revenue. © 2013.

  20. Optimizing swept-tone protocols for recording distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in adults and newborns

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Carolina; Luo, Ping; Shera, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which are routinely used in the audiology clinic and research laboratory, are conventionally recorded with discrete tones presented sequentially across frequency. However, a more efficient technique sweeps tones smoothly across frequency and applies a least-squares-fitting (LSF) procedure to compute estimates of otoacoustic emission phase and amplitude. In this study, the optimal parameters (i.e., sweep rate and duration of the LSF analysis window) required to record and analyze swept-tone DPOAEs were tested and defined in 15 adults and 10 newborns. Results indicate that optimal recording of swept-tone DPOAEs requires use of an appropriate analysis bandwidth, defined as the range of frequencies included in each least squares fit model. To achieve this, the rate at which the tones are swept and the length of the LSF analysis window must be carefully considered and changed in concert. Additionally, the optimal analysis bandwidth must be adjusted to accommodate frequency-dependent latency shifts in the reflection-component of the DPOAE. Parametric guidelines established here are equally applicable to adults and newborns. However, elevated noise during newborn swept-tone DPOAE recordings warrants protocol adaptations to improve signal-to-noise ratio and response quality. PMID:26723333

  1. Optimizing swept-tone protocols for recording distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in adults and newborns.

    PubMed

    Abdala, Carolina; Luo, Ping; Shera, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which are routinely used in the audiology clinic and research laboratory, are conventionally recorded with discrete tones presented sequentially across frequency. However, a more efficient technique sweeps tones smoothly across frequency and applies a least-squares-fitting (LSF) procedure to compute estimates of otoacoustic emission phase and amplitude. In this study, the optimal parameters (i.e., sweep rate and duration of the LSF analysis window) required to record and analyze swept-tone DPOAEs were tested and defined in 15 adults and 10 newborns. Results indicate that optimal recording of swept-tone DPOAEs requires use of an appropriate analysis bandwidth, defined as the range of frequencies included in each least squares fit model. To achieve this, the rate at which the tones are swept and the length of the LSF analysis window must be carefully considered and changed in concert. Additionally, the optimal analysis bandwidth must be adjusted to accommodate frequency-dependent latency shifts in the reflection-component of the DPOAE. Parametric guidelines established here are equally applicable to adults and newborns. However, elevated noise during newborn swept-tone DPOAE recordings warrants protocol adaptations to improve signal-to-noise ratio and response quality.

  2. Holocene climate-dynamics of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon-a record built by centennial paleoflood variations superimposed upon millennial cycles of grade change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    background grade of the channel. The shorter, superimposed wavelength of flood variability builds terrace deposits while on the rising limb of millennial grade, but when on the falling limb, clusters of large floods tend to produce inset deposits with a low preservation potential. This implies that the paleoflood paradigm is pertinent at century timescales, whereas over millennia the shifting grade of the system should confound both preservation and estimates of paleoflood magnitude. In terms of climate drivers, other research suggests the river aggraded or incised over millennia in response to sediment production in canyon tributaries, perhaps related to variations in winter-frontal versus monsoonal precipitation. Yet millennial climate changes that can be linked to this response in Grand Canyon are elusive, suggesting sensitivity of the system to subtle shifts in regional climate. At shorter timescales, several studies have linked alluvial deposits of the plateau to ~200-500 yr wet-dry cycles, including the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Optimum as possibly linked to ENSO. Still, the pertinent driver is specifically annual snowmelt flooding from the headwaters, and tree-ring records of drought across the catchment and lake records of winter moisture in the Rockies more directly reflect such variations.

  3. Longitudinal and depth variation of bacterioplankton productivity and related factors in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peierls, Benjamin L.; Paerl, Hans W.

    2011-11-01

    Bacterioplankton productivity (BP) spatial variation was investigated in relation to potential resources, including primary productivity and dissolved organic matter, in the micro-tidal Neuse River-Pamlico Sound estuarine system, North Carolina, USA. Estuarine BP was predicted to correlate with the trophic gradient, decreasing along the salinity gradient in parallel with the decrease in organic matter and primary productivity. This prediction was tested over four years at spatial scales ranging from kilometers to meters along the riverine axis and with depth. The general pattern of BP across the salinity gradient was unimodal and matched the phytoplankton patterns in peak location and variability. Peak locations varied with discharge, especially in 2003 when above average discharge moved peaks downstream. Spatial coherence of BP with other variables was much less at short time scales. The effect of temperature, nutrients, and phytoplankton on BP varied by location, especially fresh versus brackish stations, although only temperature explained more than 20% of the BP variation. Depth variation of BP was as great as longitudinal variation and bottom samples were often higher than surface. BP was strongly correlated with particulate organic carbon at the pycnocline and bottom, highlighting the importance of particulate matter as a resource. Station-averaged BP and phytoplankton data corresponded well with two published meta-analyses, although the offset of the freshwater station suggested longitudinal differences in community composition or resource availability.

  4. Seasonal variations recorded in cave monitoring results and a 10 year monthly resolved speleothem δ18O and δ13C record from the Han-sur-Lesse cave, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rampelbergh, M.; Verheyden, S.; Allan, M.; Quinif, Y.; Keppens, E.; Claeys, P.

    2014-04-01

    Speleothems provide paleoclimate information on multi-millennial to decadal scales in the Holocene. However seasonal or even monthly resolved records remain scarce. They require fast growing stalagmites and a good understanding of the proxy transfer function on very short time scales. The Proserpine stalagmite from the Han-sur-Less cave (Belgium) displays seasonal layers of 0.5 to 2 mm thickness that reconstruct paleoclimates at a monthly scale. Through a regular cave monitoring, we acquired a good understanding of how δ18O and δ13C signals in modern calcite reflect climate variations on sub-seasonal scale. Cave parameters vary seasonally in response to the activity of the vegetation cover and outside air temperature. From December to June, the cave remains in "winter-mode". Outside temperatures are cold inducing low cave air and water temperatures. Bio-productivity in the soil is limited leading to low pCO2, higher δ13C composition of the CO2 in the cave air and high discharge due to the inactivity of the plant coverage. From June to December, the cave switches to "summer-mode" and the measured factors display an opposite behavior. The δ18O and δ13C signals of fresh calcite precipitated on glass slabs vary seasonally. Lowest δ18O values occur during the summer-mode when the δ13C values are high. The δ18O composition of the calcite is in equilibrium with the drip water δ18O and display seasonal variations due to changes in the cave air and water temperature. In contrast to the δ18O signal, δ13C values of the calcite precipitated on the glass slabs do not reflect equilibrium conditions. Highest δ13C values occur during summer, when discharge rates are low increasing the evaporation effect on the thin water film covering the stalagmite. This same antithetical behavior of the δ18O vs. the δ13C signals is seen in the monthly resolved speleothem record that covers the period between 1976 and 1985 AD. Dark layers are formed during summer, while light layers

  5. Dose variations associated with formulations of NSAID prescriptions for children: a descriptive analysis of electronic health records in the UK.

    PubMed

    Star, Kristina; Caster, Ola; Bate, Andrew; Edwards, I Ralph

    2011-04-01

    NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, are commonly prescribed for children but there is limited published research on real-life prescribed doses for this class of drugs. The aim of the study was to investigate if variations in NSAID doses prescribed to children can be explained by patient age, indication, dosage form, type of NSAID or year of prescription. Recorded daily doses for drugs within the 'Anti-rheumatics, non-steroidal plain' anatomical classification were studied. First prescriptions of a distinct NSAID substance within 13-month time periods in a patient's history were included. To enable grouping and comparison of NSAIDs, doses were analysed as prescribed daily doses (PDDs) relative to the adult defined daily dose, stated as the relative PDD (rPDD) in this study. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the rPDD as the response variable, and age, indication, dosage form, NSAID substance and year of prescription as the explanatory variables. Prescriptions from the Intercontinental Medical Statistics (IMS) Health Disease Analyzer database containing electronic health records of general practitioners in the UK issued from 1988 to December 2005. Data for children aged 2-11 years with NSAID prescriptions including daily dose information. A total of 21 473 first prescriptions for 19 695 patients were studied. The vast majority of prescriptions were for ibuprofen (n = 20 855), which were therefore analysed separately. The other NSAID prescriptions were grouped (n = 618), containing diclofenac, indometacin, mefenamic acid, naproxen and piroxicam ('NSAID group'). The rPDD varied considerably with dosage form in both the ibuprofen and NSAID groups. In particular, tablets/capsules were prescribed at higher doses than liquid dosage forms. In the NSAID group, naproxen was prescribed at noticeably higher doses. The rPDD varied only slightly with age in both groups. Prescriptions indicated for rheumatic disease were associated with lower doses than

  6. Intra-to multidecadel variations of snowpack and streamflow records in the Andes of Chile and Argentina between 30 degrees and 37 degrees S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regional composites of winter snowpack (1951-2008) and mean annual river discharges (1906-2007) are used to evaluate the main intra- to multi-decadal hydrologic variations in the Andes of Chile and Argentina between 30° and 37°S. The streamflow record shows a non-significant negative trend but two s...

  7. Authigenic 10Be/9Be Ratio Signatures of the Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Linked to Geomagnetic Dipole Moment Variation During and Since the Brunhes/Matuyama Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Q.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.; Ménabréaz, L.; Valet, J. P.; Valery, G.; Choy, S.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric production rate of cosmogenic nuclides is linked to the geomagnetic dipole moment (GDM) by a non-linear inverse relationship. Large amplitude GDM variations associated with reversals and excursions can potentially be reconstructed using time variation of the cosmogenic beryllium-10 (10Be) production recorded in ocean sediments. Downcore profiles of authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) in oceanic cores provide independent and additional records of the evolution of the geomagnetic intensity and complete previous information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI). Here are presented new authigenic 10Be/9Be results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and from the top of core MD05-2930 collected in the West Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Completing data of Ménabréaz et al. (2012, 2014), these results provide the first continuous 10Be production rate sedimentary record covering the last 800 ka. Along these cores, authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio peaks are recorded - within methodological errors - at the stratigraphic level of RPI lows. High-resolution chronologies (δ18O-derived) lead to interpret these peaks as successive global 10Be overproduction events triggered by geomagnetic dipole lows present in the PISO-1500 and Sint-2000 stacks. The largest amplitude 10Be production enhancement is synchronous to the very large decrease of the dipole field associated with the last polarity reversal (772 ka). It is consistent in shape and duration with the peak recorded in core MD90-0961 from the Maldive area (Indian Ocean) (Valet et al. 2014). Two significant 10Be production enhancements are coeval with the Laschamp (41 ka) and Icelandic basin (190 ka) excursions, while 10Be production peaks of lower amplitude correlate to other recognized excursions such as the Blake (120 ka), Pringle-Falls (215 ka), Portuguese Margin (290 ka), Big Lost (540 ka) among others. This study provides new data on the amplitude and timing of dipole field variations

  8. Photosynthetic production in the central Arctic Ocean during the record sea-ice minimum in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Méndez, M.; Katlein, C.; Rabe, B.; Nicolaus, M.; Peeken, I.; Bakker, K.; Flores, H.; Boetius, A.

    2015-06-01

    The ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is characterized by low primary productivity due to light and nutrient limitations. The recent reduction in ice cover has the potential to substantially increase phytoplankton primary production, but little is yet known about the fate of the ice-associated primary production and of the nutrient supply with increasing warming. This study presents results from the central Arctic Ocean collected during summer 2012, when sea-ice extent reached its lowest ever recorded since the onset of satellite observations. Net primary productivity (NPP) was measured in the water column, sea ice and melt ponds by 14CO2 uptake at different irradiances. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (PI) curves were established in laboratory experiments and used to upscale measured NPP to the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78° N) using the irradiance-based Central Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity (CAOPP) model. In addition, new annual production has been calculated from the seasonal nutrient drawdown in the mixed layer since last winter. Results show that ice algae can contribute up to 60% to primary production in the central Arctic Ocean at the end of the productive season (August-September). The ice-covered water column has lower NPP rates than open water due to light limitation in late summer. As indicated by the nutrient ratios in the euphotic zone, nitrate was limiting primary production in the deep Eurasian Basin close to the Laptev Sea area, while silicate was the main limiting nutrient at the ice margin near the Atlantic inflow. Although sea-ice cover was substantially reduced in 2012, total annual new production in the Eurasian Basin was 17 ± 7 Tg C yr-1, which is within the range of estimates of previous years. However, when adding the contribution by sub-ice algae, the annual production for the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78° N) could double previous estimates for that area with a surplus of 16 Tg C yr-1. Our data suggest that sub-ice algae are an

  9. Modelling natural grass production and its spatio-temporal variations in a semiarid Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Susanne; Lozano-Parra, Javier; Maneta-López, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Natural grasses are found in semiarid rangelands with disperse tree cover of part of the Iberian Peninsula and constitute a resource with high ecologic and economic value worth, being an important source of food for livestock, playing a significant role in the hydrologic cycle, controlling the soil thermal regime, and are a key factor in reducing soil erosion and degradation. However, increasing pressure on the resources, changes in land use as well as possible climate variations threaten the sustainability of natural grasses. Despite of their importance, the spatio-temporal variations of pasture production over whole watersheds are poorly known. In this sense, previous studies by other authors have indicated its dependence on a balance of positive and negative effects brought about by the main limiting factors: water, light, nutrients and space. Nevertheless, the specific weight of each factor is not clear because they are highly variable due to climate characteristics and the structure of these agroforestry systems. We have used a physical spatially-distributed ecohydrologic model to investigate the specific weight of factors that contribute to pasture production in a semiarid watershed of 99.5 ha in western Spain. This model couples a two layer (canopy and understory) vertical local closure energy balance scheme, a hydrologic model and a carbon uptake and vegetation growth component, and it was run using a synthetic daily climate dataset generated by a stochastic weather generator, which reproduced the range of climatic variations observed under mediterranean current climate. The modelling results reproduced satisfactorily the seasonality effects of climate as precipitation and temperatures, as well as annual and inter-annual variations of pasture production. Spatial variations of pasture production were largely controlled by topographic and tree effects, showing medium-low values depending of considered areas. These low values require introduction of feed to

  10. Sr Isotopic Variation in Shallow Water Carbonate Sequences: Stratigraphic, Chronostratigraphic, and Eustatic Implications of the Record at Enewetak Atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terrence M.; Lohmann, K. C.; Halliday, A. N.

    1991-06-01

    Sr isotope data from two boreholes within the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll have been used to evaluate the use of such data to correlate, date, and monitor sea level change in shallow water carbonate sequences. Correlative stratigraphic intervals of relatively invariant δ87Sr, separated by abrupt transitions to lower δ87Sr with increasing depth, are recognized in both boreholes. Conversion of δ87Sr values to age via calibration with the seawater δ87Sr trend with age indicates that correlative and synchronous deposition of atoll sediments occurred at ˜ 0.4, 1.2, and 2.1 Ma. In contrast, a ˜5 m.y. hiatus is recognized in one borehole but not the other. Sr isotope stratigraphy (SIS) is a powerful stratigraphic and chronostratigraphic tool in shallow water carbonate sequences only when significant secular variation of δ87Sr occurs and retention of depositional δ87Sr values is demonstrated. The latter is best demonstrated when δ87Sr data, are integrated with δ18O, δ13C, Sr content data and petrographic observations. Several diagenetically altered intervals have greater δ87Sr values, low δ13C values, and low Sr/Ca ratios relative to adjacent intervals, a combination that is consistent with open-system meteoric diagenesis. Calcite cements from these intervals have early Pleistocene (˜1.2 Ma) δ87Sr values despite their occurrence well within the late Pliocene (˜2.1 Ma) sequence. Thus local sedimentological and diagenetic processes have produced intralagoon variability in the SIS of the two boreholes, complicating subsurface stratigraphic correlations. The occurrence of anomalously young calcite cement relative to adjacent limestone is a direct response of the interaction of sea level change and meteoric phreatic diagenesis whereby overlying metastable carbonates, with greater δ87Sr values, are dissolved during periods of atoll emergence and sea level lowstand liberating Sr and soil-gas CO2 to the pore fluid, which is then incorporated into downflow meteoric

  11. The Drexon Product Family For Laser Recording And Digital-Data Storage --A Status Report--

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Jerome

    1983-11-01

    The Drexon medium is no longer a research project. After six years of research, development, and product engineering, it has emerged into a family of optical-data storage products. First delivered as a 30-cm disk in November 1980, this material is now available in card, tape, and minidisk formats. The card and tape products evolved from a fundamental differentiation--mass memories versus compact memories. Our original work concentrated in the mass memory area where 0.8-micron holes and 2 gigabytes per disk are desired. Today, approximately one-half of our effort is in this area. The other half is directed at compact optical data storage, using 5-micron holes and data capacities of 2 to 50 megabytes. The appearance of this market for compact memories parallels the emergence of the personal computer age. Our goal in the mass memory disk area is to develop long-life, low-cost products with sufficient sensitivity, CNR, and bit-error rate performance for advanced digital-data storage systems. Our goal for compact memories with similar qualities is to link our laser recordable cards, software ROM cards, and microtape cassettes to personal computers, video game machines, and office automation products.

  12. A Framework for Evaluating the Software Product Quality of Pregnancy Monitoring Mobile Personal Health Records.

    PubMed

    Idri, Ali; Bachiri, Mariam; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    Stakeholders' needs and expectations are identified by means of software quality requirements, which have an impact on software product quality. In this paper, we present a set of requirements for mobile personal health records (mPHRs) for pregnancy monitoring, which have been extracted from literature and existing mobile apps on the market. We also use the ISO/IEC 25030 standard to suggest the requirements that should be considered during the quality evaluation of these mPHRs. We then go on to design a checklist in which we contrast the mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring requirements with software product quality characteristics and sub-characteristics in order to calculate the impact of these requirements on software product quality, using the ISO/IEC 25010 software product quality standard. The results obtained show that the requirements related to the user's actions and the app's features have the most impact on the external sub-characteristics of the software product quality model. The only sub-characteristic affected by all the requirements is Appropriateness of Functional suitability. The characteristic Operability is affected by 95% of the requirements while the lowest degrees of impact were identified for Compatibility (15%) and Transferability (6%). Lastly, the degrees of the impact of the mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring requirements are discussed in order to provide appropriate recommendations for the developers and stakeholders of mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring.

  13. A 350-Year Record of Multidecadal to Centennial Variation in Lake Sediment Characteristics, Fourth Lake of the Fulton Chain, Adirondack Mountains, northern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanfoush, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    Mud-water interface cores 37- and 30-cm in length were recovered from 17.7- and 13.4-m water depth in Fourth Lake, one lake in a series of nine interconnected lakes (the Fulton Chain), located at 43-deg N, 74-deg W at an elevation of 520m in the Adirondack Park. Lead-210 dating indicates the cores record nearly 350 years of sediment accumulation. Sediment grain size was measured by laser diffraction (Malvern), magnetic susceptibility was measured using a Bartington MS2, and organic content and %carbonate were inferred from loss-on-ignition. The Fourth Lake record of % fine sediment shows variations on multidecadal timescales superimposed upon a longer-term trend toward lower % fines. The record bears a strong resemblance to records of annual precipitation and summer temperature inferred from pollen in Lake of the Clouds, Michigan (Gajewski, 1988). This lends support to the Pb-210 derived age model and enables transfer of the Fourth Lake record onto the varve-chronology of Lake of the Clouds for comparison of fluctuations in Fourth Lake sediment characteristics with inferred climate. The trend toward lower % fines coincides with a long-term trend toward reduced precipitation and higher summer temperatures over the past 350 years. The same relationship between grain size and climatic variables characterizes the shorter-term fluctuations. The precise duration of the short-term variations remains uncertain but, their estimated maximum duration (21-yr) makes the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) a candidate. Fluctuations in intensity of zonal and meridonal winds that accompany the NAO could explain the similarity between the inferred climate records from geographically remote lakes. Irregular multidecadal-to-centennial variation is exhibited by % carbonate which displays two notable maxima centered at 1825 and 1925. The long-term trend and centennial variations parallel solar variability and, to a limited extent, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO).

  14. An enumerative technique for modeling wind power variations in production costing

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.R.; Graham, M.S.

    1997-04-01

    Production cost, generation expansion, and reliability models are used extensively by utilities in the planning process. Most models do not provide adequate means for representing the full range of potential variation in wind power plants. In order to properly account for expected variation in wind-generated electricity with these models, the authors describe an enumerated probabilistic approach that is performed outside the production cost model, compare it with a reduced enumerated approach, and present some selected utility results. The technique can be applied to any model, and can considerably reduce the number of model runs as compared to the full enumerated approach. They use both a load duration curve model and a chronological model to measure wind plant capacity credit, and also present some other selected results.

  15. Vegetation Phenology and Vegetation Index Products from Multiple Long Term Satellite Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didan, K.; van Leeuwen, W.; Miura, T.; Friedl, M.; Zhang, X.; Czapla-Myers, J.; Jenkerson, C. B.; Maiersperger, T. K.

    2008-12-01

    Phenology is the expression of the seasonal cycle of all biotic processes. It is the pulse of our planet, and is an essential and critical component of environmental science influencing biodiversity, species interactions, their ecological functioning, and their effects on fluxes of water, energy, and biogeochemical elements at various scales. Changes in phenology depict an integrated response to environmental change and provide valuable information for global change research, land degradation studies, integrated pest and invasive species management, drought monitoring, wildfire risk assessment, and agricultural production. In this NASA Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (NASA-MEaSUREs) project our multi-institution team of investigators plans to generate a seamless and consistent sensor independent Earth System Data Record and Climate Data Record (ESDR/CDR) quality measures of landscape phenology and vegetation index (VI), by fusing measurements from different satellite missions and sensors. We plan to use the AVHRR, MODIS and VIIRS daily surface reflectance products and design sensor independent algorithms that can be applied to these multi-sensor data sets. Our project aims at generating, documenting, and delivering 30+ years of consistent and well characterized ESDR/CDR quality daily measurements of land surface VI and annual phenology parameters at a climate modeling grid resolution (CMG, 0.05 deg). In collaboration with the newly established USA national phenology network (USA-NPN), we plan to correlate these remote sensing based measurements of phenology and VI with ground observations. We aim at evaluating the consistency and accuracy of these products by comparing them with in situ growing season phenology observations over different biomes, latitudinal and elevational gradients. We plan to distribute these products through the USGS EROS center and support them via a web based interactive visualization system. We will enlist

  16. Association Between Electronic Medical Record Implementation and Otolaryngologist Productivity in the Ambulatory Setting.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Yarah M; Moshtaghi, Omid; Mahboubi, Hossein; Ghavami, Yaser; Ziai, Kasra; Hojjat, Houmehr; Armstrong, William B; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2017-01-01

    In the current health care era, many medical practices are transitioning to a new electronic health record system. Until now, there has been little information published on the association between electronic medical record (EMR) use and otolaryngologist productivity in the ambulatory setting. To examine the association between transitioning to an EMR system and physician productivity in otolaryngology. Observational study at a tertiary care academic ambulatory center. Participants were 5 full-time otolaryngologists in practice, among whom a retrospective analysis of physician productivity was performed from May 5, 2013, through April 30, 2015. We examined 5 practicing otolaryngologists for 24 months (12 months before and 12 months after transitioning to a new EMR system). Physician productivity was measured using the mean work relative value units (wRVUs) and the mean number of clinic visits. Each practitioner, with his wRVUs and clinic visit volume, was compared before and after implementation of the EMR system. The overall change in wRVUs and clinic visit volume was measured. The mean time spent after a full clinic day editing documentation before and after implementation of the EMR system for each practitioner was also recorded. Among all 5 practitioners (age range, 38-51 years), the monthly wRVUs decreased from a mean of 334 before EMR implementation to a mean of 284 after EMR implementation, with an absolute difference of 50 (95% CI, 6-85). The monthly clinic visit volume decreased from a mean of 132 to 121, with an absolute difference of 11 (95% CI, 0-18). When examined individually, only 1 physician had a significant decrease in wRVUs. The remainder of the physicians did not demonstrate a significant change in wRVUs or clinic visit volume. On average, the physicians spent 2.1 hours after clinic reviewing and editing documentation before the transition to the EMR system and 1.9 hours after the transition. Transitioning to an EMR system in an ambulatory

  17. A prototype for automation of land-cover products from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Steinwand, D.; Nelson, K.; Coan, M.; Wylie, B. K.; Dahal, D.; Wika, S.; Quenzer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat data records of surface reflectance provide a three-decade history of land surface processes. Due to the vast number of these archived records, development of innovative approaches for automated data mining and information retrieval were necessary. Recently, we created a prototype utilizing open source software libraries for automatically generating annual Anderson Level 1 land cover maps and information products from data acquired by the Landsat Mission for the years 1984 to 2013. The automated prototype was applied to two target areas in northwestern and east-central North Dakota, USA. The approach required the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and two user-input target acquisition year-days. The Landsat archive was mined for scenes acquired within a 100-day window surrounding these target dates, and then cloud-free pixels where chosen closest to the specified target acquisition dates. The selected pixels were then composited before completing an unsupervised classification using the NLCD. Pixels unchanged in pairs of the NLCD were used for training decision tree models in an iterative process refined with model confidence measures. The decision tree models were applied to the Landsat composites to generate a yearly land cover map and related information products. Results for the target areas captured changes associated with the recent expansion of oil shale production and agriculture driven by economics and policy, such as the increase in biofuel production and reduction in Conservation Reserve Program. Changes in agriculture, grasslands, and surface water reflect the local hydrological conditions that occurred during the 29-year span. Future enhancements considered for this prototype include a web-based client, ancillary spatial datasets, trends and clustering algorithms, and the forecasting of future land cover.

