Borthwick, Alan M; Nancarrow, Susan A; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy
Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21) and focus groups (n = 9) with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory), resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation) and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important. PMID:19216783
Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry
Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…
Rhea, Zane Ma
It is the Australian Government's intention that all teachers will have, as a minimum, a proficient level of demonstrable professional expertise in both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. A raft of government policies are giving shape to the engagement of the Australian…
Henderson, Lesley; Jarvis, Jane
The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2016, v.8.2) acknowledges that gifted and talented students are diverse and require educational provisions that meet their special needs. However, without professional learning in gifted education, teachers are ill-equipped to understand, identify and provide for gifted students. This paper reviews the literature…
In the nineteenth century, and particularly during the era which saw the gradual replacement of positional astronomy by astrophysics, amateur astronomers were able to make an important contribution to international astronomy. Many were blessed with instruments comparable to those found in professional observatories; they pursued the same astronomical research programs as their professional colleagues; published in the same journals; received the same medals and awards; and played key roles in the formation of the earliest astronomical groups and societies. In this healthy environment of amateur-professional co-operation it was possible for talented amateur astronomers to transfer to professional ranks, and the "amateur-turned-professional" (henceforth ATP) was a distinctive feature of late nineteenth century astronomy. In this paper we focus on two Australian-based ATPs, R.T.A. Innes and C.J. Merfield, and examine their contributions as amateur astronomers in Sydney before reviewing the circumstances surrounding their transfer to the Cape Observatory (South Africa) and Sydney Observatory, in 1896 and 1904, respectively.
Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W
This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (<19.7%), time spent (<17.2%) and number of efforts performed (<48.0%) at low, moderate and high acceleration and deceleration zones. The results demonstrated that nomadic players and fixed defenders perform more acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match than fixed forwards and ruckman. These studies established that these GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match.
This paper uses a framework analysis to explore the opinions a cohort of Australian academic staff hold towards professional staff. Five indicative themes were identified from the extant literature on university professional staff: the professional other; managerialism; an expensive bureaucracy; complementary agendas; and the third space and…
Fuller, C.; Goodwyn, A.; Francis-Brophy, E.
The teaching profession continues to struggle with defining itself in relation to other professions. Even though public opinion positions teachers second only to doctors and nurses in terms of their professional status and prestige research in the UK suggests that teachers still believe that they have much lower status than other professions. With…
Pruyn, Elizabeth C; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W; Cameron, Matkthew L; Johnston, Richard J
Leg stiffness (Kleg) is an important component to consider in both performance and injury in the Australian Football League (AFL). Kleg has not yet been examined longitudinally throughout an entire AFL season. A unilateral hop test was used to measure Kleg in the left and right legs of 25 professional AFL players (24.9 ± 4.3 years, 86.8 ± 8.1 kg, 187.0 ± 7.3 cm). Kleg was assessed at least once per month for each participant. Furthermore, the session rate of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the average weekly training loads experienced by the participants. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between the average monthly bilateral Kleg scores; however, average weekly training loads varied between 1,400 and 2,000 AU, depending on the training period. Thirteen participants were randomly selected to perform hop tests on 2 consecutive weeks. Reliability tests revealed these measurements to have a typical error of the measurement of 4.15% and an intraclass correlation of 0.8, proving the methods to be reliable. Although training intensity appears to vary, Kleg does not fluctuate significantly across an entire AFL season, suggesting that weekly training loads between 1,400 and 2,000 AU may be prescribed without the risk of fluctuating stiffness levels.
Carver, J. H.
The ``Tyranny of Distance'' has had a profound influence on Australian history and reaction to it has been an important factor in determining national scientific and technological goals. Because of its size and geographical remoteness, Australia is one of the countries to have gained substantially from the applications of space technology particularly in the fields of communications, meteorology and remote sensing. Australia is the fifth largest investor in INTELSAT which carries a major fraction of the nation's overseas telecommunications. A domestic satellite system, AUSSAT, is being acquired to improve telecommunications within the country. Australia is heavily dependent on satellite data for routine meteorological forecasting. Data from the Australian Landsat Station are in strong demand, particularly for mineral exploration. In the field of space science, Australia is collaborating with Canada and the United States in feasibility studies for STARLAB, a free-flying UV-optical one metre telescope proposed for launch by the US Space Shuttle beginning in 1989. These scientific and technological programs in which Australia is participating are all dependent upon the space programs of other nations and in describing the status of space science and technology from an Australian perspective some comments will be made on particular aspects of the space programs of the United States and Japan.
Brennan, Barrie, Ed.
This book is a critical appraisal of continuing education for Australian professionals. Part 1 sets the scene, with an introduction in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 examines the key terms from a number of perspectives to provide an overview of the context in which all professionals practice in Australia. Chapter 3 provides a broad framework for the…
Simpson, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Tanya
The effects of gender on organisational structures for professional university staff have been largely overlooked in the literature. Using data from one Australian university, we examine the location of professional female staff in the organisational hierarchy. Our analysis indicated that significant gendered segregation existed within and across…
Timmons, Stephen; East, Linda
Despite their comparative neglect analytically, uniforms play a key role in the delineation of occupational boundaries and the formation of professional identity in healthcare. This paper analyses a change to the system of uniforms in one UK hospital, where management have required all professions (with the exception of doctors) to wear the same 'corporate' uniform. Focus groups were conducted with the professionals and patients. We analyse this initiative as a kind of McDonaldisation, seeking to create a new 'corporate' worker whose allegiance is principally to the organisation, rather than a profession. Our findings show how important uniforms are to their wearers, both in terms of the defence of professional boundaries and status, as well as the construction of professional identity.
Faunce, Thomas; McKenna, Michael; Rayner, Johanna; Hawes, Jazmin
In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection  HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. This legislation was previously heavily criticised by the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. The third concerns the deregistration of Tareq Kamleh, an Australian doctor of German-Palestinian heritage who came to public attention on ANZAC Day 2015 with his appearance online in a propaganda video for the Islamic State terrorist organisation al-Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa'al Sham, also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh. Australia's professional regulatory system should presumptively respect professional virtues, such as loyalty to the relief of individual patient suffering, when dealing with doctors (whether in Australia or ISIS-occupied Syria) working under regimes whose principles appear inconsistent with those of ethics and human rights.
Liyanage, Indika; Walker, Tony; Singh, Parlo
Australian teacher education programmes that prepare teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) are confronting the nexus of two facets of globalization: transformations in the Asian region, captured in the notion of the "Asian century", and shifting conceptions of professionalism in TESOL in non-compulsory education. In…
Sutherland, Jane; Remine, Maria D.; Brown, P. Margaret
This study investigated the views of parents, newborn hearing screeners and Telethon Speech and Hearing (TSH) professionals of the Western Australian Infant Screening for Hearing (WISH) Program. Three questionnaires were used to gather information from the participants. Sixteen responses to the questionnaire were obtained (five parents, five…
This article confirms the reliability of a protean and boundaryless career attitudes scale, tested in a pilot study. Additionally, it summarises the results of this study into the career attitudes of professional staff in Australian and UK universities. A mixed methods approach was taken using a survey consisting of both closed questions on a…
Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan
Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.
Holt, Dale; McGuigan, Nicholas; Kavanagh, Marie; Leitch, Shona; Ngo, Leanne; Salzman, Scott; Watty, Kim; McKay, Jade
This paper represents a major stage of data collection and reporting on an Australian Office for Learning and Teaching Innovation and Development grant investigating the adoption of ePortfolios for developing and assessing professional capabilities in Australian undergraduate business education. Assessing desired capabilities with and through…
Corboz, Julienne; Flood, Michael; Dyson, Sue
Programs aimed at preventing violence against women have increasingly adopted bystander approaches, yet large gaps remain in our knowledge about what drives bystanders to act or not, particularly in settings where there is an increased risk of violence against women occurring. This article contributes to this gap by examining data from research with professional male athletes from the Australian Football League. Drawing from a mixed methods approach, including a survey and interviews with football players, we outline some of the challenges to bystander intervention faced by professional athletes and discuss some of the possible similarities and differences between these and other groups of men.
The scandal of health professionals' involvement in recent human rights abuses in United States military detention centres has prompted concern that Australian military physicians should be well protected against similar pressures to participate in harsh interrogations. A framework of military health ethics has been proposed. Would a code of professional conduct be a partial solution? This article examines the utility of professional codes: can they transform unethical behaviour or are they only of value to those who already behave ethically? How should such codes be designed, what support mechanisms should be in place and how should complaints be managed? A key recommendation is that codes of professional conduct should be accompanied by publicly transparent procedures for the investigation of serious infractions and appropriate disciplinary action when proven. The training of military physicians should also aim to develop a sound understanding of both humanitarian and human rights law. At present, both civil and military education of physicians generally lacks any component of human rights law. The Australian Defence Force (ADF) seems well placed to add codes of professional conduct to its existing ethical framework because of strong support at the highest executive levels.
Whitehouse, Timothy; Orr, Robin; Fitzgerald, Edward; Harries, Simon; McLellan, Christopher P.
Background: Rugby union is a collision-based ball sport played at the professional level internationally. Rugby union has one of the highest reported incidences of injury of all team sports. Purpose: To identify the characteristics, incidence, and severity of injuries occurring in Australian professional Super Rugby Union. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The present study was a prospective epidemiology study on a cohort of 180 professional players from 5 Australian Super Rugby teams during the 2014 Super Rugby Union Tournament. Team medical staff collected and submitted daily training and match-play injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. The injury data included the main anatomic location of the injury, specific anatomic structure of the injury, injury diagnosis, training or match injury occurrence, main player position, mechanism of injury, and the severity of the injury quantified based on the number of days lost from training and/or competition due to injury. Results: The total combined incidence rate for injury during training and match-play across all Australian Super Rugby Union teams was 6.96 per 1000 hours, with a mean injury severity of 37.45 days lost from training and competition. The match-play injury incidence rate was 66.07 per 1000 hours, with a mean severity of 39.80 days lost from training and competition. No significant differences were observed between forward- and back-playing positions for match or training injury incidence rate or severity. Conclusion: The incidence of injury for the present study was lower during match-play than has previously been reported in professional rugby union; however, the overall time loss was higher compared with previous studies in professional rugby union. The high overall time loss was due fundamentally to a high incidence of injuries with greater than 28 days’ severity. PMID:27069947
Large-scale school/university partnerships for the enhancement of teacher professionalism and teacher professional learning have been part of the teacher development landscape in Australia for the past two decades. This paper takes a historical perspective on Australian school/university partnerships through detailing three national projects over…
Johnston, G.; Dawson, J. H.
Over the last decade, the Australian government has through programs like AuScope, the Asia Pacific Reference Frame (APREF), and the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring (PSLM) Project made a significant contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Program. In addition to supporting the national research priorities, this contribution is justified by Australia's growing economic dependence on precise positioning to underpin efficient transportation, geospatial data management, and industrial automation (e.g., robotic mining and precision agriculture) and the consequent need for the government to guarantee provision of precise positioning products to the Australian community. It is also well recognised within Australia that there is an opportunity to exploit our near unique position as being one of the few regions in the world to see all new and emerging satellite navigation systems including Galileo (Europe), GPS III (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Beidou (China), QZSS (Japan) and IRNSS (India). It is in this context that the Australian geodetic program will build on earlier efforts and further develop its key geodetic capabilities. This will include the creation of an independent GNSS analysis capability that will enable Australia to contribute to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and an upgrade of key geodetic infrastructure including the national VLBI and GNSS arrays. This presentation will overview the significant geodetic activities undertaken by the Australian government and highlight its future plans.
Teacher in Australia is determined as an active participant of professional community with high level of collaboration, professional development coherent activities and collaborative learning practice. Thus, teacher quality is one of critical factors affecting student outcomes. The article touches upon the issue of the potential to improve…
McGrath, Pam; Henderson, David; Holewa, Hamish
Issues associated with speech and language have been noted in the international literature as an important aspect of the process of integration for Australian International Medical Graduates (IMGs). This paper makes a contribution through the presentation of a sub-set of findings on the factors associated with speech and language practices for IMGs, taken from a qualitative study which examined the IMGs' experience of integration into the Australian healthcare system. A purposive sample of 30 IMGs were interviewed via telephone. Participants were asked to share their experience with communicating in English with patients and other health professionals in the context of the Australian healthcare system. The taped interviews were transcribed verbatim and then coded and thematically analysed. The findings indicate that the months following the point of entry into a medical position are a critical time for the majority of IMGs in terms of difficulties with communicating in English. A range of suggestions to improve speech and language skills for IMGs is provided. The findings emphasize the importance of speech and language skills and the serious implications of this issue for the clinical practice of IMGs.
Glover, C.; McKinlay, J.; Clift, M.; Barg, B.; Boldeman, J.; Ridgway, M.; Foran, G.; Garret, R.; Lay, P.; Broadbent, A.
We present herein the current status of the X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Beamline at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. The optical design and performance, details of the insertion device (Wiggler), end station capabilities and construction and commissioning timeline are given.
Devlin, Marcia; McKay, Jade
Australian higher education has adopted a widening participation agenda with a focus on the participation of disadvantaged students, particularly those from low socioeconomic status (LSES) backgrounds. As these students begin to enter university in greater number and proportion than ever before, there is increasing interest in how best to…
A requirement of many nurses in the process of licensing for practice each year is a declaration of continuing competence to practice. In Australia, each state and territory currently has its own regulatory authority for nurses and midwives, whose main role is to protect public safety. Like many other registering authorities in the Asia-Pacific region, Australian regulatory authorities undertake the random auditing of nurses and midwives in order to assess their competence to practice. Professional portfolios commonly are considered to be a tool that nurses can use to demonstrate to regulatory authorities, employers, and others how they meet the required competencies. This article examines the different types of portfolios that fall under the umbrella term, professional portfolio, and recommends that nurses explore the strategies that identify evidence of their continuing competence to practice for inclusion in such a document.
Rolls, Kaye Denise; Hansen, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug
Social media platforms can create virtual communities, enabling healthcare professionals to network with a broad range of colleagues and facilitate knowledge exchange. In 2003, an Australian state health department established an intensive care mailing list to address the professional isolation experienced by senior intensive care nurses. This article describes the social network created within this virtual community by examining how the membership profile evolved from 2003 to 2009. A retrospective descriptive design was used. The data source was a deidentified member database. Since 2003, 1340 healthcare professionals subscribed to the virtual community with 78% of these (n = 1042) still members at the end of 2009. The membership profile has evolved from a single-state nurse-specific network to an Australia-wide multidisciplinary and multiorganizational intensive care network. The uptake and retention of membership by intensive care clinicians indicated that they appeared to value involvement in this virtual community. For healthcare organizations, a virtual community may be a communications option for minimizing professional and organizational barriers and promoting knowledge flow. Further research is, however, required to demonstrate a link between these broader social networks, enabling the exchange of knowledge and improved patient outcomes.
Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91) or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90) in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity) and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond. PMID:22314050
Pruyn, Elizabeth C; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W; Cameron, Matthew L; Johnston, Richard J
Leg stiffness is a modifiable mechanical property that may be related to soft tissue injury risk. The purpose of this study was to examine mean leg stiffness and bilateral differences in leg stiffness across an entire professional Australian Football League (AFL) season, and determine whether this parameter was related to the incidence of lower body soft tissue injury. The stiffness of the left and right legs of 39 professional AFL players (age 24.4 ± 4.4 years, body mass 87.4 ± 8.1 kg, stature 1.87 ± 0.07 m) was measured using a unilateral hopping test at least once per month throughout the season. Injury data were obtained directly from the head medical officer at the football club. Mean leg stiffness and bilateral differences in leg stiffness were compared between the injured and non-injured players. There was no difference between the season mean leg stiffness values for the injured (219.3 ± 16.1 N x m(-1) x kg(-1)) and non-injured (217.4 ± 14.9 N x m(-1) x kg(-1); P = 0.721) groups. The injured group (7.5 ± 3.0%) recorded a significantly higher season mean bilateral difference in leg stiffness than the non-injured group (5.5 ± 1.3%; P = 0.05). A relatively high bilateral difference in leg stiffness appears to be related to the incidence of soft tissue injury in Australian football players. This information is of particular importance to medical and conditioning staff across a variety of sports.
The sociopolitical movement to enhance youth workers' occupational status and related emoluments strategically links this goal to competency-based assessment. While the goals of improved conditions, remuneration, and career opportunities for workers is supported, the joining of those goals to both professionalization and in turn competency-based…
A PILOT STUDY PREPARED FOR THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMPARES ADULT EDUCATOR STATUS, RECRUITMENT, AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN FRANCE, FLANDERS (BELGIUM), WEST GERMANY, THE NETHERLANDS, NORWAY, AND THE UNITED KINGDOM. MAJOR CONCERNS INCLUDE SALARIES AND BENEFITS, QUALIFICATIONS, INSERVICE TRAINING, SPONSORING BODIES, ATTITUDES TOWARD FORMAL STAFF…
Background Dehydration is a health risk for miners in tropical regions of Australia. However, it is not known whether dehydration poses a health risk to miners working in temperate regions of Australia. Methods A cross-sectional study of 88 miners from two underground mines was undertaken in south-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Participants had their height, weight, waist circumference and hydration status measured and completed a self-administered questionnaire on fluid intake, access to water, and socio-demographic characteristics. Health and Safety managers were surveyed about guidelines relating to healthy work and lifestyle behaviours which impact/influence hydration. Results Hydration tests indicated that more than half of the miners (approximately 58%) were dehydrated (Urinary Specific Gravity (USG) >1.020) both before and after their shift, with three workers pre-shift and four workers post-shift displaying clinical dehydration (USG>1.030). Overall, 54.0% of participants were overweight and 36.8% were obese. Miners who commenced the shift with poor hydration status were 2.6 times more likely to end the shift with poor hydration, compared to those who commenced the shift with good hydration (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.06, 6.44). Miners who had a mean USG result for the entire shift indicating dehydration were more likely to be obese (42.9%) and have a waist measurement in the high risk range for metabolic complications (40.8%) than those workers that were adequately hydrated for their entire shift (29.4% and 14.7% respectively). Some guidelines promoting healthy lifestyles and supportive work environments were in place, but there were limited guidelines on healthy weight and hydration. Conclusions Dehydration, being overweight and obesity were linked issues in this cohort of miners. Strategies are needed to: adapt the workplace environment to increase water accessibility; encourage appropriate consumption of water both at work and at home; and to promote physical
Across the "European learning space" (Lawn, 2006) professionalisation of early years workforces has become a key priority and there has been a flow of this policy between borders (Oberhuemer, 2005). Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) is central to these developments in England. Within what is regarded as a traditionally…
Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele
Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) were recently described as a new species endemic to northern Australia and potentially southern New Guinea. We assessed the species conservation status against IUCN Red List Criteria using available information on their biology, ecology and threatening processes. Knowledge of population sizes and trends across the species range is lacking. Recent genetic studies indicate Australian humpback dolphins live in small and relatively isolated populations with limited gene flow among them. The available abundance estimates range from 14 to 207 individuals and no population studied to date is estimated to contain more than 104 mature individuals. The Potential Biological Removal method indicates populations are vulnerable to even low rates of anthropogenic mortality. Habitat degradation and loss is ongoing and expected to increase across the species range in Australia, and a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is anticipated. Considering the available evidence and following a precautionary approach, we considered this species as Vulnerable under IUCN criterion C2a(i) because the total number of mature individuals is plausibly fewer than 10,000, an inferred continuing decline due to cumulative impacts, and each of the populations studied to date is estimated to contain fewer than 1000 mature individuals. Ongoing research efforts and recently developed research strategies and priorities will provide valuable information towards the future conservation and management of Australian humpback dolphins.
Alliman, Sarah; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Bartels, Dianne M; Lian, Fengqin; James, Carolyn; LeRoy, Bonnie S
Ethical issues are an inevitable part of genetic counseling practice. Prior research identified 16 domains of ethical and professional challenges encountered by practitioners in the United States. In order to further validate these domains, the present study surveyed Australian genetic counselors. Sixty-three respondents rated the frequency with which they encountered each domain, and 39 individuals also provided personal anecdotes detailing their most challenging ethical and professional dilemmas. Every domain reportedly was experienced by the Australian sample. However, there were some differences between Australian respondents and U.S. genetic counselors in frequencies of domain occurrence, and in strategies recommended for resolving them. Several anecdotes illustrate challenging situations due to Australia's geography, universal healthcare system, and the genetic counseling profession's evolution in that country. The results generally validate domains identified for U.S. genetic counselors. They further suggest that certain ethical issues may manifest in ways unique to a given country, and therefore they must be addressed in a culturally-appropriate manner.
Perkins, A; Kron, T
In November 2004, the Australian federal government allocated $775,000 to individual Australian radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) to access continuing professional development (CPD) activities. The funding was administered by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM). In order to receive funding, individuals had to submit an application to ACPSEM, which assessed each application and distributed funds to successful applicants. 248 separate applications were received from 143 individuals in two rounds of applications. Information from the applications was collated and analysed, with the aim of identifying patterns that will be of use in future planning for CPD. This paper presents a summary of the information extracted from the analysis.
Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil
The high school setting has been identified as an ideal setting to teach adolescents about healthy dietary behaviours. This study explored home economics teachers' (HETs) views on the role of high schools in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and promoting healthy dietary behaviours. Semi-structured interviews with 22 HETs were conducted. The interview questions focused on the perceived strengths/opportunities and the limitations/barriers in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and healthy dietary behaviours in Australian high schools. Thematic data analysis was used to identify five key themes from the interview transcripts: (1) the standing of food-related life skills; (2) food literacy in the Australian school curriculum; (3) emphasis on resources; (4) learning through school canteens; and (5) building a school to home and community nexus. Overall, HETs reported that home economics was regarded by parents and other school staff to be less important than Maths or English for adolescents to learn in Australian high schools. Some teachers indicated that their schools offered one year compulsory teaching of food related studies which is typically delivered in the leaning areas of Technologies or Health and Physical Education (HPE). However, HETs stated that the time was insufficient to develop sustainable food-related life skills and introduce broader concepts of food literacy such as environmental sustainability. The lack of financial resources and non-supportive school food environments, including school canteens, were reportedly major factors that prevented food literacy education and healthy dietary behaviours of adolescents. Increasing the status of food literacy education in schools would support adolescents to develop food-related life skills and mobilise them as agents of dietary behaviour change in the home setting.
Kelly, Marguerite; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Boislard-P., Marie-Aude
The most common dating goals of adolescents are identity, intimacy, status and sex. In this study of Australian youth (16-30 years, N = 208), dating goals were expected to explain goal-consistent behavior in each domain. Also, goals coupled with consistent behavior were expected to be associated with greater satisfaction in each domain. Age,…
Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal
Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an…
Faculty status, tenure, and professional identity have been long-lasting issues for academic librarians for nearly forty years, yet there is little agreement on the benefits of faculty status. This paper examines faculty status and tenure for academic librarians and presents the results of a survey inquiry into professional identity, current and…
Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja
Vietnamese immigrants represent a substantial culturally and linguistically diverse population of Australia, but little is known about the health-related effects of acculturation in this population. This study investigated the relationship between measures of acculturation and lifestyle behaviors and health status among 797 older Vietnam-born Australians who participated in the 45 and Up Study (www.45andup.org.au). The findings suggested that higher degrees of acculturation were associated with increased consumption of red meat, white meat, and seafood; higher levels of physical activities; and lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and smoking (in men). Targeted health messages could emphasize eating more vegetables, avoiding smoking and alcohol drinking, and increasing levels of physical activity.
Hoare, Erin; Millar, Lynne; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Nichols, Melanie; Malakellis, Mary; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven
Objectives Adolescence is a period of increased risk for mental health problems and development of associated lifestyle risk behaviours. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesogenic risk factors, weight status, and depressive symptomatology in a cohort of Australian adolescents. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The study used repeated measures data from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) It's Your Move project, an Australian community-based obesity prevention intervention. Intervention effect was non-significant therefore intervention and comparison groups were combined in this study. Participants Total sample was 634 secondary school students (female n=338, male n=296) with mean age 13 years (SD=0.6) at baseline (2012) and 15 years (SD=0.6) at follow-up (2014) recruited from 6 government secondary schools in the ACT. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Primary outcome was depressive symptomatology measured by Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were weight status, physical activity, screen time and diet related measures. Results Increased physical activity was associated to lower depressive symptomatology among males (OR=0.35, p<0.05). Sweet drink (OR=1.15, p<0.05) and takeaway consumption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptomatology among females at follow-up. Males who were classified as overweight or obese at baseline, and remained so over the study period, were at increased risk of depressive symptomatology at follow-up (b=1.63, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.92). Inactivity among males over the 2-year study period was predictive of higher depressive symptomatology scores at follow-up (b=2.55, 95% CI 0.78 to 4.32). For females, those who increased their consumption of takeaway foods during the study period were at increased risk for developing depressive symptomatology (b=1.82, 95% CI −0.05 to 3.71). Conclusions There are multiple, probably complex
Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson
Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important.
Northcott, Paul; Holt, Dale
Analyzes collaboration between Australian Society of Accountants and Deakin University in designing, developing, delivering, and evaluating an inservice distance education program for practicing accountants. The developers' role as educational technologists and their contributions to material development, test construction, testing, and program…
Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer; Shepherd, Wendy
The early childhood education (ECE) sector in Australia is marked by a habitus where "professionalism" is confined to objective, technical practices. The authors suggest that this is a diminished view of professionalism, and one that compromises high-quality ECE. This article is concerned with how teacher professionalism can be…
Wang, Zaimin; Byrne, Nuala M; Kenardy, Justin A; Hills, Andrew P
The present study examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, body dissatisfaction, and eating behaviours of 10- to 18-year-old children and adolescents. The study participants (N = 768) were categorised as Caucasian (74.7%), Chinese or Vietnamese (18.2%), and Italian or Greek (7.0%), and high (82%), middle (8.6%), and low SES (9.4%) according to parents' occupations. The chi(2), Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression model were used to determine the interaction between variables. Females and older participants were more likely to desire a body figure that was thinner than their perceived current figure. Furthermore, the same groups were also more likely to be preoccupied with eating problems (females 7.1% vs. males 1.4%; for participants aged 15-18 years, 7.8% vs. participants aged 10-14 years, 3.9%). The body dissatisfaction gender difference was females 42.8% vs. males 11.8%, and participants aged 15-18 years 41.7% vs. those aged 10-14 years, 28.3%. Participants whose parents were managers/professionals were more likely to desire a body figure that was thinner than their perceived current figure than those from white-collar and blue-collar families. This was also the case for Caucasian Australians compared to those from Chinese or Vietnamese backgrounds. In conclusion, age and gender differences in body image and problems in eating behaviour were evident among children and adolescents. However, there was no significant SES and ethnic difference in the proportion of participants with eating problems and body dissatisfaction.
Page, James S.
