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Sample records for profile belgium electronic

  1. Belgium.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    The Kingdom of Belgium which borders on the nations of France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the Federal Republic of Germany, is one of the smallest European countries and is a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch. The branches of its government are the executive (with a king, a prime minister, and a Council of Ministers), the legislative (a bicameral Parliament and various regional and cultural assemblies), and the judicial (a Court of Cassation modelled on the French system). 30% of Belgium's gross national product comes from machinery, iron and steel, coal, textiles, chemicals, and glass. During the 80 year period which preceded WWI, Belgium remained neutral in an era of intra-European wars until German troops overran the country during their attack on France in 1914. Some of the worst battles of that war were fought in Belgium. Again in 1940, Belgium was occupied by the Germans. There was a government-in-exile in London; however the King remained in Belgium during the war. The course of Belgian politics was determined largely by the division of the Belgian people into 2 major language groups--the Dutch speakers and French speakers. Regional and language rivalries are taken into account in all important national decisions. The 3 major political parties representing the main ideological tendencies are the Socialists, the Socialist Christians, and the Liberals. Belgium is one of the most open economies in the world and is a densely populated, highly industrialized country in the midst of a highly industrialized region. An economic austerity program was instituted at the beginning of this decade which included devaluation of the Belgian franc, reduction of government expenditures, a partial price freeze, etc. Improvements have been seen as a result of this program. Although US investment has declined in recent years, total US direct investment is estimated at $5.28 billion and there are 899 US companies currently operating in Belgium. As a

  2. Profiles and changes in stimulant use in Belgium in the period of 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Been, Frederic; Lai, Foon Yin; Kinyua, Juliet; Covaci, Adrian; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2016-09-15

    Adapting illicit drug policy strategies requires detailed knowledge on types and amounts of substances consumed by the target population. In this study, we applied wastewater-based epidemiology to detect spatio-temporal changes in the relative amounts of stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine) used in seven locations in Belgium over 2011-2015. Clear geographical differences were observed with stimulant users in large cities (Antwerp, Brussels) showing a preference for cocaine, while amphetamine use was most abundant in smaller cities (Geraardsbergen, Koksijde, Lier, Ninove, Ostend). Results obtained across õdifferent years revealed that the investigated substances had a stable share in the total amount of stimulants used, suggesting that habits of stimulant use remained constant, although differences in absolute amounts were observed across years. Investigation of the weekly pattern in stimulant use showed an increase in the use of MDMA on the weekends compared to cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:27251771

  3. Electron Bernstein wave electron temperature profile diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    G. Taylor; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; T. Munsat; J. Spaleta; J. Hosea; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; J. Menard

    2000-07-20

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has been employed as a standard electron temperature profile diagnostic on many tokamaks and stellarators, but most magnetically confined plasma devices cannot take advantage of standard ECE diagnostics to measure temperature. They are either overdense, operating at high density relative to the magnetic field (e.g. where the plasma frequency is much greater than the electron cyclotron frequency, as in a spherical torus) or they have insufficient density and temperature to reach the blackbody condition. Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) are electrostatic waves that can propagate in overdense plasmas and have a high optical thickness at the electron cyclotron resonance layers, as a result of their large perpendicular wavenumber. This paper reports on measurements of EBW emission on the CDX-U spherical torus, where B{sub o} {approximately} 2 kG, {approximately}10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} and T{sub e} {approx} to 10 -- 200 eV. Results are presented for electromagnetic measurements of EBW emission, mode-converted near the plasma edge. The EBW emission was absolutely calibrated and compared to the electron temperature profile measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. Depending on the plasma conditions, the mode converted EBW radiation temperature was found to be less than or equal to T{sub e} and the emission source was determined to be radially localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. A Langmuir triple probe and a 140 GHz interferometer were employed to measure changes in edge density profile in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance, where the mode conversion of the EBWs is expected to occur. Initial results suggest EBW emission and EBW heating are viable concepts for overdense plasmas.

  4. Cannabis-Related treatment demands in Belgium: a socio-demographic and treatment seeking profile

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aims Most people appear to stop using cannabis when getting older, but a certain subgroup becomes cannabis dependent, has problems in various life areas and needs treatment. Our aim is to compare a number of sociodemographic and treatment seeking variables between treatment seekers with primary cannabis problems and those with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine problems. Understanding how primary canna-bis users seeking treatment differ from other treatment seekers may assist clinicians in better tailoring treatment processes to clients' needs. Methods For this purpose, intake information on 1,626 persons seeking treatment in one of 16 treat-ment agencies in the province of Antwerp (Belgium) was registered via an on-line web application. Primary cannabis users seeking treatment were compared with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine and cocaine users by means of bivariate analyses (Chi-square tests and analyses of variance), followed by four logistic regression analyses. Findings 14.5% of all clients used cannabis as their primary drug. Compared to primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine users seeking treatment, cannabis users seeking treatment appeared to be more often male, younger than 30 years old, Belgian and student. They are often referred to treatment by police or justice and 43.6% of them can be considered single-substance users. Multivariate analyses showed that besides age and sex, using no other substances than the primary drug and being registered in outpatient facilities only were significant determinants for being a primary cannabis user seeking treatment. Conclusions Primary cannabis users can clearly be differentiated from other drug users seeking treatment. Although cannabis plays an important part in a polydrug use pattern, persons who have cannabis as their primary drug often use only this one substance. Since they regularly have brief contacts with treatment agencies, more research is needed to measure the effect of this