  18. Solar neutrino production of long-lived isotopes and secular variations in the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.; Cowan, G.A.

    1980-11-21

    Long-lived isotopes produced in the earth's crust by solar neutrinos may provide a method of probing secular variations in the rate of energy production in the sun's core. Only one isotope, calcium-41, appears to be suitable from the dual standpoints of reliable nuclear physics and manageable backgrounds. The proposed measurement also may be interesting in view of recent evidence for neutrino oscillations.

  19. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and Marine Primary Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analyses of precipitation preserved in glacial ice cores provide a unique opportunity to study changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and ocean surface conditions through time. In this study, we aim to investigate changes in both the physical and biological parameters of the north-central Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea over the twentieth century using the deuterium excess (d-excess) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from the Mt. Hunter ice cores drilled in Denali National Park, Alaska. These parallel, 208 m-long ice cores were drilled to bedrock during the 2013 field season on the Mt. Hunter plateau (63° N, 151° W, 3,900 m above sea level) by a collaborative research team consisting of members from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores were sampled on a continuous melter system at Dartmouth College and analyzed for the concentrations major ions (Dionex IC) and trace metals (Element2 ICPMS), and for stable water isotope ratios (Picarro). The depth-age scale has been accurately dated to 400 AD using annual layer counting of several chemical species and further validated using known historical volcanic eruptions and the Cesium-137 spike associated with nuclear weapons testing in 1963. We use HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling to identify likely source areas of moisture and aerosol MSA being transported to the core site. Satellite imagery allows for a direct comparison between chlorophyll a concentrations in these source areas and MSA concentrations in the core record. Preliminary analysis of chlorophyll a and MSA concentrations, both derived almost exclusively from marine biota, suggest that the Mt. Hunter ice cores reflect changes in North Pacific and Bering Sea marine primary productivity. Analysis of the water isotope and MSA data in conjunction with climate reanalysis products shows significant correlations (p<0.05) between d-excess and MSA in the ice record and sea surface temperatures in the Bering Sea and

  20. 36 CFR 1251.8 - Who is authorized to accept service of a subpoena demanding the production of records or testimony?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for the production of records stored in a Federal Records Center (FRC), including the National Personnel Records Center, must be addressed to, and served on, the director of the FRC where the records are... archival records, Presidential records or donated historical materials administered by NARA must...

  1. Anthropogenic emissions and combustion products recorded in a Colle Gnifetti ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrieli, J.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Zennaro, P.; Lim, S.; Laj, P.; Barbante, C.

    2012-12-01

    Ice cores provide direct and highly resolved records of atmospheric parameters that record both climate signals and forcing factors. European Alpine glaciers are located near densely populated and industrialized areas and provide excellent archives of past air pollution. Ice cores to bedrock on Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa (45°55'51''N, 07°52'34''E; 4450 m a.s.l.) permit centennial to millennial reconstruction of past regional climate, while snow pit and shallow core studies from the same site allow multiple parameter reconstructions of anthropogenic emissions. Air pollution includes fossil fuel and biomass burning products that influence regional smog and contain trace elements hazardous to human health. Here, we examine a high-resolution suite of anthropogenic and natural emissions (black carbon, levoglucosan, trace elements, heavy metals) and climate proxies (major ions and stable isotopes) in a 12 m Colle Gnifetti ice core to determine seasonal changes in anthropogenic emissions and their interaction with climate parameters. This is the first study to compare black carbon (a fossil fuel and biomass combustion tracer) with levoglucosan (a fire activity biomarker) in a European ice core. The combination of these two proxies can determine changing combustion product sources through time. Our results demonstrate that anthropogenic emissions influence the summer aerosol flux while crustal sources dominate the winter aerosol flux. These ice core chemical data are consistent with observational data and boundary layer dynamics that transport pollutants concentrated in the Po Valley and similar industrial lowland regions to glacier surfaces during the summer.

  2. Seasonal variation of chemical composition and biomethane production from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-09-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum, an abundant Irish brown seaweed, shows significant seasonal variation in chemical composition and biogas production. The polyphenol content is shown to be a more important factor in biogas production than ash content. High polyphenol content in summer months adversely affected biogas production; suggesting two potential harvest dates, March and October. A. nodosum harvested in October showed a relatively low level of polyphenols (2% of TS) and ash (23% of volatile solids), and exhibited a specific methane yield of 215LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 44% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per wet weight of 47m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in October, which is 2.9 times higher than the lowest value (16m(3)CH4t(-1)), obtained in December. The gross energy yield of A. nodosum based on the optimal biogas production can achieve 116GJha(-1)yr(-1) in October.

  3. Comparison of hydrophilic variation and bioethanol production of furfural residues after delignification pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingxi; Tang, Yong; Xing, Yang; Zhang, Weiming; Shang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Furfural residue (FR) is a waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol production from FR after delignification was compared. Hydrophilic variation was measured by conductometric titration to detect the relationship between hydrophilicity and bioethanol production. It was found that ethanol yield increased as delignification enhanced, and it reached up to 75.6% of theoretical yield for samples with 8.7% lignin. The amount of by-products decreased as delignification increased. New inflection points appeared in conductometric titration curves of samples that were partially delignified, but they vanished in the curves of the highly delignified samples. Total charges and carboxyl levels increased after slight delignification, and they decreased upon further delignification. These phenomena suggested some new hydrophilic groups were formed during pretreated delignification, which would be beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, some newly formed groups may act as toxicant to the yeast during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

  4. Synchronizing the time-scales of the varved Lakes Czechowskie/Tiefer See sediment records to IntCal13 using the common cosmogenic radionuclide variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czymzik, Markus; Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Mekhaldi, Florian; Ott, Florian; Dräger, Nadine; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Brauer, Achim

    2017-04-01

    Paleoclimate archives provide unique insights into the dynamics of the climate system. However, time-scale uncertainties often inhibit the reliable investigation of leads and lags as well as time-transgressive climate variations. Identification and synchronization of common cosmogenic radionuclide variations in natural archives can lead to improved chronologies. This approach has been successfully applied to synchronize 10Be records from Greenland ice cores and 14C time-series from trees. Here, we explore the potential of this approach for the synchronization of the 10Be records from varved sediments of Lakes Czechowskie and Tiefer See to 14C variations inferred from the IntCal13 calibration record around the grand solar minima at 250 BP (Maunder Minimum), 2800 BP (Homeric Minimum) and 5500 BP. We discuss the robustness of the synchronization. Furthermore, we investigate lake/catchment characteristics that favor the application of this method for comparing and synchronizing cosmogenic radionuclide records from varved lake sediments to those from other environmental archives.

  5. High-resolution record of last post-glacial variations of sea-ice cover and river discharge in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. H.; Hörner, T.; Fahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Here, we provide a high-resolution reconstruction of sea-ice cover variations in the western Laptev Sea, a crucial area in terms of sea-ice production in the Arctic Ocean and a region characterized by huge river discharge. Furthermore, the shallow Laptev Sea was strongly influenced by the post-glacial sea-level rise that should also be reflected in the sedimentary records. The sea Ice Proxy IP25 (Highly-branched mono-isoprenoid produced by sea-ice algae; Belt et al., 2007) was measured in two sediment cores from the western Laptev Sea (PS51/154, PS51/159) that offer a high-resolution composite record over the last 18 ka. In addition, sterols are applied as indicator for marine productivity (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and input of terrigenous organic matter by river discharge into the ocean (campesterol, ß-sitosterol). The sea-ice cover varies distinctly during the whole time period and shows a general increase in the Late Holocene. A maximum in IP25 concentration can be found during the Younger Dryas. This sharp increase can be observed in the whole circumarctic realm (Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Fram Strait and Laptev Sea). Interestingly, there is no correlation between elevated numbers of ice-rafted debris (IRD) interpreted as local ice-cap expansions (Taldenkova et al. 2010), and sea ice cover distribution. The transgression and flooding of the shelf sea that occurred over the last 16 ka in this region, is reflected by decreasing terrigenous (riverine) input, reflected in the strong decrease in sterol (ß-sitosterol and campesterol) concentrations. ReferencesBelt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38 (1), 16e27. Taldenkova, E., Bauch, H.A., Gottschalk, J., Nikolaev, S., Rostovtseva, Yu., Pogodina, I., Ya, Ovsepyan, Kandiano, E., 2010. History of ice-rafting and water mass evolution at the northern Siberian continental margin (Laptev Sea) during Late

  6. Variation of Evaporation Across a Corn-Soybean Production Region in Central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J. L.; Kustas, W. P.

    2003-12-01

    Evaporation from production corn-soybean surfaces is often assumed to be uniform across a regional extent such as the Upper Midwest in the U.S.; however, there are few direct measurements of the spatial and temporal variation of evaporation to support this assumption. During a soil moisture remote sensing study in the summer of 2002 (SMEX02), fourteen energy balance stations complete with net radiometers, soil heat flux plates, a three-dimensional sonic anemometer, and fast response CO2-H2O sensors (eddy covariance) were deployed across an 25-kilometer corn-soybean production watershed in central Iowa south of Ames, Iowa. Data were collected beginning in mid-May through August and summarized into half-hourly and daily intervals. Two intercomparisons of all eddy covariance systems were conducted, one prior to the SMEX02 study (May 2002) over an alfalfa field and one after the study over a grass surface in August (2002). The coefficient of variation among the eddy covariance instruments was less than 7%. Latent heat flux values among corn and soybean fields that were greater than 7% were considered to be real differences in evaporation among fields. Diurnal differences in net radiation and latent heat fluxes were evident among both corn and soybean fields and when seasonal totals were evaluated the differences persisted. Variation in latent heat flux among corn and soybeans was attributed to soil type, water availability and spatial variation of precipitation across the watershed. The results from fourteen eddy covariance stations provide a measure of the spatial variation in latent heat flux across a region that is considered to be relatively homogenous. This information will aid in evaluating regional evaporation models.

  7. Toward using millennial-scale geomagnetic field models to constrain in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rate variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    The geomagnetic field exerts a strong influence on the trajectories of charged primary cosmic-ray particles incident on the Earth's atmosphere (and therefore, on the geographic distribution of their progeny). The resulting cascade of secondary particles then interacts with the top few meters of the Earth's surface to produce various nuclides in situ (in situ cosmogenic nuclides, or CNs). With appropriate interpretive models, concentrations of these nuclides measured in terrestrial materials can be used to infer the duration of surface exposure (or of burial following exposure) and rates of various surficial processes. However, the potential precision with which CNs can be applied is limited by how well their production rates are known. Nuclide production rates are typically determined by measuring CN concentrations in surficial rocks with well-constrained exposure histories. Scaling these time-integrated production rates to other locations with different exposure durations, though, requires knowledge or assumptions of how instantaneous production rates have varied in space and time. Spatial scaling of CN production rates is typically described by models based on modern secondary cosmic-ray measurements, ordered by parameters linked to the geomagnetic field. In general, the most robust parameter for ordering these measurements is the effective vertical cutoff rigidity (RC), a measure of the energy required for primary cosmic rays to penetrate the geomagnetic and magnetospheric fields and interact with the atmosphere at a given location. Temporal variations in CN production rates at a given site result primarily from changes in the orientation and intensity of the geomagnetic field. These geomagnetic variations have been modeled for CN applications using estimates of Holocene variations in dipole orientation combined with records of global dipole intensity variations. It has typically been assumed in CN research that secular variation of the geomagnetic pole averages

  8. Aftershock productivity of large megathrust earthquakes: regional variations and influence of mainshock source parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzler, N.; Brodsky, E. E.; Lay, T.

    2016-12-01

    On average, the number of aftershocks increases with mainshock magnitude following a well-defined relationship for any given region. However, variability around this average relationship provokes important questions. What regional variations exist? How do other mainshock properties such as stress drop affect aftershock productivity? To address these issues we focus on variations of aftershock productivity of large (MW ≥ 7.0) circum-Pacific megathrust earthquakes within the past 25 years. We capitalize on an extant set of finite-fault rupture model inversions to investigate how aftershock productivity varies regionally and with aftershock source parameters. We find aftershock productivity to be higher for islands arcs of the western circum-Pacific than for continental arcs of the eastern circum-Pacific. Surprisingly, events with larger static stress-drops do not produce more aftershocks than those with smaller stress drops. If anything, larger static stress-drops tend to produce fewer aftershocks than comparable magnitude events with lower stress-drop. The regional trend may reflect differences in fault susceptibility between island arcs and continental arcs, and the stress-drop behavior may imply near-total stress release for the largest stress drop events.

  9. Uncertainties in the production of p nuclei in massive stars obtained from Monte Carlo variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, T.; Nishimura, N.; Hirschi, R.; Cescutti, G.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Heger, A.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear data uncertainties in the production of p nuclei in massive stars have been quantified in a Monte Carlo procedure. Bespoke temperature-dependent uncertainties were assigned to different types of reactions involving nuclei from Fe to Bi. Their simultaneous impact was studied in post-processing explosive trajectories for three different stellar models. It was found that the grid of mass zones in the model of a 25 M⊙ star, which is widely used for investigations of p nucleosynthesis, is too crude to properly resolve the detailed temperature changes required for describing the production of p nuclei. Using models with finer grids for 15 and 25 M⊙ stars with initial solar metallicity, it was found that most of the production uncertainties introduced by nuclear reaction uncertainties are smaller than a factor of 2. Since a large number of rates were varied at the same time in the Monte Carlo procedure, possible cancellation effects of several uncertainties could be taken into account. Key rates were identified for each p nucleus, which provide the dominant contribution to the production uncertainty. These key rates were found by examining correlations between rate variations and resulting abundance changes. This method is superior to studying flow patterns, especially when the flows are complex, and to individual, sequential variation of a few rates.

  10. Biomass rather than growth rate determines variation in net primary production by giant kelp.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Arkema, Katie K

    2008-09-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is influenced by disturbance-driven fluctuations in foliar standing crop (FSC) and resource-driven fluctuations in rates of recruitment and growth, yet most studies of NPP have focused primarily on factors influencing growth. We quantified NPP, FSC, recruitment, and growth rate for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, at three kelp forests in southern California, U.S.A., over a 54-month period and determined the relative roles of FSC, recruitment, and growth rate in contributing to variation in annual NPP. Net primary production averaged between 0.42 and 2.38 kg dry mass x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the three sites. The initial FSC present at the beginning of the growth year and the recruitment of new plants during the year explained 63% and 21% of the interannual variation observed in NPP, respectively. The previous year's NPP and disturbance from waves collectively accounted for 80% of the interannual variation in initial FSC. No correlation was found between annual growth rate (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit of existing kelp mass) and annual NPP (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit area of ocean bottom), largely because annual growth rate was consistent compared to initial FSC and recruitment, which fluctuated greatly among years and sites. Although growth rate was a poor predictor of variation in annual NPP, it was principally responsible for the high mean values observed for NPP by Macrocystis. These high mean values reflected rapid growth (average of approximately 2% per day) of a relatively small standing crop (maximum annual mean = 444 g dry mass/m2) that replaced itself approximately seven times per year. Disturbance-driven variability in FSC may be generally important in explaining variation in NPP, yet it is rarely examined because cycles of disturbance and recovery occur over timescales of decades or more in many systems. Considerable insight into how variation in FSC drives variation in NPP may

  11. Spatial Variation of Pressure in the Lyophilization Product Chamber Part 1: Computational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Arnab; Varma, Nikhil; Sane, Pooja; Bogner, Robin; Pikal, Michael; Alexeenko, Alina

    2017-04-01

    The flow physics in the product chamber of a freeze dryer involves coupled heat and mass transfer at different length and time scales. The low-pressure environment and the relatively small flow velocities make it difficult to quantify the flow structure experimentally. The current work presents the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling for vapor flow in a laboratory scale freeze dryer validated with experimental data and theory. The model accounts for the presence of a non-condensable gas such as nitrogen or air using a continuum multi-species model. The flow structure at different sublimation rates, chamber pressures, and shelf-gaps are systematically investigated. Emphasis has been placed on accurately predicting the pressure variation across the subliming front. At a chamber set pressure of 115 mtorr and a sublimation rate of 1.3 kg/h/m(2), the pressure variation reaches about 9 mtorr. The pressure variation increased linearly with sublimation rate in the range of 0.5 to 1.3 kg/h/m(2). The dependence of pressure variation on the shelf-gap was also studied both computationally and experimentally. The CFD modeling results are found to agree within 10% with the experimental measurements. The computational model was also compared to analytical solution valid for small shelf-gaps. Thus, the current work presents validation study motivating broader use of CFD in optimizing freeze-drying process and equipment design.

  12. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance. PMID:26323882

  13. Variation with semilunar periodicity of plasma steroid hormone production in the mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Hong, Wanshu; Chen, Shixi; Zhang, Qiyong

    2008-02-01

    Variation in the production of the plasma steroid hormones E(2), 17alpha-OHP and T in females and T and 11-KT in males, was investigated in the mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris during the spawning season. Females with oocytes at the vitellogenic stage (GSI 5.97-6.86%) and mature males with GSI of 0.255-0.288% were collected at intervals of 3-4 days within the two complete semilunar cycles from May 31 to June 30, 2006. The results showed that variations in the levels of plasma steroid hormones were synchronized obviously with semilunar periodicity in both females and males. Each steroid hormone level exhibited two cycles, each cycle with a peak. In females, the first peaks in plasma E(2), 17alpha-OHP and T levels were observed 3 days after the first lunar quarter, and the second ones, 4 days after the last lunar quarter. In males, the first peaks of plasma T and 11-KT levels occurred 3 days after the first lunar quarter, and the second ones, at the last lunar quarter. The fact that, in the present study, changes in the levels of plasma steroid hormones were synchronized with semilunar periodicity, although the fish were at the same stages of gonadal development, suggests that variation of plasma steroid hormones is basically regulated by biological rhythms (Zeitgebers), and that tidal movement (with its semilunar periodicity) is the major environmental factor stimulating steroid hormone production in B. pectinirostris.

  14. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Rooney, William L; Mullet, John E

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance.

  15. Inter- and intra-annual variations of clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liming; Liu, Jane; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Wang, Rong; Sprintsin, Michael; Zheng, Ting; Ryu, Youngryel; Pisek, Jan; Gonsamo, Alemu; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Clumping index quantifies the level of foliage aggregation, relative to a random distribution, and is a key structural parameter of plant canopies and is widely used in ecological and meteorological models. In this study, the inter- and intra-annual variations in clumping index values, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product, are investigated at six forest sites, including conifer forests, a mixed deciduous forest and an oak-savanna system. We find that the clumping index displays large seasonal variation, particularly for the deciduous sites, with the magnitude in clumping index values at each site comparable on an intra-annual basis, and the seasonality of clumping index well captured after noise removal. For broadleaved and mixed forest sites, minimum clumping index values are usually found during the season when leaf area index is at its maximum. The magnitude of MODIS clumping index is validated by ground data collected from 17 sites. Validation shows that the MODIS clumping index can explain 75% of variance in measured values (bias = 0.03 and rmse = 0.08), although with a narrower amplitude in variation. This study suggests that the MODIS BRDF product has the potential to produce good seasonal trajectories of clumping index values, but with an improved estimation of background reflectance.

  16. Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, Winifred

    2005-04-01

    In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  17. Variations in Amazon forest productivity correlated with foliar nutrients and modelled rates of photosynthetic carbon supply.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Lina M; Patiño, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Weedon, Graham P; Sitch, Stephen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dolman, A J; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R; Baker, Timothy R; Almeida, Samuel; Higuchi, Niro; Lloyd, Jon

    2011-11-27

    The rate of above-ground woody biomass production, W(P), in some western Amazon forests exceeds those in the east by a factor of 2 or more. Underlying causes may include climate, soil nutrient limitations and species composition. In this modelling paper, we explore the implications of allowing key nutrients such as N and P to constrain the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, and also we examine the relationship between modelled rates of photosynthesis and the observed gradients in W(P). We use a model with current understanding of the underpinning biochemical processes as affected by nutrient availability to assess: (i) the degree to which observed spatial variations in foliar [N] and [P] across Amazonia affect stand-level photosynthesis; and (ii) how these variations in forest photosynthetic carbon acquisition relate to the observed geographical patterns of stem growth across the Amazon Basin. We find nutrient availability to exert a strong effect on photosynthetic carbon gain across the Basin and to be a likely important contributor to the observed gradient in W(P). Phosphorus emerges as more important than nitrogen in accounting for the observed variations in productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of future tropical forests under a changing climate.

  18. Variations in Amazon forest productivity correlated with foliar nutrients and modelled rates of photosynthetic carbon supply

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Lina M.; Patiño, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F.; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Weedon, Graham P.; Sitch, Stephen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver L.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dolman, A. J.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R.; Baker, Timothy R.; Almeida, Samuel; Higuchi, Niro; Lloyd, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The rate of above-ground woody biomass production, WP, in some western Amazon forests exceeds those in the east by a factor of 2 or more. Underlying causes may include climate, soil nutrient limitations and species composition. In this modelling paper, we explore the implications of allowing key nutrients such as N and P to constrain the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, and also we examine the relationship between modelled rates of photosynthesis and the observed gradients in WP. We use a model with current understanding of the underpinning biochemical processes as affected by nutrient availability to assess: (i) the degree to which observed spatial variations in foliar [N] and [P] across Amazonia affect stand-level photosynthesis; and (ii) how these variations in forest photosynthetic carbon acquisition relate to the observed geographical patterns of stem growth across the Amazon Basin. We find nutrient availability to exert a strong effect on photosynthetic carbon gain across the Basin and to be a likely important contributor to the observed gradient in WP. Phosphorus emerges as more important than nitrogen in accounting for the observed variations in productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of future tropical forests under a changing climate. PMID:22006971

  19. Experimental Study of Hydroxy Gas (HHO) Production with Variation in Current, Voltage and Electrolyte Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Noor; Pandey, K. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, work has been carried out experimentally for the investigation of the effects of variation incurrent, voltage, temperature, chemical concentration and reaction time on the amount of hydroxy gas produced. Further effects on the overall electrolysis efficiency of advance alkaline water is also studied. The hydroxy gas (HHO) has been produced experimentally by the electrolysis of alkaline water with parallel plate electrode of 316L-grade stainless steel. The electrode has been selected on the basis of corrosion resistance and inertness with respect to electrolyte (KOH). The process used for the production of HHO is conventional as compared to the other production processes because of reduced energy consumption, less maintenance and low setup cost. From the experimental results, it has been observed that with increase in voltage, temperature and electrolyte concentration of alkaline solution, the production of hydroxy gas has increased about 30 to 40% with reduction in electrical energy consumption.

  20. A Holocene record of ocean productivity and upwelling from the northern California continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, J. A.; Barron, J. A.; Finney, B.; Kusler, J. E.; Bukry, D.; Heusser, L. E.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    The Holocene upwelling history of the northern California continental slope is examined using a 7-m-long marine sediment core (TN062-O550; 40.9°N, 124.6°W, 550 m water depth) collected offshore from Eureka, CA, that spans the last 7,400 calibrated years before present (cal yrs BP). A combination of biogenic sediment concentrations (opal, total organic C, and total N), stable isotopes (organic matter δ13C and bulk sedimentary δ15N), and key microfossil indicators of upwelling were used to test the hypothesis that marine productivity in the California Current System (CCS) driven by coastal upwelling has co-varied with global Holocene millennial-scale warm intervals. Results show biogenic sediment accumulation in TN062-O550 varied considerably during the Holocene, despite being located within 50 km of the mouth of the Eel River, one of the largest sources of terrigenous sediment to the Northeast Pacific Ocean margin. A key time interval beginning at 2900 cal yr BP indicates the onset of modern upwelling in the CCS, and that this period also corresponds to the most intense period of upwelling in the last 7,400 years. When these results are placed into a regional CCS context during the Holocene, it was found that the timing of upwelling intensification as recorded in TN062-O550 corresponds closely to that seen at nearby ODP Site 1019 as well as in the Santa Barbara Basin of southern California. Other CCS records with less high-quality age control show similar results, which suggest late Holocene upwelling intensification may be synchronous throughout the CCS. Based on the strong correspondence between the alkenone-derived sea surface temperature record at ODP Site 1019 and the onset of late Holocene upwelling in northern California, we tentatively suggest that regional CCS warming may be conducive to upwelling intensification in the future.