Soft law, that is, regulation which is technically unenforceable, is one means whereby international ethical and professional standards are now increasingly enunciated. This paper looks at one specific standard-setting instrument, the 1997 UNESCO "Recommendation concerning the status of higher education teaching personnel," and…
This paper reveals how the provision of teacher professional development is conceptualised within the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme (AGQTP) policy text and its predecessors, and uses these texts to infer the nature of the production practices associated with the development of these policies. The paper argues that multiple…
Phongsavan, Philayrath; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian; Brooks, Robert; Silove, Derrick
High levels of social capital may be associated with positive mental health in adults. However, quantifying the various dimensions of social capital has presented a challenge due in part to the diverse definitions and measures used. Data from a representative, population-wide survey of Australian adults aged 16 years and older were used to investigate the links between dimensions of social capital and mental health morbidity. Social capital comprised three constructs and was measured at the individual level: feelings of trust and safety, community participation and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity. Mental health was measured by the 10-item Kessler (K10) instrument and assessed symptoms of psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) over the previous month. Community participation showed a weak, and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity a moderate association with distress. Having higher levels of trust and feeling safe were consistently associated with low levels of psychological distress, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that having trust in people, feeling safe in the community and having social reciprocity are associated with lower risk of mental health distress. The implications for conceptualising and measuring the individual and collective (contextual) dimensions of social capital are discussed. The findings also suggest the importance of examining the interrelationships between socio-economic status, social capital and mental health for community-dwelling adults.
Tan, Jacintha A. C.; Morgan, Damian J.
Survey responses from 56 tourism educators and 100 professionals indicate that one-quarter of the professionals believe the tourism major gives graduates a competitive edge. Competencies in logical thinking, social interaction, content knowledge, and generic skills were outcomes identified by both groups. Communication between academics and…
Professional standards for the teaching profession have received considerable attention over the last decade in Australia and internationally. Teachers of languages and cultures in Australia have been active in this period in developing their own professional standards, supported by a series of nationally funded projects arising from federal…
Veles, Natalia; Carter, Margaret-Anne
In the last decade there has been a shift in the discourses around professional staff in higher education that has been influenced by neoliberal agenda that focused on driving education reforms. Earlier discussions centring around nomenclature variations have progressed to those about creating and developing borderless professionals operating in…
Australian Coll. of Education, Curtin.
This discussion paper provides a rationale for the development of professional teaching standards in Australia. It is the result of a 2000 national forum on professional teaching standards held in Melbourne, Australia, which included 150 educators who explored contemporary issues associated with such standards and constructed a framework for…
Nordby, Gene M.
Describes problems associated with accreditation of professional engineering programs and the new accreditation procedures used by the Engineering Education and Accreditation Committee of ECPD (Engineers Council for Professional Development). (PR)
Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Han, Feifei
The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching…
The article examines the status and knowledge contributions of professional doctorates (PDs) undertaken by practising professionals who in most cases are not intending to join the academic community. The purpose of these doctorates is usually to research and develop an original contribution to practice through practitioner-research. Giving greater…
Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate; Livingston, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J
The purpose of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in body composition, nutrition, and upper-body (UB) strength in professional Australian Football (AF) players. The prospective longitudinal study examined changes in anthropometry (body mass, fat-free soft-tissue mass [FFSTM], and fat mass) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 5 times during an AF season (start preseason, midpreseason, start season, midseason, end season) in 45 professional AF players. Dietary intakes and strength (bench press and bench pull) were also assessed at these time points. Players were categorized as experienced (>4 y experience, n = 23) or inexperienced (<4 y experience, n = 22). Fat mass decreased during the preseason but was stable through the in-season for both groups. %FFSTM was increased during the preseason and remained constant thereafter. UB strength increased during the preseason and was maintained during the in-season. Changes in UB FFSTM were related to changes in UB-strength performance (r = .37-.40). Total energy and carbohydrate intakes were similar between the experienced and inexperienced players during the season, but there was a greater ratio of dietary fat intake at the start-preseason point and an increased alcohol, reduced protein, and increased total energy intake at the end of the season. The inexperienced players consumed more fat at the start of season and less total protein during the season than the experienced players. Coaches should also be aware that it can take >1 y to develop the appropriate levels of FFSTM in young players and take a long-term view when developing the physical and performance abilities of inexperienced players.
Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations.
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385
McDonald, Ruth; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Sanders, Caroline; Ashcroft, Darren
The health professions are engaged in an ongoing and dynamic process involving reflection and adaptation, with factors such as socio-economic and cultural developments and technological innovations compelling professions to respond to changed circumstances. This paper concerns English community pharmacy, where recent reforms provide financial incentives to deliver interventions, which have the potential for pharmacists to promote their knowledge and skills, as part of a professionalising strategy. The paper, drawing on interviews with 49 pharmacists, describes how responses to reforms are not necessarily in accordance with either national policy goals or enhancement of professional status. Debates about professional status and role extension have often focused on health professions' subordination to medicine. This paper highlights the importance and interplay of other factors which help explain the inability to capitalise fully on the potential contribution to professional status, which reforms to extend professional roles afford.
Davis, Kierrynn; Brownie, Sonya; Doran, Frances; Evans, Sue; Hutchinson, Marie; Mozolic-Staunton, Beth; Provost, Stephen; van Aken, Rosalie
The worldwide academic workforce is ageing. At the same time, health and human services workforces are expanding. The preparation of educators to fill gaps in expertise and to position the health sciences for future growth is an urgent need. The findings from a recent action learning project that aimed to enhance the professional growth and development of higher degree researcher student supervisors in a School of Health and Human Sciences are presented. Seven early career researchers and the facilitator met for two hours every two to three weeks over 4 months between April and July 2010, in a rural and regional university in New South Wales, Australia. The processes initiated were a combination of experiential knowledge, referral to relevant published reports, use of an effective supervision checklist, and critical conversations. Learning outcomes centered on higher degree management and supervision pedagogy, communities of practice, knowledge translation, and the establishment of a research culture. The contextual barriers and implications of the methodology and learning outcomes for the professional development of health and human science practitioners, researchers and educators is also discussed.
Usher, Wayne T
This study was concerned with identifying reasons behind patterns of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major health professions. Attention was given to uncovering some of the more significant motivations for the resistance or adoption of Web 2.0 technologies for health care delivery and practice promotion by Australian health professionals. Surveys were developed from a common set of questions with specific variations between professions negotiated with professional health societies. Survey questions were constructed in an attempt to identify Web 2.0 adoption trends. An online survey (www.limesurvey.org) was used to collect data. Initial data preparation involved the development of one integrated SPSS file to incorporate all responses from the eight surveys undertaken. Initial data analysis applied Frequencies and Crosstabs to the identified groups and provided a profile of respondents by key business and demographic characteristics. Of the 935 respondents, 9.5% of participants indicated that they used Web 2.0 for their professional work, 19.1% of them did not use it for work but used it for their personal needs and 71.3% of them did not use Web 2.0 at all. Participants have indicated that the main reason for 'choosing not to adopt' Web 2.0 applications as a way of delivering health care to their patients is due to the health professionals' lack of understanding of Web 2.0 (83.3%), while the main reason for 'choosing to adopt' Web 2.0 applications is the perception of Web 2.0 as a quick and effective method of communication (73.0%). This study has indicated that Australian health professionals 'choose not to adopt' Web 2.0 usage as a way of delivering health care primarily due to 'a lack of understanding as to how social media would be used in health care' (83.3%). This study identifies that Australian health professionals are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies in their private lives but are failing to see how such technologies
Kroezen, Marieke; van Dijk, Liset; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Francke, Anneke L.
Over the past decades, professional boundaries in health care have come under pressure, and the expansion of prescriptive authority to include nurses touches on issues of professional domains and interprofessional competition. Knowledge claims play an important role in achieving jurisdictional control. Knowledge can take on multiple forms, ranging from indeterminate to technical (I/T ratio) and from everyday to exclusive knowledge. To investigate the interrelatedness of jurisdiction, knowledge claims and professional status, we examine which knowledge claims were made by the medical and nursing professions in the Netherlands to secure or obtain, respectively, jurisdictional control over prescribing, and which form this knowledge took. The study is based on thirteen semi-structured stakeholder interviews and an extensive document analysis. We found that the nursing profession in its knowledge claims strongly emphasized the technicality and everyday knowledge character of the prescribing task, by asserting that nurses were already prescribing medicines, albeit on an illegal basis. Their second claim focused on the indeterminate knowledge skills of nurses and stated that nurse prescribing would do justice to nurses’ skills and expertise. This is a strong claim in a quest for (higher) professional status. Results showed that the medical profession initially proclaimed that prescribing should be reserved for doctors as it is a task requiring medical knowledge, i.e. indeterminate knowledge. Gradually, however, the medical profession adjusted its claims and tried to reduce nurse prescribing to a task almost exclusively based on technicality knowledge, among others by stating that nurses could prescribe in routine cases, which would generate little professional status. By investigating the form that professional knowledge claims took, this study was able to show the interconnectedness of jurisdictional control, knowledge claims and professional status. Knowledge claims
Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, sub-elite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and sub-elite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > 0.05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r(2) = 0.051, p = 0.039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
Hays, Steven W.; Duke, Bruce
Provides a status report on the accomplishments of 16 Certified Public Manager (CPM) certification programs. Describes the growth and development of the program and argues that the interests of the public management community might be served if CPM and Master of Public Administration programs were to cooperate more aggressively. (Author/JOW)
"How helpful and how necessary is it for at least some of us to see ourselves as professional educational researchers?" asked Donald McIntyre in his 1996 presidential address to the British Educational Research Association. Still pertinent to consideration of the direction in which the British educational research community ought to…
Bai, Peter Y.; Wittert, Gary A.; Taylor, Anne W.; Martin, Sean A.; Milne, Robert W.; Shi, Zumin
Objective To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. Method We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Results Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5–117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (p<0.001), were positively associated with total phthalate levels. There was no significant relationship between total phthalate concentration and socio-demographic status. Conclusion Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men. PMID:25875472
Ellis, G L
Since Public Law 92-603 was enacted in October 1972 considerable progress has been made in the establishment of Professional Standards Review Organizations (PSROs) for the purpose of determining the necessity, appropriateness, and quality of medical care provided beneficiaries of the major programs authorized in the Social Security Act. Sixty-five conditional PSROs are implementing review in acute care hospitals in their geographic area, and 55 planning groups are developing plans to qualify for conditional PSRO designation. The PSRO hospital review system is based on three interrelated review mechanisms. These are concurrent review, which includes admission certification, and continued stay review through discharge; medical care evaluation studies; and analysis of hospital, practitioner, and patient profiles. This article describes the review system in some detail and the potential opportunities the PSRO program offers to occupational therapists.
Crowe, D. S.
Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)
Andersen, Lotte B
The demand for publicly subsidized health care services is insatiable, but the costs can be contained in different ways: formal rules can limit access to and the number of subsidized services, demand and supply can be regulated through the price mechanism, the relevant profession can contain the costs through state-sanctioned self-regulation, and other professions can contain the costs (e.g. through referrals). The use of these cost containment measures varies between countries, depending on demand and supply factors, but the relative professional status of the health professions may help explain why different countries use cost containment measures differently for different services. This article compares cost containment measures in Denmark and Norway because these countries vary with regard to the professional status of the medical profession relative to other health care providers, while other relevant variables are approximately similar. The investigation is based on formal agreements and rules, historical documents, existing analyses and an analysis of 360 newspaper articles. It shows that high relative professional status seems to help professions to avoid user fees, steer clear of regulation from other professions and regulate the services produced by others. This implies that relative professional status should be taken into consideration in analyses of health care cost containment.
Kapitulik, Brian P.; Rowell, Katherine R.; Smith, Michelle A.; Amaya, Nicole V.
In this article, we utilize national survey data to assess the professional status of full-time sociology faculty in community colleges. Traditionally, sociologists have argued that for a particular type of work to be conceptualized as a profession, it must meet certain criteria, such as: esoteric knowledge and skills, high levels of workplace…
Shen, Jianping; Hsieh, Chia-lin
Examined future teachers', current teachers', and teacher educators' attitudes regarding various suggestions for improving the professional status of teaching. All groups rated extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for teaching the most important. They considered raising the standards of preservice programs and teacher certification important and…
Liu, Z; Ye, W
More and more allied health professions are getting involved in clinical health care. One estimate reported allied health personnel makes up 60 percent of the total health workforce. In Asia, in the field of cardiothoracic surgery, allied health personnel includes perfusionists, physician assistants, physiotherapist, intensivists, rehabilitation therapists, nutritionists and social workers. They work in collaboration with surgeons to provide a range of diagnostic, technical, therapeutic, cardiac care and support services to the patients and their families.Some allied health professions are more specialized. They must adhere to national training and education standards and their professional scope of practice. For example, the training of perfusionists consists of at least five years of academic in medical schools and another three-year-long clinical training in the hospital. The cardiac intensivists usually are medical doctors with a background in cardiology. They spend 3-4 years rotating in Internal Medicine, Anesthesiology, Emergency Rooms and Intensive Care Units. There have specialized medical societies to grant certified credentials and to provide continuing education. Other allied health professions require no special training or credentials and are trained for their work by the hospitals through on-the-job training. Many young health care providers are getting involved in the allied health personnel projects. They consider this as a career ladder because of the opportunities for advancement within specific fields.
Lucas, Robyn M; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dear, Keith; Valery, Patricia C; Taylor, Bruce; van der Mei, Ingrid; McMichael, Anthony J; Pender, Michael P; Chapman, Caron; Coulthard, Alan; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Stankovich, Jim; Williams, David; Dwyer, Terence
Vitamin D deficiency is common and implicated in risk of several human diseases. Evidence on the relative quantitative contribution of environmental, genetic and phenotypic factors to vitamin D status (assessed by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) in free-living populations is sparse. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 494 Caucasian adults aged 18-61years, randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll according to groups defined by age, sex and region (spanning 27°-43°South). Data collected included personal characteristics, sun exposure behaviour, biomarkers of skin type and past sun exposure, serum 25(OH)D concentration and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels in the month six weeks before blood sampling best predicted vitamin D status. Serum 25(OH)D concentration increased by 10nmol/L as reported time in the sun doubled. Overall, 54% of the variation in serum 25(OH)D concentration could be accounted for: 36% of the variation was explained by sun exposure-related factors; 14% by genetic factors (including epistasis) and 3.5% by direct measures of skin phenotype. Novel findings from this study are demonstration of gene epistasis, and quantification of the relative contribution of a wide range of environmental, constitutional and genetic factors to vitamin D status. Ambient UVR levels and time in the sun were of prime importance but it is nonetheless important to include the contribution of genetic factors when considering sun exposure effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.
Brear, Pamela D.; Dorrian, Jillian
This Australian national study was undertaken to profile the unsuitable counselling student, and to achieve greater operational specificity to guide counselling educators who must make critical decisions that impact admittance to the counselling profession. Findings suggest that in every 25 students as many as three will have questionable…
Williams, Susan L; Ronan, Kevin
A limited number of studies have examined the 'miniaturization of community' model which is based on belief that 'new' individualistic, and narrower forms of social participation, do not promote generalized trust in others. Little is known about miniaturization of community and self-reported health, physical health and psychological health in Australia. Data from a 2009 computer-assisted-telephone-interview survey was used to investigate generalized trust, social participation and health-related quality of life in a regional Australian population (n = 1273; mean age 51.2 years). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between generalized trust, social participation and poor self-reported health (global self-rated, psychological and physical), and included four social participation/trust categories. A majority (67%) reported high generalized trust of others, 54% were categorized as high social participators. Miniaturization of community was a risk factor for poor self-rated psychological health across genders, and a risk factor for poor self-rated health for males. For women, low social participation (irrespective of trust level) was associated with poor self-reported health. Given current and previous findings, there is a need for further research in a range of contexts which explores the underlying concept of miniaturization of community, that is, the changes in social participation and social networks which may negatively impact community health.
McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F
The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient.
Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.
How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but “blocking out time” and “time shifting” suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337
Flight, Ingrid; Leppard, Phillip; Cox, David N
Exposure to diverse cultures and higher socio-economic status (SES) may increase knowledge of a wide variety of stimuli, including food, and be negatively associated with food neophobia. We contrasted questionnaire responses from two groups of Australian high school students (aged 12-18 years) from remote rural (rural, n=243) and cosmopolitan urban (city, n=696) locations to the food neophobia scale (FNS), familiarity with certain foods and willingness to try those foods. Cultural diversity measures and two SES scales were created. City students were less food neophobic than rural students (mean FNS scores 29.35 versus 34.68, p<0.001). City students were also significantly more familiar with different foods and more willing to try unfamiliar foods, were of higher SES and had greater exposure to cultural diversity. However, the association between the FNS and familiarity with foods, willingness to try unfamiliar foods, SES, and exposure to cultural diversity, were only weak or moderate for both city and rural students. Greater exposure to cultural diversity and higher SES has some influence on adolescents' responses to unfamiliar foods, but the relationship between these factors and the FNS score is tenuous.
Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Peeters, Anna; Anstey, Kaarin J.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) sample (age 60+) that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000) and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012). Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation). In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively). Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI). Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118); (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064); (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033)), the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different results were
Sharda, Archana J; Shetty, Srinath
Aim To find the relationship of periodontal status and dental caries status with oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, among professional students in India. Methodology In a cross sectional study, a total of 825 students (males: 577, females: 248) from six professions were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire including 41 multiple choice questions and the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0 to perform the Student's t-test, ANOVA test, Scheffe's test and Chi-square test, linear regression analysis. Results The mean percentage scores of the students for knowledge were 53.25 ± 15.05; for attitude 74.97 ±20.48; and for behavior 59.09 ± 18.77. The percentage of students with calculus score was found to be significantly high (43.8%). The percentage of professional students with DMFT>4 was 14.1% and the percentage of students with decayed teeth was 46.2%. The regression analysis showed that the oral health behavior of the students was dependent on the attitude (P <0.001), but showed no significant linear relation with the knowledge. Also, that the mean DMFT score was dependent on the oral health behavior (P <0.05), but showed no significant relationship with the knowledge and attitude of the students. The periodontal status was independent on the knowledge, but showed a significant relationship with attitude and behavior of the students. Conclusion A positive attitude and adherence to good oral hygiene behaviors is associated with better oral health. PMID:20690423
Graham, Carroll; Regan, Julie-Anne
This paper reports on the second stage of a comparative study between two higher education institutions: one in Australia and the other in the United Kingdom, which explored the contributions of professional staff to student outcomes. The first stage acted as a scoping exercise to ascertain how the contributions of professional staff to student…
Bruder, Mary Beth; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dietrich, Sylvia L.
Early intervention and preschool special education coordinators in the 50 states and territories were interviewed about the current status of professional development in-service systems in their state. A definition consisting of 8 components of an in-service professional development system was used to analyze the state systems. Twenty Part C early…
Brule, Alain; Kirstein, Oliver
Neutron scattering using diffraction techniques is now recognized as the most precise and reliable method of mapping sub-surface residual stresses in materials or even components, which are not only of academic but also of industrial-economic relevance. The great potential of neutrons in the field of residual stresses was recognized by ANSTO and its external Beam Instrument Advisory Group for the new research reactor OPAL. The recommendation was to build the dedicated strain scanner KOWARI among the first suite of instruments available to users. We give an update on the overall project and present the current status of the diffractometer. It is anticipated that the instrument will be commissioned in mid 2006 and available to users at the end of the OPAL project.
Wilson, Nathan W
From the period immediately following the second world war, western (orthodox) medicine - both as a philosophy of medicine and as a professional guild of medical professionals actively practicing medicine - has made progress in leaps and bounds, especially considering the advances in technology and associated enterprises. Over the last thirty years, however, the practice of orthodox medicine has taken a turn for the worst despite progressive philosophies and tenets of basic practice as offered by the professional bodies that regulate how medicine is operated and implemented. Current healthcare environments are in a chaotic state of affairs, most notably due to issues involving affordability of medical professionals. It is argued that the social-professional status of medical doctors allow exorbitant and unreachable demands on governments for increased salaries. The title-based supremacy of doctors within the occupations domain is not supported by what they are offering society at large, and it compromises the ability of medical institutions and governments to provide better and more affordable healthcare. From a sociological point of view, this paper examines the social-religious history of such social class-based occupational power and dominance, and paves the way toward an overhaul of current medical education frameworks that proactively will ensure greater occupational equity in healthcare settings, across all healthcare disciplines tasked with patient care and improvement of healthcare services. In essence, doctoral titles should only be awarded after successful completion of postgraduate doctoral studies, and a new breed of medical professionals must emerge, able to contribute more meaningfully to the advancement of medicine as a profession, as well as toward increased standards of healthcare and improved health services delivery.
Wilson, N. W.
From the period immediately following the second world war, western (orthodox) medicine – both as a philosophy of medicine and as a professional guild of medical professionals actively practicing medicine – has made progress in leaps and bounds, especially considering the advances in technology and associated enterprises. Over the last thirty years, however, the practice of orthodox medicine has taken a turn for the worst despite progressive philosophies and tenets of basic practice as offered by the professional bodies that regulate how medicine is operated and implemented. Current healthcare environments are in a chaotic state of affairs, most notably due to issues involving affordability of medical professionals. It is argued that the social-professional status of medical doctors allow exorbitant and unreachable demands on governments for increased salaries. The title-based supremacy of doctors within the occupations domain is not supported by what they are offering society at large, and it compromises the ability of medical institutions and governments to provide better and more affordable healthcare. From a sociological point of view, this paper examines the social-religious history of such social class-based occupational power and dominance, and paves the way toward an overhaul of current medical education frameworks that proactively will ensure greater occupational equity in healthcare settings, across all healthcare disciplines tasked with patient care and improvement of healthcare services. In essence, doctoral titles should only be awarded after successful completion of postgraduate doctoral studies, and a new breed of medical professionals must emerge, able to contribute more meaningfully to the advancement of medicine as a profession, as well as toward increased standards of healthcare and improved health services delivery. PMID:23121737
Moalla, Wassim; Fessi, Mohamed Saifeddin; Farhat, Fayçal; Nouira, Sabeur; Wong, Del P; Dupont, Grégory
We studied the relationship between daily training load (TL) experienced by professional soccer players and the Hooper questionnaire reflecting their perceived quality of sleep, fatigue, stress and delayed onset muscle soreness. During a 16-week training period, the rating of perceived exertion and duration were collected after each training session, and daily TL was calculated from 14 professional soccer players. The Hooper questionnaire was completed every day before the first training session and the Hooper's score (HS) was then calculated. The daily TL and HS were 379.9 ± 198.3 AU and 16.2 ± 5.1, respectively. Pearson correlation showed significant relationships (p < 0.01) between TL and perceived fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep and stress. Our findings revealed that the perceived sleep, stress, fatigue and muscle soreness are moderately related to the daily TL in professional soccer players. The Hooper questionnaire is both a simple and useful tool for monitoring perceived wellness and psychometric players' status of professional soccer players.
Hoyle, Gemma L.; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Daws, Matthew I.; Adkins, Steve W.
Background and Aims The period during which seeds develop on the parent plant has been found to affect many seed characteristics, including dormancy, through interactions with the environment. Goodenia fascicularis (Goodeniaceae) seeds were used to investigate whether seeds of an Australian native forb, harvested from different environments and produced at different stages of the reproductive period, differ in dormancy status. Methods During the reproductive phase, plants were grown ex situ in warm (39/21 °C) or cool (26/13 °C) conditions, with adequate or limited water availability. The physiological dormancy of resulting seeds was measured in terms of the germination response to warm stratification (34/20 °C, 100 % RH, darkness). Key Results Plants in the cool environment were tall and had high above-ground biomass, yet yielded fewer seeds over a shorter, later harvest period when compared with plants in the warm environment. Seeds from the cool environment also had higher viability and greater mass, despite a significant proportion (7 % from the cool-wet environment) containing no obvious embryo. In the warm environment, the reproductive phase was accelerated and plants produced more seeds despite being shorter and having lower above-ground biomass than those in the cool environment. Ten weeks of warm stratification alleviated physiological dormancy in seeds from all treatments resulting in 80–100 % germination. Seeds that developed at warm temperatures were less dormant (i.e. germination percentages were higher) than seeds from the cool environment. Water availability had less effect on plant and seed traits than air temperature, although plants with reduced soil moisture were shorter, had lower biomass and produced fewer, less dormant seeds than plants watered regularly. Conclusions Goodenia fascicularis seeds are likely to exhibit physiological dormancy regardless of the maternal environment. However, seeds collected from warm, dry environments are
Hafner, Jessica; Horn, Sharon; Robinson, Martin; Purdie, Grant; Jannes, Jim
The ability to drive is important to patients and driving restriction often leads to restriction of employment and social opportunities. In March 2012, Austroads released revised Assessing Fitness to Drive Guidelines (AFTDG) with significant changes for drivers with seizures and epilepsy. Our study aimed to assess the impact of the 2012 AFTDG on a Seizure Clinic cohort compared to the previous 2003 AFTDG and an individual's current driving status. We also aimed to quantify the difference in AFTDG interpretation between expert and non-expert doctors. We performed a retrospective observational audit of case notes for all patients managed in a public hospital outpatient Seizure Clinic between 1 March 2010 and 1 March 2012. A total of 142 patients were included in the analysis. Comparison between the 2003 and 2012 AFTDG resulted in reduced eligibility to drive a private vehicle by 2.1% (52.5% versus 50.4%) and commercial vehicle by 2.2% (4.5% versus 2.3%). The proportion of those currently driving against guideline recommendations increased (private 8.8% versus 19%; commercial 50% versus 100%) and the non-expert assessor was more likely to agree with the experts with the 2012 AFTDG. In summary, the 2012 AFTDG has had a measurable impact on driving eligibility in individuals with seizure although it is easier to interpret for non-expert doctors. Greater awareness of the 2012 AFTDG is required to reduce the proportion of patients driving against current recommendations.
Stephens, Jack J.
The purpose of this study was to determine for a sample of Montana families if a positive relationship existed between the family's socioeconomic status and its medical initiation behavior, and then, controlling for socioeconomic status, to determine if a relationship existed between initiation of professional medical care and a number of…
Matuszak, Alice Jean; Sarnoff, Darwin
A 1980 mail survey of the 72 American colleges of pharmacy concerning the status of required chemistry courses in the professional curriculum was conducted. Results of the survey are discussed and the survey was used to establish the baseline for the status of chemistry courses in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. (Author/MLW)
Alyami, Ali M.; Lam, Virginie; Soares, Mario J.; Zhao, Yun; Sherriff, Jillian L.; Mamo, John C.; James, Anthony P.; Coombes, Fiona
Background/Aims: Vitamin D has been investigated for many non-skeletal effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether circulating lipids, systemic inflammation, and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation varied with the vitamin D status of older Australians. Methods: One hundred and one participants were proportionately and randomly sampled across tertiles of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) from a larger cohort of free living older adults (T1 median = 97; T2 median = 74.5; T3 median = 56.8 nmol/L). Overnight fasting blood samples were assayed for 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Markers of systemic inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) and endothelial activation (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), P-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)) were determined. A general linear model multivariate analysis with a backward elimination procedure was performed. Results: Eighty-three participants (48 women, 35 men), aged 65 ± 7.7 years, BMI 28 ± 4.5 kg/m2, with complete data were analyzed. The final parsimonious model controlled for age, gender, BMI, and McAuley’s index, but excluded season, medications, and PTH. There were significant differences across 25(OH)D tertiles in TC (T1 < T3, p = 0.003; T2 < T3, p = 0.001), LDL-C (T1 < T3, p = 0.005; T2 < T3, p = 0.001), TAG (T2 < T3, p = 0.026), HGF (T1 > T3, p = 0.009) and sVCAM (T1 > T3, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher vitamin D status may protect the endothelium through reduced dyslipidaemia and increased HGF. PMID:27483306
Palmer, Ty B; Hawkey, Matt J; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the posterior muscles of the hip and thigh and lower-body power to discriminate between professional status in full-time and part-time professional soccer referees. Seven full-time (mean ± SE: age = 36 ± 2 years; mass = 82 ± 4 kg; and height = 179 ± 3 cm) and 9 part-time (age = 34 ± 2 years; mass = 84 ± 2 kg; and height = 181 ± 2 cm) professional soccer referees performed 2 isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the posterior muscles of the hip and thigh. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) were calculated from a torque-time curve that was recorded during each MVC. Lower-body power output was assessed through a vertical jump test. Results indicated that the rapid torque characteristics were greater in the full-time compared with the part-time referees for absolute RTD (p = 0.011) and relative RTD at 1/2 (p = 0.022) and 2/3 (p = 0.033) of the normalized torque-time curve. However, no differences were observed for PT (p = 0.660) or peak power (Pmax, p = 0.149) between groups. These findings suggest that rapid torque characteristics of the posterior muscles of the hip and thigh may be sensitive and effective measures for discriminating between full-time and part-time professional soccer referees. Strength and conditioning coaches may use these findings to help identify professional soccer referees with high explosive strength-related capacities and possibly overall refereeing ability.