  1. Assessment of 10-Year Global Record of Aerosol Products from the OMI Near-UV Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    Global observations of aerosol properties from space are critical for understanding climate change and air quality applications. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the EOS-Aura satellite provides information on aerosol optical properties by making use of the large sensitivity to aerosol absorption and dark surface albedo in the UV spectral region. These unique features enable us to retrieve both aerosol extinction optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) successfully from radiance measurements at 354 and 388 nm by the OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV). Recent improvements to algorithms in conjunction with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) carbon monoxide data also reduce uncertainties due to aerosol layer heights and types significantly in retrieved products. We present validation results of OMI AOD against space and time collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measured AOD values over multiple stations representing major aerosol episodes and regimes. We also compare the OMI SSA against the inversion made by AERONET as well as an independent network of ground-based radiometer called SKYNET in Japan, China, South-East Asia, India, and Europe. The outcome of the evaluation analysis indicates that in spite of the "row anomaly" problem, affecting the sensor since mid-2007, the long-term aerosol record shows remarkable sensor stability. The OMAERUV 10-year global aerosol record is publicly available at the NASA data service center web site (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/data-holdings/OMI/omaeruv_v003.shtml).

  2. Case study of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions and factors influencing emission variations in secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Chen; Li, Li; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-04-09

    Secondary aluminum production has been recognized as an important source of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Large variations in PCN emissions as the smelting process proceeds have not been determined. In this study, solid and gaseous discharges, including fly ash, slag, and stack gas samples collected from four secondary smelting plants during different smelting stages were analyzed for PCNs. The average emission factor of ∑(1-8)PCNs to air was calculated to be 17.4 mg t(-1), with a range of 4.3-29.5 mg t(-1). The average emission factors of ∑(1-8)PCNs from fly ash and slag were 55.5 ng t(-1) and 0.13 ng t(-1), respectively. The derived emission factors may enable a more accurate estimation of annual emissions and a more comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of PCNs emitted from secondary aluminum production. The emission levels and characteristics of PCNs during different smelting stages were compared. Possible factors, including the organic impurities from aluminum scrap, fuel, and chloride additives, which could contribute to variations in PCN emissions and characteristics were discussed. These results may provide useful information for developing better control strategies for reducing PCN emissions in secondary aluminum production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SEBAL For Detecting Spatial Variation Of Water Productivity For Wheat In The Yaqui Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, S. J.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C. J.

    2006-08-01

    Although the use of water productivity is gaining importance for evaluating good management practices, there is no standardized framework that aids the calculations. A methodology has been developed to quantify spatial variation of crop yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water productivity (WPET) using the SEBAL algorithm and high and low resolution satellite images. SEBAL estimated ET was validated over a wheat dominated area in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico and proved to be accurate. Estimated average wheat yields of 5.5 ton ha-1 were well within the range of measured yields reported in the literature. Area average WPET was 1.37 kg m-3 and could be considered high compared to other irrigated systems around the world It is concluded that the proposed methodology is accurate and that better knowledge of the spatial variation of WP provides valuable information for regional water managers to seek local solutions for boosting the productivity of agricultural water use by means of sharing and exchanging good management practices.

  4. Intra-tooth variations in δ 18O (PO 4) of mammalian tooth enamel as a record of seasonal variations in continental climate variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Clyde, William C.; O'Neil, James R.

    1998-06-01

    Regular intra-tooth variations in the δ 18O value of mammalian tooth enamel phosphate (δ 18O p) have been considered a potential measure of seasonal changes in continental climate variables since they were first observed. In order to investigate this possibility in more detail, analyses were made of teeth from a number of mammalian herbivores (sheep, cattle, elk, and pigs) that lived over a wide range of geographic locations, ecological settings, and climatic conditions (Iowa, Florida, Wyoming, Iceland, England, Croatia, and the Philippines). The lack of intra-tooth δ 18O p variations in teeth of cattle that were given tap water to drink provides strong evidence that the underlying cause of observed intra-tooth variations is primarily a change in the isotopic composition of ingested water. In concert with this interpretation, the range of intra-tooth δ 18O p values and their absolute values from each locality mirror observed differences in the range and absolute δ 18O values of local precipitation (δ 18O pt) and in climate variables. Thus intra-tooth δ 18O p values can indeed be considered a qualitative measure of seasonal climate change in continental settings. Quantitative use of intra-tooth δ 18O p values as a climate proxy is possible, but is hindered by lack of detailed information on aspects of mammalian physiology, behavior, and perhaps local hydrology that may also play a role in influencing δ 18O p. This problem is exemplified by the different range in δ 18O p values measured for sheep and cattle from the same locality around York, UK (3.4 vs. 2.6‰, respectively). The observed difference most likely reflects a difference in the relative amount of leaf water ingested by the two species. Future studies of well-constrained samples are required to test physiological models and to develop empirical relations that accurately relate δ 18O p to δ 18O pt. In addition to their use as indicators of seasonality, intra-tooth variations in δ 18O p values

  5. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are thus exposed to variations in yields, production and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are therefore paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We found that moderate-to-marked yield loss over a substantial percentage (26-33%) of the harvested area of these crops is reliably predictable if climatic forecasts are near perfect. However, only rice and wheat production are reliably predictable at three months before the harvest using within-season hindcasts. The reliabilities of estimates varied substantially by crop--rice and wheat yields were the most predictable, followed by soybean and maize. The reasons for variation in the reliability of the estimates included the differences in crop sensitivity to the climate and the technology used by the crop-producing regions. Our findings reveal that the use of seasonal climatic forecasts to predict crop failures will be useful for monitoring global food production and will encourage the adaptation of food systems toclimatic extremes.

  6. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  7. Variation in Partnership Health general practice enrolment data related to need and hospital and national records on ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Laurence; Barnett, Ross

    2009-12-01

    To compare enrolment data for ethnicity and deprivation and other classifications in Partnership Health Primary Health Organisation (PHO) general practices with the National Health Index (NHI) data set and hospital discharge data and to analyse use of special access funding. NHI-linked practice data were obtained through Partnership Health and sent directly to New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS). The database was linked with the hospital discharge data for the two years ending June 2007, with the NHIs encrypted. Data were analysed for a range of variables and relationships especially related to ethnicity. Data was obtained from atotal of 345 247 patients in 103 practices. Practices varied widely in their data completion including ethnicity, the latter being unavailable in 7.2% of patients. Ethnicity recording in Partnership Health practice was substantially more complete than national NHI records. Maori in the hospital records was 6.1% compared with 7.0% in the Partnership Health records relating to discharged patients (p < .001). Practice use of special access funding varied widely and was unrelated to need. Despite substantial practice database development, findings point to the need for further collaborative and innovative strategies to improve data recording. Issues needing to be addressed nationally include regular updating and correction of the national NHI set from PHO records. PHO data could, with improvements, become the basis for District Health Board databases. The findings support the current national review of the use of special access funding which appears to be seriously inequitable and inefficient.

  8. Electronic health record impact on pediatric ophthalmologists’ productivity and efficiency at an academic center

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Travis K.; Read-Brown, Sarah; Choi, Dongseok; Yackel, Thomas R.; Tu, Daniel C.; Chiang, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure the effect of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on productivity and efficiency in the pediatric ophthalmology division at an academic medical center. Methods Four established providers were selected from the pediatric ophthalmology division at the Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute. Clinical volume was compared before and after EHR implementation for each provider. Time elapsed from chart open to completion (OTC time) and the proportion of charts completed during business hours were monitored for 3 years following implementation. Results Overall there was an 11% decrease in clinical volume following EHR implementation, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). The mean OTC time ranged from 5.5 to 28.3 hours among providers in this study, and trends over time were variable among the four providers. Forty-four percent of all charts were closed outside normal business hours (30% on weekdays, 14% on weekends). Conclusions EHR implementation was associated with a negative impact on productivity and efficiency in our pediatric ophthalmology division. PMID:25456030

  9. Combined palaeomagnetic secular variation and petrophysical records to time-constrain geological and hazardous events: An example from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea over the last 120 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Marina; Liddicoat, Joseph; Budillon, Francesca; Incoronato, Alberto; Coe, Robert S.; Insinga, Donatella D.; Cassata, William S.; Lubritto, Carmine; Angelino, Antimo; Tamburrino, Stella

    2014-02-01

    Long-term change of Earth's magnetic field (palaeomagnetic secular variation, PSV) during much of the last approximately 120 ka was recorded in cored sediment from the slope margin of the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea. The PSV record has been correlated to master curves of global palaeomagnetic field intensity and PSV records for western Europe. Tephrochronology and radiometric dating (14C and 40Ar/39Ar) have also been used to constrain the age of the PSV record. The combination of the new data with prior PSV and petrophysical data from the area provides a chronological framework for geological events such as large-scale submarine slumps, stratigraphic gaps and short-term changes in deposition rate on the continental margin. These latter changes are linked to the combined action of relative sea-level oscillations, climate events, and consequent variations in land exposure through time. Moreover, new data concerning the thickness and dispersal of Campanian Plain pyroclastic deposits in the marine setting enable volcanic-hazard evaluation. Finally, a pyroclastic deposit (tephra X-6) found offshore in the Southern Campanian marine environment was 40Ar/39Ar dated for the first time at 108.9 ± 1.8 ka BP.

  10. Palaeo- and rock magnetic investigations on Late Quaternary sediments from low latitudes. I: geomagnetic palaeosecular variation and relative palaeointensity records from the Tobago Basin, Southeast Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Ute; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Frederichs, Thomas; Korte, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Detailed palaeo- and rock magnetic investigations were carried out on two sediment cores from the Tobago Basin, Eastern Caribbean. The 2.8 m long profiles span the last 15 kyr, according to accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dates. Global climatic variations marking the transition from the Pleistocene into the Holocene are clearly reflected in the rock magnetic parameters. Their variations reflect the contribution of the coarse-grained fraction to the bulk composition. However, fine-grained Ti-magnetite particles carry a fairly stable magnetization in sediments deposited in the last 10 kyr. Comparison of stacked directional records of characteristic remanent magnetization inclination and declination, with data obtained from geomagnetic field models revealed distinct similarities for most intervals and add to the knowledge about the variability of the geomagnetic field in this area poorly covered by experimental data. A stacked record of relative palaeointensity was also established, using anhysteretic remanent magnetization as normalization parameter. Thus, the intensity of the geomagnetic field was steadily decreasing in the Caribbean between 9 and 0 ka, a trend that does not fit to relative paleointensity records available from Northern Hemisphere stacks but matches other low-latitude records and the South Atlantic Palaeointensity Stack.

  11. A record of Quaternary humidity fluctuations on the NE Tibetan Plateau based on magnetic susceptibility variations in lacustrine sediments of the Qaidam Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, Christian; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Pross, Jörg; Fang, Xiaomin

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (?) and other magnetic proxies play an important role in paleoclimatic studies as they hold the potential for high-resolution records of past environmental change. Nevertheless, it is necessary to understand the cause of the variation in magnetic proxies by comparing them to more direct climate proxies such as pollen or stable isotopes. In this study we have compiled a high-resolution magnetic proxy dataset of the ca. 940-m-long core SG-1, which was drilled in the lacustrine sediments of the western Qaidam Basin on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our record spans the entire Quaternary (~2.8 to 0.1 Ma). The magnetic susceptibility record is compared to the Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratio, which is used to discriminate between dry and more humid phases in the Qaidam Basin, based on (i) 41 samples spanning the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT; ~1 Ma BP) and (ii) additional 40 samples selected from intervals of minimum and maximum ? values throughout the core. For the drill core SG-1, we observe a high correlation of the A/C ratio with ? results: minima of ? correspond to maxima of the A/C ratio (representing more humid phases) and vice versa. Additionally, spectral analysis of the ? record shows the emergence of the 100-ka Milankovitch cycle after the MPT. This testifies to the fact that cyclic variation of ? represents a response to global climate change.

  12. Nitric oxide production by haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martínez, Juan Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as an important physiological modulator, with evidence of its role as a signalling molecule throughout the whole phylogenetic scale. In marine molluscs, it intervenes in processes related to the immune function of haemocytes. The presented results indicate that basal NO production by haemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations, with summer values statistically higher than those of winter. The presence of IL-2 increased NO production in winter. In summer, incubating the haemocytes with TNF-alpha for 6h slightly increased NO production. LPS, TGF-beta1 or PDGF did not induce significant effects on NO production by the haemocytes. Immunoblotting experiments detected two proteins that bind to vertebrate iNOS and eNOS antibodies, with different seasonal expression: the protein that binds to anti-iNOS antibody was expressed throughout the year, whereas the anti-eNOS antibody bound with a protein that was only detected in winter. IL-2 is suggested to start a signalling system dependent on the seasonal presence of winter protein. Such a system would activate the enzyme, thus favouring the higher NO production detected in winter.

  13. Spatiotemporal variation of fruit digestible-nutrient production in Florida’s uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, James N.; Abrahamson, Warren G.

    2010-11-01

    We examined annual total digestible nutrient (TDN) production by fruits of eight species ( Quercus chapmanii, Quercus geminata, Quercus inopina, Quercus laevis, Quercus myrtifolia, Carya floridana, Sabal etonia, Serenoa repens) that account for the major proportion of TDN production by fruits and seeds in Florida's xeric upland associations (southern ridge sandhill, sand pine scrub, scrubby flatwoods). Mean annual fruit TDN of all species combined over a 27-year span in sandhill and scrub and 24 years in scrubby flatwoods was highest (45.4 kg/ha) and least variable across years in sandhill, intermediate in scrubby flatwoods (28.8 kg/ha), and lowest (14.2 kg/ha) and most variable in scrub. Oaks accounted for the major proportion (68-76%) of fruit TDN in all associations. Among oaks, Q. myrtifolia was the major producer (24-56%) and Q. laevis the poorest (0.2-3%). Although annual combined fruit TDN production varied similarly among associations across years, annual fruit TDN production of C. floridana, oaks, and palmettos within associations was not significantly correlated with the single exception of C. floridana vs. oaks in scrubby flatwoods. Among plant groups, correlations between fruit TDN productions across associations were significant for oaks in all cases and for C. floridana in most contrasts, but palmetto fruit TDN production was not significantly correlated across associations. Seven of eight species exhibited significant periodicities in fruit TDN production in one or more association ranging from 2.0 to 4.8 years. Potential vertebrate consumers of fruit TDN production recorded on the study area include 15 mammals, five birds, and one reptile.

  14. Measures Earth System Data Records (ESDR) of Ice Motion in Antarctica: Status, Impact and Future Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is an extremely useful tool for providing relevant information about the ice sheet ECV: ice vector velocity, grounding line position, and ice front location. Here, we provide an overview of the SAR Earth System Data Records (ESDR) for Antarctica part of MEaSUREs that includes: the first complete map of surface ice vector velocity in Antarctica, a map of grounding line positions around Antarctica, ice velocity time series for selected regions: Ross and Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves and associated drainage basins, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica which is the largest contributor to sea level rise from Antarctica and the focus of rapid ice sheet retreat, and Larsen-B and -C ice shelves which is the second largest contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. Other products include a database of ice shelf boundaries and drainage basins based on ice motion mapping and digital elevation models generated independently. Data continuity is a crucial aspect of this work and a fundamental challenge for the continuation of these products due to the lack of a dedicated interferometric mission on the cryosphere until the SAR mission under consideration between NASA and ISRO is approved. Four SAR missions ceased operations since IPY. CSA's RADARSAT-2 has provided important bridging data between these missions in Greenland and Antarctica. In 2014, ESA launched Sentinel-1a and JAXA launched ALOS-2 PALSAR, for which we will have limited data access. The Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) created by WMO has established a mandate to support cryospheric products from scientific research using international SARs which continues to play an active role in securing key data acquisitions over ice sheets. We will provide an overview of current efforts. This work was conducted at UC Irvine, Department of Earth System Science under a contract with NASA's MEaSUREs program.

  15. Long-term variations in dust production in R Coronae Borealis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Mattei, Janet A.

    1993-01-01

    Several searches for periodicities in the historical visible light curves of RCB stars have found that the intervals between declines are random. This paper reexamines 70 declines of R Coronae Borealis since 1853 using one homogeneous data set, the AAVSO light curve. In this data set, pairs of consecutive declines also show a random distribution of intervals. However, if the sequence of declines is examined, there are semiperiodic variations between times of high- and low-decline activity on a time scale of a few years. Near-IR photometry of RCB stars indicates that there are large semiperiodic variations in the amount of dust being produced which have similar time scales. Possible interpretations of a semiperiodic variation in dust formation rates in RCB stars are presented. One is a magnetic activity cycle resulting in 'spots' on the star over which dust formation takes place. Such a magnetic activity cycle is similar to the solar cycle. Another is the changes in the period and amplitude of the pulsations over several years affecting the efficiency of dust production.

  16. Global Precipitation Variations and Long-term Changes Derived from the GPCP Monthly Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Global and large regional rainfall variations and possible long-term changes are examined using the 25-year (1979-2004) monthly dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The emphasis is to discriminate among the variations due to ENSO, volcanic events and possible long-term changes. Although the global change of precipitation in the data set is near zero, the data set does indicate an upward trend (0.13 mm/day/25yr) and a downward trend (-0.06 mm/day/25yr) over tropical oceans and lands (25S-25N), respectively. This corresponds to a 4% increase (ocean) and 2% decrease (land) during this time period. Techniques are applied to attempt to eliminate variations due to ENSO and major volcanic eruptions. The impact of the two major volcanic eruptions over the past 25 years is estimated to be about a 5% reduction in tropical rainfall. The modified data set (with ENSO and volcano effect removed) retains the same approximate change slopes, but with reduced variance leading to significance tests with results in the 90-95% range. Inter-comparisons between the GPCP, SSWI (1988-2004), and TRMM (1998-2004) rainfall products are made to increase or decrease confidence in the changes seen in the GPCP analysis.

  17. Authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary.

    PubMed

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-11-01

    Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 ((10)Be) production rates. Authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric (10)Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and MD05-2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05-2920, MD05-2930 and MD90-0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest (10)Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 10(22) Am(2)) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant (10)Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The (10)Be-derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes-Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial-scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities.

  18. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

    PubMed Central

    Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Valet, Jean‐Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium‐10 (10Be) production rates. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05‐2920 and MD05‐2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05‐2920, MD05‐2930 and MD90‐0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest 10Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 1022 Am2) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant 10Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The 10Be‐derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes‐Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial‐scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities. PMID:28163989

  19. Seasonal variation in Campylobacter-contaminated retail chicken products: a year-round investigation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kanako; Takahashi, Ryuta; Andoh, Masako; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Tamura, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter was isolated from retail meat samples collected during the fiscal year 2009 in Japan. The higher percentages of contamination of chicken products were observed from June (39.3%) to November (83.3%). However, the highest number of human campylobacteriosis cases was reported in June in the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report. The chicken isolates with distinct clusters IVb and I, based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene, were predominantly obtained during the periods between April and November 2009 and between February and March 2010, respectively. Extensive monitoring of Campylobacter contamination in chickens produced in various places is needed to analyse the seasonal variations between contamination of the meat products and the number of human cases with campylobacteriosis.

  20. Investigation of sulphur isotope variation due to different processes applied during uranium ore concentrate production.

    PubMed

    Krajkó, Judit; Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Konings, Rudy

    The applicability and limitations of sulphur isotope ratio as a nuclear forensic signature have been studied. The typically applied leaching methods in uranium mining processes were simulated for five uranium ore samples and the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratios were measured. The sulphur isotope ratio variation during uranium ore concentrate (UOC) production was also followed using two real-life sample sets obtained from industrial UOC production facilities. Once the major source of sulphur is revealed, its appropriate application for origin assessment can be established. Our results confirm the previous assumption that process reagents have a significant effect on the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratio, thus the sulphur isotope ratio is in most cases a process-related signature.

  1. Seasonal dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations driven by cave ventilation: Implications for and modeling of speleothem paleoclimate records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.I.; Banner, J.L.; Musgrove, M.

    2011-01-01

    is likely: (1) speleothem trace-element records may provide seasonal signals, and (2) such records may be biased toward recording climate conditions during the season when calcite is depositing. Additionally, we use our results to construct a forward model that illustrates the types of speleothem Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations that would result from varying controls on dripwater compositions. The model provides a basis for interpreting paleo-dripwater controls from high frequency Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations for speleothems from caves at which long term monitoring studies are not feasible. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation record (PSV) from Pyramid Lake (Nevada) from 47-17 ka: Evidence for the successive Mono Lake and Laschamp Excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, S.; Benson, L.; Negrini, R.; Liddicoat, J.; Mensing, S.

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out a paleomagnetic study of late-Pleistocene Pyramid Lake core PLC08-1 (1680 cm). Our goals were to develop a full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) record for the core, establish a paleomagnetic chronostratigraphy for the lake based on correlation of the PSV record to other dated PSV records in the region, compare that chronostratigraphy with previously developed radiocarbon and ash chronologies, and search for evidence of the Mono Lake Excursion and Laschamp Excursion. We have recovered a full-vector PSV record (inclination, declination, relative paleointensity) for the interval 47 ka to 17 ka. Twenty radiocarbon dates and four dated ashes provided a chronostratigraphic framework for this record. We have also used the link between our PSV and other dated PSV records to develop an independent PSV chronostratigraphy for the core. The PSV chronostratigraphy is not significantly different from that estimated by the radiocarbon and ash chronologies. We note the existence of two intervals of anomalous paleomagnetic directions. The younger interval, centered at 34.1 ± 0.4 ka, has the characteristic vector component features of the Mono Lake Excursion. The older interval, centered at 40.9 ± 0.5 ka, has the characteristic paleomagnetic signature of the Laschamp Excursion. This is the first time both intervals of excursional behavior have been found in the same sediment record from the western USA. Our new PSV record also corroborates previous estimates of the Mono Lake Excursion directional field behavior (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and age (Benson et al., 2003).

  3. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S.; Malhi, Y.; Zutta, B.; Buermann, W.; Anderson, L. O.; Araujo, A. M.; Phillips, O. L.; Peacock, J.; Ter Steege, H.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; Baker, T.; Arroyo, L.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D.; Pitman, N.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Laurance, W.; Ramírez, H. A.

    2009-06-01

    Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent) model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  4. Contribution of Paleomagnetic and Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Records to Solve the Question of Orbital Constraint on the Geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouveny, N.; Ménabréaz, L.; Bourles, D. L.; Demory, F.; Guillou, V.; Arnold, M.; Magorb Team

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of axial precession to the geodynamo energy budget recently rebounded with the demonstrations through theoretical and experimental studies that its amount of energy had been underestimated, while on the contrary the energy required to disturb the geodynamo was overestimated (e.g. Vanyo, 2004, Roberts et Wu, 2005, Tilgner 2005). Paleomagnetic tests of such an hypothesis remain yet highly controversial because relative paleointensity reconstructions are suspected of paleoenvironmental biases. Many available indicators [i) depositional remanent magnetization of sediment (paleodirections and paleointensity), ii) magnetization of the deep sea floor basalts, iii) geochemical records of cosmogenic nuclides production rates] however converge to produce a robust series of geomagnetic dipole lows related to paleomagnetic excursions of the last Ma. These series evidence periodicities in the 30 kyr-120 kyr range and present phase relationships with obliquity variations and δ18O records. Yet, such paleomagnetic time series are presently not precise and complete enough to firmly validate such fundamental but still hypothetic relationship. To further contribute solving this issue, the MAG-ORB project, funded for a 4 years period by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche, aims at reconstructing the time series of the geomagnetic dipole lows over the last 2 Ma using paleomagnetism coupled with cosmogenic nuclide 10Be and lithogenic 9Be isotopes measurements on sedimentary cores from mid and low latitudes, i.e. where the geomagnetic modulation of the cosmic ray penetration is the most efficient. New results (Ménabréaz et al., 2011; 2012; Ménabréaz, 2012) confirm and complete former results (Carcaillet et al., 2003; 2004) to demonstrate that over the last 1.2 Ma the excursions and reversals, and their respective relative paleointensity lows, are accompanied by significant enhancements of the cosmogenic 10Be production rate, pointing out a global collapse of

  5. 19 CFR 163.6 - Production and examination of entry and other records and witnesses; penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... loss of the demanded record was the result of an act of God or other natural casualty or disaster... convenient to the parties, may examine, or cause to be examined, any relevant entry or other records...

  6. 19 CFR 163.6 - Production and examination of entry and other records and witnesses; penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... loss of the demanded record was the result of an act of God or other natural casualty or disaster... cause to be examined, any relevant entry or other records by providing the person responsible for...

  7. Revised estimates of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ variations based on the tree ring /sup 13/C record

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, T.H.; Freyer, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    The composite mean /sup 13/C record for the Northern Hemisphere was revised. The overall decrease of delta /sup 13/C from 1800 to 1980 was estimated to be about -1.5/sup 0///sub 00/, which is 0.5/sup 0///sub 00/ less than the previous estimate. Therefore, the contribution of /sup 13/C-depleted CO/sub 2/ to the atmosphere from the forest and soil source was reevaluated, using the modified box-diffusion ocean model and Freyer's revised /sup 13/C record. On the basis of the assumption that this revised tree ring /sup 13/C record represents changes in the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio induced in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ due to deforestation and soil manipulation and combustion of fossil fuels, the following results are obtained: (1) the magnitude of the integrated CO/sub 2/ release from the terrestrial biosphere since 1800 is about 90% of that from fossil fuel; (2) over the two-decade period covered by the Mauna Loa atmospheric CO/sub 2/ record, the input from the forest plus soil source is about 15% of that from fossil fuels; (3) the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C trend over the last two decades has been dominated by the input of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/; and (4) the pre-1850 atmospheric CO/sub 2/ content is estimated to be about 266 x 10/sup -6/ atm. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. Presence and seasonal variation of deep diving foraging odontocetes around Kauai, Hawaii using remote autonomous acoustic recorders.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc O; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were moored off the bottom in relatively deep depths (609-710 m) at five locations around the island of Kauai. Initially, the EARs had an analog-to-digital sample rate of 64 kHz with 30-s recordings every 5 min. After the second deployment the sampling rate was increased to 80 kHz in order to better record beaked whale biosonar signals. The results of the 80 kHz recording are discussed in this manuscript and are the results of three deployments over a year's period (January 2010 to January 2011). Five categories of the biosonar signal detection of deep diving odontocetes were created, short-finned pilot whales, sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and unknown dolphins. During any given day, at least one species of these deep diving odontocetes were detected. On many days, several species were detected. The biosonar signals of short-finned pilot whales were detected the most often with approximately 30% of all the signals, followed by beaked and sperm whales approximately 22% and 21% of all clicks, respectively. The seasonal patterns were not very strong except in the SW location with distinct peak in detection during the months of April-June 2010 period.

  9. 32 CFR 720.31 - Production of official records in the absence of court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Information). (b) Release of JAG Manual Investigations, Court-Martial Records, Articles 69 and 73 Petitions... Assistant Judge Advocate General (Civil Law) for determination. (2) Court-martial records and Articles 69...-martial records should be released only following proper authentication. (3) Article 138 Complaints...

  10. The VirtPresenter Lecture Recording System: Automated Production of Web Lectures with Interactive Content Overviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Robert; Ketterl, Markus; Vornberger, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Lecture recordings can be a powerful addition to traditional lectures and they can even serve as a main content source in a number of didactic scenarios. If users can quickly locate relevant passages in a recording, the recording combines the ease of search that comes with electronic text based media with the authenticity and wealth of information…

  11. 32 CFR 720.31 - Production of official records in the absence of court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Information). (b) Release of JAG Manual Investigations, Court-Martial Records, Articles 69 and 73 Petitions... Assistant Judge Advocate General (Civil Law) for determination. (2) Court-martial records and Articles 69...-martial records should be released only following proper authentication. (3) Article 138 Complaints of...

  12. 32 CFR 720.31 - Production of official records in the absence of court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Information). (b) Release of JAG Manual Investigations, Court-Martial Records, Articles 69 and 73 Petitions... Assistant Judge Advocate General (Civil Law) for determination. (2) Court-martial records and Articles 69...-martial records should be released only following proper authentication. (3) Article 138 Complaints of...

  13. 32 CFR 720.31 - Production of official records in the absence of court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Information). (b) Release of JAG Manual Investigations, Court-Martial Records, Articles 69 and 73 Petitions... Assistant Judge Advocate General (Civil Law) for determination. (2) Court-martial records and Articles 69...-martial records should be released only following proper authentication. (3) Article 138 Complaints of...

  14. 32 CFR 720.31 - Production of official records in the absence of court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Information). (b) Release of JAG Manual Investigations, Court-Martial Records, Articles 69 and 73 Petitions... Assistant Judge Advocate General (Civil Law) for determination. (2) Court-martial records and Articles 69...-martial records should be released only following proper authentication. (3) Article 138 Complaints of...

  15. Improving simulated Amazon forest biomass and productivity by including spatial variation in biophysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanho, A. D. A.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Malhi, Y.; Galbraith, D.; Quesada, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models forced with spatially homogeneous biophysical parameters are capable of producing average productivity and biomass values for the Amazon basin forest biome that are close to the observed estimates, but these models are unable to reproduce observed spatial variability. Recent observational studies have shown substantial regional spatial variability of above-ground productivity and biomass across the Amazon basin, which is believed to be primarily driven by a combination of soil physical and chemical properties. In this study, spatial heterogeneity of vegetation properties is added to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) land surface model, and the simulated productivity and biomass of the Amazon basin are compared to observations from undisturbed forest. The maximum RuBiCo carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the woody biomass residence time (τw) were found to be the most important properties determining the modeled spatial variation of above-ground woody net primary productivity and biomass, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of these properties may lead to simulated spatial variability of 1.8 times in the woody net primary productivity (NPPw) and 2.8 times in the woody above-ground biomass (AGBw). The coefficient of correlation between the modeled and observed woody productivity improved from 0.10 with homogeneous parameters to 0.73 with spatially heterogeneous parameters, while the coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed woody above-ground biomass improved from 0.33 to 0.88. The results from our analyses with the IBIS dynamic vegetation model demonstrated that using single values for key ecological parameters in the tropical forest biome severely limits simulation accuracy. Clearer understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that drive the spatial variability of carbon allocation, τw and Vcmax is necessary to achieve further improvements to simulation accuracy.

  16. Variation in the production rate of biosonar signals in freshwater porpoises.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Satoko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ding; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Yoda, Ken

    2013-05-01

    The biosonar (click train) production rate of ten Yangtze finless porpoises and their behavior were examined using animal-borne data loggers. The sound production rate varied from 0 to 290 click trains per 10-min time interval. Large individual differences were observed, regardless of body size. Taken together, however, sound production did not differ significantly between daytime and nighttime. Over the 172.5 h of analyzed recordings, an average of 99.0% of the click trains were produced within intervals of less than 60 s, indicating that during a 1-min interval, the number of click trains produced by each porpoise was typically greater than one. Most of the porpoises exhibited differences in average swimming speed and depth between day and night. Swimming speed reductions and usage of short-range sonar, which relates to prey-capture attempts, were observed more often during nighttime. However, biosonar appears to be affected not only by porpoise foraging, but also by their sensory environment, i.e., the turbid Yangtze River system. These features will be useful for passive acoustic detection of the porpoises. Calculations of porpoise density or abundance should be conducted carefully because large individual differences in the sound production rate will lead to large estimation error.

  17. Prediction of Seasonal Climate-induced Variations in Global Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are therefore exposed to variations in yields, production, and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of major food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We assessed the reliability of hindcasts (i.e., retrospective forecasts for the past) of crop yield loss relative to the previous year for two lead times. Pre-season yield predictions employ climatic forecasts and have lead times of approximately 3 to 5 months for providing information regarding variations in yields for the coming cropping season. Within-season yield predictions use climatic forecasts with lead times of 1 to 3 months. Pre-season predictions can be of value to national governments and commercial concerns, complemented by subsequent updates from within-season predictions. The latter incorporate information on the most recent climatic data for the upcoming period of reproductive growth. In addition to such predictions, hindcasts using observations from satellites were performed to demonstrate the upper limit of the reliability of crop forecasting.

  18. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 1: spatial variation in DOC productivity.

    PubMed

    Yallop, A R; Clutterbuck, B

    2009-06-01

    The importance of soil storage in global carbon cycling is well recognised and factors leading to increased losses from this pool may act as a positive feedback mechanism in global warming. Upland peat soils are usually assumed to serve as carbon sinks, there is however increasing evidence of carbon loss from upland peat soils, and DOC concentrations in UK rivers have increased markedly over the past three decades. A number of drivers for increasing DOC release from peat soils have been proposed although many of these would not explain fine-scale variations in DOC release observed in many catchments. We examined the effect of land use and management on DOC production in upland peat catchments at two spatial scales within the UK. DOC concentration was measured in streams draining 50 small-scale catchments (b3 km2) in three discrete regions of the south Pennines and one area in the North Yorkshire Moors. Annual mean DOC concentration was also derived from water colour data recorded at water treatment works for seven larger scale catchments (1.5-20 km2) in the south Pennines. Soil type and land use/management in all catchments were characterised from NSRI digital soil data and ortho-corrected colour aerial imagery. Of the factors assessed, representing all combinations of soil type and land use together with catchment slope and area, the proportion of exposed peat surface resulting from new heather burning was consistently identified as the most significant predictor of variation in DOC concentration. This relationship held across all blanket peat catchments and scales. We propose that management activities are driving changes in edaphic conditions in upland peat to those more favourable for aerobic microbial activity and thus enhance peat decomposition leading to increased losses of carbon from these environments.

  19. Climatically driven variations in glacier extent as documented by the laminated proglacial sediment record from Lago del Desierto (Southern Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enters, D.; Kastner, S.; Ohlendorf, C.; Haberzettl, T.; Kuhn, G.; Lücke, A.; Mayr, C.; Reyss, J.; Wastegard, S.

    2009-12-01

    The climate of southernmost South America is strongly affected by shifts in polar and mid-latitude pressure fields which are expressed in variations of the Southern Hemispheric Westerlies and the Antarctic Oscillation. Next to marine records and Antarctic ice cores this continental area is important to reveal hemispheric and global climate trends. As instrumental climate records from this region are generally short and scarce, environmental archives are the only source of providing long-term records of climate variations. In the northern hemisphere, proglacial lakes have shown to be excellent sources of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic information. In this study, we evaluate the potential of the laminated proglacial sediment sequence from Lago del Desierto (49°02’S, 72°51’W) as a palaeoclimate archive. Lago del Desierto is situated in the climatically sensitive area of Southern Patagonia close to the South Patagonian Ice Field. Two parallel gravity cores (max. length 283 cm) were analysed using a multi-proxy approach. Radiometric dating (14C, 210Pb and 137Cs) and tephrochronology document that the recovered sediments cover the last 2000 years. After exclusion of numerous event layers, the sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical datasets reveal a long-term trend of runoff variations and sediment accessibility controlled by changes in temperature and precipitation. An abrupt lithological change visible in sediments mineralogy and geochemistry occurred around AD 850 and is interpreted as a rearrangement in sediment availability and transfer rates related to the beginning exposure of formerly glaciated areas. Thereafter, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) period, the Little Ice Age (LIA) cooling and the subsequent 20th century warming can be traced in the sediment record corresponding to the overall trend observed for southern South America. The increased minerogenic input and a higher frequency of event layers mirror the onset of warmer climate

  20. What Do Electronic Health Record Vendors Reveal About Their Products: An Analysis of Vendor Websites

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Natalie K; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2013-01-01

    Background Purchasing electronic health records (EHRs) typically follows a process in which potential adopters actively seek information, compare alternatives, and form attitudes towards the product. A potential source of information on EHRs that can be used in the process is vendor websites. It is unclear how much product information is presented on EHR vendor websites or the extent of its value during EHR purchasing decisions. Objective To explore what features of EHR systems are presented by vendors in Ontario, Canada, on their websites, and the persuasive means they use to market such systems; to compare the online information available about primary care EHR systems with that about hospital EHR systems, and with data compiled by OntarioMD, a regional certifying agency. Methods A list of EHR systems available in Ontario was created. The contents of vendor websites were analyzed. A template for data collection and organization was developed and used to collect and organize information on the vendor, website content, and EHR features. First, we mapped information on system features to categories based on a framework from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Second, we used a grounded theory–like approach to explore information for building consumer confidence in the vendor and product, and the various persuasive strategies employed on vendor websites. All data were first coded by one researcher. A peer reviewer independently analyzed a randomly chosen subset of the websites (10 of 21; 48%) and provided feedback towards a unified coding scheme. All data were then re-coded and categorized into themes. Finally, we compared information from vendor websites and data gathered by OntarioMD. Results Vendors provided little specific product information on their websites. Only two of five acute care EHR websites (40%) and nine of 16 websites for primary care systems (56%) featured seven or all eight of the IOM components. Several vendor websites included system interface

  1. What do electronic health record vendors reveal about their products: an analysis of vendor websites.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Natalie K; Jadad, Alejandro R; Shachak, Aviv

    2013-02-19

    Purchasing electronic health records (EHRs) typically follows a process in which potential adopters actively seek information, compare alternatives, and form attitudes towards the product. A potential source of information on EHRs that can be used in the process is vendor websites. It is unclear how much product information is presented on EHR vendor websites or the extent of its value during EHR purchasing decisions. To explore what features of EHR systems are presented by vendors in Ontario, Canada, on their websites, and the persuasive means they use to market such systems; to compare the online information available about primary care EHR systems with that about hospital EHR systems, and with data compiled by OntarioMD, a regional certifying agency. A list of EHR systems available in Ontario was created. The contents of vendor websites were analyzed. A template for data collection and organization was developed and used to collect and organize information on the vendor, website content, and EHR features. First, we mapped information on system features to categories based on a framework from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Second, we used a grounded theory-like approach to explore information for building consumer confidence in the vendor and product, and the various persuasive strategies employed on vendor websites. All data were first coded by one researcher. A peer reviewer independently analyzed a randomly chosen subset of the websites (10 of 21; 48%) and provided feedback towards a unified coding scheme. All data were then re-coded and categorized into themes. Finally, we compared information from vendor websites and data gathered by OntarioMD. Vendors provided little specific product information on their websites. Only two of five acute care EHR websites (40%) and nine of 16 websites for primary care systems (56%) featured seven or all eight of the IOM components. Several vendor websites included system interface demonstrations: screenshots (six websites

  2. Data records of biophysical products in the Copernicus Global Land Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydekerke, L.; Smets, B.; Swinnen, E.; Lacaze, R. N.; Calvet, J. C.; Baret, F.; camacho De Coca, F.; Roujean, J. L.; Tansey, K.; Coelho, S.; Jann, A.; Paulik, C.; Verger, A.

    2014-12-01

    From 1stJanuary 2013, the Copernicus Global Land service provides continuously a set of bio-geophysical variables describing, over the whole globe, the vegetation dynamic, the energy budget at the continental surface and some components of the water cycle. These generic products serve numerous applications such as agriculture and food security monitoring, weather forecast, climate change impact studies, water, forest and natural resources management. The portfolio contains Essential Climate Variables like Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), surface albedo, Land Surface Temperature, soil moisture, burnt areas, areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices. They are generated daily on a reliable and automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. Beside this timely production, the available historical archives, up to 16 years for SPOT-VEGETATION, have been processed using the same innovative algorithms. For a number of ECVs, the algorithms are adapted to work with NOAA-AVHRR as input to extend the time series up to 1982. The service continuity is provided in two parallel paths. On one hand, the existing retrieval methodologies are adapted to use the new PROBA-V sensor, fully consistent with SPOT-VEGETATION, and as such extends the time-series at 1km spatial resolution. On the other hand, the operation is moving to the finer resolution of PROBA-V (300m), while maintaining consistency with the 1km series. The data records are documented in terms of the physical methodologies, the technical properties, and the results of validation exercises. The service performs a continuous quality monitoring on three levels: technical, scientific and cross-cutting, following where possible the rules of CEOS/LPV and comparing with both in-situ and other datasets, e.g. MODIS. The service is improved through feedback from an independent expert team performing regular independent reviews and providing user feedback. All

  3. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan D; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10-7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI.

  4. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879

  5. A probabilistic model framework for evaluating year-to-year variation in crop productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokozawa, M.; Iizumi, T.; Tao, F.

    2008-12-01

    Most models describing the relation between crop productivity and weather condition have so far been focused on mean changes of crop yield. For keeping stable food supply against abnormal weather as well as climate change, evaluating the year-to-year variations in crop productivity rather than the mean changes is more essential. We here propose a new framework of probabilistic model based on Bayesian inference and Monte Carlo simulation. As an example, we firstly introduce a model on paddy rice production in Japan. It is called PRYSBI (Process- based Regional rice Yield Simulator with Bayesian Inference; Iizumi et al., 2008). The model structure is the same as that of SIMRIW, which was developed and used widely in Japan. The model includes three sub- models describing phenological development, biomass accumulation and maturing of rice crop. These processes are formulated to include response nature of rice plant to weather condition. This model inherently was developed to predict rice growth and yield at plot paddy scale. We applied it to evaluate the large scale rice production with keeping the same model structure. Alternatively, we assumed the parameters as stochastic variables. In order to let the model catch up actual yield at larger scale, model parameters were determined based on agricultural statistical data of each prefecture of Japan together with weather data averaged over the region. The posterior probability distribution functions (PDFs) of parameters included in the model were obtained using Bayesian inference. The MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) algorithm was conducted to numerically solve the Bayesian theorem. For evaluating the year-to-year changes in rice growth/yield under this framework, we firstly iterate simulations with set of parameter values sampled from the estimated posterior PDF of each parameter and then take the ensemble mean weighted with the posterior PDFs. We will also present another example for maize productivity in China. The

  6. Mass-induced sea level variations in the Red Sea from GRACE, steric-corrected altimetry, in situ bottom pressure records, and hydrographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, W.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Zhong, M.; Hsu, H. T.

    2014-08-01

    An annual amplitude of ∼18 cm mass-induced sea level variations (SLV) in the Red Sea is detected from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites and steric-corrected altimetry from 2003 to 2011. The annual mass variations in the region dominate the mean SLV, and generally reach maximum in late January/early February. The annual steric component of the mean SLV is relatively small (<3 cm) and out of phase of the mass-induced SLV. In situ bottom pressure records at the eastern coast of the Red Sea validate the high mass variability observed by steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE. In addition, the horizontal water mass flux of the Red Sea estimated from GRACE and steric-corrected altimetry is validated by hydrographic observations.

  7. [Variation trends of natural vegetation net primary productivity in China under climate change scenario].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-sheng; Wu, Shao-hong; Yin, Yun-he

    2011-04-01

    Based on the widely used Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ) for climate change study, and according to the features of natural environment in China, the operation mechanism of the model was adjusted, and the parameters were modified. With the modified LPJ model and taking 1961-1990 as baseline period, the responses of natural vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) in China to climate change in 1991-2080 were simulated under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) B2 scenario. In 1961-1990, the total NPP of natural vegetation in China was about 3.06 Pg C a(-1); in 1961-2080, the total NPP showed a fluctuant decreasing trend, with an accelerated decreasing rate. Under the condition of slight precipitation change, the increase of mean air temperature would have definite adverse impact on the NPP. Spatially, the NPP decreased from southeast coast to northwest inland, and this pattern would have less variation under climate change. In eastern China with higher NPP, especially in Northeast China, east of North China, and Loess Plateau, the NPP would mainly have a decreasing trend; while in western China with lower NPP, especially in the Tibetan Plateau and Tarim Basin, the NPP would be increased. With the intensive climate change, such a variation trend of NPP would be more obvious.

  8. Tettigettalna josei (Boulard, 1982) (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea): first record in Spain, with notes on the distribution, genetic variation and behaviour of the species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The small cicada Tettigettalna josei (Boulard, 1982) was until recently only known from southern Portugal and was considered endemic to this country. Fieldwork in 2013 led to the first record of the species in Spain, expanding its known eastern range to Andalusia. The northern limits remain poorly defined but it appears that the distribution of Tettigettalna josei is restricted to the south Atlantic coastline in the Iberian Peninsula, with the highest densities found in Algarve. Some notes on behaviour and genetic variation of Tettigettalna josei are also given. PMID:24891819

  9. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products--Part II.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Johncock, S I; Taylor, B J; Wyles, L T

    1982-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents of 220 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1979-1981 have been determined by gas chromatography. During that period there was a general increase in the quality of both cannabis and cannabis resin, but with wide variations in THC contents both within and between countries. Some very high quality samples of cannabis, cannabis resin and cannabis oil from the Indian sub-continent have been analysed. There have been considerable changes in the number of fresh samples from several countries, compared with the previous survey. Fresh cannabis oil samples were very rare during the period covered by this survey.

  10. Relevance of variation in use of terminology to define generic pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2015-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the use of generic drug policies to foster competition in the pharmaceutical sector, reduce drug prices, and increase access to therapeutic drugs. However, little is known about how countries implement these policies. This article describes different terminology adopted by national regulatory authorities to define generic versus proprietary drug products in developing countries, including those in Latin America, and challenges that arise in their application of WHO guidelines, such as labeling issues. The author concludes that variation in generics terminology in these countries is a result of institutional context (i.e., the public sector setting as well as the body of laws and regulations that exists in the country) and policy legacies, such as intellectual property regimes, and highlights the need for further analysis of pharmaceutical regulations to improve understanding of the barriers and political implications of generic drug policies.

  11. [Investigation of variation of the production of biological and chemical compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Hajdú, Z; Veres, K; Máthé, I; Németh, E; Pluhár, Z; Bernáth, J

    1998-05-01

    Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae family) has been cultivated in Central Europe for a long time. This essential oil containing species serves not only as spice but in many countries including Hungary, it is used as a folk medicine against certain respiratory diseases. Despite this fact, little is known about the variation of its productivity under Central European climatic conditions. The cultivated populations of hyssop can be characterised by a significant heterogenity. In the course of its breeding the uniformity of flower colour (e.g. blue form), and increase in the oil content are the main achievable purposes. The purpose of this work was to investigate both the variability of strains of different crigin and the time-dependent variations of its production parameters. The optimum of phytomass was obtained at the beginning of July. The essential oil content as well as compounds of the non volatile fractions were also investigated. The non volatile fractions for rosmarinic, caffeic acids were analysed mainly by TLC and densitometry. Both compounds were present in all samples and they are suitable for the characterisation of the plant. The essential oils were gained with Water Steam Distillation (WSD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with CO2. The oils were analysed by GC, GC-MS techniques. In the essential oil composition of the populations studied significant heterogenity could be observed. In the case of applying SFE extraction the oil composition is more uniform, similarly to the obtained by WSD adding hexane. The heterogenity can be experienced in the offsprings, too. If only the main four components (beta-pinene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone) are regarded, among the offsprings clear and mixed lines alike can be found. Results of these experiments justify the necessity and usefulness of selection which is going on.