The Australian Geography Teachers Association (AGTA) represents the views of Australian geography teachers on educational matters. AGTA also seeks to improve the capacity of geography teachers to respond to a changing teaching and learning landscape. The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) is an independent authority…
Reavley, Nicola J; Ross, Anna M; Killackey, Eoin; Jorm, Anthony F
Background. The age at which most young people are in tertiary education is also the age of peak onset for mental illness. Because mental health problems can have adverse effects on students' academic performance and welfare, institutions require guidance how they can best provide support. However, the scientific evidence for how best to do this is relatively limited. Therefore a Delphi expert consensus study was carried out with professional and consumer experts. Methods. A systematic review of websites, books and journal articles was conducted to develop a 172 item survey containing strategies that institutions might use to support students with a mental illness. Two panels of Australian experts (74 professionals and 35 consumers) were recruited and independently rated the items over three rounds, with strategies reaching consensus on importance written into the guidelines. Results. The overall response rate across three rounds was 83% (80% consumers, 85% professionals). 155 strategies were endorsed as essential or important by at least 80% of panel members. The endorsed strategies provided information on policy, measures to promote support services, service provision, accessibility of support services, relationships between services, other types of support and issues associated with reasonable adjustments. They also provided guidance on the procedures the institutions should have for making staff aware of issues associated with mental illness, mental illness training, support for staff and communicating with a student with a mental illness. They also covered student rights and responsibilities, the procedures the institutions should have for making students aware of issues associated with mental illness, dealing with mental health crises, funding and research and evaluation. Conclusions. The guidelines provide guidance for tertiary institutions to assist them in supporting students with a mental illness. It is hoped that they may be used to inform policy and
Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…
Donald Schon once famously pictured professional practice as a high, hard ground overlooking a swamp. The high ground is the place of theory and, one might add, of policy. The swampy lowland is where vocational education and training (VET) practitioners meet the learners. It is where the skills, knowledge, and attitudes they wish to see instilled…
Clinical reasoning is situation-dependent and case-specific; therefore, assessments incorporating different patient presentations are warranted. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a multi-station case-based viva assessment of clinical reasoning in an Australian pre-registration osteopathy program using generalizability theory. Students (from years 4 and 5) and examiners were recruited from the osteopathy program at Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia. The study took place on a single day in the student teaching clinic. Examiners were trained before the examination. Students were allocated to 1 of 3 rounds consisting of 5 10-minute stations in an objective structured clinical examination-style. Generalizability analysis was used to explore the reliability of the examination. Fifteen students and 5 faculty members participated in the study. The examination produced a generalizability coefficient of 0.53, with 18 stations required to achieve a generalizability coefficient of 0.80. The reliability estimations were acceptable and the psychometric findings related to the marking rubric and overall scores were acceptable; however, further work is required in examiner training and ensuring consistent case difficulty to improve the reliability of the examination. PMID:28104901
Vaughan, Brett; Orrock, Paul; Grace, Sandra
Clinical reasoning is situation-dependent and case-specific; therefore, assessments incorporating different patient presentations are warranted. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a multi-station case-based viva assessment of clinical reasoning in an Australian pre-registration osteopathy program using generalizability theory. Students (from years 4 and 5) and examiners were recruited from the osteopathy program at Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia. The study took place on a single day in the student teaching clinic. Examiners were trained before the examination. Students were allocated to 1 of 3 rounds consisting of 5 10-minute stations in an objective structured clinical examination-style. Generalizability analysis was used to explore the reliability of the examination. Fifteen students and 5 faculty members participated in the study. The examination produced a generalizability coefficient of 0.53, with 18 stations required to achieve a generalizability coefficient of 0.80. The reliability estimations were acceptable and the psychometric findings related to the marking rubric and overall scores were acceptable; however, further work is required in examiner training and ensuring consistent case difficulty to improve the reliability of the examination.
Di Santolo, Manuela; Stel, Giuliana; Banfi, Giuseppe; Gonano, Fabio; Cauci, Sabina
We evaluated the effects of regular physical exercise on anemia and iron status in young non-professional female athletes. A total of 191 healthy white Italian women (23.5 +/- 4.68 years) were analyzed; 70 were non-professional athletes performing 11.1 +/- 2.63 h week(-1) exercise and 121 were sedentary controls. Blood markers of anemia and iron status-hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), serum ferritin, iron, transferrin (Tf), transferrin saturation (TfS), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and the sTfR/log ferritin ratio (sTfR-F index)-were evaluated. Anemia threshold was Hb < 120 g l(-1). Ferritin concentrations < 12 microg l(-1) were considered as iron deficiency (ID). Frequency of anemia (15.7 versus 10.7%, P = 0.32), ID (27.1 versus 29.8%, P = 0.70), and ID anemia (8.6 versus 5.8%, P = 0.46) was not different in athletes and controls. However, athletes were threefold more likely than controls (17.1 versus 5.8%) to have serum iron < 50 microg dl(-1) [odds ratio (OR) 3.37, P = 0.012]. Low-TfS (<15%) was found in 25.7% of athletes and in 13.2% of controls, OR 2.27, P = 0.030. Elevated-sTfR (>1.76 mg l(-1)) was found in 24.3% of athletes and in 12.4% of controls, OR 2.27, P = 0.034. Regular non-professional sport activity does not cause an increased rate of anemia or of iron deficiency in fertile women. However, physical exercise has an impact on iron status as it reduces serum iron and transferrin saturation, and elevates sTfR. Nearly one fifth of recreational athletes have anemia and a third have iron deficit, these conditions can decrease their physical performance.
Attrill, Stacie; McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle
Placements provide opportunities for students to develop practice skills in professional settings. Learning in placements may be challenging for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students, international students, or those without sufficient English proficiency for professional practice. This study investigated whether these factors, which are hypothesized to influence acculturation, predict poor placement outcome. Placement outcome data were collected for 854 students who completed 2747 placements. Placement outcome was categorized into 'Pass' or 'At risk' categories. Multilevel binomial regression analysis was used to determine whether being CALD, an international student, speaking 'English as an additional language', or a 'Language other than English at home' predicted placement outcome. In multiple multilevel analysis speaking English as an additional language and being an international student were significant predictors of 'at risk' placements, but other variables tested were not. Effect sizes were small indicating untested factors also influenced placement outcome. These results suggest that students' English as an additional language or international student status influences success in placements. The extent of acculturation may explain the differences in placement outcome for the groups tested. This suggests that learning needs for placement may differ for students undertaking more acculturative adjustments. Further research is needed to understand this and to identify placement support strategies.
Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Howle, Kieran; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna
The current study examined the effects of 10-h northbound air travel across 1 time zone on sleep quantity, together with subjective jet lag and wellness ratings, in 16 male professional Australian football (soccer) players. Player wellness was measured throughout the week before (home training week) and the week of (away travel week) travel from Australia to Japan for a preseason tour. Sleep quantity and subjective jet lag were measured 2 d before (Pre 1 and 2), the day of, and for 5 d after travel (Post 1-5). Sleep duration was significantly reduced during the night before travel (Pre 1; 4.9 [4.2-5.6] h) and night of competition (Post 2; 4.2 [3.7-4.7] h) compared with every other night (P<.01, d>0.90). Moreover, compared with the day before travel, subjective jet lag was significantly greater for the 5 d after travel (P<.05, d>0.90), and player wellness was significantly lower 1 d post-match (Post 3) than at all other time points (P<.05, d>0.90). Results from the current study suggest that sleep disruption, as a result of an early travel departure time (8 PM) and evening match (7:30 PM), and fatigue induced by competition had a greater effect on wellness ratings than long-haul air travel with a minimal time-zone change. Furthermore, subjective jet lag may have been misinterpreted as fatigue from sleep disruption and competition, especially by the less experienced players. Therefore, northbound air travel across 1 time zone from Australia to Asia appears to have negligible effects on player preparedness for subsequent training and competition.
Vears, Danya F; Delany, Clare; Massie, John; Gillam, Lynn
In the context of a child being diagnosed with a genetic condition, reports from both parents and health professionals suggest many genetic health professionals are reluctant to provide carrier testing for unaffected siblings, despite the lack of evidence of harm. We propose that genetic health professionals' understandings of why parents want to have their children tested may contribute to their reluctance to test. We draw on interviews with 17 genetic health professionals, reporting their beliefs about parents' motivations for testing and their intentions to communicate results to their children. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Genetic health professionals reported attributions that contrasted with reasons parents actually report. These disparities fall into two categories: 1) attributing reasons that parents do not themselves report (i.e. for reassurance about their child's health), and 2) not recognizing the reasons that parents actually do report for wanting testing (i.e. to communicate the information to their child). By identifying that genetic health professionals may be misattributing reasons to parents for desiring their child"s carrier status, they may be missing an opportunity to assist parents to make decisions that are in line with their values and the best interests of the family.
Types of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major allied health professions (AHPs, n = 935) were examined. Australian AHPs are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies for personal use but are failing to implement such technologies throughout their health professions to deliver health care. Australian AHPs are willing to undertake online educational courses designed to up skill them about how Web 2.0 may be used for practice promotion and health care delivery in the early twenty-first century. Participants in this study indicated that educational courses that were offered online would be the preferred mode of delivery.
Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James
Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…
Four professional groups, teachers, doctors, lawyers, and engineers were examined to determine if they constitute a potential market for continuing professional education via large scale electronic technology. Data were collected in view of social and economic forces, such as mandatory periodic relicensure, additional course requirements for certification, or the economic health of supporting industries.
Agius, Paul A; Pitts, Marian K; Smith, Anthony M A; Mitchell, Anne
The aim of this paper was to measure student knowledge of HPV and risks associated with cervical cancer, explore associated factors, correlate knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer with other domains of sexual health related knowledge and estimate student self-reported rates of HPV immunisation. Data were from a nationally representative cross-sectional stratified cluster sample of year 10 and 12 students in the Australian secondary school system. Contingency table, comparison of means, correlation and multiple OLS regression analyses of students answering HPV (n=1927) and cervical cancer (n=2680) knowledge questions was undertaken. Student HPV and cervical cancer knowledge was generally poor. Young women exhibited better knowledge than young men however the difference was, to some extent, accounted for by vaccination for HPV. Sexually active students and those having more sexual partners in the previous year did not report higher levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. The large majority of young women surveyed reported a HPV vaccination as did a small proportion of young men. Students who reported being vaccinated had higher levels of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Student knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer is considerably limited. There is some evidence that being vaccinated for HPV improves a person's level of understanding of the disease and cervical cancer. The recent national public health campaign focussing on cervical cancer vaccination for young women may be partly responsible for a lack of understanding of HPV as a common STI.
Grace, Rebekah; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Wedgwood, Nikki; Fenech, Marianne; McConnell, David
Using narrative interviews underpinned by an ecocultural framework, this Australian study investigated the experiences of 39 mothers of children with disabilities and 27 staff members from the early childhood services which these children attended. The data highlight serious limitations of current government policy and provisions in Australia to…
Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum
In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for…
Martín-Sánchez, Francisco J.; Villalón, José María; Zamorano-León, José J.; Rosas, Luis Fernández; Proietti, Ricardo; Mateos-Caceres, Petra J.; González-Armengol, Juan J.; Villarroel, Pedro; Macaya, Carlos; López-Farré, Antonio J.
The purpose of the study was to determine if an intensive pre- season training program modifies the inflammatory status in professional soccer players and if this inflammatory profile may be associated with the physical state. We compared plasma protein biomarkers, using proteomics, and the physiological state and cardiac function in 12 professional soccer players and 9 recreational soccer players. Reduced cardiac low frequency [LF] after the pre- season training program previous competition with respect to recreational soccer players was found. No differences were found in cardiac high frequency, cardiac high frequency/low frequency ratio, tension index and oxygen volume consumption. Alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-3, fibrinogen-gamma isotypes-1, 2 and 3 and vitamin-D-binding protein isotype-1 were reduced in professionals players compared with those in recreational players. However, an increased content of alpha-1-antitrypsin isotype-6 and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin 1 and 4 were found in professional soccer players. Spearman’s analysis showed a positive correlation between LF and fibrinogen-gamma chain isotype 3; but LF was negatively correlated with alpha-antichymotrypsin isotype 4. Professional soccer players submitted to an intensive training showed differences in the content of plasma proteins associated with inflammatory/oxidative stress and thrombosis with respect to recreational soccer players. Proteomics analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function assessment may be useful to know more in depth molecular processes associated with sport and intensive exercise. Key points Proteomics allow us to find differences in the plasma protein content in sportsmen. Just after pre-season training program, professional soccer players showed lower content of circulating proteins associated with inflammation compared to recreational soccer players. Proteomic analysis in combination with the analysis of cardiac function may be useful to know more in depth
Mazumdar, Soumya; Learnihan, Vincent; Cochrane, Thomas; Phung, Hai; O'Connor, Bridget; Davey, Rachel
Objectives To explore patterns of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).To ascertain the effect of the neighbourhood built environmental features and especially walkability on health outcomes, specifically for hospital admissions from NCDs. Design A cross-sectional analysis of public hospital episode data (2007–2013). Setting Hospitalisations from the ACT, Australia at very small geographic areas. Participants Secondary data on 75 290 unique hospital episodes representing 39 851 patients who were admitted to ACT hospitals from 2007 to 2013. No restrictions on age, sex or ethnicity. Main exposure measures Geographic Information System derived or compatible measures of general practitioner access, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, alcohol access, exposure to traffic and Walk Score walkability. Main outcome measures Hospitalisations of circulatory diseases, specific endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, respiratory diseases and specific cancers. Results Geographic clusters with significant high and low risks of NCDs were found that displayed an overall geographic pattern of high risk in the outlying suburbs of the territory. Significant relationships between neighbourhood walkability as measured by Walk Score and the likelihood of hospitalisation with a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction (heart attack) were found. A possible relationship was also found with the likelihood of being hospitalised with 4 major lifestyle-related cancers. Conclusions Our research augments the growing literature underscoring the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes. In addition, it supports the importance of walkable neighbourhoods, as measured by Walk Score, for improved health. PMID:27932340
Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which
Farnan, Jeanne M; Paro, John A M; Higa, Jennifer T; Reddy, Shalini T; Humphrey, Holly J; Arora, Vineet M
The rising popularity of digital applications, such as social networking, media share sites, and blogging, has significantly affected how medical trainees interact with educators, colleagues, and the public. Despite the increased popularity and use of such applications amongst the current generation of trainees, medical educators have little evidence or guidance about preventing misuse and ensuring standards for professional conduct. As trainees become more technologically savvy, it is the responsibility of medical educators to familiarize themselves not only with the advantages of this technology but also with the potential negative effects of its misuse. Professionalism, appropriateness for public consumption, and individual or institutional representation in digital media content are just some of the salient issues that arise when considering the ramifications of trainees' digital behavior in the absence of established policies or education on risk. In this commentary the authors explore the rising use of digital media and its reflection of medical trainees' professionalism. To address possible issues related to professionalism in digital media, the authors hypothesize potential solutions, including exploring faculty familiarity with digital media and policy development, educating students on the potential risks of misuse, and modeling professionalism in this new digital age.
Meloncon, Lisa; England, Peter
Although much attention has been paid to issues of contingent faculty in the university (American Association of University Professors [AAUP] position statements) and, more specifically, in composition studies (Schell; Bousquet, Scott, and Parascondola; Miller), the matter of contingent faculty in technical and professional communication (TPC)…
Opfer, V. Darleen; Pedder, David
Reported here is one part of the nationally representative, "Schools and Continuing Professional Development in England--State of the Nation" research study which was funded by the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA). This paper sets out to understand how teachers and school leaders in England perceive the benefits and…
Minority representation in the graduate and professional schools is not in parity with the proportion of minorities in the overall population at this point in the history of American higher education. There are definite reasons for the lack of participation, reasons that have a profound philosophical, sociological, and economic basis. These…
Kasule, George Wilson; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin
A study was conducted to determine general professional development activities perceived to be important in enhancing university teaching staff's job performance, and the extent to which teaching staff participate in these activities in Uganda. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with faculty deans and department heads (n = 20),…
This article draws on two small-scale pieces of research that investigated the views of twenty-five final year students in the BA Early Childhood Studies programme at a Scottish university, and the views of ten recent graduates about early years job titles and perceptions of professionalism. Pen-and-paper questionnaires were used in both studies,…
Roche, Victoria F.; Davis, Patrick J.; Pankaskie, Marvin C.; Currie, Bruce L.; Roche, Edward B.; Sindelar, Robert D.; Wynn, James E.; Zito, S. William
A national survey conducted in 1997-1998 evaluated the current and anticipated future emphasis of chemistry-related content in the professional pharmacy curriculum, the credentials of the teaching faculty, and pedagogical methods used to deliver the content. Thirty-three schools or colleges of pharmacy participated. (Author)
González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E
The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in
Chiew, May; Weber, Marianne F; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy
We used cross-sectional data to investigate whether current, past and never smokers report different levels of social interaction and whether the level of social interaction varied according to the type of interaction being measured. Self-reported questionnaire data were obtained from 239,043 men and women aged 45 years or older living in Australia between February 2006 and February 2010. The study participation rate was 18%. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the percentage differences in the mean values of four social interaction outcomes according to smoking status after adjusting for age, place of residence, income, education, health insurance status, physical limitation, psychological distress and exposure to passive smoke: number of times 1) spent with friends/family, 2) spoken on the telephone, 3) attended social meetings in the past week, and 4) number of people outside of home that can be depended upon. 7.6% of males and 6.9% of females were current smokers, 43.6% of males and 28.6% of females were ex-smokers and 48.8% of males and 64.5% of females had never smoked. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported significantly fewer social interactions in the past week and had fewer people outside the home that they could depend on. Men and women current smokers attended 24.0% (95% CI, 20.3, 27.5) and 31.1% (95% CI, 28.1, 34.1) fewer social group meetings on average than never smokers. Smokers exposed to passive smoke reported higher levels of social interaction than those not exposed. Past smokers reported levels of social interaction that were intermediate to those of current and never smokers and the more years they had abstained from smoking, the more social interaction they reported on average. Our data are in line with previous research showing that smokers are not only worse off economically, physically and mentally, but are also less likely to be socially connected.
Emmerich, Edeltraut; Rudel, Lars; Richter, Frank
The sound in classical orchestral music is louder than noise emissions allowed by national rules in industry. We wanted to assess the audiologic status of professional musicians at different ages of their careers and to look for a coherence of declined hearing ability and the sound emissions in order to substantiate advices for hearing protection and occupational medicine in musicians. Data from questionnaires (anamnestic data on sound exposure in profession and leisure times, use of hearing protection, self-evaluation of hearing function and hearing deficits), audiometric data and amplitudes of OAE were evaluated from 109 professional musicians aged 30-69 years from three major German orchestras and from 110 students of an academy of music (aged 11-19 years). Sound emissions of the whole orchestra and of single instruments/instrument groups were measured at the orchestra stages and pits during rehearsals and performances. None of the musicians was engaged in noisy hobbies and only a few used hearing protectors regularly. More than 50% of the musicians had a hearing loss of 15 dB(A) and more. Highest losses were found among the strings and the brass players. DPOAE amplitudes coincidently declined with the duration of performing music in the orchestras. Professional musicians aged older than 60 years had a significantly greater hearing loss at 4 and 6 kHz than those aged 30-39 years. Among the strings in one orchestra a dominant hearing deficit in the left ears was observed. Musicians need the same health care for their hearing as workers in noisy industry. A better education on the hearing hazards (use of hearing protectors) as well as sound protection in the rehearsal rooms is necessary. Hearing loss in professional musicians should be accepted as an occupational disease.
Srikandi, T W; Carey, S E; Clarke, N G
The pattern of dental service utilization, the perception of periodontal disease, and the oral hygiene habits among 642 industrial employees were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire against background variables of age, sex, and socioeconomic strata. Of the study population, 50.5% had their most recent dental visit within the previous 12 months and 42.5% claimed to seek regular check ups. There was no significant association between time intervals since the last dental visit and age, sex, occupation, income or education. Regular visits were made more often by subjects in the higher occupation and income level. Multivariate analyses of the number of missing teeth simultaneously considering age, sex, socioeconomic level, regularity and frequency of dental visits revealed that except for age and sex, no other factors were significant. The most common reason for not seeing a dentist in the previous 12 months was an assumption that "nothing was wrong". A large majority of the group surveyed were unaware of the presence of periodontal disease or the need for its treatment, despite the high prevalence in all subgroups. Periodontal status was not significantly associated with sex, socioeconomic levels, regularity of frequency of dental visits, but there was a significant regression on age. The study population's pattern of service utilization was found to be similar to that reported for the general population, and it was anticipated that the hygiene habits of the group was representative of the total community. If that assumption is true the high prevalence of periodontal disease of the study population probably exists in the general community.
Australian immigration detention centres are in secluded locations, some on offshore islands, and are subject to extreme secrecy, comparable with 'black sites' elsewhere. There are parallels between healthcare professionals working in immigration detention centres and healthcare professionals involved with or complicit in torture. In both cases, healthcare professionals are conflicted between a duty of care to improve the health of patients and the interests of the government. While this duality of interests has been recognised previously, the full implications for healthcare professionals working in immigration detention have not been addressed. The Australian Government maintains that immigration detention is needed for security checks, but the average duration of immigration detention has increased from 10 weeks to 14 months, and detainees are not informed of the progress of their application for refugee status. Long-term immigration detention causes major mental health problems, is illegal in international law and arguably fulfils the recognised definition of torture. It is generally accepted that healthcare professionals should not participate in or condone torture. Australian healthcare professionals thus face a major ethical dilemma: patients in immigration detention have pressing mental and physical health needs, but providing healthcare might support or represent complicity in a practice that is unethical. Individual healthcare professionals need to decide whether or not to work in immigration detention centres. If they do so, they need to decide for how long and to what extent restrictive contracts and gagging laws will constrain them from advocating for closing detention centres.
Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others
The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…
Science Teacher, 2005
Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…
Búšová, Katarína Šmajdová
A professional family is an organizational form of institutional care which is used mainly in residential children's homes. By considering the psychological development of the child and by providing a supportive environment, the professional family provides systematic, purposeful and professional care and education for the child. It attempts to…
Hodge, Samuel R; Kozub, Francis M; Robinson, Leah E; Hersman, Bethany L
The purpose of this study was to determine what trends exist in the identification and description of participants used in data-based studies published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly and the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. Data were analyzed using frequency counts for journals and time periods from the 1980s to 2005 with chi-square tests on gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate, for example, that across the time span both journals published articles reporting males first over females, X2 (3) = 22.16, p < .001. Trend data also reveal that even today most data-based studies in these journals fail to report race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Findings are discussed with guiding principles for future research.
Gapparova, K M; Nikitiuk, D B; Zaĭnudinov, Z M; Tserekh, A A; Chekhonina, Iu G; Golubeva, A A; Sil'vestrova, G A; Rusakova, D S; Grigor'ian, O N
Under steady state conditions in 66 athletes involved in weightlifting, bodybuilding, judo and taekwondo have studied features of the metabolic status. Data on matter-of-fact nutrition, body weight content within the inter-competition period, energy exchange, clinical and biochemical indices and physical acceptability indices were analyzed. As a result, the decrease indexes of metabolism at all the sportsmen and high-level caloric value at sportsmen who are engaged in weightlifting, which corresponds their energy expenditures, was revealed.
Lee, Dong-Eun; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Tai-jin; Park, Sang Hyun
training program for fostering RI-Biomics professionals in the following key fields; (1) Radio-pharmaceuticals synthesis and labeled compound development, (2) Development of RI-ADME in the living object and image assessment technology. Personnel training program that carries out theoretical education and practical training in the field related to RI-Biomics in parallel is being conducted. Internship training for university students has been administered twice already while educational program for the existing professionals in the RI-Biomics field will be carried out during the summer of 2014. The human resource training program for combination of RIADME and different molecular imaging techniques can offer synergistic advantages to facilitate understanding RIADME and fostering RI-ADME professionals. (authors)
Introduction Generally, men and women of higher socioeconomic status (SES) have better health. Little is known about how socioeconomic factors are associated with changes in health as women progress through mid-life. This study uses data from six survey waves (1996 to 2010) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) to examine associations between SES and changes in the general health and mental health of a cohort of women progressing in years from 45–50 to 59–64. Methods Participants were 12,709 women (born 1946–51) in the ALSWH. Outcome measures were the general health and mental health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36). The measure of SES was derived from factor analysis of responses to questions in the ALSWH baseline survey (1996) on school leaving age, highest qualifications, and current or last occupation. Multi-level random coefficient models, adjusted for socio-demographic factors and health behaviors, were used to analyze repeated measures of general health and mental health. Survey year accounted for changes in factors across time. In the first set of analyses we investigated associations between the SES index, used as a “continuous” variable, and general health and mental health changes over time. To illuminate the impact of different levels of SES on health, a second analysis was conducted in which SES scores were grouped into three approximately equal sized categories or “tertiles” as reported in an earlier ALSWH study. The least square means of general and mental health scores from the longitudinal models were plotted for the three SES tertiles. Results The longitudinal analysis showed that, after adjusting for the effects of time and possible confounders, the general (mental) health of this cohort of mid-aged women declined (increased) over time. Higher SES women reported better health than lower SES women, and SES significantly modified the effects of time on both general
Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George
Background Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP) is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. Methods A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) (MPQ-SF), along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17–39), 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16–46) and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18–39). Results Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42) and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40). A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p < 0.001). Elite subjects were more likely to experience more frequent (daily or weekly OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29–2.42) and severe LBP (discomforting and greater OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29–2.38). Conclusion Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition. PMID:19371446
Throughout Australasia, indigenous educational issues remain a subject of considerable debate. In New Zealand, Maori underachievement in education has long been a matter of widespread concern. Currently the most highly visible professional development programme now operating in New Zealand mainstream secondary schools, Te Kotahitanga claims to…
Over the last 20 years or more, a plethora of movement programmes have been adopted within primary physical education in the UK and across Australia. One particular programme, Fundamental Movement Skills (STEPS Professional Development), became of interest to the researcher during her dual role as the UK Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS)…
This paper focuses on issues concerning in-service English as an additional language or dialect teachers' views on professional development (PD) in an online environment. On the basis of the data collected via a questionnaire survey and a series of interviews, this study finds that intrinsic and extrinsic incentives compel or impede teachers…
This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…
Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter A.; Muller, Juanita
Hypothesized that students who continue full-time study after high school have higher levels of career maturity, psychological well-being, and academic achievement while at school. Surveyed 254 Australian seniors and 132 of these students 9 months after graduation. Found that students who proceeded to full-time further study scored higher in all…
Dally, Kerry A.; Dempsey, Ian
This article describes the procedures used in developing and validating a set of statements for Australian special education teachers. Using the existing AITSL Australian Professional Standards for Teachers at the proficient level as a basis, a set of statements describing the specific skills and knowledge required by Australian educators working…
Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette
The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous…
A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.
Miller, Adrian; Smith, Michelle L.; Judd, Jenni A.; Speare, Rick
Background Strongyloides stercoralis infects human hosts mainly through skin contact with contaminated soil. The result is strongyloidiasis, a parasitic disease, with a unique cycle of auto-infection causing a variety of symptoms and signs, with possible fatality from hyper-infection. Australian Indigenous community members, often living in rural and remote settings, are exposed to and infected with S. stercoralis. The aim of this review is to determine barriers to control of strongyloidiasis. The purpose is to contribute to the development of initiatives for prevention, early detection and effective treatment of strongyloidiasis. Methodology/Principle Findings Systematic search reviewing research published 2012 and earlier was conducted. Research articles discussing aspects of strongyloidiasis, context of infection and overall health in Indigenous Australians were reviewed. Based on the PRISMA statement, the systematic search of health databases, Academic Search Premier, Informit, Medline, PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and Academic was conducted. Key search terms included strongyloidiasis, Indigenous, Australia, health, and community. 340 articles were retrieved with 16 original research articles published between 1969 and 2006 meeting criteria. Review found barriers to control defined across three key themes, (1) health status, (2) socioeconomic status, and (3) health care literacy and procedures. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies five points of intervention: (1) develop reporting protocols between health care system and communities; (2) test all Indigenous Australian patients, immunocompromised patients and those exposed to areas with S. stercoralis; (3) health professionals require detailed information on strongyloidiasis and potential for exposure to Indigenous Australian people; (4) to establish testing and treatment initiatives within communities; and (5) to measure and report prevalence rates specific to communities and to act
The Australian bush--the heart of Australian folklore and a fascinating attraction for tourists, whether from within Australia or other countries--does not enjoy the same attraction for professionals across a range of industries including health, where there is a chronic shortage of human resources. Whilst data vary considerably between regions, in many cases, Australians from rural and remote regions have a lower health status than the overall population. This is particularly true of the population of Indigenous origin. There are about 250 medical practitioners for 100,000 people in Australia. This number varies between about 300 in the capital cities and just over 100 in the remote areas, the latter being mostly general practitioners as there are hardly any hospitals and specialists in those remote areas. The data change across professions--for example the number of nurses is about the same in capital cities and in remote areas: about 1000 full time equivalent for 100,000 people. They change too when we consider rural regions that are less or not isolated: in some instances, these are less supplied than remote areas, where access to care however remains more critical because of distance. The demographic profile of the professions examined in this paper also vary between regions, giving more urgency to workforce planning issues. The Australian government has embarked on the delivery of a major rural health strategy aimed at increasing access to health care in the rural and remote regions--through the provision of more and better services (specialist services; multipurpose centres); attracting more health professionals (scholarships for health students; setting up of rural universities); and retaining and supporting those professionals in rural and remote areas (on-going training; support programs for families and overseas trained doctors; practice management and financial incentives).
With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…
Lee, Jackie F. K.; Collins, Peter
This paper examines the nature and extent of gender stereotyping, both linguistic and pictorial, in a set of 10 Australian English-language textbooks for intermediate learners. In order to determine how accurately the books reflect the status of women in contemporary Australian society a content and linguistic analysis was conducted, focusing on,…
Brown, Ann; Knight, Tess
Ageing well and successful ageing have become important themes to describe how older individuals should keep ageing at bay. Products and services aimed at controlling ageing have become associated with ageing well. In this study we aimed to analyse the representation of older women in advertisements specific to appearance and ageing. In particular, we sought to explore how ageing for women was presented in the media over a period 50 years and when advertisements began to use the term 'anti-ageing'. A content analysis of 710 advertisements from two prominent Australian women's magazines, from 1960 to 2010, was conducted. Analyses showed that advertisements provided a narrow range of images representing women's physical appearance. The underlying messages were that ageing is problematic and that it had become unforgivable to show any signs of ageing. Text contained in advertisements for beauty products from the two chosen Australian magazines often gave specific and prescriptive advice to women on ways to avoid losing their youthful appearance. It was concluded that media relay powerful messages to spread and modify cultural beliefs informing individuals of a range of options that propose liberation from the problem of ageing.
Hansford, B. C.
Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…
Pinson, Nancy M.
An understanding of the professional development of educators involved in career education is necessary for an understanding of changes occurring in the field of education. Changes brought about in education have caused shifts in the professional and occupational behavior of educators, only some of whom perceive themselves as change agents.…
Over 12 months prior to the recent United Nations decision to defer a decision about what type of international treaty should be developed in the global stem-cell research and human cloning debate, the Federal Parliament of Australia passed two separate pieces of legislation relating to both these concerns. After a five-year long process of community consultation, media spectacle and parliamentary debate, reproductive cloning has been banned in Australia and only embryos considered to be excess to assisted reproductive technologies in existence on the 5th of April 2002 are currently valid research material. This paper argues that underpinning both pieces of legislation is a profound belief in the disruptive potential of all types of human cloning for the very nature and integrity of human species being. A belief, moreover, that is based on a presumption that it is apparently possible to conceptualise what being human even means for all Australians.
Pearn, J; McGuire, B; McGuire, L; Richardson, P
The Australian elapids inject venom which is characteristic of each species; and which cause characteristic and specific envenomation syndromes in human victims of snakebite. Because many of the medically significant Australian elapids look similar, when glimpsed in the field by snakebite victims, defining human envenomation syndromes with secure species identification has been a slow process. Correlations between securely identified species and the human envenomation syndromes which they produce are still evolving. The genus Pseudechis is the most widespread in Australia of the dangerous Australian elapid genera; and P. porphyriacus, the Red-bellied Black Snake, was the first terrestrial Australian elapid to be described and illustrated and the first to be the subject of experimental study. We present here five previously unreported cases of human envenomation in which the species diagnosis is secure. From these and with the perspective of a selected literature review, we describe the full envenomation syndrome of this species. Until the development of the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories' Venom Detection Kit in 1979 and the occasional case report of victims of securely identified species, envenomation syndromes for most Australian snake species have remained indeterminate, because of the lack of professional expertise in the identification of the species involved. Symptoms of the P. porphyriacus envenomation syndrome include those of bite-site pain, nausea and vomiting, generalised pruritus, chest pain, prostration and abnormalities of taste and smell. Signs include local necrosis and scarring of tissue at the bite-site, gross inflammation of surrounding tissues and, at least in one case, epilepsy. Although envenomation by the Red-bellied Black Snake is not lethal in adults, the correct therapy is Tiger Snake antivenom, administered with judgement, taking into account knowledge of the specific envenomation syndrome of this species and the clinical status of the
Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael
A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna.
Kelsall, H; Sim, M; Forbes, A; McKenzie, D; Glass, D; Ikin, J; Ittak, P; Abramson, M
Methods: A cross sectional study compared 1456 Australian Gulf War veterans with a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1588). A postal questionnaire asked about respiratory conditions, exposures, medications, tobacco use, demographic characteristics, and military service details. During a medical assessment, spirometric tests and a physical examination were performed and a respiratory questionnaire was administered. Results: The response rate for the Gulf War veteran group was 80.5% and for the comparison group 56.8%. Australian Gulf War veterans had a higher than expected prevalence of respiratory symptoms and respiratory conditions suggesting asthma (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.9) and bronchitis first diagnosed since the Gulf War (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.1) but did not have poorer lung function or more ventilatory abnormalities than the comparison group. Veterans who reported exposure to oil fire smoke had slightly poorer forced vital capacity (difference between means –0.10 l; 95% CI –0.18 to –0.03) and those exposed to dust storms had a slightly better peak expiratory flow rate (difference between means 12.0 l/min; 95% CI 0.6 to 23.4) than veterans who did not report exposure. Veterans who were in the Gulf at or after the start of the oil fires had more respiratory conditions suggesting asthma (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9) than those who completed their deployment before this time. Conclusions: Increased self-reporting of respiratory symptoms, asthma, and bronchitis by veterans was not reflected in poorer lung function. The findings do not suggest major long term sequelae of exposure to oil fire smoke or dust storms. PMID:15454658
National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).
Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…
Oradovskaya, I V; Radzivil, T T
The results of the examination and monitoring of the personnel at the Siberian Chemical Plant (SChP) and adult population of Seversk are presented. The results of primary examination of the personnel who professionally contact the ionizing radiation (IR) from external sources and incorporated 239Pu showed that clinical symptoms of dysfunction of the immune system manifested themselves with a frequency of 75.30%. Infectious-inflammatory diseases (46.95%) and the combined pathology of infectious and allergic character (20.12%) were the most widespread. The allergic diseases (AD) without manifestations of an infectious component were observed not often (7.62%). The monitoring which was carried out for 10 years revealed a decrease in a percentage of persons with clinical signs of disorders of the immune system up to 60.68% among the personnel at the Chemical-Steel Plant and even more among the whole group of the studied personnel at SChP--49.68% (389 : 783). Among the population their frequency made up 51.78%. Features of clinical manifestations of dysfunction ofthe immune system depending on accumulation of 239Pu in the organism are established. Similar dynamics of infectious and infectious and allergic syndromes is revealed when the activity of 239Pu is 40 nCi. AD frequency reliably increased .when the activity of 239Pu is 20 nCi, but if accumulation is higher than 20-40 nCi it decreases and again increases when the activity is over 40 nCi. Pathologies of infectious and allergic genesis are most often observed when the content of 239Pu in an organism is over 40 nCi. Indicators of the immune status (IS) of the personnel at SChP with incorporated 239Pu are analyzed. 59 people--carriers of 239Pu and 408 people without 239Pu accumulated in an organism are examined. In comparison with the control, IS indicators characteristic for all dose loading groups are revealed: increase of lymphocytes, existence of dissociation in indicators of relative and absolute values of the T
Koff, Susan R.; Mistry, Gianna Limone
Professionalism in Dance Education is a complex construction. It can be imposed from the outside (degree completed, job status, salary) or can be identified from the professional herself. Seven graduate dance education students were interviewed with specific focus on the transition from student to professional and the feelings surrounding this…
Although professional staff comprise more than half the Australian higher education workforce, typically research has concentrated on the work of academic staff. Professional staff are increasingly researching the working lives of professional staff, adding to the understanding of the work of professional staff and the contributions they make…
This document presents the findings of a study that examined whether the marital status of women in New Brunswick (Canada) influenced their ability to obtain administrative or managerial positions within nontraditional fields. The study cited research suggesting that women are still viewed as dependent, passive, and lacking in competitiveness,…
Prepared under contract with the International Council on Archives, this study is intended to promote the development of the archival and records management professions in Africa by providing basic data on their status in relation to other information professions in the public service, particularly librarians and documentalists. It addresses the…
Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…
Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C
The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.
Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo
The objective of the present study was to investigate the nutritional status from the aspect of bone metabolism in Japanese elite male athletes with increased bone resorption. Urinary levels of a bone resorption marker, cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX), were measured in 71 professional baseball players (age, 18-39 years); the mean urinary NTX level was 65.6 (range, 17.5-269.0) nM BCE/mM Cr. Of 71 athletes, 9 with high levels of urinary NTX (greater than mean + 1 SD) were examined by measuring serum biochemical markers and nutritional assessment (simple food frequency questionnaire). Serum biochemical marker analysis showed that 7 of these 9 athletes had vitamin D insufficiency, as indicated by low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and that all 9 athletes showed vitamin K insufficiency as indicated by low levels of vitamins K(1) and K(2). Nutritional assessment revealed high intakes of protein and low intakes of calcium and vitamin D based on adequate intake (AI). However, daily vitamin K intake achieved the AI. These results suggest that there exist elite male athletes who show increased bone resorption and calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. However, there was a discrepancy between vitamin K intake and serum levels of vitamins K(1) and K(2). The present study raised an issue regarding the nutritional status from the point of view of bone metabolism in elite male athletes such as professional baseball players.
A three-year study was conducted involving teacher interviews and observation in one high school in NSW. Initially the contact between teacher and researcher came from an Australian Government Quality Teaching Program that provided 12-month funding to support teachers in professional learning. The role of the academic partner was to facilitate…
Pearn, John H
Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice.
Hardy, L L; Mihrshahi, S; Gale, J; Drayton, B A; Bauman, A; Mitchell, J
Background/Objective: To report 30-year (1985–2015) prevalence trends in overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among children by school level and socioeconomic status (SES). Subjects/Methods: Five cross-sectional, population child surveys (age 4–18 years; n=27 808) conducted in 1985–1997–2004–2010–2015 in New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes were prevalence of measured overweight, obesity and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR⩾0.5) by sex, school level (children (primary) and adolescents (high)) and SES tertile. Results: In 2015, the prevalences of overweight, obesity and WHtR⩾0.5 in children were 16.4%, 7.0% and 14.6%, respectively, and in adolescents 21.9%, 17.2% and 4.6%, respectively. Obesity prevalence has not significantly changed in children or adolescents since 1997, nor since 2010 (children, P=0.681; adolescents, P=0.21). Overweight has not significantly changed in children since 1997, but has in adolescents since 1985, with a relative increase of 16 percentage points (P<0.001) between 2010 and 2015. WHtR⩾0.5 prevalence has significantly changed since 1985, except in adolescent girls between 2010 and 2015. Between 2010 and 2015 the relative increase in WHtR⩾0.5 was 17 and 40 percentage points in children and adolescent boys, respectively. Significant disparities in prevalence rates between children and adolescents from low and high SES backgrounds began in 2010 for overweight, since 1997 for obesity and since 2004 for WHtR⩾0.5. Differences between SES groups have become larger over the past 18 years. Conclusions: Since 1997, obesity has remained stable, and overweight has stabilized in children, not in adolescents. WHtR⩾0.5 significantly increased between 1985 and 2015, with prevalence rates at each survey around twice the obesity prevalence. Compared with high SES children and adolescents, the risk of overweight, obesity and WHtR⩾0.5 was significantly higher for low SES children and adolescents. The findings are highly relevant to
Smart, Nigel, Ed.
This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…
The sociology of professions has generally considered professionalization as a desirable outcome for occupational groups. This case study of professionalization in the UK National Health Service, based on an analysis of documents, presents a challenge to that view. For many groups, the state is now so comprehensively dominant in the process of professionalization that it can effectively dictate professional status on its own terms. Many of the advantages that accrued to professions that developed historically will not be available to groups that professionalize under this new regime. Though elite groups within the profession studied (Operating Department Practice) were strongly in favour of professionalization, throughout the process there were also dissenting voices. This case study will show how professionalization, despite being described as the 'Holy Grail' by those in favour of it, turned out to be, at best, a mixed blessing. While medicine may still be able to negotiate with the state for other groups, professionalization can in the future be equated with regulation.
Garnett, Stephen T.; Duursma, Daisy E.; Ehmke, Glenn; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Stewart, Alistair; Szabo, Judit K.; Weston, Michael A.; Bennett, Simon; Crowley, Gabriel M.; Drynan, David; Dutson, Guy; Fitzherbert, Kate; Franklin, Donald C.
We introduce a dataset of biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for every species and subspecies of Australian bird, 2056 taxa or populations in total. Version 1 contains 230 fields grouped under the following headings: Taxonomy & nomenclature, Phylogeny, Australian population status, Conservation status, Legal status, Distribution, Morphology, Habitat, Food, Behaviour, Breeding, Mobility and Climate metrics. It is envisaged that the dataset will be updated periodically with new data for existing fields and the addition of new fields. The dataset has already had, and will continue to have applications in Australian and international ornithology, especially those that require standard information for a large number of taxa.
Garnett, Stephen T.; Duursma, Daisy E.; Ehmke, Glenn; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Stewart, Alistair; Szabo, Judit K.; Weston, Michael A.; Bennett, Simon; Crowley, Gabriel M.; Drynan, David; Dutson, Guy; Fitzherbert, Kate; Franklin, Donald C.
We introduce a dataset of biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for every species and subspecies of Australian bird, 2056 taxa or populations in total. Version 1 contains 230 fields grouped under the following headings: Taxonomy & nomenclature, Phylogeny, Australian population status, Conservation status, Legal status, Distribution, Morphology, Habitat, Food, Behaviour, Breeding, Mobility and Climate metrics. It is envisaged that the dataset will be updated periodically with new data for existing fields and the addition of new fields. The dataset has already had, and will continue to have applications in Australian and international ornithology, especially those that require standard information for a large number of taxa. PMID:26594379
A survey of 1,296 members of the Orienteering Federation of Australia indicates that Australian orienteers are well educated, have well-paid professional jobs, possess a strong commitment to a healthy lifestyle, and are generally interested in outdoor activities. Most were introduced to orienteering through personal contact with family members and…
Williams, Kim Marianne
This paper addresses the practice of professional development within the vocational education and training (VET) arena. The study objective was to explore appropriate education qualifications for Australian VET practitioners in the tourism and hospitality sector required for effective teaching practice. The study was conducted utilising…
Salter, Peta; Hill, Angela; Navin, Fiona; Knight, Cecily
Within teacher education, professional standards across Australian jurisdictions consistently note the importance of developing the ability to "engage professionally" with a community (QCT, 2009; AITSL, 2012). Paralleling this however, are calls for more "classroom" time (Australian Government, 2012). This paper explores…
Feeney, Stephanie; And Others
Presents four articles about professionalism in early childhood education: "Early Childhood Education as an Emerging Profession: Ongoing Conversations" (Stephanie Feeney and Nancy Freeman); "Voices in Search of Cultural Continuity in Communities" (Marion Cowee and others); "Early Childhood Professionals: Current Status and…
Goodrum, Denis; Rennie, Leonie J.
In 2001, the Australian Government released a report, commissioned by the then Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, entitled "The Status and Quality of Teaching and Learning of Science in Australian Schools" (Goodrum, Hackling, & Rennie, 2001). Its recommendations included actions to address raising community…
Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Athanasia, Sofia; Plachouras, Diamantis; Kanellaki, Stavroula; Bobota, Fani; Tzepetzi, Georgia; Giamarellou, Helen
Antibiotics are overused in many European countries, particularly Greece, leading to emerging antimicrobial resistance with sustained high mortality among hospitalised patients. Limited data are available regarding factors influencing people's knowledge and the impact of public campaigns on antibiotic misuse. Patients' beliefs regarding antibiotics were investigated in the outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Athens, Greece. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to examine patients' opinions on antibiotic use in the waiting room of the outpatient clinic. All participants read an illustrated pocket-sized leaflet endorsed by official authorities on the European Antibiotic Awareness Day (EAAD). Volunteers then completed a questionnaire containing information on demographics, knowledge on antibiotic use and overuse, and remarks on the quality of the leaflet's content. In a logistic regression analysis including age, sex, educational level and professional status of 605 eligible participants, women were more aware [odds ratio (OR)=3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-5.8; P<0.0001] and people with elementary education were less aware (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.1-0.9; P=0.04) of antimicrobial misuse. Workers were also more aware than retired or unemployed people (P=0.007). However, only 16.0% of participants knew about the EAAD. All participants agreed on antibiotic misuse in Greece, mentioning patient accountability as the main cause (26.8%), an opinion more pronounced in highly educated individuals. In conclusion, targeted interventions taking into account variations in educational level and employee status should be considered in future scheduled educative campaigns on antibiotic overconsumption in highly prescribing antibiotic countries.
Douglas, Joel M., Ed.
The status of professional employees at colleges and their role within the unionized workplace are considered in two articles. In "The Position of Professional Employees," Eliot Freidson discusses findings of a study on professionals and implications for college collective bargaining. Attention is directed to the validity of the position…
The moral status of professional boundaries and the ethical nature of dual and multiple overlapping human relationships in contemporary clinical practice remain enduring problems in all health care disciplines. In this paper I explore the ethics of dual or multiple overlapping relationship and apply a virtue ethics framework to the case of psychotherapy. After clarifying the context and meaning of commonly used terminology, and considering what some of the key Australian codes of ethics relevant to psychotherapy advise about dual relationships, I identify some commonly occurring situations where overlapping relationships are unavoidable. A case study from a rural context where size, isolation, and community expectations profoundly impact on the capacity of a psychotherapist to maintain clearly defined professional therapeutic relationship boundaries is analysed. The rural example is pertinent. A virtue ethics approach goes some way toward alleviating perceptions about the nature of dual relationships that contribute to an enduring reticence amongst psychotherapists (and other professionals) to practice in rural settings. Clearly, if a dual relationship involves exploitation then that relationship is a boundary crossing that should rightly be categorised as a boundary violation. Boundary violations are exploitative and unethical. However, some dual relationships may involve boundary crossings that are not necessarily boundary violations. Despite their general prohibition by Australian (and many other countries') codes of ethics relevant to psychotherapy, I argue that in certain situations, if a psychotherapist (who crosses a professional relationship boundary) acts with professional integrity from the distinct professional role-related virtues and/or regulative ideals that ensure the goals of psychotherapy (to increase autonomy and psychological wellbeing) are met, then a dual or multiple overlapping relationship in psychotherapy will be ethical.
Astill, Shannon; Ricketts, Nikelle; Singh, Love-Amrit; Kurtz, Dylan; Gim, Yong Hoon; Huang, Boyen
Background. Dental students have reported a high prevalence of psychological stress and the causes are associated with the challenging dental environmental and demographic factors. This study aimed to conduct a preliminary investigation on dental students’ stress status, using a sample of first-to-third-year Bachelor of Dental Surgery students in an Australian university. Special interests included causes of dental environmental stress and access to help services. Methods. A sample of 145 students was surveyed with a modified Dental Environmental Survey and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale in 2014. The participants’ demographic information was also collected. Results. The response rate was 95.4%. Second-year (P = 0.042), third-year (P < 0.001) and employed students (P = 0.027) were more likely to report stress resulting from transition to clinical learning. Third-year students were more often stressed about communicating and approaching staff (P = 0.023) as well as different opinions between staff (P < 0.001) and reduced holidays (P < 0.001). Students that were younger than 21 years of age (P = 0.001), that were first years (P < 0.001), and that were not in a relationship (P = 0.010) more often found difficulty of course work stressful. Students who were not in a relationship more often considered learning manual dexterity a source of stress (P = 0.034). Students previously seeking professional help were more likely to be stressed (P = 0.010). Conclusion. Causes of dental environment stress varied among years of study and demographic backgrounds. Professional support to stressed students should be enhanced. Further investigation is indicated. PMID:28096955
Halabi, Abdel K.
This paper analyses Australian rural accountants' attitudes and levels of satisfaction with continuing professional development (CPD), based on whether the CPD was delivered by a professional accounting body in a rural or metropolitan area. The paper responds to prior research that finds rural accountants are dissatisfied with professional…
An Investigation of the Importance of Stress as a Factor in the Academic Performance of Australian Adolescents. Report to the Council of the Brisbane College of Advanced Education, Following a Professional Experience Program during Semester 1, 1988.
Fanshawe, John P.
The research described in this report, part of a professional experience program funded by Brisbane (Australia) College of Advanced Education, was undertaken to investigate the incidence and causes of high stress levels among secondary students in Queensland, and to recommend ways of helping these students reduce stress or cope with it more…
Breen, Myles P.
Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…
In 2010, St. Leonards Primary School in Tasmania, along with other selected schools throughout Australia, trialled the draft Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Mathematics had been a whole school focus at St. Leonards Primary School for several years, and the school found that the opportunity to be part of the trial strongly connected with their…
When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…
Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah
Australian teachers, recruited via Facebook, completed an online survey about aspects of numeracy. The survey was designed to explore views on numeracy and capacity to respond to numeracy tasks. In this paper, we focus primarily on responses to two numeracy tasks--one numerical, the other requiring critical evaluation. On the first item, 40%…
This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…
In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…
Jones, Tiffany; Gray, Emily; Harris, Anne
Recognition of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status by the United Nations has led to the development of new policies concerning homophobia and transphobia in educational contexts. This paper examines new Australian education policies impacting gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer…
Australia was dragged into the First World War due to its status as a dominion of the British Empire. High numbers of nurses, both civilian and military, served during this conflict, notably in France, reflecting the surge of support and sympathy felt by Australians for the country.
The University of Melbourne in Australia has adopted a 10-year plan to create a U.S.-style of education where undergraduate university students would first have to complete a three-year general degree in science or the arts before being allowed to continue onto graduate or professional studies. Unlike in the United States, most Australian students are able to move from secondary school directly into professional studies.A major change for Earth science students would be the replacement of the one-year Bachelor of Science Honours with a two-year Masters program. According to Janet Hergt, head of the university's School of Earth Sciences, the longer program could allow students more time to develop and complete research projects, and would provide them with a better understanding of Ph.D.studies.
Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development.
Jensen, Dorthe H.; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates’ achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students’ socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students’ professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students’ parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students’ professional identity
Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.
features of the US margins. The Australian margin has significant geological and morphological variety, similar to the US margin and gives a good idea of the complexity of issues related to the U.S. margin. Decisions about basins and ridges in the Lord Howe Rise and Three Kings Ridge regions will likely bear on the status of ridges in the Arctic, such as Lomonosov Ridge. The Naturaliste Plateau and the South Tasman Rise appear to have parallels with the Chukchi Plateau in the Arctic and the Blake Plateau off the southeastern U.S. The ECS on Macquarie Island/Ridge may determine how boundaries along ridges such as the Mariannas are treated.