  12. Changes in seasonality and productivity recorded at low latitudes in Tanzania during the PETM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, A.; Nicholas, C. J.; Goodhue, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Tanzanian Drilling Project (TDP) has been active since 2002 in recovering Cretaceous and Paleogene marine sediments from along a 150km piece of coast in southern Tanzania. Late Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments along this stretch of coast are part of the Kilwa Group (Nicholas et al., 2006). The sediments largely comprise organic-rich marine clays and claystones, with occasional interbedded limestones and sporadic carbonate-rich beds. Calcareous microfossils are generally very well preserved, due to the impermeability of the clays and claystones, and do not show the recrystallised microstructure typical of deep-sea oozes and chalks (Pearson et al., 2001). van Dongen et al. (2006) have shown that the Kilwa Group sediments contain well preserved terrestrial biomarkers, indicating a shallow maximum burial depth. The sediments are interpreted as having been deposited in a bathyal outer shelf to upper slope setting at an estimated depth of 300-500m. TDP Site 14 recovered sediments from the very latest Paleocene and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. These well preserved, organic-rich clays were analysed using three separate techniques designed to complement the standard paleoclimatic analyses of planktonic and benthic foraminifera and nannofossils carried out by other workers. Nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy is used in this work as a proxy for past productivity and associated nutrient supply. In order to identify any other potential contributors to, or dilution of the nitrogen isotope signal, sedimentary mineralogy and elemental geochemistry techniques were also employed. The results from mineralogy and elemental geochemistry analyses indicate that terrigenous run-off increased during the PETM at this locaton. Kaolinite abundances, meanwhile, show that this region did not experience any major changes in humidity. Mineralogical investigation also found a large reduction in calcium carbonate in these sediments during the PETM interval. Finally, nitrogen isotope

  13. Decadal- to interannual-scale source water variations in the Caribbean Sea recorded by Puerto Rican coral radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbourne, K H; Quinn, T M; Guilderson, T P; Webb, R S; Taylor, F W

    2006-12-05

    Water that forms the Florida Current, and eventually the Gulf Stream, coalesces in the Caribbean from both subtropical and equatorial sources. The equatorial sources are made up of, in part, South Atlantic water moving northward and compensating for southward flow at depth related to meridional overturning circulation. Subtropical surface water contains relatively high amounts of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C), whereas equatorial waters are influenced by the upwelling of low {sup 14}C water and have relatively low concentrations of {sup 14}C. We use a 250-year record of {Delta}{sup 14}C in a coral from southwestern Puerto Rico along with previously published coral {Delta}{sup 14}C records as tracers of subtropical and equatorial water mixing in the northern Caribbean. Data generated in this study and from other studies indicate that the influence of either of the two water masses can change considerably on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Variability due to ocean dynamics in this region is large relative to variability caused by atmospheric {sup 14}C changes, thus masking the Suess effect at this site. A mixing model produced using coral {Delta}{sup 14}C illustrates the time varying proportion of equatorial versus subtropical waters in the northern Caribbean between 1963 and 1983. The results of the model are consistent with linkages between multidecadal thermal variability in the North Atlantic and meridional overturning circulation. Ekman transport changes related to tradewind variability are proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the observed switches between relatively low and relatively high {Delta}{sup 14}C values in the coral radiocarbon records.

  14. Veterinary decision making in relation to metritis--a qualitative approach to understand the background for variation and bias in veterinary medical records.

    PubMed

    Lastein, Dorte B; Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2009-08-30

    Results of analyses based on veterinary records of animal disease may be prone to variation and bias, because data collection for these registers relies on different observers in different settings as well as different treatment criteria. Understanding the human influence on data collection and the decisions related to this process may help veterinary and agricultural scientists motivate observers (veterinarians and farmers) to work more systematically, which may improve data quality. This study investigates qualitative relations between two types of records: 1) 'diagnostic data' as recordings of metritis scores and 2) 'intervention data' as recordings of medical treatment for metritis and the potential influence on quality of the data. The study is based on observations in veterinary dairy practice combined with semi-structured research interviews of veterinarians working within a herd health concept where metritis diagnosis was described in detail. The observations and interviews were analysed by qualitative research methods to describe differences in the veterinarians' perceptions of metritis diagnosis (scores) and their own decisions related to diagnosis, treatment, and recording. The analysis demonstrates how data quality can be affected during the diagnostic procedures, as interaction occurs between diagnostics and decisions about medical treatments. Important findings were when scores lacked consistency within and between observers (variation) and when scores were adjusted to the treatment decision already made by the veterinarian (bias). The study further demonstrates that veterinarians made their decisions at 3 different levels of focus (cow, farm, population). Data quality was influenced by the veterinarians' perceptions of collection procedures, decision making and their different motivations to collect data systematically. Both variation and bias were introduced into the data because of veterinarians' different perceptions of and motivations for

  15. Veterinary decision making in relation to metritis - a qualitative approach to understand the background for variation and bias in veterinary medical records

    PubMed Central

    Lastein, Dorte B; Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Background Results of analyses based on veterinary records of animal disease may be prone to variation and bias, because data collection for these registers relies on different observers in different settings as well as different treatment criteria. Understanding the human influence on data collection and the decisions related to this process may help veterinary and agricultural scientists motivate observers (veterinarians and farmers) to work more systematically, which may improve data quality. This study investigates qualitative relations between two types of records: 1) 'diagnostic data' as recordings of metritis scores and 2) 'intervention data' as recordings of medical treatment for metritis and the potential influence on quality of the data. Methods The study is based on observations in veterinary dairy practice combined with semi-structured research interviews of veterinarians working within a herd health concept where metritis diagnosis was described in detail. The observations and interviews were analysed by qualitative research methods to describe differences in the veterinarians' perceptions of metritis diagnosis (scores) and their own decisions related to diagnosis, treatment, and recording. Results The analysis demonstrates how data quality can be affected during the diagnostic procedures, as interaction occurs between diagnostics and decisions about medical treatments. Important findings were when scores lacked consistency within and between observers (variation) and when scores were adjusted to the treatment decision already made by the veterinarian (bias). The study further demonstrates that veterinarians made their decisions at 3 different levels of focus (cow, farm, population). Data quality was influenced by the veterinarians' perceptions of collection procedures, decision making and their different motivations to collect data systematically. Conclusion Both variation and bias were introduced into the data because of veterinarians' different

  16. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted NanoSIMS O-isotopic imaging of a primitive spinel-rich CAI spherule (27-2) from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. Inclusions such as 27-2 are proposed to record inner nebula processes during an epoch of rapid solar nebula evolution. Mineralogical and textural analyses suggest that this CAI formed by high temperature reactions, partial melting, and condensation. This CAI exhibits radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting interactions with distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  17. Contribution of Phenological and Physiological Variations on Northern Vegetation Productivity Changes over Last Three Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenology and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of gross primary productivity (GPP) of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts of phenology and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we investigate 1) how vegetation phenology and physiological status (maximum photosynthesis) are evolved over last three decades and 2) how such components (phenology and physiological status) contribute on inter-annual variation of the GPP during the last three decades. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed (GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies), NDVI3g (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index 3rd generation) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)) to extract larger scale phenology metrics (growing season start, end and duration); and productivity (i.e., growing season integrated vegetation index, GSIVI) to answer these questions. For evaluation purpose, we also introduced field-measured phenology and productivity datasets (e.g., FLUXNET) and possible remotely-sensed and modeled metrics at continental and regional scales. From this investigation, we found that onset of the growing season has advanced by 1.61 days per decade and the growing season end has delayed by 0.67 days per decade over the circumpolar region. This asymmetric extension of growing season results in a longer growing-season trend (2.96 days per decade) and widespread increasing vegetation-productivity trend (2.96 GSIVI per decade) over Northern land. However, the regionally-diverged phenology shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity, inter-annual variability and trend. We quantified that about 50 percent, 13 percent and 6.5 percent of Northern land's inter-annual variability are dominantly controlled by the onset of the growing season, the end of the growing season and the maximum

  18. Full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation records from latest quaternary sediments of Lake Malawi (10.0°S, 34.3°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steve; Platzman, Ellen; Johnson, Tom

    2016-07-01

    We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of Late Quaternary sediments from Lake Malawi, East Africa, in order to develop a high-resolution record of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV). This study has recovered PSV records from two cores (3P, 6P) in northern Lake Malawi (10.0°S, 34.3°E). The PSV appears to be recorded in fine-grained detrital magnetite/titanomagnetite grains. Detailed af demagnetization of the natural remanence (NRM) shows that a distinctive characteristic remanence (ChRM) is demagnetized from ∼20 to 80 mT, which decreases simply toward the origin. The resulting directional PSV records for 3P and 6P are easily correlatable with 29 distinct inclination features and 29 declination features. The statistical character of the PSV in both cores is consistent with Holocene PSV noted at other Holocene equatorial sites. Radiocarbon dating of the cores is based on 18 independent radiocarbon dates and four dated stratigraphic horizons that can be correlated into each core. The final directional PSV time series cover the last 24,000 years with an average sediment accumulation rate of ∼30 cm/kyr. We have also developed a relative paleointensity estimate for these PSV records based on normalizing the NRM (after 20 mT af demagnetization) by the SIRM (after 20 mT af demagnetization). Changing sedimentation patterns complicate any attempt to develop a single paleointensity record for the entire core lengths. We have developed a relative paleointensity record for the last 6000 years that has 14 correlatable features including 5 notable peaks in intensity. Three of these peaks are synchronous with paleointensity highs farther north in SE Europe/SW Asia/Egypt but two of the peaks are at times of low paleointensity farther north. We interpret this to indicate that Lake Malawi (10°S) is at least partly under the influence of a different flux-regeneration region of the outer-core dynamo. A relative paleointensity record was also developed for ∼11,000-24,000 YBP

  19. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists of several steps to evaluate lifetime milk production and individual cow somatic cell counts and to finally predict the average production for each day that the cow is alive. Herd recording data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to train and test a model predicting milk production (including factors associated with milk yield, somatic cell count, and the survival of individual cows). All estimated parameters were either herd- or cow-specific. The model prediction deviated, on average, less than 0.5 kg from the future average milk production of dairy cows in multiple herds after adjusting for the effect of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach presented in this paper is that it requires no specific knowledge of disease status or any other information beyond herd recorded milk yields, somatic cell counts, and reproductive status. PMID:28261585

  20. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  1. Productivity of US Forests: Regional Sensitivity to Variation in Soil Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, J. M.; Coops, N. C.; Waring, R. H.

    2006-05-01

    The rates that forests accumulate biomass regionally differ substantially based on the environment and the frequency of disturbance. These dynamics significantly affect the terrestrial carbon balance globally. Since 2000, NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) has provided 1km spatial resolution estimates of 8-day gross and annual net primary production (GPP and NPP). MODIS productivity is computed as a simple function of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and a regionally assigned light-use conversion efficiency that is reduced if temperature or atmospheric vapor pressure deficits are suboptimal. We evaluated the extent that the MODIS productivity estimates might be improved if spatial information on soil water (ASW) storage capacity and soil fertility were available for forested areas across the USA. To accomplish this comparison we parameterized a forest growth model, 3-PGS (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth using Satellite data), which is similar to the MODIS model in operation, but also includes an explicit water balance and a direct link between soil fertility and light-use efficiency. The 3-PGS model was initially run with STATSGO-derived soils information provided by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis was expanded to include variation in ASW storage capacity of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mm. Annual 3-PGS estimates of NPP for forests across the USA are highly sensitive to limited ASW (<200mm), reducing estimates by up to 60%, as opposed to increasing the ASW capacity (>200mm), which yields an average increase in NPP of 30%. Changing ASW has more influence on forest GPP in the west, where summer drought is prevalent. Generally, productivity estimates from MODIS and 3-PGS were similar across most of the eastern US. However, the MODIS model consistently overestimated mid-summer GPP values in the west because of its insufficient drought constraints.

  2. Autoxidation-product-initiated dioxygenases: vanadium-based, record catalytic lifetime catechol dioxygenase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cindy-Xing; Sasaki, Yoh; Finke, Richard G

    2005-11-14

    In recent work, it was shown that V-containing polyoxometalates such as (n-Bu4N)7SiW9V3O40 or (n-Bu4N)9P2W15V3O62, as well as eight other V-containing precatalysts tested, evolve to a high activity, long catalytic lifetime (> or = 30,000-100,000 total turnovers) 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol dioxygenase, in which Pierpont's complex [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2 (where DBSQ is 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinone and DTBC is the 3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholate dianion) was identified as a common catalyst or catalyst resting state (Yin, C.-X.; Finke, R. G. Vanadium-Based, Extended Catalytic Lifetime Catechol Dioxygenases: Evidence For a Common Catalyst. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127 (25), 9003-9013). Herein, those findings are followed up by studies aimed at answering the following questions about this record catalytic lifetime 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol dioxygenase catalyst: (i) What is the key to how V leaches from, for example, seemingly robust V-containing polyoxometalate precatalysts? (ii) What is the key to the sigmoidal, apparently autocatalytic kinetics observed? (iii) What can be learned about the underlying reactions that form [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2? (iv) Finally, do the answers to (i-iii) lead to any broader insights or concepts? Key findings from the present work include the fact that the reaction involves a novel, autoxidation-product-induced dioxygenase, that is, one in which the undesired autoxidation of the 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol substrate to the corresponding benzoquinone and H2O2 turns on the desired dioxygenase catalysis via a V-leaching process which eventually yields Pierpont's complex, [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2. Plausible reactions en route to [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2 consistent with the kinetic data, the role of H2O2, and the relevant literature are provided. The results provide a prototype example of the little observed but likely more general concept of an autoxidation-product-initiated reaction. The results also provide considerable simplification of, and insight into, the previously

  3. Holocene Sedimentary Record of Unusual Primary Productivity, Dalton Polynya, Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventer, A.; Armand, L.; Redovian, M.; Domack, E. W.; Shevenell, A.; Smith, C.; Lavoie, C.; Orsi, A. H.; Huber, B. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Cruise NBP14-02 surveyed the previously unstudied Moscow University Ice Shelf region, East Antarctica, an area of concern due to recent changes in the glacial system. Using 3.5 kHz sub-bottom geophysical data, we targeted a mid-shelf site with an expanded Holocene sedimentary section, recovering ~ 10 meters of Holocene diatom-rich sediments characterized by an unusual floral assemblage that records the strong and consistent presence of open ocean diatoms. The sedimentary assemblage is dominated by ~50% Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, with a diagnostic contribution of Thalassiosira lentiginosa and Thalassiosira oliverana, species typical of the open Southern Ocean, suggesting southward inflow onto the shelf. A lesser contribution of Fragilariopsis curta indicates the influence of sea ice associated productivity within the polynya. Strong easterly winds and the blocking of sea ice transport into the region by the Dalton Iceberg Tongue to the east appear to be important factors in polynya development and maintenance; sea ice melt within the polynya likely contributes a diatom seed population. Chaetoceros is notably absent, likely due to the polynya opening later in the season (January) and the absence of a typical spring bloom. Unusual Thalassiothrix antarctica layers, up to 15 centimeters thick and comprised of tightly matted valves with a newspaper-like texture, are evident down core. This shade-adapted species can live at depth, maximizing access to nutrients, and is thought to be an under-recognized contributor to oceanic primary productivity due to the patchy subsurface nature of blooms. Thalassiothrix, and other species with a similar thread-like morphology, are often associated with oceanic frontal zones and may be responsible for episodic but significant carbon and silica flux to the sea floor. Temporal variability in the occurrence of Thalassiothrix layers in this Holocene sediment sequence may reflect past changes in the relative proximity and/or strength of

  4. Seasonal Variation on Microbial Community and Methane Production during Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an alternative method for the treatment of animal manure and wastewater. The anaerobic bioconversion of biomass requires a multi-step biological process, including microorganisms with distinct roles. The diversity and composition of microbial structure in pilot-scale anaerobic digestion operating at ambient temperature in Brazil were studied. Influence of the seasonal and temporal patterns on bacterial and archaeal communities were assessed by studying the variations in density, dynamic and diversity and structure. The average daily biogas produced in the summer and winter months was 18.7 and 16 L day(-1), respectively, and there was no difference in the average methane yield. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that no differences in abundances and dynamics were found for bacterial communities and the total number of Archaea in different seasons. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries revealed a predominance of Firmicutes (54.5 %/summer and 46.7 %/winter) and Bacteroidetes (31.4 %/summer and 44.4 %/winter). Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota was predominant in both digesters. Phylogenetic distribution showed changes in percentage between the phyla identified, but no alterations were recorded in the quality and amount of produced methane or community dynamics. The results may suggest that redundancy of microbial groups may have occurred, pointing to a more complex microbial community in the ecosystem related to this ambient temperature system.

  5. [Influence of the recording interval and a graphic organizer on the writing process/product and on other psychological variables].

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, Jesús N; Rodríguez Pérez, Celestino

    2007-05-01

    An experimental study of the influence of the recording interval and a graphic organizer on the processes of writing composition and on the final product is presented. We studied 326 participants, age 10 to 16 years old, by means of a nested design. Two groups were compared: one group was aided in the writing process with a graphic organizer and the other was not. Each group was subdivided into two further groups: one with a mean recording interval of 45 seconds and the other with approximately 90 seconds recording interval in a writing log. The results showed that the group aided by a graphic organizer obtained better results both in processes and writing product, and that the groups assessed with an average interval of 45 seconds obtained worse results. Implications for educational practice are discussed, and limitations and future perspectives are commented on.

  6. 26 CFR 301.7456-1 - Administration of oaths and procurement of testimony; production of records of foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administration of oaths and procurement of testimony; production of records of foreign corporations, foreign trusts or estates and nonresident alien individuals. 301.7456-1 Section 301.7456-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7456-1 - Administration of oaths and procurement of testimony; production of records of foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration of oaths and procurement of testimony; production of records of foreign corporations, foreign trusts or estates and nonresident alien individuals. 301.7456-1 Section 301.7456-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7456-1 - Administration of oaths and procurement of testimony; production of records of foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administration of oaths and procurement of testimony; production of records of foreign corporations, foreign trusts or estates and nonresident alien individuals. 301.7456-1 Section 301.7456-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE...

  9. 49 CFR 1114.30 - Production of documents and records and entry upon land for inspection and other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.30 Production of documents and records and entry upon land... need for the information may obtain a confidential, complete version of the agreement, with the prior... ensure the agreement is kept confidential. The motion seeking approval may be filed at any time after...

  10. Ethnic variations in unplanned readmissions and excess length of hospital stay: a nationwide record-linked cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van Rosse, Floor; Uiters, Ellen; Droomers, Mariël; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies in the USA have shown ethnic inequalities in quality of hospital care, but in Europe, this has never been analysed. We explored variations in indicators of quality of hospital care by ethnicity in the Netherlands. Methods: We analysed unplanned readmissions and excess length of stay (LOS) across ethnic groups in a large population of hospitalized patients over an 11-year period by linking information from the national hospital discharge register, the Dutch population register and socio-economic data. Data were analysed with stepwise logistic regression. Results: Ethnic differences were most pronounced in older patients: all non-Western ethnic groups > 45 years had an increased risk for excess LOS compared with ethnic Dutch patients, with odds ratios (ORs) (adjusted for case mix) varying from 1.05 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.02–1.08] for other non-Western patients to 1.14 (95% CI 1.07–1.22) for Moroccan patients. The risk for unplanned readmission in patients >45 years was increased for Turkish (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.18–1.30) and Surinamese patients (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.16). These differences were explained partially, although not substantially, by differences in socio-economic status. Conclusion: We found significant ethnic variations in unplanned readmissions and excess LOS. These differences may be interpretable as shortcomings in the quality of hospital care delivered to ethnic minority patients, but exclusion of alternative explanations (such as differences in patient- and community-level factors, which are outside hospitals’ control) requires further research. To quantify potential ethnic inequities in hospital care in Europe, we need empirical prospective cohort studies with solid quality outcomes such as adverse event rates. PMID:23388242

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variations of the K/T Boundary Record: Implications Concerning Possible Megaseiche in the Reworking Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurrasse, F. J.; Lamolda, M. A.

    2004-05-01

    Major physical disruptions characterize the sedimentary record of the K/T boundary (KTB) layer from different sites in the Southern Peninsula of Haiti as well as in diverse areas of the world. These disturbances are most important within the vicinity of the crater at Chicxulub, Yucatan, Mexico, and 65 million years ago that can be chronologically correlated with the bolide impact postulated by Alvarez et al (1981). At all sites the KTB layer shows spatial and temporal differences even within short distances, and the complexity of its characteristic signals includes serious micropaleontological inconsistencies with mixed biotic assemblages that perpetuate divergence of interpretations, thereby they raise doubts on the timing and real causal mechanisms of the biotic turnover that characterizes the boundary. Indeed, often the biostratigraphic signals are difficult to resolve because of hiatuses, or sediments are highly reworked, and distinct taxonomic successions are not clearly defined. Well defined as well as cryptic primary sedimentary structures within the boundary layer are constant at all outcrops, and they indicate complex, multiphase, subaqueous flow processes that affected sedimentation of the KTB layer at different times. The structures are known to characterize oscillatory wave processes that affect cohesionless sediments, and such water motion is only known to be associated with seiche as a modern analog that may have generated the amalgamation recorded at the KTB layer. We believe that "Megaseiche" associated with the KT impact event and its subsequent effects provides a plausible unifying mechanism to explain how various levels of the water column in different large basins can oscillate to develop the structures observed. Because of the magnitude of the bolide impact that generated initial tsunamis and large seismic waves worldwide, megaseiches of different frequencies and nodal modes must have developed in the oceans worldwide to leave different

  12. Long-term secular variation of the geomagnetic field during the last 200 kyr recorded in sediment cores from the western equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Ioka, Noboru

    1994-12-01

    We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of five hemipelagic-clay cores of 4-7 m in length obtained from the West Caroline Basin, western equatorial Pacific. The purpose of this study is to clarify the long-term secular variation of the geomagnetic field during the last 200 kyr, using both intensity and directional changes. One core was dated using oxygen isotope ratios (delta O-18), and characteristic magnetic susceptibility variations of about a factor of four allowed precise correlation between all cores. The magentic mineralogy is estimated to be dominated by magnetite of single-domain (SD) and/or pseudo-single-domain (PSD) state. The magnetic mineralogy and grain size are uniform throughout the cores, which enabled us to obtain relative paleointensity variations as well as directional changes. Remanent intensity normalized by anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) indicates that sharp intensity drops (to less than or = 20% of the present field) occurred at about 40 and 190 kyr B.P., with a broader decrease around 110 kyr B. P. The former two are accompanied by anomalous remanent directions, suggesting short polarity reversals or excursions. Their ages are close to those of the previously reported Laschamp excursion and Biwa I event. A prominent intensity peak occurred immediately preceding the possible excursion at 40 kyr B.P. Our results are in general similar to the recently reported datasets spanning the last 80-140 kyr from the Somali Basin, the Mediterranean, and the Sulu Sea. The inclination record shows long-term cyclic changes of several degrees in amplitude. The intervals of the recurring variation are 40-50 kyr, which is longer than the core's memory and is close to the Milankovitch frequency associated with the change in obliquity of Earth's rotational axis. We infer that an external force such as orbital forcing could be a cause of the long-term secular variation.

  13. Modeling temporal variations in interseismic subsidence rates recorded by corals in the Simeulue-Nias region, Sumatra: How can we explain them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, L. L.; Meltzner, A. J.; Hill, E. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Sieh, K.

    2014-12-01

    How large can temporal variations in interseismic deformation rates be? Meltzner et al. (2014, in review) reported that fossil coral microatolls on Simeulue and the Banyak Islands of Sumatra, Indonesia, show contemporaneous temporal variations in interseismic subsidence rates. For example, a fossil coral microatoll located at Bangkaru, in the Banyak Islands, reveals interseismic subsidence for a 10-year period between 1956 and 1966, followed by a reversal to interseismic uplift for ~ 15 years from 1966 to 1981, before reverting back to interseismic subsidence after 1981. These temporal variations can neither be accounted for by regional or local sea level changes, nor by postseismic deformation following major historic megathrust earthquakes. These coral observations span a period of ~ 260 years. Such an extensive temporal record of interseismic deformation at subduction zones is rare, and it offers us a unique opportunity to better understand what physical processes likely control the behavior of this portion of the megathrust. In this study, we use elastic dislocation models to explore the extent to which the observed spatio-temporal variations can be consistently explained by tectonic processes. Possible processes include temporal changes in either the width of the locked fault zone or the interseismic coupling coefficient, and/or slow-slip event occurrence. Our models incorporate a realistic fault dip geometry and subduction rate. Our results suggest that a change in the width of the locked zone with time can explain temporal variations in interseismic subsidence rates on Simeulue Island. In addition, the reversal of the sense of vertical displacement at Bangkaru can be explained by the occurrence of a large, long, slow-slip event on the underlying megathrust.

  14. Tree-ring widths are good proxies of annual variation in forest productivity in temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Wang, Xiangping; Liang, Penghong; An, Hailong; Sun, Han; Han, Wei; Li, Qiaoyan

    2017-05-16

    Tree rings have long been used to calibrate the net primary production (NPP) time-series predicted by process-based models, based on an implicit assumption that ring-width indices (RWI) can well reflect temporal NPP change. However, this assumption has seldom been tested systematically. In this study, 36 plots were set in three forest types from four sites along a latitudinal gradient in northeast China. For each plot, we constructed chronologies and stand NPP of the past 20 years to examine: is RWI a good proxy of inter-annual variation of forest NPP for different forest types under different climate? If it is, why? Our results indicate that RWI was closely related to stand NPP in most cases, and could be used as a good proxy of NPP in temperate forests. Standard and arstan chronologies were better related to NPP series than residual chronology. Stand NPP time-series were mainly determined by large trees, and the correlation between RWI and NPP was also higher for larger trees. We suggest that large trees and dominant species of canopy layer should be sampled for chronology construction. Large trees are major contributors of forest biomass and productivity, and should have priority in forest conservation in a rapid-warming world.