ADF towards homeland defense. For further details, see Jeffrey Grey. A Military History of Australia. Melbourne, Australia, Cambridge University...is a simplified explanation of the hardene d force structure proposed by FLW. The hardened concept encompasses other aspects that enhance Army...standardized with three rifle companies. A 196 Leahy “ A Land Force for the Future: The Australian Army in the Early 21st Century.” 2003: 19. 197 See Monk, Paul
Ponzin, Diego; Fasolo, Adriano; Vidale, Enrico; Pozzi, Annalaura; Bottignolo, Elisa; Calabrò, Francesco; Rupolo, Giampietro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a team-building learning project on job satisfaction, psychological wellbeing, and performance of health care workers involved in the process of organ and tissue donation. The project was conducted between June and September 2011 and consisted of two one-day meetings and a one week sailing, involving 20 staff members. GHQ-12, MBI-HSS, and 25 items taken from the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were used to assess health status, burnout, and job satisfaction. Results of the descriptive analyses were expressed as mean ± SD and as counts and percentages; Chi-square test was used to evaluate statistical significance of differences before and after the initiative. 6 (30,0%) participants showed the likelihood to suffering from anxiety and depression (i.e. recognized as 'cases' by the GHQ-12), 3 (15.0%) of them at baseline and 3 (15.0%), different from the previous ones, in the post-intervention. The presence of stress was revealed in 9 (45.0%) and 12 subjects (60.0%) before and after the experience, respectively (6 subjects showed the presence of stress in both circumstances). We documented 4 burnout cases, 3 (15.0%) at baseline and 1 (5.0%) after the experience. Nevertheless, about 80% of the participants showed a high degree ofjob satisfaction, in terms of positive influence of job in the professional satisfaction and of clear satisfaction for the organization, during both evaluation. In respect to 2010, the number of organ donors and that of ocular tissue donors improved of about 16% and 10%, respectively, during the year of the project and in the following year (mean value). We recognize that our team-building project for personnel involved in the stressful and demanding setting of organ and tissue donation, worthwhile and recompensing at the same time, possibly influenced the personal commitment and the quality of job provided. The high level of stress showed by participants should be
Deakin Australia (DA) CBE (Continuing Business Education) programs are designed for use in conjunction with print and audio materials which are distributed as distance learning packages to business studies graduates working or planning to work as accountants, who are enrolled in the professional licensing program run by the Australian Society of…
Mlotkowski, Peter; Guthrie, Hugh
This report draws on analyses of Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the Survey of Education and Training (SET) and the Census of Population and Housing to provide an updated demographic profile of vocational education and training (VET) professionals and VET practitioners. A number of caveats are attached to this analysis, all…
Liddicoat, Anthony J.
The Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations (AFMLTA) has recently developed a set of professional standards for accomplished language teachers. Standards of teaching are statements of values about the processes of teaching, learning, and knowing, and of the practices of those who teach languages and cultures. These standards…
Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…
The current status of diabetes professional educational standards and competencies in the UK--a position statement from the Diabetes UK Healthcare Professional Education Competency Framework Task and Finish Group.
Walsh, N; George, S; Priest, L; Deakin, T; Vanterpool, G; Karet, B; Simmons, D
Diabetes is a significant health concern, both in the UK and globally. Management can be complex, often requiring high levels of knowledge and skills in order to provide high-quality and safe care. The provision of good, safe, quality care lies within the foundations of healthcare education, continuing professional development and evidence-based practice, which are inseparable and part of a continuum during the career of any health professional. Sound education provides the launch pad for effective clinical management and positive patient experiences. This position paper reviews and discusses work undertaken by a Working Group under the auspices of Diabetes UK with the remit of considering all health professional educational issues for people delivering care to people with diabetes. This work has scoped the availability of education for those within the healthcare system who may directly or indirectly encounter people with diabetes and reviews alignment to existing competency frameworks within the UK's National Health Service.
This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati
The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…
Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John
The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.
This article explores the intersections between museum learning in a distinctive Tasmanian setting, the possibilities of a new national History curriculum, and the evolving views and professional practices of pre-service primary teachers at one Australian university. Following a brief overview of the framework for local and Australian history that…
Scott, John Trevitt; Armstrong, Ann Cheryl
This paper draws on a broader qualitative study of professional learning in schools of the Peoples of the Book (Christians, Jews and Muslims) in post-colonial Australia, addressing the role that the growing number of Australian faith-based schools play in shaping a just and inclusive Australian society. By reviewing material in the public domain,…
Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter
This study surveyed 925 Australian high school students enrolled in grades 8 through 12 on measures of occupational aspirations, occupational expectations, career status aspirations, and career status expectations; it tested the association between these variables and career maturity, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy, and…
Nelson, Bonnie R.
Much of what passes for professionalism is self-serving elitism and not relevant to librarianship. Librarians, most of whom are women, should continue to improve service to the public and strive by pragmatic means to overcome low pay and status. (RAA)
Custer, Rodney L.; Daugherty, Jenny L.
Recently engineering has emerged on the K-12 scene as a potentially important content area. However, K-12 teachers typically lack sufficient backgrounds to effectively integrate engineering into their classrooms. Thus teacher professional development is of critical importance. Although there have been several initiatives emerge to assist teachers…
Australia is a multicultural society in which the most rapidly ageing groups are immigrants, many of whom cannot speak English well. Minimal research has been conducted to identify ethnic variation in health concerns and expectations of older Australians from non-English-speaking backgrounds, necessary to facilitate culturally appropriate services. This paper presents findings from 12 focus group sessions (4 Anglo, 3 Italian, 2 Chinese, 2 Arabic, 1 Greek) with older (60+) Australians. Common areas of concern were inadequate medication information, labelling and instructions. Anglo participants differed from ethnic participants in their use of herbal remedies, language, relationship with pharmacist and doctor and awareness of health rights. Other concerns and expectations were specific to a particular ethnic group. The findings should increase health professionals' awareness of the similarities and differences which exist between mainstream Anglo and ethnic Australians, and also between ethnic groups, thereby avoiding the use of a blanket approach when communicating with, or planning policies for, ethnic older Australians.
Leigh, Cindy; And Others
Reviews three books of relevance to early childhood educators: (1) "Distinctions between Self-Esteem and Narcissism: Implications for Practice" (L. G. Katz); (2) "We All Belong: Multicultural Child Care That Works" (Australian Early Childhood Association); and (3) "Words Can Hurt You: Beginning a Program of Anti-Bias…
Karabetsos, Andrew P.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provides Canadian and Mexican professionals with an option not available to citizens of other countries: Trade NAFTA, or "TN" status, which provides authorization for business persons. Discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of this status with that of the more conventional H-1B…
Eijkelkamp, Ank; Peersman, Wim; De Vriendt, Patricia
Background Over the past decades, there has been a paradigm shift from a purely biomedical towards a bio-psycho-social (BPS) conception of disability and illness, which has led to a change in contemporary healthcare. However, there seems to be a gap between the rhetoric and reality of working within a BPS model. It is not clear whether healthcare professionals show the necessary skills and competencies to act according to the BPS model. Objective The aim of this study was (1) to develop a scale to monitor the BPS competencies of healthcare professionals, (2) to define its factor-structure, (3) to check internal consistency, (4) test-retest reliability and (5) feasibility. Design and Setting Item derivation for the BPS scale was based on qualitative research with seven multidisciplinary focus groups (n = 58) of both patients and professionals. In a cross-sectional study design, 368 healthcare professionals completed the BPS scale through a digital platform. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine underlying dimensions. Statistical coherence was expressed in item-total correlations and in Cronbach’s α coefficient. An intra-class-correlation coefficient was used to rate the test-retest reliability. Results The qualitative study revealed 45 items. The exploratory factor analysis showed five underlying dimensions labelled as: (1) networking, (2) using the expertise of the client, (3) assessment and reporting, (4) professional knowledge and skills and (5) using the environment. The results show a good to strong homogeneity (item-total ranged from 0.59 to 0.79) and a strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.75 to 0.82). ICC ranged between 0.82 and 0.93. Conclusion The BPS scale appeared to be a valid and reliable measure to rate the BPS competencies of the healthcare professionals and offers opportunities for an improvement in the healthcare delivery. Further research is necessary to test the construct validity and to detect whether
Chalmers, J M
The ageing Australian population living in the new millennium has dental needs that are very different and more complex than those experienced by previous older adult cohorts during the twentieth century. A summary of the oral health status of older Australians is presented, together with a review of the important relationships between general health and oral health. The key to maintaining and improving older adults' oral health status is the use of oral health promotion strategies that focus not only on dental characteristics, but also on the life characteristics of older adults, and on their quality of life issues. Traditionally, there has been very limited geriatric oral health promotion, with several myths contributing to this situation. Contemporary geriatric oral health promotion in the new millenium has an evidence-based and planned approach. It encompasses not only the treatment of oral diseases and conditions, but has an increased focus on the prevention of oral diseases and conditions to enhance oral health status and older adults' quality of life. Using the Ottawa Charter and a functional dependence classification, a geriatric oral health promotion matrix is presented, using a specific example of Australian residential care.
Alahmari, Mohammed Ali S; Sun, Zhonghua; Bartlett, Andrew
This study aimed to investigate whether the use of protection devices and attitudes of interventional professionals (including radiologists, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, medical imaging technicians and nurses) towards radiation protection will differ between Saudi Arabian and Australian hospitals. Hard copies of an anonymous survey were distributed to 10 and 6 clinical departments in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia and metropolitan hospitals in Western Australia, respectively. The overall response rate was 43 % comprising 110 Australian participants and 63 % comprising 147 Saudi participants. Analysis showed that Australian respondents differed significantly from Saudi respondents with respect to their usages of leaded glasses (p < 0.001), ceiling-suspended lead screen (p < 0.001) and lead drape suspended from the table (p < 0.001). This study indicates that the trained interventional professionals in Australia tend to adhere to benefit from having an array of tools for personal radiation protection than the corresponding group in Saudi Arabia.
Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica
Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.
Pimbblet, Kevin A.
The Hirsch h-index is now widely used as a metric to compare individual researchers. To evaluate it in the context of Australian astronomy, the h-index for every member of the Astronomical Society of Australia (ASA) is found using NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services. Percentiles of the h-index distribution are detailed for a variety of categories of ASA members, including students. This enables a list of the top ten Australian researchers by h-index to be produced. These top researchers have h-index values in the range 53
Robertson, Margaret; Fluck, Andrew; Webb, Ivan; Loechel, Barton
Considerable resources have been committed to providing information and communication technology in Australian schools. However, little is known about their effects on professional practice and student learning. This paper reports two main aspects of the data emerging from a current, ongoing three-year study (2002-04) Years 3, 5 and 7 of…
Pignata, Silvia; Lushington, Kurt; Sloan, Jeremy; Buchanan, Fiona
Despite email playing a central role in university business, little is known about the strategies used by staff to manage email and the factors contributing to email overload. In a mixed method study undertaken in one Australian university comparing academic (n = 193) and professional (n = 278) staff, we found that while email volume was higher in…
Stupans, Ieva; Owen, Susanne; McKauge, Leigh; Pont, Lisa; Ryan, Greg; Woulfe, Jim
Profession-derived competency standards are key determinants for curriculum and assessment in many professional university programmes. An Australian Learning and Teaching Council funded project used a participatory action research approach to enable the collaborative development of a graduated (or incremental) descriptors tool related to…
Serry, Tanya Anne; Hammond, Lorraine
The purpose of this study was to examine Australian learning difficulties specialists' knowledge about, and the use of, the term dyslexia. An online survey was constructed based on a current definition of, and evidence about, dyslexia and distributed to members of relevant professional associations. A total of 179 participants responded to the…
West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee
An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…
Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard
Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…
Gillespie, Ann; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Howlett, Alisa
Introduction: This paper presents the findings from a project that investigated the lived experiences of library and information professionals in relation to evidence-based practice within an Australian public library. Method: The project employed ethnography, which allows holistic description of people's experiences within a particular community…
Henwood, Tim; Bartlett, Helen; Carroll, Matthew
A survey of Australian emerging researchers in aging identified the need for greater professional development and networking opportunities. To address this, a formal mentorship scheme was developed and evaluated. Fourteen postgraduate researchers (proteges) were matched by discipline and research interest to experienced academics (mentors).…
van Acker, Liz; Bailey, Janis; Wilson, Keithia; French, Erica
Universities are increasingly offering capstone subjects as part of curricula to prepare final-year undergraduates for employment through consolidating and integrating their knowledge and skills while bridging the gap between academic learning and professional work. This study investigates capstone subjects offered by Australian business schools,…
This paper explores the possibilities and limitations of the AITSL Performance and Development Framework (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership, 2012b) as a vehicle for authentic teacher professional learning. It suggests that the Framework offers a range of implementation possibilities, from surveillance of teaching practice at…
Warner, L R
The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research.
McCall, B. J.; Epstein, J. H.; Neill, A. S.; Heel, K.; Field, H.; Barrett, J.; Smith, G. A.; Selvey, L. A.; Rodwell, B.; Lunt, R.
Two human deaths caused by Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) infection have been reported since 1996. Information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south Brisbane and the South Coast of Queensland), who reported potential ABL exposure to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit from November 1,1996, to January 31, 1999. Volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who intentionally handled bats for 31%, and community members with contacts initiated by bats for 4%. The prevalence of Lyssavirus detected by fluorescent antibody test in 366 sick, injured, or orphaned bats from the area was 6%. Sequelae of exposure, including the requirement for expensive postexposure prophylaxis, may be reduced by educating bat handlers and the public of the risks involved in handling Australian bats. PMID:10827115
Whitehead, M; Judge, K; Hunter, D J; Maxwell, R; Scheuer, M A
Federal and state governments in Australia have embarked on a series of national initiatives which show a firm commitment to tackling social inequalities in health. The development of national goals and targets for health, for example, covers social and environmental conditions and sets differential targets for specific social groups with very poor health status. In a complementary initiative, a wide ranging analysis of the health care system--the National Health Strategy--has as one of its main objectives to improve the equitable impact of the health system. Where problems of access to and quality of services have been exposed, policies have been devised to deal with them. The exceptionally poor health of the Aboriginal community has elicited cross party support for action. Resources have been allocated to implement the National Aboriginal Health Strategy: to improve living and working conditions, education, and employment opportunities. Britain can glean much from the Australian experience. Images p783-a p787-a PMID:8490345
Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2) relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES), TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3) compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015) in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit) was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p < 0.05). In the 2007 survey 23% of children were overweight (17%) or obese (6%) while in the 1995 survey this figure was 21%. The proportion of children consuming SSBs in 1995 and 2007 for selected age groups were: 2-3 years - 25.8% and 12.8% respectively and 4-7 years - 33.6% and 20.5% respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB
Gray, Kathleen; Sim, Jenny
This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating how Australian health professionals may be developing and deploying essential clinical informatics capabilities in the first 5 years of their professional practice. It explores the experiences of four professionals in applying what they have learned formally and informally during their…
Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce
Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)
Grech, Amanda; Sui, Zhixian; Siu, Hong Ying; Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rangan, Anna
Diet quality indices have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease, cancer, Type 2 Diabetes, obesity and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to determine the socio-demographics of Australian adults with poor diet quality. Diet quality was assessed for participants of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey aged 18 years or above (n = 9435), with the validated 11-component Healthy Eating Index for Australians (HEIFA-2013), based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Differences in scores by demographics (ANOVA) and regression models for associations between the HEIFA-2013 score and demographic characteristics were conducted. The mean (SD) HEIFA-2013 score was 45.5 (14.7) out of 100 due to poor intakes of vegetables, fruit, grains, dairy and fat and high intakes of added sugar, sodium and discretionary foods. Lower mean HEIFA-2013 scores (SD) were found for males 43.3 (14.7), young-adults 41.6 (14.2) obese 44.1 (14.3), smokers 40.0 (14.2), low socio-economic status 43.7 (14.9) and Australian country-of-birth 44.2 (14.6) (p < 0.05). The overall diet quality of the Australian population is poor and targeted interventions for young-adults, males, obese and those with lower socio-economic status are recommended. PMID:28165394
This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on…
Troy, Jaky; Walsh, Michael
The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) has been developing language-specific curricula for a range of languages in the "Australian Curriculum: Language"s and has also undertaken development of a "Framework for Australian Languages", to provide guidance for the development of curricula for specific…
Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine
Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…
Rizvi, Afroz Haider
In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…
Background This study investigated the knowledge of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods among Australians of Chinese-speaking background, and the perceptions of this population of the causes of mental illness. Methods Adopting a cluster convenience sampling method, the study recruited 200 Chinese-speaking subjects from four major areas in metropolitan Melbourne where many Chinese live. The respondents were presented with a vignette describing an individual with depression and then asked questions to assess their understanding of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods. A comparative approach was used to compare the findings with those of a previous study of the mental health literacy of Australian and Japanese adults. Results Compared to the Australian and Japanese samples, a much lower percentage of Chinese-speaking Australians (14%) could correctly identify major depression described in the vignette, and a higher percentage believed that counseling professionals could be helpful. Higher percentages of those who believed that close family members could be helpful were found in the Chinese-speaking Australian and Japanese samples, and these two groups also expressed more uncertainty about the usefulness or harmfulness of certain medications compared to the Australian sample. Higher percentages of respondents in both the Chinese-speaking Australian and the Australian sample considered "lifestyle changes" to be helpful compared to the Japanese sample. In the Chinese-speaking sample, 30%, 17.4%, 33% and 27% of the respondents rated "traditional Chinese medicine doctors," "Chinese herbal medications," "taking Chinese nutritional foods/supplements" and "qiqong" as helpful. Many perceived "changing fungshui" and "traditional Chinese worship" to be harmful. Regarding the perception of causes of mental illness, items related to psychosocial perspectives including "life stress" and
Lo Bianco, Joseph
It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…
Heck, Deborah; Sweeney, Trudy-Ann
The Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) project engaged teacher educators from all Australian institutions in a professional learning network that provided targeted professional development and fostered collaboration within and between teacher education institutions and relevant teacher education partners to build capacity within each…
This paper examines the role of various boundaries in giving both professional groups and individuals a sense of identity that provides both with status and legitimacy. Close attention is paid to the boundaries between personal and professional identities and values. Sociologists working with a discursive approach argue that professional identity and status are achieved through the rhetorical presentation of certain values and responsibilities as personal, and therefore outside the boundaries of professional practice. This paper takes this argument forward, by arguing that in particular contexts, certain kinds of values are consciously articulated as personal and incorporated into the defence of professional legitimacy. Bringing personal claims inside professional boundaries is further evidence of the fluid and negotiated quality of the boundary between personal and professional values and notions of self. The paper consists of a discussion of the construction of professional boundaries, professional involvement in risk, issues raised by antenatal screening and analysis of a study of a group of professionals involved in antenatal screening. The paper explores the circumstances within which even senior professional groups and individuals look to representations of the personal self as a defence against critiques of their professional practice. Where the risks that professionals generate and interpret are medically ambiguous and socially contentious the abstract professional and medical framework is insufficient and other rhetorical values become resources in securing the professional role.
Herbert, Sandra; Widjaja, Wanty; Bragg, Leicha A.; Loong, Esther; Vale, Colleen
Reasoning is an important aspect in the understanding and learning of mathematics. This paper reports on a case study presenting one Australian primary teacher's reflections regarding the role played by a professional learning program in her developing understanding of mathematical reasoning. Examination of the transcripts of two interviews…
Meehan, Barry; Thomas, Ian
The projects described in this article were designed to provide a real world situation akin to the work of environmental professionals. The projects were conducted with Australian students working on environmental issues in Vietnam. The projects demonstrated that multi-disciplinary teamwork fits well into environmental projects, and importantly…
Le Cornu, Rosie
The title of the 2014 Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA) conference was "Teacher Education, An Audit: Building a platform for future engagement." One of the conference themes was "Professional Experience: What works? Why?" I seized upon this theme and the title of the conference as it afforded me an opportunity to…
This case study of a Doctor of Education program in a transnational setting is contextualized in Australian national policies for international higher education and influences of regionalization and globalization. The doctorate was designed to meet aspirations of professional practitioners in Australia and South East Asia where the School had…
Green, Monica M.
There is an expectation that Australian teachers engage professionally in all aspects of teaching and learning, including engagement with teaching networks and broader communities. This paper reports on a partnership between a teacher educator and an environmental educator who set out to expand pre-service teachers' professional knowledge,…
Cartmel, Jennifer; Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea
This paper reports on an Australian initiative "Developing and Sustaining Pedagogical Leadership in Early Childhood Education and Care Professionals," where academics and professionals shared knowledge, experience and research about transdisciplinary practice. The project aimed to develop an understanding of the strategies and skills…
Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil
In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…
Moriarty, Beverley J.
Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…
Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…
Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth
A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…
This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…
A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...
Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony
Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…
Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…
This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…
Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…
Krassie, J; Roberts, D C
The World Health Organisation has restructured their program for health and the elderly, renaming it Aging and Health, focussing on aging as a part of life rather than a static age group separated from the rest of the population. As the older population becomes more heterogeneous, nutrition and food service providers in the community are faced with new challenges. This paper presents nutrition recommendations relevant to community nutrition programs in Australia including the recently released Dietary Guidelines for Older Australians. The subsequent discussion focuses on issues associated with implementation of community based food and nutrition intervention programs. The following strategies for successful implementation of community based food and nutrition programs were identified: Meals on Wheels services. 1. should maintain a register of food service systems for each site to assist in the planning process. 2. Develop a procedure for the nutritional assessment of menus focussing on a standardised methodology and recipes as well as ensuring trained staff are available to apply the procedure. 3. Validate recommended serving sizes and recommend serving utensils for specific menu items. Provide advice on the purchasing, use and calibration of scales as well as containers. 4. Develop alternative, informal methods of assessing client satisfaction to ensure the clients' experience with the service, rather than their reaction to the experience, be assessed. 5. Develop a management training program which focuses on a "train-the-trainer' strategy to ensure continuous, on-site training. Meeting the nutritional needs of the heterogeneous group of older people implies a modified approach to nutritional support. All those involved in community nutrition organisations need to recognise the significance of the "caring" role as well as that of food provider and the impact of this on the nutritional status of the client. The development of consistent guidelines and tools will
Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy
Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bradley, Graham L.
Responses from Australian reentry students (1233 of 2278) and 66 of 80 institutions were used to develop a profile of dropout characteristics, living conditions, employment status, and reasons for reentry. Improved data collection on dropouts, a preventive focus in grades 10-11, and adoption of innovative reentry program practices were…
Devlin, Marcia; O'Shea, Helen
The Australian Government's response to the 2008 Bradley Review of higher education has set clear targets for increased university participation of people from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. Using a "success-focused" methodological approach, this research documents the factors that a sample of 53 later-year, low socioeconomic…
Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey
Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people's mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of 'risk', 'ageing as decline/dependence' and 'healthy ageing' were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to 'target' groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people's mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers.
Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey
Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people’s mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of ‘risk’, ‘ageing as decline/dependence’ and ‘healthy ageing’ were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to ‘target’ groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people’s mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. PMID:27147440
Background The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities promotes equal rights of people with a disability in all aspects of their life including their education. In Australia, Disability Discrimination legislation underpins this Convention. It mandates that higher education providers must demonstrate that no discrimination has occurred and all reasonable accommodations have been considered and implemented, to facilitate access and inclusion for a student with a disability. The first step to meeting legislative requirements is to provide students with information on the inherent requirements of a course. This paper describes the steps which were taken to develop inherent requirement statements for a 4-year entry-level physiotherapy program at one Australian university. Case presentation Inherent requirement statements were developed using an existing framework, which was endorsed and mandated by the University. Items which described inherencies were extracted from Australian physiotherapy professional standards and statutory regulatory requirements, and units contained in the physiotherapy program. Data were integrated into the 8 prescribed domains: ethical behaviour, behavioural stability, legal, communication, cognition, sensory abilities, strength and mobility, and sustainable performance. Statements for each domain were developed using a 5-level framework (introductory statement, description of the inherent requirement, justification for inherency, characteristics of reasonable adjustments and exemplars) and reviewed by a University Review Panel. Refinement of statements continued until no further changes were required. Fifteen physiotherapy inherent requirement statements were developed. The eight domains identified in the existing framework, developed for Nursing, were relevant to the study of physiotherapy. Conclusions The inherent requirement statements developed in this study provide a transparent, defensible position on the
Williams, I; Lye, J; Alves, A; Lehmann, J; Kenny, J; Dunn, L; Kron, T
Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, (ACDS) was a pilot program to enable the Australian Government to determine whether a locally designed audit program was suitable for mitigating dosimetric error risk to radiotherapy patients within Australia. The outcomes from four years of operations will be presented and discussed with a focus why and how the pilot requirements were met. The consequnces of success will be considered, the lessons learnt from the pilot program and how they are impacting the future ACDS design, operation and engagement with stakeholders. Methods: The ACDS was designed over 2010/11 by experts drawn from the three professions in consultation with the national Department of Health. The list of outcomes required over a three year pilot was expressed in a Memorandum of Understanding, (MoU) between Health and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which hosted the ACDS. Results: The ACDS has achieved all the MoU requirements. This paper describes how the staff within the ACDS engaged with the professional clinical workforce and provided a successful and functioning audit service. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses within the MoU and the ACDS structure and how the ACDS resolved a number of conflicting issues. It identifies the successes within the ACDS and how these were achieved. It provides details to assist and advise those seeking to design or modify national or regional auditing programs. Finally the paper reviews potential futures for the ACDS. Conclusion: The raw number of audits and outcomes indicate that the ACDS has met the MoU auditing requirements. The reasons for the ACDS’ success are highly dependent on: attracting quality staff who can respond with agility to changing situations, a high level of communication with the professional community, a high level of engagement by the community and an interested and engaged Federal Department. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service is a
Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine
In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…
Norris, Lindy; Coutas, Penelope
The rhetoric around global connectedness and advances in information communication technologies (ICTs) suggests that: Professional life for the marginalised and isolated language teacher should be easier; the experience of language learners in Australian schools should be more meaningful and bring them closer to the languages and communities that…
Byers, Philippa; Tni, Massimiliano
This paper examines the effectiveness of a programme of weekly meetings between sessional staff and the unit coordinator of a large first-year class at an Australian university. Interviews with sessional staff indicate that, in addition to training and targeted professional development initiatives, management initiatives that promote engagement…
Holt, Dale; Cohen, Lynne; Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Chang, Paul; Macdonald, Ian; McDonald, Jacquie
This article is based on nationally funded research into the role, capabilities, challenges and professional development needs of subject coordinators in Australian higher education. The second of three data collection phases involved a multi-institutional survey of staff in the role of subject coordinator with the aim of understanding the role…
Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry
The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs.
The Australian short-beaked echidna, a monotreme, is one of the oldest living mammals on earth. It is recorded to be the most widely distributed native mammal on the island continent and classed as 'common'. Yet, little is known about its natural history and biology in the wild. What science has learned about the echidna in the past 200 years and why there are still large gaps is reported here.
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.
Over the next decade, a new generation of instruments will come into being for the benefit of astronomers across the world. Australian astronomers hope to build on their strong astronomical heritage and continue to take part in astronomy at the highest international level. To this end, they have prepared a Decadal Plan that envisages building, with international partners, a world-class radio telescope, greater invovlement with 8 metre telescopes, as well as making the most of the Antarctic opportunities that Australia offers.
Sluggett, Janet K; Ilomäki, Jenni; Seaman, Karla L; Corlis, Megan; Bell, J Simon
Eight percent of Australians aged 65 years and over receive residential aged care each year. Residents are increasingly older, frailer and have complex care needs on entry to residential aged care. Up to 63% of Australian residents of aged care facilities take nine or more medications regularly. Together, these factors place residents at high risk of adverse drug events. This paper reviews medication-related policies, practices and research in Australian residential aged care. Complex processes underpin prescribing, supply and administration of medications in aged care facilities. A broad range of policies and resources are available to assist health professionals, aged care facilities and residents to optimise medication management. These include national guiding principles, a standardised national medication chart, clinical medication reviews and facility accreditation standards. Recent Australian interventions have improved medication use in residential aged care facilities. Generating evidence for prescribing and deprescribing that is specific to residential aged care, health workforce reform, medication-related quality indicators and inter-professional education in aged care are important steps toward optimising medication use in this setting.
AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES Directorate of Strategic Personnel Planning and Research DSPPR Technical Note 10/2001...DATE 00 OCT 2001 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES The findings and views expressed in this report are the results
This is an era of significant government involvement in schools in England, despite consistent rhetoric from the Department of Education to the contrary. In such a period, signs can be detected of the juncture between a postmodern identity and post-professional status, two models of teacher professionalism supposed in Hargreaves' work on the…
Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue
This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other…
Ainley, John G.
This report is a study conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research to evaluate the influence of science material resources, provided under the Australian Science Facilities Program, on science education in Australia. Under the Australian Science Facilities Program some $123 million was spent, between July 1964 and June 1975, on…
The introduction of the ANMC's Continuing Competence Framework means that an increasing number of Australian Registered Nurses and Registered Midwives will be required to submit a portfolio if audited in order to maintain their registration. As several professional organisations and State regulatory authorities have already demonstrated, nurses and midwives will be supported to do this. However there is a risk that individuals commencing a portfolio for the first time will attempt to deal with the requirement by focussing on the minimum standards set by the regulatory authorities. Critics of the use of professional portfolios are quite correct, compiling and managing a portfolio can be a time consuming and irrelevant process if not well implemented. As this article will elaborate, e-Portfolios have a range of potential professional benefits including supporting individuals through a critical reflective approach to competency development, supporting professional collaboration and providing a structure for planning their career progression. This article provides an overview of the potential benefits of e-Portfolio platforms including detailing the capacities for information storage and recall and the provision of tools to support structuring and reporting information to further develop and communicate professional achievements. The objective is to entice the ambitious professional and their employers/professional associations to consider utilizing the extended capacities of e-Portfolios.
Gilstrap, Robert L.
Reviews four professional books: (1) "Changing Teaching, Changing Schools. Bringing Early Childhood Practice into Public Education: Case Studies from the Kindergarten" (O'Connell); (2) "Whole Language Plus: Essays on Literacy in the United States and New Zealand" (Cazden); (3) "Audacious Kids: Coming of Age in America's…
Benson, Chris, Ed.
This serial issue contains 12 articles on the theme of "Professional Development," specifically about how teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network (BLRTN) are fostering their own and each other's development as teachers. The BLRTN consists of approximately 260 rural teachers in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky,…
Shaw, Jean M.; And Others
Reviews "Investigating Mathematics with Young Children" (Althouse); "Homecoming for Babies after the Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery: A Guide for Parents," with companion guide for professionals (Hanson and VandenBerg); "HIV/AIDS: A Challenge to Us All," with companion video (Pediatric AIDS Foundation); and "Modeling Healthy Behavior: Actions and…
Swanson, Gordon I.; Jervis, Robert
Resulting in part from a project designed to identify and describe comprehensive programs of excellence in career education, this booklet is the eighth in a series describing current, successful career education practices. A successful career education program is dependent upon professional development. Based on this premise, the monograph: (1)…
Ertsas, Turid I.; Irgens, Eirik J.
In this conceptual article, we draw on a graded theory concept as well as two exemplary cases to discuss the role of professional theorizing in teachers' practice. We present a model that can illustrate how a non-dichotomous, graded and processual understanding of theory may help overcome a split between theory, on the one hand, and practice, on…
Harris, M G; Harris, R D
The health of Australians, with the exception of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, compares favourably with other industrialised nations. Since 1984, universal access for citizens to medical and public hospital services has been achieved under a national Health Insurance Scheme called Medicare, partially funded by a 1.4 percent levy on all taxpayers. Medicare found early widespread support from the electorate but continues to be buffeted by a minority coalition of some medical associations, private health insurers, and conservative "libertarian" politicians. Over the decade since its inception, Medicare has provided stability in maintaining total health costs around 8 percent of GDP. This has been largely due to capping hospital costs via Commonwealth-State agreements. Medicare has failed in the past five years to contain medical costs which have increased proportionally with increases in the medical workforce. This article examines the structure and performance of Medicare and its role within Australia's overall health system. Benefits of a universal access insurance program are outlined together with challenges associated with inequities in health status, geography, aging of the population, burgeoning technology, ideological diversity, and an economic climate requiring cost containment and favouring privatisation and the role of the market. It can be concluded that, despite these challenges, universal access to health care is here to stay. Australia's Medicare program has become popular with the electorate.
Gower, Shelley; van den Akker, Jose; Jones, Mark; Dantas, Jaya A R; Duggan, Ravani
Since 2011, Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators have been providing evidence-based continuing education to Tanzanian health professionals. Despite thorough preparation before departure, differences in local resource levels and available facilities have necessitated impromptu adaptation of curriculum content and delivery methods to ensure an effective program was delivered. This study explored the personal, cultural and teaching strategies utilised by Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators in Tanzania and examined if the transferability of education packages was influenced by the educators' cultural competence. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, data was collected from 15 Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators using a demographic survey and in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. The core themes identified from the analysis were Determination to learn, Assessing needs, Communication skills and Greater understanding. These findings are described using the conceptual framework of Campinha-Bacote's The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services. With appropriate levels of cultural competence, international health professionals can be effective at providing ongoing professional development to colleagues in developing country contexts, which may help address difficulties with retention and motivation of staff. It is essential that prior to departure cultural competence training is provided to educators to enhance their teaching capacity and effectiveness in international settings.
Loughran, Sarah P.; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Bentvelzen, Alan; Elwood, Mark; Finnie, John; Horvat, Joseph; Iskra, Steve; Ivanova, Elena P.; Manavis, Jim; Mudiyanselage, Chathuranga Keerawella; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Martinac, Boris; McIntosh, Robert; McKenzie, Raymond; Mustapic, Mislav; Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Pirogova, Elena; Rashid, M. Harunur; Taylor, Nigel A.; Todorova, Nevena; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Vink, Robert; Wood, Andrew; Yarovsky, Irene; Croft, Rodney J.
Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC)-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains. The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR) is a National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence that is undertaking research addressing the most important aspects of the MC-EMF health debate, with a strong focus on mechanisms, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and exposure dosimetry. This research takes as its starting point the current scientific status quo, but also addresses the adequacy of the evidence for the status quo. Risk communication research complements the above, and aims to ensure that whatever is found, it is communicated effectively and appropriately. This paper provides a summary of this ACEBR research (both completed and ongoing), and discusses the rationale for conducting it in light of the prevailing science. PMID:27690076
Loughran, Sarah P; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Bentvelzen, Alan; Elwood, Mark; Finnie, John; Horvat, Joseph; Iskra, Steve; Ivanova, Elena P; Manavis, Jim; Mudiyanselage, Chathuranga Keerawella; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Martinac, Boris; McIntosh, Robert; McKenzie, Raymond; Mustapic, Mislav; Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Pirogova, Elena; Rashid, M Harunur; Taylor, Nigel A; Todorova, Nevena; Wiedemann, Peter M; Vink, Robert; Wood, Andrew; Yarovsky, Irene; Croft, Rodney J
Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC)-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains. The Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR) is a National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence that is undertaking research addressing the most important aspects of the MC-EMF health debate, with a strong focus on mechanisms, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and exposure dosimetry. This research takes as its starting point the current scientific status quo, but also addresses the adequacy of the evidence for the status quo. Risk communication research complements the above, and aims to ensure that whatever is found, it is communicated effectively and appropriately. This paper provides a summary of this ACEBR research (both completed and ongoing), and discusses the rationale for conducting it in light of the prevailing science.
Bledstein, Burton J.
Throughout history there have always been confusion and even contradictions concerning professionalism. An occupation can be considered a profession in one country and not another, and in one historical period and not another. One contribution to this confusion is the explanation of the social system by Talcott Parsons and others, which has framed…
O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.
This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby);…
Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill
Purpose: This paper aims to provide an Australian perspective on successful school leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on case studies in two Australian states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Findings: The findings show a remarkable degree of…
Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…
The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…
Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.
The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…
This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…
Ditchburn, Geraldine M.
The Australian curriculum to be introduced in all Australian schools over the next few years provides two competing narratives about curriculum. An overt narrative provides an unproblematic view of curriculum where the rhetoric and discourse that promotes a "world-class curriculum" effectively obscures a second narrative. This second…
In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…
Hadley, Fay; Waniganayake, Manjula; Shepherd, Wendy
Continuous professional learning and development (PLD) is an essential component of effective practice in any profession. PLD as a professional responsibility and workplace requirement in early childhood (EC) settings is now embedded in Australian national policy. What PLD looks like and how it happens in EC settings is a hot topic both locally…
Fenwick, S G; Robertson, L; Wilks, C R
This article discusses the integration of global and veterinary public health issues into the Australian veterinary curriculum. Formal veterinary education in Australia has a history of over 100 years and veterinarians have played a major role in the control of zoonotic and transboundary diseases for an even longer period. Australia is the largest exporter of red meat and live animals in the world. Therefore, educating veterinarians to promote and ensure food safety and animal welfare is prominent in Australian veterinary curricula. Veterinary degrees are accredited to allow Australian graduates to work professionally overseas, including in the United Kingdom and United States of America, and, in recent years, globalisation of the student body at Australian veterinary schools has occurred. For this reason, an appropriately broad curriculum is required to produce graduates who are able to address challenges in veterinary public health throughout the world. A Public Health University Network has been established to harmonise the veterinary public health curricula at the various veterinary schools and to develop the 'Australian veterinary public health philosophy', with its links to global issues and the 'One World, One Health' concept. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the implications of veterinary public health teaching in Australia and the preparation of Australian graduates for the global profession.
The life-expectancy gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remains one of contemporary Australia's most enduring health divides. The reduction of observed health outcome disparity between population groups based on measures of socioeconomic status, geography, or ethnicity stands as a key target of coordinated societal and health system reform. CVD remains the principal cause of death among all Australian population groups, including Aboriginal males and females, and is the primary contributor to the 17-year life-expectancy gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper discusses the challenges inherent, from the perspective of broader policy frameworks and health system reform, to reducing disparity between population groups within Australia, and outlines the opportunities for change that could contribute benefit to Aboriginal and mainstream Australians in regards to reducing the burden of CVD and related conditions. Further, through mapping adverse outcomes to acute cardiac events it seeks to discuss several key targets for reform that may serve to reduce health disparity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians.
Of 300 surveyed, responses from 94 nurses, 38 occupational therapists, and 50 physical therapists indicated that professional knowledge was a prime motivation for continuing professional development, followed by updating qualifications, increasing the status of the profession, and demonstrating professional competence. No differences were observed…
Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E
Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.
Coffin, Millard F.
Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).
Hamacher, Duane W.
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
Clarke, Philip A.
Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.
Manicur, Alice R.
The author presents an historical and cultural analysis of the place of women in society. It is stated that historically women have had to assume an aggressive role to become educated. In addition, as far back as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one finds records which indicate that women had to seek opportunities to study and to learn.…
Salmon, M.; Balfour, N.; Sambridge, M.
The Australian Seismometers in Schools (AuSIS) program has installed 42 research quality broadband seismometers in schools around Australia. The school's infrastructure allows for real time data transfers, and eager young students monitor the instruments and report any recorded events. The reporting feature ("Caught it? Report it!") through our website works as a crude type of detection to inform us of what instruments pick up the earthquakes. It also has the added benefits of keeping schools engaged in the program, ongoing learning about earth science and geography, and obviously keeps them returning to our website. A network of professional and amateur seismologists provides support to the schools and helps promote earth science education and earthquake risk awareness. The data is publically available through the IRIS DMC and is used by not just our volunteers but also by government departments, universities and private agencies for research and monitoring. One of the challenges has been to provide a way for schools and to interact with the real time data in an accessible format. We have achieved this through website and mobile app development alongside step-by step how to guides. These tools have the added advantage that they also allow schools without their own seismometer to connect with nearby schools that do. The government run national network of seismometers in Australia is sparse; the AuSIS program provides additional instruments that are now being incorporated into the national network for improved regional earthquake locations. Although schools are not the ideal site for broadband seismometers, the program has proven that with a well-chosen location within the school we can recover high quality data for much of the day. The schools are generally well distributed across the country enabling the program to supplement the national network at the same time as bringing earth science to rural communities that often miss out on this type of opportunity.
Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W
Johnston, RJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, D, Pine, MJ, and Spurrs, RW. Movement profiles, match events, and performance in Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2129-2137, 2016-This study examined the relationship between movement demands, match events, and match performance in professional Australian football. Data were collected from 19 players using global positioning system units during 2 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and instantaneous power measures were collected. The players were divided into high-caliber (HC, ≥17/20) and low-caliber (LC, ≤8/20) groups based on the rating score by their coaches. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups. The HC group had a significantly higher match duration (7.2%), higher total distance (9.6%), and covered more distance and spent more time high-speed running per minute (12.7 and 11.9%). Although not significant, the effect sizes revealed that the HC group tended to have a higher mean metabolic power output (2.6%) and spent more time at the high power zone (7.9%). For the match event data, the HC group had significantly more involvements with the football. The results demonstrated the higher physical demands placed on the HC group. The findings suggest that analyzing instantaneous power measures can provide valuable information about the physical demands placed on team sport athletes to coaches and conditioning staff.
Maritz, Alex; Jones, Colin; Shwetzer, Claudia
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical overview of the current state of entrepreneurship education (EE) in Australia; placing emphasis on programs, curricula and entrepreneurship ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach: The authors performed a contextual review of the literature by delineating entrepreneurship education…
Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina
The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.
Lysaght, Tamra; Rosenberger, Philip J., III; Kerridge, Ian
In recent years, ethics has become part of most tertiary biotechnology curricula. There is, however, considerable variation in the extent and manner of ethics education provided to students in different institutions. In addition, the perceived need that students and employers have regarding ethics education, and the aims and expected outcomes of ethics education, are rarely made clear. This research reports the findings of a questionnaire administered to 375 undergraduate biotechnology students from 19 Australian universities to determine their attitudes towards the teaching of ethics. The results suggest that undergraduate biotechnology students generally regard ethics education to be important and that ethics should be included in undergraduate biotechnology curricula. Students tended, however, to emphasize the professional and industrial side of ethics and not to recognize the personal effects of morals and behaviour. We provide suggestions for rethinking how ethics should be taught.
Murphy, Gerald A.; Calway, Bruce A.
We question the current role of professional associations in developing a culture of learning beyond a sufficiency or competency level. This brings into question the underlying philosophy of Professional Standards legislation. This legislation mandates continuing professional development for professionals without stating what should be achieved…
Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.
We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.
Muter, Bret A; Gore, Meredith L; Gledhill, Katie S; Lamont, Christopher; Huveneers, Charlie
Investigation of the social framing of human-shark interactions may provide useful strategies for integrating social, biological, and ecological knowledge into national and international policy discussions about shark conservation. One way to investigate social opinion and forces related to sharks and their conservation is through the media's coverage of sharks. We conducted a content analysis of 300 shark-related articles published in 20 major Australian and U.S. newspapers from 2000 to 2010. Shark attacks were the emphasis of over half the articles analyzed, and shark conservation was the primary topic of 11% of articles. Significantly more Australian articles than U.S. articles treated shark attacks (χ(2) = 3.862; Australian 58% vs. U.S. 47%) and shark conservation issues (χ(2) = 6.856; Australian 15% vs. U.S. 11%) as the primary article topic and used politicians as the primary risk messenger (i.e., primary person or authority sourced in the article) (χ(2) = 7.493; Australian 8% vs. U.S. 1%). However, significantly more U.S. articles than Australian articles discussed sharks as entertainment (e.g., subjects in movies, books, and television; χ(2) = 15.130; U.S. 6% vs. Australian 1%) and used scientists as the primary risk messenger (χ(2) = 5.333; U.S. 25% vs. Australian 15%). Despite evidence that many shark species are at risk of extinction, we found that most media coverage emphasized the risks sharks pose to people. To the extent that media reflects social opinion, our results highlight problems for shark conservation. We suggest that conservation professionals purposefully and frequently engage with the media to highlight the rarity of shark attacks, discuss preventative measures water users can take to reduce their vulnerability to shark encounters, and discuss conservation issues related to local and threatened species of sharks. When integrated with biological and ecological data, social-science data may help generate a more comprehensive perspective
Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B.; McHugh, Ian; Arndt, Stefan K.; Campbell, David; Cleugh, Helen A.; Cleverly, James; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Eamus, Derek; Evans, Bradley; Ewenz, Cacilia; Grace, Peter; Griebel, Anne; Haverd, Vanessa; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Huete, Alfredo; Isaac, Peter; Kanniah, Kasturi; Leuning, Ray; Liddell, Michael J.; Macfarlane, Craig; Meyer, Wayne; Moore, Caitlin; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Alison; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Rutledge, Susanna; Schroder, Ivan; Silberstein, Richard; Southall, Patricia; Yee, Mei Sun; Tapper, Nigel J.; van Gorsel, Eva; Vote, Camilla; Walker, Jeff; Wardlaw, Tim
OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national research facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia's terrestrial biosphere and climate. This paper describes the evolution, design, and current status of OzFlux as well as provides an overview of data processing. We analyse measurements from all sites within the Australian portion of the OzFlux network and two sites from New Zealand. The response of the Australian biomes to climate was largely consistent with global studies except that Australian systems had a lower ecosystem water-use efficiency. Australian semi-arid/arid ecosystems are important because of their huge extent (70 %) and they have evolved with common moisture limitations. We also found that Australian ecosystems had a similar radiation-use efficiency per unit leaf area compared to global values that indicates a convergence toward a similar biochemical efficiency. The two New Zealand sites represented extremes in productivity for a moist temperate climate zone, with the grazed dairy farm site having the highest GPP of any OzFlux site (2620 gC m-2 yr-1) and the natural raised peat bog site having a very low GPP (820 gC m-2 yr-1). The paper discusses the utility of the flux data and the synergies between flux, remote sensing, and modelling. Lastly, the paper looks ahead at the future direction of the network and concludes that there has been a substantial contribution by OzFlux, and considerable opportunities remain to further advance our understanding of ecosystem response to disturbances, including drought, fire, land-use and land-cover change, land management, and climate change, which are relevant both nationally and internationally. It is suggested that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing the delicately balanced ecosystems in Australasia.
Qi, Fangjie; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi S; Dong, Zhaomin; Yan, Yubo; Lamb, Dane; Bucheli, Thomas D; Choppala, Girish; Duan, Luchun; Semple, Kirk T
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), the combustion residues of fossil fuel and biomass, is a versatile soil fraction active in biogeochemical processes. In this study, the chemo-thermal oxidation method (CTO-375) was applied to investigate the content and distribution of PyC in 30 Australian agricultural, pastoral, bushland and parkland soil with various soil types. Soils were sampled incrementally to 50cm in 6 locations and at another 7 locations at 0-10cm. Results showed that PyC in Australian soils typically ranged from 0.27-5.62mg/g, with three Dermosol soils ranging within 2.58-5.62mg/g. Soil PyC contributed 2.0-11% (N=29) to the total organic carbon (TOC), with one Ferrosol as high as 26%. PyC was concentrated either in the top (0-10cm) or bottom (30-50cm) soil layers, with the highest PyC:TOC ratio in the bottom (30-50cm) soil horizon in all soils. Principal component analysis - multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) suggested the silt-associated organic C factor accounted for 38.5% of the variation in PyC. Our findings suggest that PyC is an important fraction of the TOC (2.0-11%, N=18) and chemically recalcitrant organic C (ROC) obtained by chemical C fractionation method accounts for a significant proportion of soil TOC (47.3-84.9%, N=18). This is the first study comparing these two methods, and it indicates both CTO-375 and C speciation methods can determine a fraction of recalcitrant organic C. However, estimated chemically recalcitrant organic carbon pool (ROC) was approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of thermally stable organic carbon (PyC).
Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the
As Australian corporations have increased overseas activity, there has been a significant increase in international business degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The curriculum is balanced between business-technical knowledge courses and cultural knowledge courses. (SK)
MacBean, Naomi; Theodoros, Deborah; Davidson, Bronwyn; Hill, Anne E
The rising demand for health professionals to service the Australian population is placing pressure on traditional approaches to clinical education in the allied health professions. Existing research suggests that simulated learning environments (SLEs) have the potential to increase student placement capacity while providing quality learning experiences with comparable or superior outcomes to traditional methods. This project investigated the current use of SLEs in Australian speech-language pathology curricula, and the potential future applications of SLEs to the clinical education curricula through an extensive consultative process with stakeholders (all 10 Australian universities offering speech-language pathology programs in 2010, Speech Pathology Australia, members of the speech-language pathology profession, and current student body). Current use of SLEs in speech-language pathology education was found to be limited, with additional resources required to further develop SLEs and maintain their use within the curriculum. Perceived benefits included: students' increased clinical skills prior to workforce placement, additional exposure to specialized areas of speech-language pathology practice, inter-professional learning, and richer observational experiences for novice students. Stakeholders perceived SLEs to have considerable potential for clinical learning. A nationally endorsed recommendation for SLE development and curricula integration was prepared.
The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.
Dawson, Andrew J; Leonard, Zane M; Wehner, Kylie A; Gastin, Paul B
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the career experiences of Australian strength and conditioning coaches. Six Australian strength and conditioning coaches (mean age = 33.7 years, SD = 6.0 years) with a mean of 10.4 (SD = 4.9) years experience working with elite Olympic and professional athletes were interviewed about their experiences of career development. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed to produce key themes and subthemes relating to (a) work environments, (b) sport management practice, (c) career development processes, and (d) career building strategies. The work environments of Australian strength and conditioning coaches were found to be poor because of long working hours and irregular human resource policy and management practices of sport organizations. Because of the volatile and unpredictable nature of their working conditions, the coaches interviewed have only a short-term view of their career creating considerable stress in their lives. The coaches interviewed found it difficult to develop their careers because their only options were self-supported and self-funded professional development activities. The coaches in this study believed that more needed to be done at a policy and management level by sport organizations and their professional body to enhance the career development of strength and conditioning coaches because they play a key role in both athlete and sport organization performance. These results may help sport organizations develop policies and management practices that enhance the careers of strength and conditioning coaches and will have important practical implications for the education and development of sport professionals.
Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.
In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and…
Trawley, S; Holmes-Truscott, E; Speight, J
In a survey of Australian drivers with type 1 diabetes, three-quarters reported not checking their blood glucose consistently before driving. They reported lack of health professional recommendation of this behaviour, less concern about safety, and preference for consuming fast-acting glucose, which may be less effective for mitigating risk.
Finger, Glenn, Ed.; Ghirelli, Paola S., Ed.
The 2015 Australian College of Educators (ACE) National Conference theme is "Educators on the Edge: Big Ideas for Change and Innovation." ACE presented an opportunity for all education professionals to gather, discuss, and share cutting-edge, creative and innovative practices, nationally and globally at the conference held on September…
Trinder, Margot; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth; Sanson, Ann; Richardson, Shanel; Hunt, Sue
This study evaluated the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities (ERIS) Project which aimed to promote constructive conflict resolution (CR) in Australian primary school communities through professional development for core teams of three-five staff (n = 33 teachers). Twelve schools were randomly assigned to a full intervention (FI) group or…
Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael
International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…
Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.
This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and…
This paper synthesizes issues and directions that a review of Australian apprenticeship and traineeship literature suggested. An overview discusses the paper's basis, which was a survey of 125 Australian references from 1985-99. Chapter 2 categorizes issues into seven groups, discusses them, and draws out salient themes. (The groups concerned…
Issues concerning competency-based education (CBE) have recently promoted much discussion and debate throughout most developed countries. This paper provides an Australian perspective and adds to the wider debate about CBE by deliberating on the part professional competency standards should play in a university curriculum, specifically the undergraduate nurse education curriculum. A position is developed by addressing the following thesis statement: the competency-based approach to nursing education is an indisputable reality but nursing competencies must not be allowed to control the curriculum. Some background material is briefly reviewed in order to situate CBE, nurse education, and nursing competencies in their Australian economic and sociopolitical context. The position is then explicated through an examination of some intersections between nursing competencies and aspects of undergraduate nurse curriculum making.
Most medical photographers, unless working as dedicated ophthalmic photographers or retinal screeners, will shoot portraits or publicity pictures. Many will spend a proportion of their time producing brochure shots for patient information material or their Trust's Annual Report. High-quality images of staff at work are often required by the strategic planning departments of Trusts to support bids for business from service commissioners. This "non-clinical" work is in reality commercial work - the jobs that high street portrait and general practice photographers would undertake in different settings. Medical photographers use many of the same tools as their commercial cousins. They use the same DSLR cameras and lenses. They use Adobe Photoshop to manipulate images. However, one software tool extensively used by portrait and social photographers, but possibly unfamiliar to many medical photographers, is Portrait Professional. Currently in its 10th version, it is produced by Anthropics Technology ( http://www.anthropics.com ), a London-based company specialising in image manipulation software.
Romi, Shlomo; Salkovsky, Merav; Lewis, Ramon
This investigation was designed to determine whether there are significant relationships between the reasons teachers provide for aggressive classroom management techniques and the type of professional education created to help them reduce their reliance on such techniques. The study reports data from a survey of 192 Australian teachers showing…
Deakin Australia, the commercial arm of Deakin University, has included computer-mediated communication (CMC) as an element of the professional development program produced in conjunction with the Australian Society of Certified Practising Accountants (ASCPA). The CPA program is delivered by distance education to candidates seeking professional…
Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin
Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…
Lane, Murray; Osborne, Lindy; Crowther, Philip
This paper reports on a number of blended learning activities conducted in two subjects of a Master of Architecture degree at a major Australian university. The subjects were related to "professional practice" and as such represent a little researched area of architectural curriculum. The research provides some insight into the student…
Hunter, Mary Ann; Baker, William; Nailon, Di
In 2008, the Australian Government established the Artist-in-Residence (AiR) program as a four-year $5.2m initiative to improve young people's access to quality arts education. Managed by State and Territory Government Education and Arts Departments, the program funded professional artists-in-residence in schools, early childhood centres and…
Weaver, Debbi; Robbie, Diane; Borland, Rosemary
This article describes the experiences of staff responsible for developing and delivering professional development (PD) in online teaching in three universities in the same Australian state. Each university draws on a similar pool of staff and students, and operates under the same government regulations, but has used different models of policy and…
Lonsdale, A. J.; Williamson, J. C.
The impact of external and internal factors on the professional lives of lecturers in two schools at the Western Australian Institute of Technology was studied in 1979. The study sought to determine the effects of social, economic, and political factors affecting higher education, including declining funds, and fluctuating student demand for…
Warren, Elizabeth A.; Quine, Janine; DeVries, Eva
This paper examines the effectiveness of a professional learning model developed to support early years teachers in rural and remote communities in Queensland as they began to implement the Australian Curriculum in Mathematics. The data are drawn from 35 teachers at the initial stage of a large, four year longitudinal study RoleM (Representations,…
Bates, P.; O'Brien, W.
In Australian higher education institutions, benchmarks have been directed at developing key competencies and attributes to facilitate students' transition into the workforce. However, for those students whose degree has a specific vocational focus, it is also necessary for them to commence their professional development whilst undergraduates.…
Sparrow, Len; Frid, Sandra
This is a case study report from a larger study that focused on how an empowerment professional development model influenced the mathematics pedagogical practices and beliefs of Australian primary school teachers during their first year of teaching. The research used an interpretive approach for analysis of data from interviews, observations,…
Jensen, Dorthe Høj; Jetten, Jolanda
In higher educational research, there is a growing recognition that students' academic achievement is influenced by their opportunities for academic identity development; however, less attention has been given to the process and development of students' professional identity. In a qualitative study among 26 Danish and 11 Australian university…
This paper reports on an Australian University's support program to prepare its first year international pre-service teachers (IPSTs) for professional placement. The aim of the program was to address some of the practicum challenges experienced by the IPSTs. A case study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the program. Ten…
Tran, Ly Thi
This paper explores the views of international students and academic staff on the use of prior professional experience in disciplinary academic writing in Australian higher education. The main finding of this case study indicates that disciplinary practice related to the issue of whether, and how, students should represent aspects of their prior…
Higgins, Katrina; Harreveld, R. E.
Professional development is imperative for the currency and relevancy of a proficient teaching workforce in distance education, and in turn, the quality of programs being delivered. As participation in distance education within Australian universities is growing, with increasing numbers of academics being required to teach, casual employment of…
Li, Jianghong; Zubrick, Stephen R.
The pattern of association between socioeconomic factors and health outcomes has primarily depicted better health for those who are higher in the social hierarchy. Although this is a ubiquitous finding in the health literature, little is known about the interplay between these factors among indigenous populations. We begin to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing evidence on social gradients in indigenous health in Australia. We reveal a less universal and less consistent socioeconomic status patterning in health among Indigenous Australians, and discuss the plausibility of unique historical circumstances and social and cultural characteristics in explaining these patterns. A more robust evidence base in this field is fundamental to processes that aim to reduce the pervasive disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous population health. PMID:22095336
Woinarski, John C Z; Burbidge, Andrew A; Harrison, Peter L
The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia's marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes.
Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.
The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia’s marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493
Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.
Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918
in 1996, and which have been held subsequently every four years. A society logo was introduced for the national soil conference in 1984 and a competition was subsequently held to design a logo for the Society. The winning design was launched in 1986, replaced in 2006 and the rebranding of the Society continued into 2011 when the business name Soil Science Australia was adopted by the Society as the 'public name' of the organisation. Over the years the Society was approached to support a range of organisations. It was a founding member of the Australian GeoScience Council in 1982. In general the Society has maintained its focus on soil and limited its associations to kindred organisations. Technology has driven many of the recent changes in the Society. In 1996 the first web site was developed, housed on the University of Melbourne domain. The Society newsletter ceased to be printed on paper in 2002 and delivery to members was via email. Subscription notices are no longer issued and online collection of subscriptions due is via the internet. The administration of the Society was moved to a centralized office run by the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science in 1996 and whilst the Federal Council Executive continues to rotate across the branches of Australia the administration found a permanent home for the first time. In 1998 the first Executive Officer was appointed, whose role includes the administration of the Society. In 2010 the Governor of Queensland, Her Excellency Ms Penelope Wensley AC Governor of Queensland accepted the invitation to become the first Patron of the Society. A significant decision taken in 1996 to introduce the Certified Professional Soil Scientist (CPSS) accreditation program has seen the program burgeon primarily due to the increasing demand by Government authorities for certified professionals in soil and land management. Accreditation is only available to members with requirements for accreditation listed in the Standards for
Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery Anne; Hamilton, Gillian; Murray, Rosa
This article explores some of the key issues that emerged in the revision of the professional standards in Scottish education. The revision of the professional standards was part of a wider project to build teacher professional learning in ways that had an impact on practice and on pupil learning. The article begins by examining the international…
Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.
The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847
O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret
The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible.
O'Callaghan, Cathy; Quine, Susan
Safe use of medicines is relevant to all, but especially older people, primarily because they have ageing bodies that require more medicines and are therefore more likely to experience complications, including adverse drug interactions. Australia has a rapidly growing migrant older population composed of people with different beliefs about, and practices using, medicines. This paper presents qualitative findings from interviews and focus groups conducted with older Vietnamese-Australian women living in Sydney, Australia. The findings show how the women's health literacy influenced their medication use and explain the cultural reasons behind their decision to vary medicine use from that prescribed by their western trained doctors. Concern that health professionals do not favour combining western with traditional medicines led some participants to manage their medicines without advice from their doctor. The findings support recommendations to reduce the likelihood of adverse medication outcomes by increasing health professionals' cultural competence, encouraging patients to work with their doctor and report all medications taken, and increasing funding for research into the effects of combining western with traditional medicines.
Kenyon, Katherine H.; Paramasivam, Arjun; Tu, Jiachin; Zhang, Albert; Graham, Alister W.
Expanding upon Pimbblet's 2011 analysis of career h-indices for members of the Astronomical Society of Australia, we provide additional citation metrics which are geared to quantifying the current performance of all professional astronomers in Australia. We have trawled the staff web-pages of Australian Universities, Observatories and Research Organisations hosting professional astronomers, and identified 384 PhD-qualified, research-active, astronomers in the nation. 132 of these are not members of the Astronomical Society of Australia. Using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, we provide the three following common metrics based on publications in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010): h-index, author-normalised citation count and lead-author citation count. We additionally present a somewhat more inclusive analysis, applicable for many early-career researchers, that is based on publications from 2006-2010. Histograms and percentiles, plus top-performer lists, are presented for each category. Finally, building on Hirsch's empirical equation, we find that the (10-year) h-index and (10-year) total citation count T can be approximated by the relation AS12011_IE1.gif for h>~5.
Gardener, S; Gu, Y; Rainey-Smith, S R; Keogh, J B; Clifton, P M; Mathieson, S L; Taddei, K; Mondal, A; Ward, V K; Scarmeas, N; Barnes, M; Ellis, K A; Head, R; Masters, C L; Ames, D; Macaulay, S L; Rowe, C C; Szoeke, C; Martins, R N
The Mediterranean diet (MeDi), due to its correlation with a low morbidity and mortality for many chronic diseases, has been widely recognised as a healthy eating model. We aimed to investigate, in a cross-sectional study, the association between adherence to a MeDi and risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a large, elderly, Australian cohort. Subjects in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing cohort (723 healthy controls (HC), 98 MCI and 149 AD participants) completed the Cancer Council of Victoria Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adherence to the MeDi (0- to 9-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence) was the main predictor of AD and MCI status in multinominal logistic regression models that were adjusted for cohort age, sex, country of birth, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, total caloric intake, current smoking status, body mass index, history of diabetes, hypertension, angina, heart attack and stroke. There was a significant difference in adherence to the MeDi between HC and AD subjects (P<0.001), and in adherence between HC and MCI subjects (P<0.05). MeDi is associated with change in Mini-Mental State Examination score over an 18-month time period (P<0.05) in HCs. We conclude that in this Australian cohort, AD and MCI participants had a lower adherence to the MeDi than HC participants. PMID:23032941
Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug
This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…
Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry
The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…
Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas
In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…
Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…
Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex
This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems.
Ingles, Jodie; McGaughran, Julie; Vohra, Jitendra; Weintraub, Robert G; Davis, Andrew; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher
A National Genetic Heart Disease Registry has recently been established, with the aim to enroll every family in Australia with a genetically determined cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmic disorder. The Registry seeks to further our understanding of the impact and burden of disease in this population; increase awareness and provide education to health professionals and families; and establish a large cardiac genetic cohort as a resource for approved research studies. The Registry is currently recruiting families with inherited cardiomyopathies (e.g. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) and primary arrhythmogenic disorders (e.g. long QT syndrome), with scope to expand this in the future. Affected individuals, as well as their first-degree (at-risk) family members are eligible to enroll. Participants are currently being recruited from cardiac genetics clinics in approved recruitment sites and hope to expand to other Australian centres including general cardiology practice in the future. A significant focus of the Registry is to improve understanding and create awareness of inherited heart diseases, which includes ensuring families are aware of genetic testing options and current clinical screening recommendations for at-risk family members. A Registry Advisory Committee has been established under the NHMRC Guidelines, and includes a representative from each major recruitment centre. This committee approves all decisions relating to the Registry including approval of research studies. A National Genetic Heart Disease Registry will provide a valuable resource to further our knowledge of the clinical and genetic aspects of these diseases. Since most of the current data about the prevalence, natural history and outcomes of genetic heart diseases has emanated from the United States and Europe, characterising these Australian populations will be of significant benefit, allowing for more informed and specific health care planning and resource provision.
Balfour, N.; Salmon, M.; Sambridge, M.
Global earthquake activity provides an opportunity to actively engage students and teachers in the Earth Sciences. With earthquakes often hitting the news headlines the Australian Seismometers in Schools (AuSIS) program utilizes the resulting public awareness and curiosity, providing tools and support for teachers and students to find out more. Most teachers are unaware of the wealth of resources available and often lack confidence to teach earth science, as they have little to no formal training. With the introduction of earth science to the national curriculum it has become imperative teachers receive this support. AuSIS connects students and teachers with earthquake data relevant to them that is both real-time and easily accessible. The biggest challenge faced is often how to engage with remote and rural communities over the vast Australian continent. Our approach has been to take information to the teachers, providing workshops at national science teacher conferences and developing guides that provide step-by-step instructions for classroom activities. These professional development workshops include hands-on demonstrations as well as online discovery. The data recorded at schools on our network of seismometers is publicly accessible and is shared with scientists, amateur seismologists and students alike, this provides students with a sense of involvement in the scientific community. We link teachers with additional online resources and utilize social media to alert them to interesting earth science facts and earthquake activity. For continued exploration we provide easy access to our data and earthquake information through a mobile app and website. Our website combines both local and global earthquake catalogs to provide a one-stop shop of earthquake information of interest to the teachers and students. We also encourage online interactions with teachers through a forum on our website and through social media aimed to provide continued support.
Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.
Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview
Ashwell, K W S
Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and
This paper uses a feminist interpretation and secondary sources to describe the history of Australian midwifery from colonisation until the 1980s. There have been too few midwife scholars who have had access to or used primary data collections to describe the role and place of midwives in the colonising community. I draw on a range of biography, medical literature and work by sociologists and economic historians to produce a limited picture of the history of professional midwifery. This helps to explain the position of midwives today and the problematic relationship we often have with medicine.
Hayes, Melanie J; Smith, Derek R
While health care professionals have a responsibility to prevent and control the use of tobacco for improved health outcomes, it appears that some dental hygiene students continue to smoke. A survey of Australian dental hygiene students found that up to 16.3% smoke, although this prevalence rate decreased with each year of study. As future role models, it is essential that smoking cessation counselling is embedded in the dental curriculum to not only discourage their own habits, but so that they may promote the importance of being tobacco free to the wider population.
Lee, S M; LoGiudice, D
Aged care health professionals in Australia are increasingly referred patients whose standard of cleanliness and self-care has deteriorated to levels resulting in public health concern. This paper describes three illustrative case studies of people referred to an Australian Aged Care Assessment Service who present with 'Diogenes Syndrome'. The diversity and complexity of these cases reflect variable underlying diagnoses. Symptoms of self-neglect, hoarding and domestic squalor and combinations thereof may provide a more useful classification system of the older person who presents in such circumstances than the frequently used term Diogenes syndrome. Practical guidelines are required for appropriate assessment and management of these conditions.
Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)
Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.
Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T
Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.
Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia
Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.
The very term 'professional ethics' is puzzling with respect to what both 'professional' and 'ethics' might mean. I argue (1) that professionalism is ambiguous as to whether or not it is implicitly committed to ethical practice; (2) that to be 'professionally' ethical is at best ambiguous, if not in fact bizarre; and (3) that, taken together, these considerations suggest that professional ethics is something to be avoided rather than lauded.
Kashket, E R; Robbins, M L; Leive, L; Huang, A S
beginning student. For older women, there must be increased placement in positions of responsibility and visibility. Protective practices that discourage women from entering arenas of competition can only be viewed as discrimination on the basis of sex, since women professionals are rarely given the choice between being protected and being independent. Unexpectedly, this study illustrates the lower status of another group of individuals who are considered deviants from the expected roles of the established society-single men with doctorates, who were found in the positions predominately filled by women. In conclusion, this study of a select group of scientists probably has general applicability to all women professionals in their roles vis-à-vis men. Examination and documentation of discriminatory practices based on sex points to the areas in which women must direct their demands for equality.
There has been limited examination of the Australian common law position regarding contemporaneous refusals of care or medical treatment by competent adults since the first two Australian cases to adjudicate on refusals of this type: H Ltd v J and Brightwater Care Group (Inc) v Rossiter. This article maps the legal position in Australia in light of the two cases with particular emphasis on the finding in H Ltd v J that self-starvation is not suicide at common law. Finally, this article highlights the broader relevance of this area of the law and its capacity to inform debates as disparate as whether to legalise voluntary euthanasia and the possible implications for the autonomy of pregnant women of proposed laws giving legal status to fetuses (particularly Zoe's Law).
Since 1995 Australian health insurers have been able to purchase health services pro-actively through negotiating contracts with hospitals, but little is known about their experience of purchasing. This paper examines the current status of purchasing through interviews with senior managers representing all Australian private health insurers. Many of the traditional tools used to generate competition and enhance efficiency (such as selective contracting and co-payments) have had limited use due to public and political opposition. Adoption of bundled case payment models using diagnosis related groups (DRGs) has been slow. Insurers cite multiple reasons including poor understanding of private hospital costs, unfamiliarity with DRGs, resistance from the medical profession and concerns about premature discharge. Innovation in payment models has been limited, although some insurers are considering introduction of volume-outcome purchasing and pay for performance incentives. Private health insurers also face a complex web of regulation, some of which appears to impede moves towards more efficient purchasing.
Reviews the professional status of information scientists and reflects on the 40th anniversary of the Institute of Information Scientists. Topics include the information age in the United Kingdom, information services, essential personal competencies, intensifying competition, accelerating change, communication and information technologies, future…
Olmedo, Esteban L., Ed.; Lopez, Steven, Ed.
This volume is a collection of reports presented at a 1976 meeting held on the issue of Spanish American professional representation in the mental health field in the United States. Paper topics include: (1) Hispanics in psychiatry; (2) the current status of Hispanic social workers; (3) Hispanic psychiatric nursing personnel in the U.S.; (4) the…
Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L
The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km(2) respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km(2), respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as "Endangered" is appropriate.
Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J.; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L.
The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km2 respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km2, respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as “Endangered” is appropriate. PMID:23437225
Farmer, Jane; Kilpatrick, Sue
Social entrepreneurs formally or informally generate community associations and networking that produces social outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new and poorly understood concept. Policy promotes generating community activity, particularly in rural areas, for health and social benefits and 'community resilience'. Rural health professionals might be well placed to generate community activity due to their status and networks. This exploratory study, conducted in rural Tasmania and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland considered whether rural health professionals act as social entrepreneurs. We investigated activities generated and processes of production. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with general practitioners, community nurses, primary healthcare managers and allied health professionals living and working rurally. Interviewees were self-selecting responders to an invitation for rural health professionals who were 'formally or informally generating community associations or networking that produced social outcomes'. We found that rural health professionals initiated many community activities with social outcomes, most related to health. Their identification of opportunities related to knowledge of health needs and examples of initiatives seen elsewhere. Health professionals described ready access to useful people and financial resources. In building activities, health professionals could simultaneously utilise skills and knowledge from professional, community member and personal dimensions. Outcomes included social and health benefits, personal 'buzz' and community capacity. Health professionals' actions could be described as social entrepreneurship: identifying opportunities, utilising resources and making 'deals'. They also align with community development. Health professionals use contextual knowledge to envisage and grow activities, indicating that, as social entrepreneurs, they do not explicitly choose a social mission, rather they
Learners will describe the attitudes and experiences of nutrition professionals regarding professional responsibility to model an appropriate weight status and the role of personal weight-related issues in nutrition counseling interactions. The purpose of this study was to describe the attitudes an...
Are university educators professionals? Whether or not university educators should be regarded as professionals is an important question that has an impact on a number of issues including job satisfaction, societal status and salary levels. This paper examines the need to classify this group as a profession and the consequences of that…
Wilder, Christopher R.
The purpose of this study was to examine parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. The primary focus of research was to determine if any relationship exists between (1) parents' demographic factors--gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity--and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities; (2)…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between sex, social status and social behavior in a sample of Australian preschool-aged children. Social behavior has emerged as an important predictor of social status for children in middle childhood however, although early childhood may be an optimum period for implementation of…
Rathé, Anna A.; Pilkington, Leigh J.; Hoddle, Mark S.; Spohr, Lorraine J.; Daugherty, Matthew P.; Gurr, Geoff M.
In any insect invasion the presence or absence of suitable food and oviposition hosts in the invaded range is a key factor determining establishment success. The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important insect vector of the xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes disease in numerous host plants including food and feedstock crops, ornamentals and weeds. Both the pathogen and the vector are native to the Americas and are considered to be highly invasive. Neither has been detected in Australia. Twelve Australian native plant species present in the USA were observed over two years for suitability as H. vitripennis feeding, oviposition and nymph development hosts. Hosts providing evidence of adult or nymph presence were Leptospermum laevigatum, Acacia cowleana, Eremophila divaricata, Eucalyptus wandoo, Hakea laurina, Melaleuca laterita and Swainsona galegifolia. An oviposition-suitability field study was conducted with citrus, a favoured oviposition host, as a positive control. Citrus and L. laevigatum, A. cowleana, B. ericifolia×B. spinulosa, C. pulchella, E. divaricata, E. wandoo, H. laurina, and S. galegifolia were found to be oviposition hosts. Egg parasitism by the mymarid parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi was observed on all Australian plants. A number of Australian plants that may facilitate H. vitripennis invasion have been identified and categorised as ‘high risk’ due to their ability to support all three life stages (egg, nymph and adult) of the insect in the field (L. laevigatum, A. cowleana, E. divaricata, H. laurina, and S. galegifolia). The implications of these host status and natural enemy research findings are discussed and placed in an Australian invasion context. PMID:24614821
Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.
de Wet, Corene
Using ten universally accepted criteria for a profession and following the Structural-Functional Model of professionalism, this study evaluates the status of teaching as a profession in South Africa. The study found that policies and structures have been put in place since the beginning of the new millennium to enhance the professional status of…
Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.
This report, one of a series of studies of the supply of teachers, the demand for teachers, and the status of currently active teachers provides information on the status of teacher personnel in Utah: (1) total number of professional personnel; (2) ethnic and racial background; (3) certification and training; (4) professional experience; (5) age…
Guadarrama, Irma N., Ed.; Ramsey, John, Ed; Nath, Janice L., Ed.
These 19 papers present the voices of researchers and their work on Professional Development Schools: (1) "The Status of Early Theories of Professional Development School Potential" (C. Mantle-Bromley); (2) "Implementing and Researching Teacher Education Programs in PDSs: A Focus on Authenticity" (Gay Goodman); (3)…
Faunce, Thomas; Jefferys, Susannah
The Australian High Court recently found that the common law could allow parents to claim tortious damages when medical negligence was proven to have led to the birth of an unplanned, but healthy, baby (Cattanach v Melchior (2003) 215 CLR 1). In Harriton v Stephens (2006) 80 ALJR 791;  HCA 15 and Waller v James; Waller v Hoolahan (2006) 80 ALJR 846;  HCA 16 the High Court in a six-to-one decision (Kirby J dissenting) decided that no such claim could be made by a child when medical negligence in failing to order an in utero genetic test caused the child severe disability. In an era when almost all pregnancies will soon require patented fetal genetic tests as part of the professional standard of care, the High Court, by barring so-called "wrongful life" (better termed "wrongful suffering") claims, may have created a partial immunity from suit for their corporate manufacturers and the doctors who administer them. What lessons can be learnt from this case about how the Australian High Court is, or should be, approaching medical negligence cases and its role as guardian of the Australian common law?
The need for documented procedures and protocols are important in every specialist group to ensure a consistent service to the community. They provide guidance to members of the specialist group about responsibilities and appropriate practices, and confidence to the community that the services are of the highest possible standard. In a Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) incident, by enabling the process to be audited, they also serve to ensure that identifications are reliable. Following the Bali Bombings of 2002 and the 2004 Asian Tsunami the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology recognised the need for a practice guide to assist the management of their members in DVI incidents. 31 members of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology participated in the development of a guideline document for Disaster Victim Identification using a Delphi based model. The advantage of using the iterative Delphi process is that it encouraged participants to think about the processes used in the forensic odontology aspects of a DVI incident and their expectations of a guiding document. The document developed as a result of this project is comprehensive in coverage and places the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology at the vanguard of professionalism in the forensic odontology and DVI community.
This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.
Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra
This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…
Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike
Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…
Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato
Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…
Lo Bianco, Joseph
Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in…
The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…
Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka
Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…
Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.
The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews , observations ,…
Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.
It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…
Missingham, Roxanne; Walls, Robert
In 2002, the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), Higher Education Information Infrastructure Advisory Committee commissioned the National Library of Australia to analyse the uniqueness and overlap of Australian university library collections, comparing library collections in each state, using the National Bibliographic Database…
Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John
Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…
Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul
This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…
Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep
A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…
The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…
Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony
Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…
Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.
This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…
Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony
This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.
This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…
This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…
Kalashnikova, Marina; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna; Burnham, Denis
For more than 20 years, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants' and toddlers' early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI, now…
Funder, Kathleen, Ed.
Ratification by Australia of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 acted as a potent stimulus for a series of debates and controversies concerning the place of children in Australian society. The debate has largely taken place in relatively specialized forums involving lawyers, members of the judiciary, social…
Connell, W. F.
This book provides an overview of the educational events and ideas that emerged in Australia during the years 1960 to 1985. It offers a comprehensive view of Australian education, covering all levels from kindergarten to university. Focusing on the remodelling of curricula and the teaching process, the book describes and assesses the…
Maclean, Rupert, Ed.; McKenzie, Phillip, Ed.
This book focuses on career patterns and promotion of Australian school teachers. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into 4 parts: Part 1, entitled "Understanding Teachers' Careers" includes 2 chapters: (l) "Teachers' Careers: A Conceptual Framework" (Rupert Maclean); and (2) "Teachers' Work: A…
Muir, Sharon Pray
Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…
Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…
plans. Warnings. Bad news on the economic horizon? The regulatory front? In the courts? Associations serve as "early warning systems" for their...prohibited from having economic activities as their primary purpose. Under Australian state and federal legislation, bodies that seek to be political
Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell
In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…
Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick
A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…
Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie
This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…
Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.
Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…
Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia
This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…
Milnes, Annette; Pegrum, Karen; Nebe, Brett; Topfer, Alex; Gaal, Lisa; Zhang, Jessica; Hunter, Nicole
This paper is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). This report provides the latest available information on how Australia's young people are faring according to national indicators of health and wellbeing. Many young Australians…
Dumbrell, T.; Finnegan, W.; de Montfort, R.
A study examined geographical distribution of Australian apprenticeship commencements (ACs) in the context of various labor force and population statistics by industry, location of jobs by industry, and youth population. Apprenticeship and traineeship statistics between 1995-98 were examined to demonstrate differences in development of the system…
Mengual, Ximo; Thompson, F. Christian
Abstract Allograpta terraenovae sp. n. and Allograpta notiale sp. n. are described from Australia. Notes on the Australian species of Allograpta and an identification key to them are also given. The lectotype of Allograpta javana Wiedemann is designated, and the species Syrphus pallidus Bigot is synonymized under Allograpta australensis (Schiner). PMID:26257569
Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David
In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…
Watson, Jane M.
This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…
The Australian education system is denying equity and social justice to ethnic minorities and women. This paper examines the development of Australia's educational policy for those two groups. It argues that the educational disadvantages they have experienced have been enhanced by the marginalization of the issues. Policies such as multicultural…
Paterson, David; Graham, Lorraine; Stevens, Robert
This paper presents findings from a large-scale, in-depth study of secondary schools in one Australian state that were achieving exceptional outcomes. The element of that study on which this paper focuses is equity and inclusion. We examine the Equity programs operating in seven sites where schools were including students experiencing some form of…
Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)
"Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…
Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…
In the Australian state of Victoria, control of academic curriculum has shifted from the bureaucrats to locally based teacher networks and statewide associations which limit subject scope and teaching styles. However, curriculum has not changed significantly, indicating that institutional reforms do not necessarily result in radical alterations of…
Hore, Terry; West, Leo H. T.
A study was undertaken, in 1976 and for the three following years, of adult students in Australian higher education. The study examined: (1) the phenomenon of adult students and the extent of their involvement in higher education; (2) the politics and practices of institutions towards these students; (3) staff attitudes in the courses; (4) adult…
McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John
While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…
Verburg, Petra E; Tucker, Graeme; Scheil, Wendy; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Dekker, Gus A; Roberts, Claire T
Objective To investigate whether there is a seasonal variation in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Research design and methods This retrospective cohort study of 60 306 eligible South Australian live-born singletons during 2007–2011 recorded in the South Australian Perinatal Statistics Collection (SAPSC) examined the incidence of GDM in relation to estimated date of conception (eDoC). Fourier series analysis was used to model seasonal trends. Results During the study period, 3632 (6.0%) women were diagnosed with GDM. Seasonal modeling showed a strong relation between GDM and eDoC (p<0.001). Unadjusted and adjusted models (adjusted for maternal age, body mass index (BMI), parity, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and chronic hypertension) demonstrated the presence of a peak incidence occurring among pregnancies with eDoC in winter (June/July/August), with a trough for eDoc in summer (December/January/February). As this was a retrospective study, we could only use variables that had been collected as part of the routine registration system, the SAPSC. Conclusions This study is the first population-based study to demonstrate a seasonal variation for GDM. Several maternal lifestyle and psychosocial factors associated with seasonality and GDM may be influential in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of GDM. Ambient temperature, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vitamin D levels may affect maternal physiology, and fetal and placental development at the cellular level and contribute to the development of GDM. The mechanisms underlying these possible associations are not fully understood and warrant further investigation. PMID:27843556
van-Vegchel, John J.
The Nanango Astronomical Observatory (NAO) is a high-technology, professional astronomical facility offering astronomers worldwide access to high-resolution southern skies via the Southern Automatic Patrol Telescope Service. Its goal is international cooperation to produce quality science at low cost. Collaboration between Mt. Hopkins and NAO will allow observational requests to be transferred via high-speed modems, thus creating an environment which will permit time sharing with other robotic telescope users for stars within the northern and southern overlap winds made possible by NAO's latitude. Photometric data collected will be substantiated by separate standard star observations from another robotic telescope 0.45 m in diameter. NOA instrumentation, communications, and future plans are also discussed.
Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady
Set in the context of today's globalized approaches to curriculum reform, the purpose of this study was to compare the teaching and learning of science in Chinese and Australian Grade 6 classrooms. A conceptual framework based on notions of culture and socioeconomic status informed the research design. Case study participants were three teachers…
Lynch, Julianne; Walker-Gibbs, Bernadette; Herbert, Sandra
In 2010, the Australian government established the Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Programme--a funding agenda to promote programmes that respond to the under-representation in higher education of people from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Many government-funded programmes and projects have since emerged that respond…
Taylor, Myra; O'Donoghue, Tom; Houghton, Stephen
This article examines the decision-making processes that Western Australian parents utilise when deciding whether to medicate or not to medicate their child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Thirty-three parents (five fathers and 28 mothers) from a wide range of socio-economic status suburbs in Perth, Western Australia were…
questionnaire was performed for socio-economic status and medical history. Discussion We have successfully managed several operational challenges within this multi-centre complex clinical research project performed across remote North, Western and Central Australia. It seems unlikely that a single correction factor (similar to that for African-Americans) to the equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate will prove appropriate or practical for Indigenous Australians. However, it may be that a modification of the equation in Indigenous Australians would be to include a measure of fat-free mass. PMID:20167129
Introduction. Teaching and training are at the heart of the knowledge society where the continuing professional development of teachers and trainers provides the cornerstone for the development of a high quality education and training systems. The Aim of the Study. To identify a design of professional environment for teacher professional…
Gooch, Bill G.
Development of human resources is the primary purpose of vocational education, and it is only through continued professional growth that vocational educators can develop and maintain the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and habits needed to assist others in the process of realizing their full potential. The individual and professional development of…
This article reviews teacher professional development norms as they are shifting toward collaborative practice. It is posed that passive and individual practices are inadequate to prepare teachers to integrate the academic skills that learners need for both workforce and college readiness. Promising practices in professional development are…
Rhode, Deborah L.
A discussion of the professional responsibility of law schools focuses on the need to highlight professional issues within the curriculum, pro bono policies, access to and delivery of legal services to those who need them, equal access to legal education, and more effective treatment of issues related to race, gender, ethnicity, and sexual…
Gale, Arden Unbrit; Austin, B. Diane
The authors discuss how attaining various standards of professionalism has inadvertently resulted in challenges to professional counselors' collective identity. The authors reviewed interviews with senior contributors to the profession published in the Journal of Counseling & Development, identifying themes in their comments to suggest…
The teaching of mathematics in Australian schools has received considerable attention over the past decade. States and territories have designed and implemented new mathematics syllabi, and education sectors have supported teachers through sustained professional learning initiatives. Whereas the major focus of these initiatives has been on students constructing mathematical knowledge from a range of learning activities and quality instruction, the education of students with difficulties in learning mathematics has been given little direct attention. This analysis of current syllabus developments and professional learning initiatives highlights the risk of exposing students with learning difficulties to fragile program designs and classroom instruction. The research literature is also examined to propose ways in which these fragilities can be addressed.
Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat
Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat
Gardiner, Veronica; Cumming-Potvin, Wendy
The need to diversify digital communications for a global twenty-first century has prompted many theorists to reimagine literacy teaching and learning. Although the new Australian curriculum acknowledges multimodality and multimodal texts, professional learning continues to privilege print-focused literacy. Utilizing a multiliteracies' and…
Crosmer, Janie Lynn
The purpose of this study is to determine factors which predict professional burnout among university full-time faculty who are employed in traditional, virtual, public and private institutions in the United States. Differences in professional burnout scores by age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, tenured status, type of university, academic…
Lawrence, P. J.
Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at
Teaching Music, 1994
Discusses the importance of professional development and maintains that the summer offers an ideal time for such activities. Describes informal activities such as composing and arranging and encourages professional collaboration. Identifies formal study such as graduate study, workshops, and professional conferences. (CFR)
Kramer, Pamela A.
Every teacher must develop the characteristics of a professional and model professionalism everyday. In fact, among the standards of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) is a requirement that teacher candidates demonstrate specific dispositions of professionals (NCATE 2001). Bridges (in Ben-Peretz 2001, 50) advised…
Guskey, Thomas R.
Why does professional learning for educators have such a mixed history? Why is it so hard to find solid research evidence of professional development programs that actually improve student learning outcomes? Part of the answer, writes Thomas R. Guskey, is that professional learning experiences for educators are rarely well planned. Consequently,…
Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica; Manderson, Lenore
In Australia, rapid population ageing, and government efforts to support people who are chronically ill, elderly or with disabilities to live in their own homes, has led to the primary responsibility of care being undertaken by families. Through its social policies, the Australian government provides income and other types of support to informal caregivers. This article explores how Australian social policy and women's understanding of their roles impact on their access to welfare support. Qualitative research was conducted in Melbourne between February and June 2006. In-depth interviews were undertaken with eight Russian-speaking women involved in caregiving, purposively recruited through ethnic associations, and with four community service providers. Women based their expectations of the gendered and private nature of their role on the social policies in countries of their origin and, hence, did not attempt to access welfare support unless they were referred by health and welfare professionals. In addition, poor referral by professionals, influenced by past societal attitudes that caregiving is a gendered role, contributed to women's limited access to welfare benefits. Changes in the implementation of social policy are proposed to increase caregivers' access to welfare support and efficient utilisation of existing resources.
Griffiths, S E; Burke, J A
Australian mandatory reporting laws for healthcare practitioners were introduced nationally in July 2010. We distributed an online survey to specialist anaesthetists and anaesthesia trainees in our institution with the aim of assessing anaesthetists' awareness, understanding and interpretation of the new laws. One hundred and three completed responses were received (response rate 67%). The majority of respondents were aware of their professional (85%) and legal (68%) reporting obligations. Respondents were most likely to report conduct relating to alcohol intoxication or sexual misconduct (75%) and least likely to report a colleague with an impairment that may be placing the public at risk of harm (12%). Consultant anaesthetists were more likely than trainees to report students (P=0.002), junior colleagues (P=0.01) and senior colleagues (P=0.03). Some anaesthetists believed the laws would deter them from seeking medical help themselves if they were impaired (39%). Mandatory reporting laws aim to improve patient safety while being fair to doctors who are reported and protecting those who report. Our survey indicates that there are differences among anaesthetists about the type of conduct they would report and their perception of the consequences of making a report.
Rogers, Wendy A.; Veale, Bronwyn
This study investigated changes in resource allocation and activities of Australian Divisions of General Practice associated with new funding procedures which link monies to nominated outcomes. The study involved analysis of annual reports and strategic plans, and semistructured telephone interviews with key personnel from 27 divisions of general practice. The main outcome measures were: number of activities in various nominated health areas; total and median expenditure per activity in each area; and methods of resource allocation. Despite a modest increase in funding to the total general practice divisions program over the two year period, expenditure decreased in the National Health Priority Areas of mental health, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, injuries and cancer. There was increased expenditure in the priority area of immunisation, which received dedicated funding. There was greatly increased expenditure in the areas of information technology and services to GPs (including continuing medical education, professional development and workforce issues). The ease of defining and measuring outcomes influenced the choice of activities. In 1996, activities were linked to formal needs analyses in approximately 20 per cent of cases. The most frequent driving force for projects was enthusiastic GPs. In 1998, resource allocation decisions were more explicitly linked to formal needs analyses; however, the standard of the needs analyses varied widely between divisions. Changes in funding procedures which use nominated outcomes as the major accountability mechanism may produce unexpected, and unintended results, including significantly decreased expenditure in areas with outcomes which are hard to define and measure but which are important for health improvement.
Norton, Kevin I; Norton, Lynda H
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) occurs in many thousands of Australians each year. Scientific evidence shows an increased survival rate for individuals who receive electrical defibrillation in the first few minutes after SCA. In the last decade automated (rhythm-detecting) external defibrillators (AEDs) have become available that are portable and affordable. Although still relatively rare, there is still the potential that SCA may occur when a person undertakes physical activity. Consequently, health/fitness centres are increasingly recognised as higher risk sites that may benefit from placement of AEDs. There are no laws in Australia requiring health/fitness centres to install AEDs. However, several international and professional organisations have "strongly encouraged" larger centres to install AEDs. Guidelines and algorithms are presented to help estimate the risk of SCA in fitness centres. Fitness centre placement is particularly important if the clientele is older or has a 'high-risk' profile, for example, clients with cardiovascular, respiratory or metabolic disease. International negligence case law and duty of care principles suggests the standard of care required in health/fitness centres may be increasing. Therefore, it may be prudent to install AEDs in larger centres and those in which higher risk groups are physically active.
School counselors were surveyed regarding their choice to join or not join their professional organization. Members and nonmembers differed on the following: whether participants' graduate program emphasized professional membership, membership status of colleagues, the belief that professional organizations advance the field, and the belief that…
Purpose: Professional communities are capable of maintaining their social status and role in society on the basis of a blend of technical and formal expertise, know-how, and an understanding of the non-professional's demands and expectations. In architectural work, professional expertise largely centres on the visual capacities of the architect,…
Chisholm, L. A.; Ong, C.; Hueni, A.; Suarez, L.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.
Inherently field spectroscopy involves the study of the interrelationships between the spectral characteristics of objects and their biophysical attributes in the field environment (Bauer et al., 1986; Milton, 1987). Spectroscopy measurements taken of vegetated surfaces provide spectral characteristics indicative of the status, composition and structure of the components measured. However, additional elements are present that add undesired effects to the overall signal such as the soil background or the viewing and illumination geometry (Suarez etal 2013). Further, the leaf spectrum is affected by several factors including leaf age, phenology, a highly variable range of stressors, any of which may be the actual focus of study, and additionally influenced by a range of environmental conditions. There is a critical need to use acquired spectra to infer vegetation function, understand phenological cycles, characterise biodiversity or as part of the process to assess biogeochemical processes. However the collection of leaf spectra during field campaigns is undertaken on a project basis, where a large number of spectra tend to be collected, yet the value and ability to share and confidently re-use such collections is often restricted. Often this is because the data are stored in disparate silos with little, if any, consistency in formatting and content, and most importantly, lack metadata to aid their discovery and re-use. These datasets have significant potential for vegetation scientists but also benefit the wider earth observation remote sensing and other earth science communities. In Australia this problem has been addressed by the adoption and enhancement of the existing SPECCHIO system (Hueni et al. 2009) as a suitable standard for spectral data exchange. As a spectral database, the system provides storage of spectra and associated metadata, retrieval of spectral data using metadata space queries, information on provenance, all of which facilitate repeatability of
Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K
Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.
This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…
Beckett, Jeffrey M; Ball, Madeleine J
Se plays many important roles in humans. Marginal Se status has been associated with adverse health effects including an increased risk of chronic disease such as cancer. There are few Australian data, but the population of Tasmania, Australia, is potentially at risk of marginal Se status. A cross-sectional study of 498 men and women aged 25-84 years was undertaken to assess the Se status of the northern Tasmanian population. Se status was assessed using dietary estimates and measures of serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Mean Se intakes were 77·4 (sd 31·3) and 65·1 (sd 23·7) μg/d for men and women, respectively; 27 % of the subjects consumed less than the Australian/New Zealand estimated average requirement. Mean serum Se concentration was 89·1 (sd 15·1) μg/l; 83 % of the study subjects had serum Se concentrations below 100 μg/l and 60 % had serum Se concentration below 90 μg/l, suggesting that Se status in many subjects was inadequate for maximal GPx activity. This was supported by the positive association between serum Se and serum GPx (P < 0·001), indicating that enzyme activity was limited by Se concentrations. The lowest mean serum Se concentrations were observed in the oldest age ranges; however, the prevalence of marginal Se status was similar across age ranges and did not appear to be influenced by sex or socio-economic status. The prevalence of marginal Se status was high in all sex and age subgroups, suggesting that the northern Tasmanian population could benefit from increasing Se intakes.
Wood, Ben D; Killion, Jeffrey B
*From many accounts healthcare professionals are at increased risk for professional burnout. Professional burnout is generally described as prolonged stress that impairs one's ability to perform his or her job in demanding situations. *Precursors to professional burnout include, but are not limited to, employee workload, chronic fatigue, compassion fatigue, balance between family and career, sickness absence, and loss of confidence. *Administrators must watch for early signs of professional burnout to improve retention and promote employee morale. To reduce professional burnout, administrators must implement strategies to reduce burnout while also promoting productivity. *When professional burnout occurs, management must consider each employee's generational differences. All generations have differing values, beliefs, and opinions that influence his or her work ethic in regard to employee productivity.
Ikin, Kerrie, Ed.
The theme of the 2016 National Conference of the Australian College of Educators (ACE), "Challenges and changes: The power of education to build the world to which we aspire," provided a unique opportunity for education professionals to carefully consider and propose papers, workshops, and poster sessions to stimulate discussion and…
McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Mussap, Alexander J; Hallford, David J
This study was designed to examine the health behaviors as well as the enablers and barriers to health behaviors among Indigenous Australian men. One hundred and fifty Indigenous Australian men in rural, regional, and urban locations were interviewed about their health behaviors. The results revealed several themes of importance: (a) role of community activities, (b) the Indigenous man as a leader and role model, (c) negative impact of discrimination/racism, (d) importance of partner and family, (e) positive and negative role of peer relationships, (f) central role of culturally appropriate health care facilities, and (g) association between employment and health care problems. These findings highlight the importance of broad community-based (rather than individualistic) approaches to promoting health behavior in Indigenous men.
Kougioumtzis, Konstantin; Patriksson, Goran; Strahlman, Owe
This article reviews research on physical education (PE) teachers' professionalization considering their relative position at schools and in the community as well as their control over the lesson formation. The position considers issues of prestige, status and esteem while lesson formation regards constitutional, organizational and physical…
Brooks, Caroline; DinanThompson, Maree
This paper provides a context for exploring the positioning of Physical Education specialist teachers (PE specialist teachers) in primary schools in Queensland in the discourses of teacher professionalism. A critical analysis of literature on the history and status of the subject and its practitioners aims to contextualize discourses in and about…
The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.
Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial
described in Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists ( AOAC , 1980). Fat was determined in sweetened condensed milk...reviewed. 10 7. REFERENCES Anon (1982) "Dietary guidelines for Australians" J. Fd Nutr., 38, 111-119. AOAC , (1980) Official Methods of Analysis of the...Research Council (NH & MRC, 1984). The Reference Man is 70 kg and has the requirements for various grades of activity listed in Table 2. 2. METHODS OF
Lahra, Monica M
The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin.
bathythermal data for Coral Sea , Tasman Sea plus other Australian areas 4. Department of Science and the Environment, (Antarctic Division...RAN meteorological/oceanographic officers, of an ocean analysis and forecasting scheme for the Tasman /Coral Sea area. This scheme uses sea -surface...layers are heated up and mixed layer depth is fairly uniform except near fronts. The Tasman Front is the boundary between Coral Sea and Tasman Sea
1978. Australian Armour. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: The Australian War Memorial and the Australian Government Publishing Service. Jones ... Ian . 1987. The Australian Light Horse. Sydney, New South Wales: Time Life Books. Krause, Michael, Lieutenant Colonel. 2004. Lest We Forget
Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert
Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system.
Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris
Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time . Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data ; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India . Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.
Hill, Robert S
Australia is an ancient continent with an interesting geological history that includes a recent major shift in its position, both globally and compared with neighbouring land masses. This has led to a great deal of confusion over many years about the origins of the Australian biomes. The plant fossil record is now clarifying this, and it is clear that the ancient Gondwanan rainforests that covered Australia while it was still part of that supercontinent contained many of the elements of the modern vegetation. However, major climatic sifting, along with responses to other factors, including soil nutrient levels, disturbance regimes, atmospheric CO2 levels, fire frequency and intensity, glaciations and the arrival of humans, have had profound impacts on the Australian vegetation, which today reflects the sum of all these factors and more. The origins of Australian vegetation and its present-day management cannot be properly understood without an appreciation of this vast history, and the fossil record has a vital role to play in maintaining the health of this continent's vegetation into the future. PMID:15519971
Bayram, Clare; Ryan, Rowena; Harrison, Christopher; Gardiner, Joanne; Bailes, Marion Jean; Obeyesekere, Nayantara; Miller, Graeme; Britt, Helena
This study sought to determine the need for, and use of, professional interpreters in general practice. This is a sub-study of the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) program - a continuous, national, cross-sectional survey of Australian general practitioner (GP) activity. Data were provided by 206 randomly sampled GPs between December 2013 and March 2014. Of 6074 patients sampled, there were 986 (16.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.2-19.3) who reported speaking a language other than English (LOTE) at home. Five per cent of all GP consultations involved communicating in a LOTE. Of these, 1% involved professional interpreters, 82.3% were conducted by multilingual GPs who spoke the patient's language, and 17.7% involved a family member or friend. GPs thought a professional interpreter would/may have improved the quality of 27.8% of these consultations. Our study suggests that GPs see the opportunity to improve the quality of LOTE consultations by using professional interpreters to replace family member/friend interpreters.
Krain, Lewis P.; Lavelle, Ellen
Background Research defining professionalism exists, yet little is known about how residents view this important attribute for medical practice. Knowing more about residents' interpretations of professionalism and about how they value professionalism would enhance definitions and facilitate support for the development of professionalism skills and behaviors at the graduate level. Purpose The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate how residents think about professionalism, how they value it, and how it plays out in their educational lives. Methods This study uses qualitative methods, employing 5 focus groups representative of a range of disciplines. Methods include providing unstructured prompts, member checking and informant feedback to support credibility, and content analysis to discern significant patterns. Results Content analysis supported that residents highly value professionalism and see it as a complex construct, dependent on the situation, discipline, and on personal experience. Challenges to professionalism are common in graduate medical education and a great concern for residents. Conclusions Physician educators often discuss professionalism as an overarching concept in medicine, especially in classes during the preclinical years. Although some general principles are applicable, residents relate more deeply to aspects of professionalism that concern their own clinical practice, situation, and specialty. Implications for measurement of professional skills and for further research are included in this report. PMID:21975982
This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.
Perl, Martin L.
Professional societies have been reluctant to enter actively into the public processes by which decisions are made on economic, social, and political issues. This reluctance comes from (1) fears about the status of the profession and the professional society, (2) fears about economic reprisal, (3) potential conflicts between the goals of a philosophy of trade unionism and the goals of a philosophy of professional social responsibility, and (4) domination of some professional societies by nonprofessional business, industrial, or administrative groups. This reluctance has been justified by the development of a myth that the professional can exercise individual social responsibility while maintaining the neutrality of his institutions and societies. This myth must be ignored because our public decision-making processes can only function properly if groups, such as professional societies, actively enter that decision-making process. PMID:4691329
Roberts, Jason; Hobday, Linda; Ibrahim, Aishah; Aitken, Thomas; Thorley, Bruce
In 2012 no cases of poliomyelitis were reported through clinical surveillance in Australia, and poliovirus was not detected through virological surveillance. Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years as the main mechanism to monitor its polio-free status in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System. In 2012 Australia reported 1.2 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive system for the fifth year in a row. However the faecal specimen collection rate from AFP cases was 29%, which was well below the WHO target of 80%. Virological surveillance for poliovirus consists of two components. Firstly, the Enterovirus Reference Laboratory Network of Australia (ERLNA) reports on the typing of enteroviruses detected in or isolated from clinical specimens. Secondly, environmental surveillance is conducted at sentinel sites. These surveillance systems are co-ordinated by the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory (NERL).
Roberts, Jason A; Hobday, Linda K; Ibrahim, Aishah; Aitkin, Thomas; Thorley, Bruce R
Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age as the main method to monitor its polio-free status in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2013, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1.4 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive surveillance system. Non-polio enteroviruses can also be associated with AFP and enterovirus A71 was identified from nine of the 61 cases classified as non-polio AFP in 2013, which was part of a larger outbreak associated with this virus. A Sabin poliovirus was detected in an infant recently returned from Pakistan and who had been vaccinated while abroad. Globally, 416 cases of polio were reported in 2013, with the 3 endemic countries: Afghanistan; Nigeria; and Pakistan, accounting for 38% of the cases. To safeguard the progress made towards polio eradication, in May 2014, WHO recommended travellers from the 10 countries that are currently reporting wild poliovirus transmission have documented evidence of recent polio vaccination before departure.
Findings from a national sample of 989 persons and an 'Opinion Leader' survey of 279 executive and ordinary members of 40 organizations identified as having an interest in AID showed that Australians overall approved of the procedure for helping infertile married couples, only 17% of the national sample unequivocally disapproving. Key variables in determining opinions on AID included age, education, country of origin, family status, religion and exposure to infertility. However only 15% of national respondents accepted that AID should be made available to any unmarried women on request although opinions were more evenly spread on its provision to unmarried women in a long-term relationship with a man. Over one-third of 'Opinion Leaders' believed that children should never be told of their AID conception, 13% that they should be given identifying and one third non-identifying information on the donor. A majority believed that AID should be directly carried out or supervised by doctors in hospital clinics. There was strong opposition to business or voluntary organization involvement. Suggestions for changes in the law, while emphasizing protection of donors, recipients, children, persons who ran AID programs and control over futuristic research activities, often showed a misunderstanding of the legal process. The major reasons for exclusion of donors were genetic defects and medical problems although many behavioural characteristics were mentioned. Views on recipients' rights to choose the sex of the AID child were marginally against the proposition.
Ortega-Argueta, Alejandro; Baxter, Greg; Hockings, Marc
Recovery plans are the main documents supporting management decision-making for threatened species. We evaluated Australian recovery plans to assess their appropriateness as conservation and management planning instruments. Six legislative requirements (species information and general requirements, species distribution and location, known and potential threats, objectives, performance criteria and actions, duration of the plan, and estimated costs of plan implementation) were used to assess the degree of compliance of recovery plans with the relevant legislation. We assessed all 236 official recovery plans which had been adopted as at January 2006. The results showed that plans were most compliant regarding the setting of objectives, performance criteria, recovery actions, and duration of plan. Most plans included a single performance criterion that was generally related to the population status of target species. Improvement is required in relation to identification of current threats and critical habitats, and the establishment of basic elements of monitoring and evaluation for measuring recovery progress. Gaps in ecological information are the main factors affecting adequate compliance with legislative requirements as opposed to managerial information (e.g. clarity in establishing the implementation schedule, costs and resource allocation). Planning deficiencies could be addressed by improving the recovery planning guidelines and more carefully reviewing the drafting and adoption of new plans.
O'Toole, Brian I; Outram, Sue; Catts, Stanley V; Pierse, Katherine R
This study assessed psychiatric diagnoses in female partners of Australian Vietnam veterans, compared these with national Australian population statistics, and assessed their relationship with veterans' military service and mental health. Independent assessments of 240 veteran-partner couples used standardized physical and psychiatric diagnostic interviews that permitted comparison with Australian population data. Multivariate regression modeling examined associations of veterans' war service, combat, and psychiatric status with women's mental health. Anxiety disorders and severe recurrent depression were among 11 of 17 psychiatric diagnoses that were significantly in excess of population expectations. Veterans' combat and post-traumatic stress disorder were significant predictors of women's depressive disorder, particularly severe depression. We conclude that veterans' war service and mental health sequelae including post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with higher rates of mental disorder in their female partners 3 decades after the war.
Newsome, P R H; Langley, P P
For centuries only three professions were recognised as such: medicine, law and theology. Now that the word 'professional' is applied to all occupations it can be difficult to understand the meaning of professionalism within dentistry and healthcare. We simply cannot treat dentistry as a commodity or business when it is a highly specialised personal service. Now more than ever, dentistry is a team game and all dental professionals must maintain the values and codes that distinguish what we do from most other vocations.
Shats, Kathy; Faunce, Thomas
Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate  NSWCA 326 concerns an appeal from the New South Wales Medical Tribunal regarding its findings on professional misconduct outside the practice of medicine in relation to a doctor convicted of possessing child pornography. The latest in a number of cases on this issue in Australia, it highlights the complexity of such decisions before medical tribunals and boards, as well as the diversity of approaches taken. Considering both this case and the recent Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria case of Re Stephanopoulos  MPBV 12, this column argues that Australian tribunals and medical boards may not yet have achieved the right balance here in terms of protecting public safety and the reputation of the profession as a whole. It makes the case for a position statement from Australian professional bodies to create a presumption of a lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice after a medical professional has been convicted of accessing child pornography.
Charlton, Karen; Probst, Yasmine; Kiene, Gabriella
To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographical remoteness (N = 7735). The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements) was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496) and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772). The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488). Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001) for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001) compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001). Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required. PMID:27827915
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006
"Engaging Young Australians with Asia" is a national policy statement which supports "The Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." These goals promote understanding of the value of cultural and linguistic diversity, and possessing the knowledge, skills and understanding to contribute…
Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…
This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…
This review examines whether immigrant Australians are disadvantaged educationally or vocationally by the education they receive, and whether their educational experiences are of a high quality and relevant to their needs. First, data is provided on the patterns of post-war immigration, along with information about the changing attitudes of…
Wagner, Monika; Wenlock, Jennifer
Prior to 2011, Year 8 students studied a single film as text, "Yolngu Boy." This had been on the syllabus for several years, and the consensus was that it was time to review the unit, refresh the text and introduce multiple film texts that would present varying visions and perspectives of notions of what it is to be "Australian". The authors aimed…
This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a qualitative study of Australian women disclosing organized abuse in adulthood and the mental health professionals who treat them. Drawing on interviews with survivors and mental health professionals, the paper analyses the fraught relationship between mental health and physical safety for adults subject to organized abuse. The therapeutic progress of adult organized abuse victims can be disrupted by ongoing threats, stalking, and group violence, which in turn reinforces the dissociative responses and pathological attachments that render them vulnerable to revictimization. The paper argues that breaking this cycle requires intervention from multiple agencies, and describes the responses of police, medical services, and child protection services to adult organized abuse from the perspective of survivors and mental health practitioners. Highlighting systemic failures but also opportunities, the paper calls for a coordinated response to organized abuse in adulthood, including inter-agency partnerships to support safety and bolster the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.
Hughes, T E; Townsend, G C; Pinkerton, S K; Bockmann, M R; Seow, W K; Brook, A H; Richards, L C; Mihailidis, S; Ranjitkar, S; Lekkas, D
The continuing studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families in the Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide began 30 years ago. Three main cohorts of twins have been recruited, enabling various objectives and specific hypotheses to be addressed about the roles of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on human dentofacial growth and development, as well as oral health. This paper highlights some key findings arising from these studies, emphasizing those of direct relevance to practising oral health professionals. We also draw on published literature to review the significant developments in relation to the use of precision 2D and 3D imaging equipment, the application of modern molecular techniques, and the development of sophisticated computer software for analysing genetic relationships and comparing complex shapes. Such developments are valuable for current and future work. Apart from the classical or traditional twin model, there are several other twin models that can be used in research to clarify the relative contributions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation. The monozygotic (MZ) co-twin model is one particularly valuable method, given that examination of only one pair of MZ twins can provide considerable insights into underlying causes of observed variation. This model can be used in a dental practice environment, with oral health professionals having the opportunity to explore differences in orofacial structures between MZ co-twins who are attending as patients. As researchers have become more aware of the complexities of the interactions between the genome, the epigenome and the environment during development, there is the need to collect more phenotypic data and define new phenotypes that will better characterize variations in growth processes and health status. When coupled with powerful new genetic approaches, including genome
Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.
The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…