  15. Allometric scaling of production and life-history variation in vascular plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enquist, Brian J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Charnov, Eric L.; Brown, James H.

    1999-10-01

    A prominent feature of comparative life histories is the well documented negative correlation between growth rate and life span. Patterns of resource allocation during growth and reproduction reflect life-history differences between species. This is particularly striking in tropical forests, where tree species can differ greatly in their rates of growth and ages of maturity but still attain similar canopy sizes. Here we provide a theoretical framework for relating life-history variables to rates of production, dM/dt, where M is above-ground mass and t is time. As metabolic rate limits production as an individual grows, dM/dt ~ M3/4. Incorporating interspecific variation in resource allocation to wood density, we derive a universal growth law that quantitatively fits data for a large sample of tropical tree species with diverse life histories. Combined with evolutionary life-history theory, the growth law also predicts several qualitative features of tree demography and reproduction. This framework also provides a general quantitative answer to why relative growth rate (1/M)(dM/df) decreases with increasing plant size (~M-1/4) and how it varies with differing allocation strategies.

  16. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  17. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-08-07

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K.; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. PMID:26203001

  19. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy. PMID:28281668

  20. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Kun; Chen, Baozhang; Du, Peijun

    2017-03-10

    In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and meteorological datasets, and the accuracy was verified by a ChinaFLUX dataset. It was found that the spatiotemporal variations in NPP present a downward trend with the increase of latitude and longitude. Moreover, the influence of climate change on the evolution of NPP shows that NPP has had different impact factors in different regions and periods over the 12 years. The eastern region has shown the largest increase in gross regional product (GRP) and a significant fluctuation in NPP over the 12 years. Meanwhile, NPP in the eastern and central regions is significantly positively correlated with annual solar radiation, while NPP in these two regions is significantly negatively correlated with the growth rate of GRP. It is concluded that both the development of the economy and climate change have influenced NPP evolution in China. In addition, NPP has shown a steadily rising trend over the 12 years as a result of the great importance attributed to ecological issues when developing the economy.

  1. Targeted Application of Human Genetic Variation Can Improve Red Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Giani, Felix C; Fiorini, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ludwig, Leif S; Salem, Rany M; Jobaliya, Chintan D; Regan, Stephanie N; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Liang, Ge; Steinberg-Shemer, Orna; Guo, Michael H; Esko, Tõnu; Tong, Wei; Brugnara, Carlo; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Weiss, Mitchell J; Zon, Leonard I; Chou, Stella T; French, Deborah L; Musunuru, Kiran; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-01-07

    Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo. Targeted suppression of SH2B3 in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells enhanced the maturation and overall yield of in-vitro-derived RBCs. Moreover, inactivation of SH2B3 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells allowed enhanced erythroid cell expansion with preserved differentiation. Our findings therefore highlight the potential for combining human genome variation studies with genome editing approaches to improve cell and tissue production for regenerative medicine.

  2. A new Indian record and morphological variation for Eulimnadia khoratensis Rogers et al., 2016 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata).

    PubMed

    Padhye, Sameer M; Kulkarni, Mihir R

    2017-05-15

    Eulimnadia Packard, 1874 is the most species rich and widely distributed genus within the Limnadiidae (Reed et al. 2015). Species identification relies primarily on egg morphology as adult morphological characters show high variability, sometimes within the same populations and hence of little use (Rabet, 2010; Rogers et al. 2012). Seven species are currently known from the Indian subcontinent (sensu Rogers & Padhye 2015) and SE Asia (Rogers et al. 2016). Of these, four species, viz. E. compressa (Baird, 1860), E. michaeli Nayar & Nair, 1968 and E. indocylindrova Durga Prasad and Simhachalam, 2004, E. azisi Babu and Nandan, 2010 are known from peninsular India (Padhye et al. 2015; Rogers & Padhye, 2015), although, much of this region remains unstudied (Padhye pers. obs.). With this background, we present a new Indian record of E. khoratensis Rogers, Dadseepai and Sanoamuang, 2016 from the Western region of Maharashtra state, India, extending its distribution a few thousand kilometers westwards.

  3. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; Zhao, Huabiao; Joswiak, Daniel R.; Li, Jiule; Xie, Ying

    2015-02-02

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia has the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.

  4. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; ...

    2015-02-02

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia hasmore » the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.« less

  5. Marginal Lands Gross Primary Production Dominate Atmospheric CO2 Interannual Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlström, A.; Raupach, M. R.; Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Smith, B.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1960s terrestrial ecosystems have acted as a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2, sequestering about one quarter of anthropogenic emissions in an average year. Variations in this land carbon sink are also responsible for most of the large interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While most evidence places the majority of the sink in highly productive forests and at high latitudes experiencing warmer and longer growing seasons, the location and the processes governing the interannual variations are still not well characterised. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that the long-term trend and the variability in the land CO2 sink are respectively dominated by geographically distinct regions: the sink by highly productive lands, mainly forests, and the variability by semi-arid or "marginal" lands where vegetation activity is strongly limited by water and therefore responds strongly to climate variability. Using novel analysis methods and data from both upscaled flux-tower measurements and a dynamic global vegetation model, we show that (1) the interannual variability in the terrestrial CO2 sink arises mainly from variability in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP); (2) most of the interannual variability in GPP arises in tropical and subtropical marginal lands, where negative anomalies are driven mainly by warm, dry conditions and positive anomalies by cool, wet conditions; (3) the variability in the GPP of high-latitude marginal lands (tundra and shrublands) is instead controlled by temperature and light, with warm bright conditions resulting in positive anomalies. The influence of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) on the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations is mediated primarily through climatic effects on GPP in marginal lands, with opposite signs in subtropical and higher-latitude regions. Our results show that the land sink of CO2 (dominated by forests) and its interannual variability (dominated by marginal lands) are

  6. Deglacial 14C plateau suites recalibrated by Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record - Revised 14C reservoir ages from three ocean basins corroborate extreme surface water variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnthein, M.; Balmer, S.; Grootes, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) reservoir/ventilation ages (Δ14C) provide unique insights into the dynamics of ocean water masses over LGM and deglacial times. The 14C plateau-tuning technique enables us to derive both an absolute chronology for marine sediment records and a high-resolution record of changing Δ14C values for deglacial surface and deep waters (Sarnthein et al., 2007; AGU Monogr. 173, 175). We designate as 14C plateau a sediment section in the age-depth profile with several almost constant planktic 14C ages - variation less than ×100 to ×300 yr - which form a plateau-shaped scatter band that extends over ~5 to 50 and up to 200 cm in sediment cores with sedimentation rates of >10 cm/ky. Previously, a suite of >15 plateau boundary ages were calibrated to a joint reference record of U/Th-dated 14C time series measured on coral samples, the Cariaco sediment record, and speleothems (Fairbanks et al., 2005, QSR 24; Hughen et al., 2006, QSR 25; Beck et al., 2001, Science 292). We now used the varve-counted atmospheric 14C record of Lake Suigetsu (Ramsey et al., 2012, Science 338, 370) to recalibrate the boundary ages and average ages of 14C plateaus and apply the amended plateau-tuning technique to a dozen Δ14C records from the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. Main results are: (1) The Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record reflects all 14C plateaus, their internal structures and relative length previously identified, but implies a rise in the average plateau age by <200 14C yr during the LGM, >700 yr at its end, and <200 yr in the Bølling-Allerød. (2) Based on different 14C ages of coeval atmospheric and planktic 14C plateaus surface water Δ14C may have temporarily dropped to an equivalent of 200 yr in low-latitude stratified waters, such as off northwestern South America, and in turn reached values corresponding to an age difference of >2500 14C yr in stratified subpolar regions and upwelled waters such as in the South China Sea, values that differ significantly from a

  7. Texture-specific Si isotope variations in Barberton Greenstone Belt cherts record low temperature fractionations in early Archean seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefurak, Elizabeth J. T.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lowe, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Sedimentary cherts are unusually abundant in early Archean (pre-3.0 Ga) sequences, suggesting a silica cycle that was profoundly different than the modern system. Previously applied for the purpose of paleothermometry, Si isotopes in ancient cherts can offer broader insight into mass fluxes and mechanisms associated with silica concentration, precipitation, diagenesis, and metamorphism. Early Archean cherts contain a rich suite of sedimentological and petrographic textures that document a history of silica deposition, cementation, silicification, and recrystallization. To add a new layer of insight into the chemistry of early cherts, we have used wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy and then secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to produce elemental and Si and O isotope ratio data from banded black-and-white cherts from the Onverwacht Group of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. This geochemical data is then interpreted in the framework of depositional and diagenetic timing of silica precipitation provided by geological observations. SIMS allows the comparison of Si and O isotope ratios of distinct silica phases, including black carbonaceous chert beds and bands (many including well-defined sedimentary grains), white relatively pure chert bands including primary silica granules, early cavity-filling cements, and later quartz-filled veins. Including all chert types and textures analyzed, the δ30Si dataset spans a range from -4.78‰ to +3.74‰, with overall mean 0.20‰, median 0.51‰, and standard deviation 1.30‰ (n = 1087). Most samples have broadly similar δ30Si distributions, but systematic texture-specific δ30Si differences are observed between white chert bands (mean +0.60‰, n = 750), which contain textures that represent primary and earliest diagenetic silica phases, and later cavity-filling cements (mean -1.41‰, n = 198). We observed variations at a ∼100 μm scale indicating a lack of Si isotope homogenization at this scale during

  8. Reconstruction of Pleistocene Paleo-Hydrology and Climate Variations in Western Asia as Recorded in Speleothems from West-Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehterian, S.; Pourmand, A.; Sharifi, A.; Lahijani, H. A. K.; Naderi, M.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Extending from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the northwest Indian Ocean and modern Iran, West Asia represents one of the most climatically dynamic regions in the northern hemisphere. The regional climate of West Asia is governed by interactions between the mid-latitude Westerlies, the Siberian Anticyclone and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon. In recent years, sparse records of Pleistocene climate variability have emerged from cave deposits (speleothems) in East Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Mediterranean. However, there remains a large gap in our understanding of abrupt and long-term climate variability in this region. We present for the first time δ18O data from speleothem and water samples that were collected from two cave systems in west-central Iran at similar latitudes, 60km apart: Qaleh Kord Cave (QKC, 35°47'50"N, 48°51'25"E) and Kataleh Khor Cave (KKC, 35°50'09"N, 48°09'41"E). U-Th geochronometry in two stalagmites from QKC yielded ages that range from 73,000 to 118,000 years B.P. Likewise, two stalagmites dated from KKC yielded ages 214,000-260,000 years B.P. and 300,000-500,000 years B.P. The analysis of additional speleothems from these caves should help to establish a continuous half million year multi-proxy record of δ18O variations, trace metal composition (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca), and radiogenic Sr isotopes in these cave systems. High-resolution δ18O analyses of QKC stalagmites show patterns of variation that can be attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and 5b. Since both these caves sit at relatively high elevations (QKC: 2,160 masl, KKC: 1,695 masl) far from major seas (1,100km from Mediterranean Sea, 1,500km from North Indian Ocean), this record potentially reflects the synoptic interactions between the Westerlies and the Siberian Anticyclone during this time interval, as opposed to direct variations caused by sea level fluctuations. Measurements of drip water composition and modern environmental parameters (temperature, relative

  9. Variation of effective elastic thickness and melt production along the Deccan Reunion hotspot track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Singh, B.; Phipps Morgan, J.

    2007-12-01

    We estimate the effective elastic thickness (Te) along the Deccan-Reunion hotspot track using admittance analysis of seafloor topography and the free-air gravity field, both corrected for the thermal effects of a cooling lithosphere. Our results reveal that the volcanic edifices (Saya de Malha Bank, Chagos-Maldives-Laccadives Ridge) formed in the first 30 Myr after the Deccan volcanism [˜ 65 Myr], on lithosphere with Te values of 4 ± 2 km, while the younger volcanic edifices on the African plate (Reunion, Mauritius, Nazareth Bank) were emplaced on lithosphere with Te values of 17 ± 9 km. These estimates suggest that the hotspot volcanism occurred on juvenile lithosphere in the first 30 Myr, implying that the mid-ocean ridge remained near the hotspot for ˜ 30 Myr. In contrast, in the last 30 Myr volcanism occurred on aged lithosphere in an intraplate setting, which might indicate that the mid-ocean ridge migrated rapidly to the north after the African plate moved over the hotspot. This conclusion of a rapid shift from plume-influenced mid-ocean ridge (MOR) volcanism to intraplate plume volcanism is supported by geochemical (major and trace element) interpretations of data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 115. An estimate of the melt-production rate shows a striking increase in the small Te region relative to the large Te region of the hotspot track, which suggest a strong interrelation between Te and melt production. However, there is also variation of melt emplacement rates within the region of low Te that may be due to unknown changes in the rates of plate motions or somewhat episodic melt production.

  10. Assessing Interannual Variation in Net Ecosystem Production over a Coniferous Forest Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D.; Guzy, M.; Lefsky, M.; Daly, C.; Law, B.

    2001-12-01

    Spatial estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP) can be attained by constraining ecosystem process models with remote sensing and hierarchical plot data (intensive measurements and survey data). In temperate coniferous forests, NEP varies widely 1) over the course of secondary succession, 2) in response to environmental gradients associated with elevation, and 3) in response to interannual variation in climate. These factors should therefore be included in spatially explicit estimates of NEP that are of interest in relation to assessing current biologically driven carbon flux. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region we are using a combination of satellite remote sensing, gridded meteorological data, and ecosystem process models to account for these factors. The Landsat ETM+ sensor, with a spatial resolution of about 30 m, generally captures the scale of the spatial heterogeneity associated with disturbances such as fire and logging. In PNW forests, ETM+ can resolve multiple age classes, and multiyear analysis that employs change detection permits dating of clearcuts generated since the 1970s. This fine temporal resolution early in succession is important because of the rapid changes in NEP with stand age. ETM+ is also effective in mapping leaf area index, although the algorithms tend to be asymptotic at the high LAIs found in some coniferous forests. Multiyear gridded meteorological data, based on interpolated meteorological station observations, provides the basis for model "spin ups" which bring simulated soil organic matter pools into near equilibrium with the local climate. Opportunities for validating NEP surfaces or component fluxes include georeferenced forest inventory data for bole wood carbon storage and production, eddy covariance flux data for daily gross primary production and net ecosystem exchange, and chronosequence studies in a variety of bioclimatic zones for characterizing carbon pools and fluxes over succession. Results of multiyear simulations

  11. Non-genetic sources of variation of milk production and reproduction and interactions between both classes of traits in Sicilo-Sarde dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Meraï, A; Gengler, N; Hammami, H; Rekik, M; Bastin, C

    2014-09-01

    This work aimed to study the sources of variation in productive and reproductive traits of the dairy Sicilo-Sarde ewes and to further investigate the interaction between both classes of traits. After edits, a database containing 5935 lactation records collected during 6 successive years in eight dairy flocks in the North of Tunisia was used. Total milked milk (TMM) in the milking-only period was retained as productive trait. The interval from the start of the mating period to the subsequent lambing (IML) and the lambing status (LS) were designed as reproductive traits. Sicilo-Sarde ewes had an average TMM of 60.93 l (±44.12) during 132.8 days (±46.6) after a suckling period of 100.4 days (±24.9). Average IML was 165.7 days. In a first step, the major factors influencing milk production and reproductive traits were determined. The significant sources of variation identified for TMM were: flock, month of lambing, year of lambing, parity, suckling length, litter size and milking-only length. Flock×month of the start of the mating period, parity, year of mating and litter size were identified as significant factors of variation for IML, while flock×month of the start of the mating period, parity and year of mating were identified as significant sources of variation for LS. In a second step, variance components were estimated using a three traits threshold mixed model, which combined LS as categorical trait and TMM and IML as continuous traits. Repeatability estimates were 0.21 (±0.03) for TMM, 0.09 (±0.02) for IML, and 0.10 (±0.05) for LS. Moreover, TMM and IML were found to be favorably associated for the flock× year of lambing effect (-0.45±0.18) but unfavorably associated for the animal effect (0.20±0.09).

  12. Paleomagnetic directions and thermoluminescence dating from a bread oven-floor sequence in Lübeck (Germany): A record of 450 years of geomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Pucher, Rudolf; Goedicke, Christian; Manzano, Ana; Müller, Uwe; Lanos, Philippe

    2003-02-01

    A record of about 450 years of geomagnetic secular variation is presented from a single archaeological site in Lübeck (Germany) where a sequence of 25 bread oven floors has been preserved in a bakery from medieval times until today. The age dating of the oven-floor sequence is based on historical documents, 14C-dating and thermoluminescence dating. It confines the time interval from about 1300 to 1800 A.D. Paleomagnetic directions have been determined from each oven floor by means of 198 oriented hand samples. After alternating field as well as thermal demagnetization experiments, the characteristic remanent magnetization direction was obtained using principal component analysis. The mean directions of 24 oven floors are characterized by high Fisherian precision parameters (>146) and small α95 confidence limits (1.2°-4.6°). For obtaining a smooth curve of geomagnetic secular variation for Lübeck, a spherical spline function was fitted to the data using a Bayesian approach, which considers not only the obtained ages, but also stratigraphic order. Correlation with historical magnetic records suggests that the age estimation for the upper 10 layers was too young and must date from the end of the sixteenth to the mid of the eighteenth century. For the lowermost 14 layers, dating is reliable and provides a secular variation curve for Germany. The inclination shows a minimum in the fourteenth century and then increases by more than 10°. Declination shows a local minimum around 1400 A.D. followed by a maximum in the seventeenth century. This is followed by the movement of declination about 30° to western directions.

  13. Ultra-High Resolution Late Pleistocene Paleomagnetic Secular Variation Records From the Gulf of Alaska (IODP Exp. 341 Sites U1418 and U1419)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velle, J. H.; St-Onge, G.; Stoner, J. S.; Mix, A. C.; Walczak, M.; Asahi, H.; Forwick, M.

    2016-12-01

    IODP Expedition 341 in the Gulf of Alaska drilled the upper Surveyor Fan on the continental rise at Site U1418 (58°46.6'N 144°29.6'W; 3667 m water depth) and the continental slope at Site U1419 (59°319'N 144°8'W; 684 m water depth). U-channel paleomagnetic data has so far been collected to depths of 65 m (CCSF-A) at Site U1418 and 112 m (CCSF-A) at Site U1419. The preliminary oxygen isotope (U1418 and U1419) and radiocarbon-based age models (U1419) constrain the studied sequences to approximately 30,000 and 50,000 years, respectively. Sedimentation rates > 300 cm/kyr were resolved in some intervals, and these exceptionally expanded records allow paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) from the northeastern Pacific to be studied in high-resolution. Alternating field (AF) demagnetization of u-channel samples and hysteresis data from Site U1418 reveal a low coercivity magnetization consistent with pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite with only slight down-core variations, resulting in a strong, well-defined (MAD <5°), single component magnetization being preserved. U-channel measurements of Site U1419 display a weaker, but still stable, low coercivity magnetization, also consistent with PSD magnetite as the primary remanence carrier. Inclination patterns can be correlated between Site U1418 and U1419, as well as to other regional records, suggesting that these features are geomagnetic in origin, and that the Gulf of Alaska sedimentary sequences have captured regional scale paleomagnetic secular variations. Normalization of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) at Site U1418 with anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) over 7 AF demagnetization steps are consistent with relative paleointensity, suggesting the potential for a NE Pacific regional template for stratigraphic correlation through the Late Pleistocene.

  14. Middle Pleistocene climate variations south off Greenland: the Marine Isotope Stage 9 to 15 record of IODP Site U1305

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Antje; Ventura, Cristina; de Vernal, Anne; Teboulle, Oury; Henry, Maryse; de Abreu, Lucia; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2016-04-01

    As a region where deep-water convection occurs, the Labrador Sea is a key area to study the impact of climate change on the North Atlantic's subpolar gyre and subsequently the thermohaline circulation itself. IODP Site U1305 (57.5°N, 48.5°W) was retrieved from the Eirik ridge at a water depth of 3460 m. At this Site activity of the Western Boundary Undercurrent (WBUC) led to higher sedimentation rates during interglacial periods (Hillaire-Marcel et al., 2011 in Mar. Geol.) making it ideal to study interglacial climate variability. With its position south of the polar front, it is mostly influenced by the warmer, saline Irminger Current waters and reflects conditions in the "inner" Labrador Sea. In order to evaluate the inner Labrador Sea's response to climate change during the mid-Brunhes interval from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9 to 15a (315-570 ka) we generated centennial-scale proxy records reflecting surface (dinocyst assemblage derived), subsurface (N. pachyderma isotope and abundance data) and deep water (benthic isotope data) conditions. In addition, the abundance of lithic fragments >150μm indicates ice-rafting episodes. In the inner Labrador Sea, ice-rafting events coincided with lower sea-surface salinities (SSS) and are restricted to the glacial periods of MIS 14, 12 and 10 as well as the stadial periods during the MIS 11 to MIS 10 transition. Climate variability during the three interglacial periods varied significantly. MIS 9e recorded the influence of Irminiger Current waters with a reduced number of N. pachyderma and SSS close to 35. The high abundance of the pelagic diatom species Coscinodiscus during the late deglaciation and the onset of the interglacial period confirms the presence of Atlantic waters in the vicinity of Site U1305. Climate during MIS 11c can be dived into three phases. During the deglaciation of MIS 12 and the onset of the MIS 11c (420-430 ka) surface water conditions were very variable with frequent incursions of polar (cold

  15. Mass-induced sea level variations in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry, GRACE, in-situ bottom pressure records, and hydrographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze

    2014-05-01

    An annual amplitude of ~18 cm mass-induced sea level variations (SLV) in the Red Sea is detected from steric-corrected altimetry and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites from 2003 to 2011, which dominates the mean sea level in the region. Seawater mass variations here generally reach maximum in late January/early February. The steric component of SLV calculated from oceanographic temperature and salinity data is relatively small and peaks about seven months later than mass variations. The phase difference between the steric SLV and the mass-induced SLV indicates that when the Red Sea gains the mass from inflow water in winter, the steric SLV fall, and vice versa in summer. In-situ bottom pressure records in the eastern coast of the Red Sea validate the high mass variability observed by steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE. Furthermore, we compare the horizontal water mass flux in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE with that estimated from hydrographic observations.

  16. Low Amplitude of Geomagnetic Secular Variations Recorded in Traps of the Southern Siberian Platform: Very Fast Emplacement or Regional Remagnetization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Pavlov, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have studied the lowest part of the Permo-Triassic Siberian trap sequence which is located in the middle course of the Angara river (Southern Siberia). This sequenced is composed by 200m thick volcanoclastic rocks (tuffs with bombs of different composition) and includes numerous mafic subvolcanic bodies (dykes and sills). Altogether more than 20 sites representing tuffs, bombs, dykes and sills stretched along the valley of the Angara river over the distance more than 30 km have been sampled and studied. Obtained site mean paleomagnetic directions are tightly grouped, showing very lower scatter. Taking into account that amplitude of geomagnetic secular variation at the P-T boundary was about of same order as in Late Cenozoic (Pavlov et al., 2011) this lower scatter can be either a sequence of very fast traps emplacement which could have disastrous environmental impact or a result of subsequent regional remagnetization. The only geological event in the region which seems to be capable to cause this remagnetization is emplacement of Early Triassic sills in nearby areas. In such the case we should expect that mean paleomagnetic directions from these sills will be very close to these ones obtained from site presented in this report. We present results of paleomagnetic studies of these sills and make a choice in favor of one of discussed options. This work was supported by grants NSF EAR 0807585 ("The Siberian Traps and end-Permian extinction") and RFBR 09-05-01180, 10-05-00557.

  17. Paleosecular variation and time-averaged field recorded in late Pliocene-Holocene lava flows from Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, V.; BöHnel, H.; Opdyke, N. D.; Ortega-Rivera, M. A.; Lee, J. K. W.; Aranda-Gomez, J. J.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents results from 13 paleomagnetic sites from an area west of Mexico City and 7 sites from an area of dispersed monogenetic volcanism in the state of San Luis Potosi, accompanied by seven 40Ar/39Ar radiometric dates. An analysis of secular variation and time-averaged paleomagnetic field in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), using compiled data both newly obtained and from the literature, is presented. Interpretation can best be constrained after excluding from the data set sites that appear to be tectonically affected. The selected data include 187 sites of late Pliocene-Holocene age. The mean direction among these sites is Dec = 358.8°, Inc = 31.6°, α95 = 2.0°, k = 29. This direction does not overlap the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) but is consistent with a GAD plus a 5% quadrupole. The virtual geomagnetic pole scatter of this group of sites (12.7°, with lower and upper 95% confidence limits of 11.9° and 14.1°) is consistent with the value expected from Model G (13.6°).

  18. Diurnal variations in tear film break-up time determined in healthy subjects by software-assisted interpretation of tear film video recordings.

    PubMed

    Pena-Verdeal, Hugo; García-Resúa, Carlos; Ramos, Lucía; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Giráldez, Ma Jesús

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to examine diurnal variations in tear film break-up time (BUT) and maximum blink interval (MBI) and to assess two different ways of calculating these variables on video recordings of the BUT test interpreted with the help of especially designed software. The repeatability of interpreting BUT video recordings was also addressed. Twenty-six healthy young adults were enrolled after ruling out dry eye according to a battery of tests (ocular surface disease index, McMonnies questionnaire, Schirmer test, phenol red test and corneal staining). BUT and maximum blink interval were determined on video-recordings of the BUT test conducted over a day in four sessions (9.30 am, 12.30 pm, 3.30 pm and 6.30 pm). In each session, the test was repeated three times to give three videos in which three BUT and MBI values were obtained by a masked observer. BUT and MBI were determined by averaging the three measurements and by averaging only the two closest measurements. Finally, two further experienced observers re-examined the videos to assess the repeatability of the BUT measurements made. No diurnal variation in BUT was observed regardless of whether three or two video measurements were averaged. Significant correlation was detected between BUT and MBI. Inter-observer repeatability was better when BUT times were no longer than 15 seconds. Tear film BUT was not influenced by the time of day and moderate to strong correlation with MBI was observed in all four sessions. The software-assisted method proved useful and identified the need to clarify the BUT end-point and to limit the test to 15 seconds to improve observer repeatability. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  19. 29 CFR 70.40 - Charges assessed for the production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (iii) If the search for requested records requires transportation of the searcher to the location of... Subpart. (i) Privacy Act requesters. A request from an individual or on behalf of an individual for...

  20. 29 CFR 70.40 - Charges assessed for the production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (iii) If the search for requested records requires transportation of the searcher to the location of... Subpart. (i) Privacy Act requesters. A request from an individual or on behalf of an individual for...

  1. 29 CFR 70.40 - Charges assessed for the production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (iii) If the search for requested records requires transportation of the searcher to the location of... Subpart. (i) Privacy Act requesters. A request from an individual or on behalf of an individual for...

  2. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  3. Variation analysis of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates production using saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Tufail, Saiqa; Munir, Sajida; Jamil, Nazia

    2017-05-29

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are efficient, renewable and environment friendly polymeric esters. These polymers are synthesized by a variety of microbes under stress conditions. This study was carried out to check the suitability of waste frying oil in comparison to other oils for economical bioplastic production. Six bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus (KF270349), Klebsiella pneumoniae (KF270350), Bacillus subtilis (KF270351), Brevibacterium halotolerance (KF270352), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KF270353), and Stenotrophomonas rhizoposid (KF270354) by ribotyping. All strains were PHA producers so were selected for PHA synthesis using four different carbon sources, i.e., waste frying oil, canola oil, diesel and glucose. Extraction of PHA was carried out using sodium hypochlorite method and maximum amount was detected after 72h in all cases. P. aeruginosa led to maximum PHA production after 72h at 37°C and 100rpm using waste frying oil that was 53.2% PHA in comparison with glucose 37.8% and cooking oil 34.4%. B. cereus produced 40% PHA using glucose as carbon source which was high when compared against other strains. A significantly lesser amount of PHA was recorded with diesel as a carbon source for all strains. Sharp Infrared peaks around 1740-1750cm(-1) were present in Fourier Transform Infrared spectra that correspond to exact position for PHA. The use of waste oils and production of poly-3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate (3HB-co-3HV) by strains used in this study is a good aspect to consider for future prospects as this type of polymer has better properties as compared to PHBs. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Orbitally paced climatic variations of the North Atlantic during the Mid Eocene: Implications from a 2 Myr benthic isotope record in the North Atlantic (IODP Exp. 342)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahlenkamp, M.; De Vleeschouwer, D.; Feldtmann, M.; Wu, F.; Zachos, J. C.; Palike, H.

    2016-12-01

    The middle Eocene marks the successive climatic transition from a greenhouse world during the early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) into much cooler conditions culminating in the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. No high-resolution stable isotope records from benthic foraminifera yet exist for crucial parts of the so-called "Eocene Gap" as a result of a shallow calcium compensation depth (CCD), preventing the deposition of cyclic carbonate rich sediments during the mid-Eocene [Pälike et al., 2012]. IODP Expedition 342 drilled carbonate-rich sequences from sediment drifts offshore Newfoundland that cover the Eocene Gap with high sedimentation rates (> 2 cm/ kyr). We present a 2 Myr long stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera nuttalides truempyi spanning magnetochron C20r in unprecedented resolution (< 2 kyr), sufficient to resolve dominant Milankovic frequencies. Oxygen isotopes from U1410 range between -0.5‰ and 0.4‰ and show climatic variations on orbital time scale superimposed on a long term increase of 0.1‰/Myr. Initial spectral analysis of carbon isotope records ( -0.3‰ to 0.5‰) reveals sensitive response of Atlantic Meridonal Overturning Circulation (AMOC) on Milankovic time scales in our time series.

  5. [Malignant melanoma of the skin as evidenced by epidemiological cancer registries in Germany -- incidence, clinical parameters, variations in recording].

    PubMed

    Lehnert, M; Eberle, A; Hentschel, S; Katalinic, A; Kieschke, J; Schmidtmann, I; Schubert-Fritschle, G; Stegmaier, C; Hense, H-W

    2005-10-01

    To exclude bias of registration evidenced by relevant differences among German cancer registries in the incidence of malignant melanoma (melanocarcinoma). Cancer registries in the Federal German states of Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Bremen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, the Munich District and the County of Münster featured registration data of malignant melanoma diagnosed in 2000 A. D. Figures and incidence rates, distribution of T-stage of the primary tumour were analysed as well as the distribution of sources reporting melanoma to the registries. Details of outpatient treatment of cutaneous melanoma by dermatologists in private practice were investigated. Data of 2,471 malignant melanoma cases were analysed. The highest age standardised incidence rates were 15.7 per 100,000 women and 19 per 100,000 men while the lowest rates were reported as 7.8 and 6.6 per 100,000, respectively (European standard). The proportion of stage T1 tumours varied between 21.5 and 59.2 %. We observed remarkable variations in the structure of reporting sources among the registries. The proportion of reports from dermatologists in private practice varied between 2.2 and 62 %, with higher proportions associated with more T1-T2 tumours but also lower completeness of stage reports. No clear association was identified between incidence of melanoma and reporting sources. Malignant melanomas of smaller size (T1-T2) are reported more frequently in an outpatient setting but very often without data. Hospital departments of dermatology contribute high-quality data with better completeness especially for later stage melanomas. Desirable inclusion of notifications from nationwide operating dermatopathology laboratories is complicated by the Federal German structure of cancer registration. Especially in case of malignant melanoma of the skin notification reports from all sectors of the health care system are imperative for valid epidemiological results.

  6. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    1.The objective was to identify the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in annual production (PA) and turnover (production/biomass) ratio (P/BA) of resident brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Rio Esva (Cantabrian Mountains, Asturias, north-western Spain). We examined annual production (total production of all age-classes over a year) (PA) and turnover (P/BA) ratios, in relation to year-class production (production over the entire life time of a year-class) (PT) and turnover (P/BT) ratio, over 14years at a total of 12 sites along the length of four contrasting tributaries. In addition, we explored whether the importance of recruitment and site depth for spatial and temporal variations in year-class production (PT), elucidated in previous studies, extends to annual production. 2.Large spatial (among sites) and temporal (among years) variation in annual production (range 1.9-40.3gm-2 per year) and P/BA ratio (range 0.76-2.4per year) typified these populations, values reported here including all the variation reported globally for salmonids streams inhabited by one or several species. 3.Despite substantial differences among streams and sites in all production attributes, when all data were pooled, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios were tightly linked. Annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) were similar but not identical, i.e. PT=0.94 PA, whereas the P/BT ratios were 4+P/BA ratios. 4.Recruitment (Rc) and mean annual density (NA) were major density-dependent drivers of production and their relationships were described by simple mathematical models. While year-class production (PT) was determined (R2=70.1%) by recruitment (Rc), annual production (PA) was determined (R2=60.3%) by mean annual density (NA). In turn, variation in recruitment explained R2=55.2% of variation in year-class P/BT ratios, the latter attaining an asymptote at P/BT=6 at progressively higher levels of recruitment

  7. Regulation of the diurnal variation of the cold productivity of an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyshchaeva, O.; Kakabaev, A.; Redzhepov, G.

    The paper examines various modes of operation of an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system, which make it possible to extend the operation of the system, which make it possible to extend the operation of the system to periods when there is no sunlight. It is shown that the diurnal variation of cold productivity can be determined through the establishment of the time variation of the water content of the solution. Cold-productivity plots are presented for characteristic modes of operation of the system. Consideration is given to the mode of operation where the period of operation of the refrigeration part coincides with the period of sunlight.

  8. Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton and Primary Production in the Thames River, Southeastern Connecticut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainright, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    A year-long study was performed to investigate seasonal changes in the phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the Thames River, a salt wedge estuary that empties into Long Island Sound in southeastern CT. Chlorophyll measurements were made on discrete filtered samples collected above and below the 1-3 m deep pycnocline at a 5-meter deep station. Surface chlorophyll concentrations, primarily from diatoms, averaged approx. 2 mg m-3, with maxima (up to 10 mg m-3) during summer months (Jun to Aug) and minima during October through March (as low as 0.3 mg m-3). The lower water layer had nearly the same annual average but a smaller range (0.7-3.3 mg m-3) and a winter/spring bloom (Jan-Apr) that was not seen in surface water. During most of the winter, chlorophyll concentrations were higher in the lower layer. Primary production, as measured by 13C uptake in bottle incubations, averaged 67 mgC m-3 h-1 in surface water [range 0.1 (Jan 2012) to 800 mgC m-3 h-1 (Aug 2011)], and 3 mgC m-3 h-1 [range 0.04 (Jan 2012) to 17 mgC m-3 h-1 (Aug 2011)] in the lower layer. On most occasions, deep water incubated near the surface had a higher primary production rate than surface water incubated at the surface; apparently the light-limited phytoplankton in the lower layer were released from light-limitation during these incubations. During the study period there were over a dozen heavy wind or heavy rain events, including Hurricane Irene in August and a freak Nor'easter snow storm in October 2011. Hurricane Irene was associated with a large decline in phytoplankton biomass and primary production. With significant storms as frequent as the rate of sampling, it is difficult to separate a "storm effect" from a background seasonal pattern. The study reveals that phytoplankton, especially those in the lower layer, are light-limited in the Thames River estuary, and that the effects of significant storm events are superimposed on significant seasonal variation.

  9. Correcting the Record on the Analysis of IBEX and STEREO Data Regarding Variations in the Neutral Interstellar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Bzowski, M.; Drews, C.; Leonard, T.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Möbius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Sokół, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The journey of the Sun through space carries the solar system through a dynamic interstellar environment that is presently characterized by a Mach ~1 motion between the heliosphere and the surrounding warm partially ionized interstellar cloud. The interaction between the heliosphere and interstellar medium is an evolving process due to variable solar wind properties and the turbulent nature of the interstellar cloud that surrounds the heliosphere. Frisch et al. presented a meta-analysis of the historical data on the interstellar wind flowing through the heliosphere and concluded that temporal changes in the ecliptic longitude of the flow direction with time were statistically indicated by the data available in the refereed literature at the time of that writing. Lallement & Bertaux disagree with this result, and suggested, for instance, that a key instrumental response function of IBEX-Lo was incorrect and that the STEREO pickup ion data are unsuitable for diagnosing the flow of interstellar neutrals through the heliosphere. In this paper we first show that temporal variations in the interstellar wind through the heliosphere are consistent with our knowledge of the very local interstellar medium. The statistical analysis of the helium wind data is revisited, and a recent correction of a typographical error in the literature is incorporated into the new fits. With this correction, and including no newer IBEX results, these combined data still indicate that a change in the longitude of the interstellar neutral wind of λ = 5.°6 ± 2.°4 over the past forty years remains statistically likely, but an constant flow longitude is now statistically possible. Other scenarios for the selection of subsets of these data used in the fitting process produce similar conclusions. We show that the speculations made by Lallement & Bertin about the IBEX instrumental response function are incorrect, and that their other objections to the data used in the meta-analysis are either

  10. Variation in pesticide hazard from vegetable production in Great Britain from 1991 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Cross, Paul; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2006-11-01

    Pesticides pose a difficult problem for policy makers as society generally seeks to reduce any adverse impacts of their use, while industry claims they are important contributors to economic success. Attempts to direct policy according to scientific findings are hampered by the multidimensionality of the potential impacts of pesticides which may affect consumers, operators, wildlife and the environment. Pesticide risk indices seek to reduce these multidimensional impacts into a single dimension and have been increasingly used to understand variation in the hazard posed by pesticides at both field and regional level. This study uses one such risk index, the environmental impact quotient (EIQ), to estimate the hazard posed by pesticide usage from 1991 to 2003 on several vegetable crops grown in the UK. Results are reported for the EIQ and for the environmental impact (EI) for brassicas, peas, beans, onions, leeks, lettuce and endives. The EIQ is a dimensionless estimate of the toxicity of a product, while the EI, which combines the EIQ with data on actual usage, estimates the overall hazard of the use of a product. The exact trends in EIQ and EI varied with crop over the period 1991-2003, but overall the EIQ decreased by 19% and the EI decreased by 34%. However, the mean EI per hectare decreased by only 3%. This suggests that some of the observed reduction in EI at the national level may be related more to decrease in crop area than changes in pesticide use and management. If these observed losses in crop area are being replaced by vegetable imports from overseas, then this raises the possibility that the UK is effectively exporting any problems related to pesticide use. The ethics of this remain unclear. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Marine palynological record for tropical climate variations since the late last glacial maximum in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lu; Weng, Chengyu

    2015-12-01

    The upper part (191-1439 cm) of the marine sediment core MD05-2906 from the northern South China Sea (SCS) was palynologically investigated. The chronology suggested that it covered the record since ~19 calendar kiloyears before present (cal ka BP) and revealed a detailed environmental change history since the late last glacial maximum (LGM). During the late LGM, due to the lowered sea level (~100 m lower) and the shortened distance from the shore to the study site, the pollen concentration was very high. The pollen assemblages were dominated by non-arboreal taxa, especially Artemisia pollen, before ~15 cal ka BP. Abundant subtropical and tropical pollen taxa were still important components and a south subtropical climate prevailed during the late LGM. The coexistent rich Artemisia pollen possibly was not derived from near shores, but was derived mainly from the northern exposed continental shelf in the East China Sea (ECS). After ~15 cal ka BP, with the rise in the sea level and enhanced distance from the pollen source areas to the core site, pollen concentrations started to decline gradually. However, during the late deglaciation and early Holocene, the higher concentrations of many pollen taxa reoccurred, which cannot be attributed to the sea level changes. Pinus pollen deposited in the core, which is considered to be mostly water-carried based on many modern pollen surveys, also started to dramatically increase at the same time. Therefore, the higher pollen concentration, with more Pinus and Typha (an aquatic plant) pollen indicated a notably enhanced terrestrial runoff and precipitation during the last deglaciation/Holocene transition (~11.3-9.4 cal ka BP). We inferred that a strong summer monsoon occurred at this time. During the late LGM/deglaciation transition period, the pollen assemblage reflected a gradually warming climate, and the climate fluctuations derived from the high-latitudes were not well-identified. This study suggests that solar insolation

  12. An assessment of the record in compositional variations from mantle source to magmatism at East Island, Crozet archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyzen, C. M.; Marzoli, A.; Bellieni, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Crozet archipelago, located midway between Madagascar and Antarctica, constitutes the emerged part of the easternmost bank of the Crozet plateau, which lies upon upper Cretaceous oceanic seafloor derived from the Southeast Indian Ridge. It forms an elongated chain of five islands and islets, divided into two groups: an older eastern island group (< 9 Ma) composed by large-scale volcanic landmasses (i.e. East and Possession islands) and a younger western one (< 5.5 Ma) with pint-sized islands. The whole region exhibits some of the most typical gravimetric, seismic and bathymetric characteristics associated with upwelling hotter than average mantle including: a geoid high, a topographic swell, a deep low-velocity zone (up to 2350 km), an anomalous heat flow and a thickened crust (10-16.5 km). Most of these features are exacerbated by the near stationary absolute motion of the Antarctic plate. However, since thirty years, the chemical composition of Crozet archipelago magmas has beneficiated from little interest compared to that of other Earth's hotspots. Because of the occurrence of both a thick and old lithosphere and of a near stagnant absolute plate motion, new data from the Crozet archipelago magmatic record will provide new critical perspective on oceanic island building processes. The data presented here are based on a basaltic suite of ~ 25 samples collected by a 'Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises' expedition in 1969 from the northern part of East Island. Our alkali basalts from the Crozet archipelago are distinct from other oceanic within-plate magmatic rocks in showing ubiquitous large depletions in LILE with respect to other incompatible elements, although these rocks constitute one of the most incompatible-element-enriched suites among Earth's oceanic island basalts (OIB). The similarity of their trace element ratios and parallelism of their rare earth element patterns indicate: (1) a mantle source homogeneity over at least 1 Ma; (2) an

  13. a Continuous Record of Trace Element and Stable Isotope Variations in a West Virginia Speleothem: Pre-Lgm to Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckles, J. A.; Rowe, H. D.; Gao, Y.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Springer, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    A stalagmite (CCC-003) from Culverson Creek Cave, West Virginia, grew uninterrupted for approximately 15,000 years across the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the early Holocene. Stable isotope carbon and oxygen and high resolution trace element (Sr/Ca) chronologies are supported by 37 Th-230 age dates. The timing of Heinrich events 1 and 2, LGM, Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas are well-constrained by abrupt shifts in both stable isotope and trace element records, and provide a detailed account of paleohydrological and paleoclimate change for the southern Appalachian region. Fluctuations in stalagmite δ18O are largely synchronous with well-documented changes observed in the GRIP and GISP2 records. The stable isotope chronology, however, is markedly different from speleothem chronologies from other regions, possibly due to local/regional effects. We present a comparison of the southern Appalachian record with those of other regions, as well as an interpretation of the various climatic mechanisms controlling speleothem deposition. In addition, we also present a novel non-destructive method for trace element analysis (Sr/Ca) through μ-X Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF). Trace element ratios in speleothems (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Ba/Ca) have been used to interpret the hydrogeochemical processes in the epikarst zone as well as partitioning that occurs at the calcite-water interface. The Sr/Ca results from CCC-003 reflect changes observed in δ13C, which further supports the interpretation of trace element variation. During periods of low rainfall, trace element ratios generally increase as a result of the longer residence time of water in the soil and epikarst zones. High-resolution time series analyses of these elements in speleothems provide evidence for changing paleohydrological and geochemical conditions over time. CCC-003 has produced a high resolution record of the LGM and YD utilizing conventional stable isotopes and μ-XRF.

  14. An ultra-high resolution continuous record of methane variations during the last glacial-interglacial transition from the WAIS Divide ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, R. H.; Brook, E.; McConnell, J. R.; Blunier, T.; Lee, J. E.; Edwards, J. S.; Rosen, J. L.; Stowasser, C.

    2012-12-01

    Records of past atmospheric methane mixing ratios developed from ancient air trapped in polar ice cores are integral to our understanding of the global carbon cycle and its interaction with climate. Previously, temporal resolution of these records has been limited by time-, labour- and sample- intensive analytical methods. Here we present an ultra-high resolution, continuous record of the methane mixing ratio across the last deglaciation, obtained using a continuous system in which air extracted from the ice core was analysed on-line by a specially adapted laser spectrometer. 800 m of ice core from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide project, spanning the time period from 10.1 to 22.8 ka, were analysed at a minimum spatial resolution of 4.5 cm depth, which equates to a temporal resolution of better than 2 yr. The variability of our record closely matches that of discrete measurements conducted on the WAIS Divide core. For example, the 130 ppbv increase in the methane mixing ratio over ~250 yr that marks the onset of the Bølling period is extremely well reproduced, as are all other variations in atmospheric methane known from previously published ice core data. Furthermore, we document in great detail variability not previously observed, for example, a methane concentration increase of 45 ppbv occurs within 90 yr at 16.55 ka. The Bølling-Allerød interstadial is characterized by 10-40 ppbv amplitude methane concentration oscillations with periods of 100-200 yr, whilst in the Early Holocene (10,100 to 11,400 yr) the methane signal is dominated by sub-centennial oscillations of 15-20 ppbv amplitude. Spectral analysis of this dataset is ongoing and will explore possible drivers of these high frequency features.

  15. Towards an effective record of dipole moment variations since the Precambrian using new reliability criteria and outputs from numerical dynamo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggin, A. J.; Suttie, N.; Paterson, G. A.; Aubert, J.; Hurst, E.; Clarke, A.

    2013-12-01

    On timescales over which mantle convection may be affecting the geodynamo (10-100s of million years), magnetic reversal frequency is the best documented aspect of geomagnetic behaviour. Suitable, continuous recorders of this parameter become very sparse before a few hundreds of millions of years however presenting a major challenge to documenting and understanding geomagnetic variations on the timescale of even the most recent supercontinent cycle. It is hypothetically possible to measure the absolute geomagnetic palaeointensity from any geological material that has cooled from above the Curie Temperature of its constituent magnetic remanence carriers. Since igneous rocks are abundant in the geological record, estimates of dipole moment from these present a vital resource in documenting geomagnetic variations into deep time. In practice, a host of practical problems makes obtaining such measurements reliably from geological materials challenging. Nevertheless, the absolute palaeointensity database PINT, newly linked to the comprehensive Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) database, already contains 3,941 published dipole moment estimates from rocks older than 50,000 years ago and continues to grow rapidly. In order that even the existing record may be used to maximum effectiveness in characterising geomagnetic behaviour, two challenges must be met. 1. The variable reliability of individual measurements must be reasonably assessed 2. The impact of the inhomogeneous distribution of dipole moment estimates in space and time must be ascertained. Here, we will report efforts attempting to address these two challenges using novel approaches. A new set of quality criteria for palaeointensity data (QPI) has been developed and tested by application to studies recently incorporated into PINT. To address challenge 1, we propose that every published dipole moment estimate eventually be given a QPI score indicating the number of these criteria fulfilled. To begin to

  16. Seasonal variation of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in influents, effluents and sludge from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in southern California was studied in winter and summer. All 14 compounds were detected in influent samples from the five WWTPs except for estrone. Paracetamol, naproxen and ibuprofen were the dominant compounds, with mean concentrations of 41.7, 35.7 and 22.3 μg/L, respectively. The treatment removal efficiency for most compounds was more than 90% and concentrations in the effluents were relatively low. Seasonal variation of the compounds' concentration in the wastewater was significant: the total concentration of each compound in the wastewater was higher in winter than in summer, which is attributed to more human consumption of pharmaceuticals during winter and faster degradation of the compounds in summer. The highest concentrations of triclosan and octylphenol were detected in sewage sludge, with mean concentrations of 1505 and 1179 ng/g, respectively. Risk quotients (RQs), expressed as the ratios of environmental concentrations and the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), were less than unity for all the compounds except for estrone in the effluents, indicating no immediate ecological risk is expected. However, RQs were higher than unity for 2 EDCs (estrone and octylphenol) and carbamazepine in sludge samples, indicating a significant ecotoxicological risk to human health. Therefore, appropriate treatment of sewage sludge is required before its application.

  17. Variation in Alkaloid Production from Genetically Diverse Lolium Accessions Infected with Epichloë Species.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph R; Pratley, James E; Mace, Wade J; Weston, Leslie A

    2015-12-09

    Widespread infection of Epichloë occultans in annual ryegrass in Australia suggests that infection provides its weedy host, Lolium rigidum, some ecological advantage. Initial studies determined the distribution and profiles of known Epichloë alkaloids (epoxy-janthitrems, ergovaline, lolines, lolitrem B, and peramine) in plant extracts using a combination of GC-FID and HPLC techniques utilizing a single accession of Australian L. rigidum. However, the lolines N-acetylnorloline (NANL) and N-formylloline (NFL) were the only alkaloids detected and were highly concentrated in the immature inflorescences of mature plants. Additional glasshouse studies subjected a wide range of Australian L. rigidum haplotypes and international annual Lolium accessions to a suite of analyses to determine alkaloid levels and profiles. Again, NFL and NANL were the key lolines produced, with NFL consistently predominating. Considerable variation in alkaloid production was found both within and between biotypes and accessions evaluated under identical conditions, at the same maturation stage and on the same tissue type. The pyrrolopyrazine alkaloid peramine was also present in 8 out of 17 Australian biotypes of L. rigidum and 7 out of 33 international accessions infected with Epichloë spp.; the highest peramine concentrations were observed in seed extracts from L. rigidum collected from Australia. This study represents the first report of alkaloids from a geographically diverse collection of annual ryegrass germplasm infected with Epichloë spp. when grown under identical controlled conditions.

  18. Solar Activity and the Sea-surface Temperature Record-evidence of a Long-period Variation in Solar Total Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, George C.

    1990-01-01

    There have been many suggestions over the years of a connection between solar activity and the Earth's climate on time scales long compared to the 11-year sunspot cycle. They have remained little more than suggestions largely because of the major uncertainties in the climate record itself, and the difficulty in trying to compile a global average from an assembly of measurements that are uneven in both quality and distribution. Different climate time response to solar activity, some suggesting a positive correlation, some a negative correlation, and some no correlation at all. The only excuse for making yet another such suggestion is that much effort has been devoted in recent years to compiling climate records for the past century or more that are internally consistent and believable, and that a decadal-scale record of solar total irradiance is emerging from spacecraft measurements, and can be used to set limits on the variation that is likely to have occurred on these time scales. The work described here was originally inspired by the observation that the time series of globally averaged sea-surface temperatures over the past 120 years or so, as compiled by the British Meteorological Office group (Folland and Kates, 1984), bore a resonable similarity to the long-term average sunspot number, which is an indicator of the secular variability of solar activity. The two time series are shown where the sunspot number is shown as the 135-month running mean, and the SST variation is shown as the departure from an arbitrary average value. The simplest explanation of the similarity, if one accepts it as other than coincidental, is that the sun's luminosity may have been varying more or less in step with the level of solar activity, or in other words that there is a close coupling between the sun's magnetic condition and its radiative output on time scales longer than the 11-year cycle. Such an idea is not new, and in fact the time series shown can be regarded as a modern

  19. Genera variation of tropical mid-upper montane rainforest inferred from a marine pollen record in southern Philippines during the glacial-interglacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical vegetation is the most outstanding and obvious feature of South-East Asia, and it is expected to provide valuable information for the palaeoclmatic conditions. Pollen records from the tropical West Pacific indicate that the tropical vegetation is much sensitive to the environment and climate change, and their good correspondence with palaeocliamte change in glacial/interglacial timescales. It is shown that the range of the tropical montane rainforest was affected by the temperature change during the glacial cycle. But, from some marine core, the genera variation of tropical mid-upper montane pollen record is also distinct during the glacial cycle. In this study, examination of the pollen content of marine core MD06-3075 taken from Davao Gulf in the Southern Philippines reveals a ~116,000 year record of tropical vegetation change as well as the influence of the environment and climate variability on the ecosystem of the tropical area. Chronology was determined by 16 AMS 14C dates and a detailed oxygen isotope record. A high representation of pollen from tropical upper montane rainforest (mainly Podocarpus) (40-60%) during the last glacial period indicates that this forest type extended to lower attitudes. And the genera variations of the tropical mid-upper montane rainforest exist between the Phyllocladus and Podocarpus with the environment and climate changing. The pollen content of Phyllocladus is much high in marine isotope stage (MIS) 5, but Podocarpus is much higher in the glacial period. During the onset of MIS 5a and 5c, the percentage of Phyllocladus pollen declines dramatically. Vegetation investigation in Mindanao, shows that Podocarpus exists in altitude ranging from 1,200-1,700 m, and Phyllocladus appear in altitude range from 1700-2100 m, but is more abundant above the 2,400 m. Thus, Phyllocladus might be more sensitive to the temperature change. Then, in this study, the pollen content of is much high during the interglacial period

  20. Recognition of wave-dominated, tide-influenced shoreline systems in the rock record: Variations from a microtidal shoreline model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelov, Boyan K.; Ainsworth, R. Bruce; MacEachern, James A.

    2012-11-01

    Existing wave-dominated facies models are based on microtidal coastlines and do not adequately address wave-dominated environments influenced by significant tidal ranges. Observations from modern environments show that such systems are abundant along tide-influenced shorelines facing wide shelves and large embayments, such as much of the northern Australia coast; yet equivalent deposits have been rarely recognized from the ancient record. Geomorphological literature shows that tidal influence on wave-dominated shorelines has the effect of shifting the shoaling, breaking, and swash wave zones up and down the beach profile; when the tidal range is appreciable, sedimentation is affected significantly. Many macrotidal, wave-dominated systems (tidal range > 4 m), for example, are non-barred and are characterized by poor development of dune-scale bedforms in the subtidal zone and along the beach profile. Other systems do develop cross stratification, but this occurs in the intertidal zone rather than the subtidal zone as is implied in existing wave-dominated facies models. The association of many wave-dominated, tide-influenced environments with shallow shelves also suggests that major storms may be capable of reworking sediment significant distances from the shoreline. We present an ancient example of a wave-dominated, tide-influenced, fluvial-affected system (Wtf) from the Campanian Bearpaw to Horseshoe Canyon Formation transition near Drumheller, Alberta, Canada, which has been described in closely spaced outcrop exposures and core. Wave domination in the coarsening-upward interval is unambiguous and is represented by abundance of micro-hummocky cross stratification and other storm beds in the mudstone-dominated portions, a well-defined swaley cross stratified sandstone interval, and an up to four meter thick, horizontal planar stratified interval interpreted to have been formed by swash waves. Tide influence is suggested by common double carbonaceous and mud drapes

  1. New historical records and relationships among 14C production rates, abundance and color of low latitude auroras and sunspot abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Dallas; Juhl, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Incursions of high-energy particles from space, specifically solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays, have significant effects on the Earth, including disruption of the Earth's magnetic field, generation of electric fields strong enough to damage electronic devices as well as the production of auroras at low-latitudes, within 45° of the magnetic equator. We examine the relationships among 14C production, auroral abundance, auroral color and sunspot abundance using existing data supplemented by a new dataset. The new dataset, based on Chinese and Korean records from A.D. 1100-1700, includes 46 new or revised records of sunspots and 279 records of low-latitude auroras. Low-latitude auroras are predominantly red (66%, 835 events) with lesser proportions of white (20%, 253 events) and black auroras (6%, 67 events). All other auroral colors (green, yellow, multicolored, blue and purple) aggregate to a total of 100 events (8%). Overall, white auroras are more frequent during times of higher 14C production. We use two empirical methods of evaluating the flux of high-energy particles: modeled peaks and lows in 14C production and peaks and lows in the 14C calibration curve. We find that comparison to modeled 14C production gives significant results. White auroras are significantly more abundant (98% probability) at times of high production of 14C. Red auroras are somewhat more abundant (88% probability) at times of low production of 14C. The abundances of black, multicolored, green, yellow, and blue auroras between times of low and high 14C production are not significantly different. Violet/purple auroras are significantly more abundant (98% probability) at times of low 14C production. The positive correlation of violet/purple auroras with times of low14C production rate and the lack of correlation of blue auroras with times of high14C production is surprising, for this portion of the visible spectrum contains strong emission lines and some lines with high

  2. Century to millennial-scale temperature variations for the last two thousand years indicated from glacial geologic records of Southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.; Calkin, Parker E.; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons of temperature sensitive climate proxy records with tree-ring, lichen and radiocarbon dated histories from land-terminating, non-surging glaciers for the last two millennia from southern Alaska identify summer temperature as a primary driver of glacial expansions. Two major intervals in the Alaskan chronology of glaciation, during the First Millennium AD (FMA) and again during the Little Ice Age (LIA), are evident as broad times of cooling and ice expansion. These two intervals are respectively followed by ice retreat coincident with the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and contemporary warming, and together correspond with millennial-scale variations recognized in the North Atlantic. The FMA advance appears to be of similar extent as the subsequent LIA expansions indicating a uniformity of forcing over the past two millennia.

  3. 78 FR 9336 - Production of FHFA Records, Information, and Employee Testimony in Legal Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... of law, administrative board or tribunal, commission, administrative law judge, hearing officer, or... 2008 (``HERA''), Public Law No. 110-289, 122 Stat. 2654, amended the Federal Housing Enterprises... records, information, or testimony in judicial, legislative or administrative proceedings in which those...

  4. 21 CFR 226.102 - Master-formula and batch-production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....102 Section 226.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES... article(s) master-formula records shall be prepared, endorsed, and dated by a competent and...

  5. 21 CFR 226.102 - Master-formula and batch-production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....102 Section 226.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES... article(s) master-formula records shall be prepared, endorsed, and dated by a competent and...

  6. 21 CFR 226.102 - Master-formula and batch-production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....102 Section 226.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES... article(s) master-formula records shall be prepared, endorsed, and dated by a competent and...

  7. 21 CFR 226.102 - Master-formula and batch-production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....102 Section 226.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES... article(s) master-formula records shall be prepared, endorsed, and dated by a competent and...

  8. 16 CFR § 1015.9 - Fees for production of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...). (5) Computerized records: $0.10 per page of computer printouts or, for central processing, $0.32 per second of central processing unit (CPU) time; for printer, $10.00 per 1,000 lines; and for computer...) Before the Commission begins processing a request or discloses any information, it will require advance...

  9. Variations of the Indian summer monsoon over the Mio-Pliocene recorded in the Bengal Fan (IODP Exp354): implications for the evolution of the terrestrial biosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, Valier; Feakins, Sarah; Karkabi, Elias; Ponton, Camilo; Galy, Albert; France-Lanord, Christian

    2017-04-01

    expansion in the Himalayan system. Hemipelagic sediments generally carry 13C enriched signatures indicative of C4-dominated source areas, and based on a combination of the wind field climatology and the wetness and ecosystems of source regions today, we suggest that these would likely represent wind transport, likely from peninsular India. Interestingly we found hemipelagic horizons carrying this enriched 13C character prior to the C4 expansion recorded in turbiditic sediments, likely revealing an earlier C4 colonization of peninsular India. Based on our preliminary data we thus propose that C4 plants colonized peninsular India around 9-10 Ma. The hydrogen isotopic composition of the same leaf-wax compounds reveals a surprisingly small (on the order of 10 ‰) isotopic shift associated with the late Miocene C4 expansion. In contrast, the hydrogen isotope composition shift observed across the last deglaciation is far greater (ca. 40‰; Hein et al., in prep.). Cores from site U1451, provide a low resolution record across at least the last 26 Myr and appear to indicate a long term hydrological change from ca. 11Ma to ca. 7Ma, as inferred from progressive D enrichment in the biomarker records. These compound specific hydrogen isotope data will be discussed in the context of changing erosion patterns and attendant variations in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon as well as with respect to the mechanisms that led to the C4 expansion.

  10. Long-term variations in primary production in a eutrophic sub-estuary: Contribution of short-term events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Charles L.; Neale, Patrick J.

    2015-09-01

    We determined the role of events in generating short-term variability in production, how they contribute to interannual variability, and their relationship to variability in the determinants of production, primarily biomass and photo-physiological parameters. We examined residuals from the seasonal and spatial mean daily rate in a 20-year time series of primary production in a eutrophic sub-estuary of Chesapeake Bay. The seasonal and spatial means of production and residuals were based on natural log-transformed measurements of daily primary production calculated from measurements of light saturation curves of photosynthesis for 20 years at 6 stations on the Rhode River, Maryland (USA). The variance of the residuals was greater than that explained by the seasonal and spatial statistical model, so that the event scale was the largest single source of variance. Residuals were classified as events if they exceeded ±ln(2), signifying a multiplier or divisor of 2 above or below the seasonal-spatial mean. Spatially, events were most frequent at the most upstream station affected by runoff from the local watershed, and temporally most frequent in spring at all stations. Principal component analysis (PCA) of monthly averaged residuals revealed 3 characteristic temporal modes of residual variance, the first of which was associated with variability in spring due to the occurrence of extremely large spring blooms or their complete absence. Interannual variation in annual production was correlated with the strength of expression of these modes. Production events were analyzed in relation to residuals in the determinants of productivity, i.e. phytoplankton chlorophyll biomass, B, the light-saturated photosynthetic maximum normalized to chlorophyll, PmaxB , the diffuse attenuation coefficient for light, and the depth integral of the dimensionless photosynthesis profile. Negatively correlated changes in B and PmaxB were the most common mode of variation among the determinants

  11. 40 CFR 1054.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines and state its location. (2) State the total U.S.-directed production volume and number of tests for each engine family. (3) Describe how you randomly... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES...

  12. Seasonal Variation in Shell Calcification of Planktonic Foraminifera in the NE Atlantic Reveals Species-Specific Response to Temperature, Productivity, and Optimum Growth Conditions.

    PubMed

    Weinkauf, Manuel F G; Kunze, José G; Waniek, Joanna J; Kučera, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Using shells collected from a sediment trap series in the Madeira Basin, we investigate the effects of seasonal variation of temperature, productivity, and optimum growth conditions on calcification in three species of planktonic Foraminifera. The series covers an entire seasonal cycle and reflects conditions at the edge of the distribution of the studied species, manifesting more suitable growth conditions during different parts of the year. The seasonal variation in seawater carbonate saturation at the studied site is negligible compared to other oceanic regions, allowing us to assess the effect of parameters other than carbonate saturation. Shell calcification is quantified using weight and size of individual shells. The size-weight scaling within each species is robust against changes in environmental parameters, but differs among species. An analysis of the variation in calcification intensity (size-normalized weight) reveals species-specific response patterns. In Globigerinoides ruber (white) and Globigerinoides elongatus, calcification intensity is correlated with temperature (positive) and productivity (negative), whilst in Globigerina bulloides no environmental forcing is observed. The size-weight scaling, calcification intensity, and response of calcification intensity to environmental change differed between G. ruber (white) and G. elongatus, implying that patterns extracted from pooled analyses of these species may reflect their changing proportions in the samples. Using shell flux as a measure of optimum growth conditions, we observe significant positive correlation with calcification intensity in G. elongatus, but negative correlation in G. bulloides. The lack of a consistent response of calcification intensity to optimum growth conditions is mirrored by the results of shell size analyses. We conclude that calcification intensity in planktonic Foraminifera is affected by factors other than carbonate saturation. These factors include temperature

  13. Seasonal Variation in Shell Calcification of Planktonic Foraminifera in the NE Atlantic Reveals Species-Specific Response to Temperature, Productivity, and Optimum Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Weinkauf, Manuel F. G.; Kunze, José G.; Waniek, Joanna J.; Kučera, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Using shells collected from a sediment trap series in the Madeira Basin, we investigate the effects of seasonal variation of temperature, productivity, and optimum growth conditions on calcification in three species of planktonic Foraminifera. The series covers an entire seasonal cycle and reflects conditions at the edge of the distribution of the studied species, manifesting more suitable growth conditions during different parts of the year. The seasonal variation in seawater carbonate saturation at the studied site is negligible compared to other oceanic regions, allowing us to assess the effect of parameters other than carbonate saturation. Shell calcification is quantified using weight and size of individual shells. The size–weight scaling within each species is robust against changes in environmental parameters, but differs among species. An analysis of the variation in calcification intensity (size-normalized weight) reveals species-specific response patterns. In Globigerinoides ruber (white) and Globigerinoides elongatus, calcification intensity is correlated with temperature (positive) and productivity (negative), whilst in Globigerina bulloides no environmental forcing is observed. The size–weight scaling, calcification intensity, and response of calcification intensity to environmental change differed between G. ruber (white) and G. elongatus, implying that patterns extracted from pooled analyses of these species may reflect their changing proportions in the samples. Using shell flux as a measure of optimum growth conditions, we observe significant positive correlation with calcification intensity in G. elongatus, but negative correlation in G. bulloides. The lack of a consistent response of calcification intensity to optimum growth conditions is mirrored by the results of shell size analyses. We conclude that calcification intensity in planktonic Foraminifera is affected by factors other than carbonate saturation. These factors include temperature

  14. Variation of mineralogy and organic material during the early stages of aqueous activity recorded in Antarctic micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, T.; Yabuta, H.; Itoh, S.; Sakamoto, N.; Mitsunari, T.; Okubo, A.; Okazaki, R.; Nakamura, T.; Tachibana, S.; Terada, K.; Ebihara, M.; Imae, N.; Kimura, M.; Nagahara, H.

    2017-07-01

    . Phyllosilicates in thee MMs are richer in Fe than those in hydrated IDPs, typical fine-grained hydrated (Fg C1) MMs, and hydrated carbonaceous chondrites. One of the Fluffy Fg MMs contains amorphous silicate, which is richer in Fe than GEMS and contains little or no nanophase Fe metal but contains Fe sulfide. Because the chemical compositions of the amorphous silicate are within the compositional field of GEMS in CP IDPs, the amorphous silicate may be alteration products of GEMS. The entire compositional field of GEMS in the CP MMs and the amorphous silicate in the Fluffy Fg MM matches that of the previously reported total compositional range of GEMS in IDPs. One Fluffy Fg MM contains Mg-rich phyllosilicate along with Fe-rich phyllosilicate and Mg-Fe carbonate. Mg-rich phyllosilicate and Mg-Fe carbonate may have been formed through the reaction of Fe-rich phyllosilicate, Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene, and water with C-bearing chemical species. These data indicate that CP MMs and Fluffy Fg MMs recovered from Antarctic surface snow contain materials that throw a light on the earliest stages of aqueous alteration on very primitive solar system bodies. Because mineralogy and isotopic and structural features of organic materials in D10IB009 are comparable with isotopically primitive IDPs, its parent body could be comets or icy asteroids showing mass ejection (active asteroids). By contrast, organic-poor CP MMs may have experienced the earliest stage of aqueous alteration and Fluffy Fg MMs experienced weak aqueous alteration. The precursor materials of the parent bodies of Fluffy Fg MMs probably contained abundant GEMS or GEMS-like materials like CP IDPs, which is common to fine-grained matrices of very primitive carbonaceous chondrites such as CR3s. However, highly porous nature of organic-poor CP MMs and Fluffy Fg MMs suggests that parent bodies of these MMs must have been much more porous than the parent bodies of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Given no phyllosilicate among the

  15. Does lowering evening rectal temperature to morning levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William R; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Giacomoni, Magali; Robertson, Colin M; Burniston, Jatin G; Waterhouse, James M; Edwards, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral, and central factors and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether decreasing evening resting rectal temperatures to morning values, by immersion in a water tank, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to morning values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 1.3 yrs; body mass, 80.1 ± 7.8 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) completed the study, which was approved by the local ethics committee of the university. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed three sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up on a cycle ergometer at 150 W) and then a further session at 17:30 h but preceded by an immersion in cold water (~16.5 °C) to lower rectal temperature (Trec) to morning values. During each trial, three measures of grip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and three measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric dynamometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Trec, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal comfort (TC) were also measured after the subjects had reclined for 30 min at the start of the protocol and prior to the measures for grip, isokinetic, and isometric dynamometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up or water immersion and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Data were analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures. Trec values were higher at rest in the evening (by 0.37 °C; p < 0.05) than the morning, but

  16. Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

    2013-05-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative

  17. Seasonal variations of cave conditions and drip water stable isotopes from a monitoring study of Raccoon Mountain Caverns, Tennessee, and its implications in interpreting speleothem record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzclaw, C. L.; Gordon, R. D.; Feng, W.; Allard, J.

    2015-12-01

    A two-year monitoring study at Raccoon Mountain Caverns near Chattanooga, Tennessee was carried out in an attempt to establish quantitative relationships between climate signals and drip water stable isotopes for interpreting speleothem paleoclimate records from the cave. Eight field trips were made from Jan. 2014 to Jun. 2015, during which cave meteorological conditions (RH, temperature and cave air CO2 concentration) and drip rate were measured for 5 sites inside the cave. 63 cave drip and pool water samples were collected and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18O and δD values). Cave air temperature varied throughout the study period, the temporal variations ranged at different sites from 2 to 8.4 °C (the greatest variation was observed at sites that are closer to the entrance or surface). These are significantly less than outside temperatures range of 24 °C, but more than observed in other monitored caves. Elevated cave-air CO2 concentration (3200 ppm) and slow drip rate during the summer indicated slowed or stalled growth of calcite. The overall range of δ18O values were -7.1‰ to -4.5‰. A δD vs δ18O diagram yields a slope of 6.1, which falls within the normal range of 6-8 for local Meteoric Water Line. The value is slightly above Global Meteoric Water Line, indicating lack of evaporative effect. Throughout the study period, the δ18O values varied from 0.6 ‰ at some sites to 1.9‰ at others. The largest changes were likely due to the close proximity of collection sites to the surface precipitation. Spatially, for samples collected at each cave trip, different sites displayed variations of δ18O values from 0‰ to 1.7‰. The difference could be attributed to different type of drip sites with varying types of flow paths rainwater takes to the drip sites. The significant seasonal shift of drip water δ18O values and growth conditions indicate importance of consideration of seasonality in interpreting speleothem δ18O record

  18. Development, Production and Validation of the NOAA Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coddington, O.; Lean, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Snow, M. A.; Lindholm, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    A new climate data record of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI), including source code and supporting documentation is now publicly available as part of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Climate Data Record (CDR) Program. Daily and monthly averaged values of TSI and SSI, with associated time and wavelength dependent uncertainties, are estimated from 1882 to the present with yearly averaged values since 1610, updated quarterly for the foreseeable future. The new Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record, jointly developed by the University of Colorado at Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is constructed from solar irradiance models that determine the changes from quiet Sun conditions when bright faculae and dark sunspots are present on the solar disk. The magnitudes of the irradiance changes that these features produce are determined from linear regression of the proxy Mg II index and sunspot area indices against the approximately decade-long solar irradiance measurements made by instruments on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft. We describe the model formulation, uncertainty estimates, operational implementation and validation approach. Future efforts to improve the uncertainty estimates of the Solar Irradiance CDR arising from model assumptions, and augmentation of the solar irradiance reconstructions with direct measurements from the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS: launch date, July 2017) are also discussed.

  19. Photosynthetic production in the Central Arctic during the record sea-ice minimum in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Méndez, M.; Katlein, C.; Rabe, B.; Nicolaus, M.; Peeken, I.; Bakker, K.; Flores, H.; Boetius, A.

    2015-02-01

    The ice-covered Central Arctic Ocean is characterized by low primary productivity due to light and nutrient limitations. The recent reduction in ice cover has the potential to substantially increase phytoplankton primary production, but little is yet known about the fate of the ice-associated primary production and of the nutrient supply with increasing warming. This study presents results from the Central Arctic Ocean collected during summer 2012, when sea-ice reached a minimum extent since the onset of satellite observations. Net primary productivity (NPP) was measured in the water column, sea ice and melt ponds by 14CO2 uptake at different irradiances. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (PI) curves were established in laboratory experiments and used to upscale measured NPP to the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78° N) using the irradiance-based Central Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity (CAOPP) model. In addition, new annual production was calculated from the seasonal nutrient drawdown in the mixed layer since last winter. Results show that ice algae can contribute up to 60% to primary production in the Central Arctic at the end of the season. The ice-covered water column has lower NPP rates than open water due to light limitation. As indicated by the nutrient ratios in the euphotic zone, nitrate was limiting primary production in the deep Eurasian Basin close to the Laptev Sea area, while silicate was the main limiting nutrient at the ice margin near the Atlantic inflow. Although sea-ice cover was substantially reduced in 2012, total annual new production in the Eurasian Basin was 17 ± 7 Tg C yr-1, which is within the range of estimates of previous years. However, when adding the contribution by sub-ice algae, the annual production for the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78° N) could double previous estimates for that area with a surplus of 16 Tg C yr-1. Our data suggest that sub-ice algae are an important component of the ice-covered Central Arctic productivity. It

  20. Experimental records of the effect of food patchiness and predation on egg production of Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, E.; Tiselius, P.; Verity, P.; Paffehofer, G.A. ); Jonsson, P.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The effects of predation and spatial patchiness in food distribution on egg production of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were investigated in the laboratory. A postexperiment egg production method was developed to override the decline in number of copepods due to predation. The copepods were able to remain in food patches about 41-47% of the time, and consequently egg production rates were higher than expected from the average food concentration. Predation by the calanoid copepod Labidocera aestiva tended to increase egg production rates of A. tonsa. The interaction of patchiness and predation resulted in relatively less time spent by A. tonsa in the food patches, probably as a consequence of conflict between hunger level and predation risk. 40 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.