  5. Electronics. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  6. Electronics Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile covers the occupation of electronics technician. Section 1 provides the occupation definition. Section 2 lists development committee members. Section 3 provides the leveling codes--abbreviations for grade level, (by the end of grade 12, by the end of associate degree), academic codes (communications, math, or…

  7. Variation, levels and profiles of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in great tit (Parus major) eggs from different types of sampling locations in Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Van den Steen, Evi; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Neels, Hugo; Eens, Marcel

    2008-02-01

    Small-scale geographical variation in the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was investigated using the eggs of a terrestrial residential songbird species, the great tit (Parus major). In addition, we investigated the influence of the type of sampling location on the presence of these pollutants. To achieve this, 10 different sampling locations in Flanders (Belgium) were classified into 3 groups based on the extent of urbanisation, industrialisation and agriculture. The higher variance among sampling locations for the levels and profiles of PCBs and OCPs, suggests that local contamination sources are more important for the PCBs and OCPs compared to the PBDEs. Levels of PCBs and PBDEs were significantly higher in the industrialised sampling locations compared to the other locations. Sum PCB and sum PBDE levels reached up to 6050 and 79 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. PCBs and PBDEs were highly positively correlated for all groups, suggesting similar exposure pathways and/or mechanisms of accumulation. Significantly higher levels of OCPs (sum OCPs up to 2683 ng/g lipid weight) were detected in the rural sampling locations situated in a residential area. This suggests that local historical usage of OCPs by inhabitants may be an important source of contamination in Flanders. Contamination profiles differed also among the sampling locations. The rural sampling locations had a higher contribution of lower brominated BDE congeners, whereas the industrialised locations had a higher contribution of higher brominated congeners. The differences in contamination profiles among the sampling locations are probably due to differences in exposure. In conclusion, our results showed that the characteristics of a sampling location influence both the levels and profiles of PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs. PMID:17765970

  8. Transverse profile imager for ultrabright electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Prat, Eduard; Thominet, Vincent; Ozkan Loch, Cigdem

    2015-08-01

    A transverse profile imager for ultrabright electron beams is presented, which overcomes resolution issues in present designs by observing the Scheimpflug imaging condition as well as the Snell-Descartes law of refraction in the scintillating crystal. Coherent optical transition radiation emitted by highly compressed electron bunches on the surface of the crystal is directed away from the camera, allowing to use the monitor for profile measurements of electron bunches suitable for X-ray free electron lasers. The optical design has been verified by ray tracing simulations, and the angular dependency of the resolution has been verified experimentally. An instrument according to the presented design principles has been used in the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility, and different scintillator materials have been tested. Measurements in conjunction with a transverse deflecting radiofrequency structure and an array of quadrupole magnets demonstrate a normalized slice emittance of 25 nm in the core of a 30 fC electron beam at a pulse length of 10 ps and a particle energy of 230 MeV.

  9. Electron Density Profiles of the Topside Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xue-Qin; Reinsch, Bodo W.; Bilitza, Dieter; Benson, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    The existing uncertainties about the electron density profiles in the topside ionosphere, i.e., in the height region from h,F2 to - 2000 km, require the search for new data sources. The ISIS and Alouette topside sounder satellites from the sixties to the eighties recorded millions of ionograms but most were not analyzed in terms of electron density profiles. In recent years an effort started to digitize the analog recordings to prepare the ionograms for computerized analysis. As of November 2001 about 350000 ionograms have been digitized from the original 7-track analog tapes. These data are available in binary and CDF format from the anonymous ftp site of the National Space Science Data Center. A search site and browse capabilities on CDAWeb assist the scientific usage of these data. All information and access links can be found at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/isis/isis- status.htm1. This paper describes the ISIS data restoration effort and shows how the digital ionograms are automatically processed into electron density profiles from satellite orbit altitude (1400 km for ISIS-2) down to the F peak. Because of the large volume of data an automated processing algorithm is imperative. The TOPside Ionogram Scaler with True height algorithm TOPIST software developed for this task is successfully scaling - 70% of the ionograms. An <> is available to manually scale the more difficult ionograms. The automated processing of the digitized ISIS ionograms is now underway, producing a much-needed database of topside electron density profiles for ionospheric modeling covering more than one solar cycle.

  10. Electron Bernstein wave electron temperature profile diagnostic (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.; Jones, B.; Munsat, T.; Spaleta, J.; Hosea, J.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.

    2001-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has been employed as a standard electron temperature profile diagnostic on many tokamaks and stellarators, but most magnetically confined plasma devices cannot take advantage of standard ECE diagnostics to measure temperature. They are either ''overdense,'' operating at high density relative to the magnetic field (e.g., {omega}{sub pe}>>{Omega}{sub ce} in a spherical torus) or they have insufficient density and temperature to reach the blackbody condition ({tau}>2). Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) are electrostatic waves that can propagate in overdense plasmas and have a high optical thickness at the electron cyclotron resonance layers as a result of their large k{sub perp}. In this article we report on measurements of EBW emission on the CDX-U spherical torus, where B{sub 0}{approx}2kG, {approx}10{sup 13}cm{sup -3} and T{sub e}{approx}10--200eV. Results are presented for electromagnetic measurements of EBW emission, mode converted near the plasma edge. The EBW emission was absolutely calibrated and compared to the electron temperature profile measured by a multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic. Depending on the plasma conditions, the mode-converted EBW radiation temperature was found to be {<=}T{sub e} and the emission source was determined to be radially localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. A Langmuir triple probe and a 140 GHz interferometer were employed to measure changes in the edge density profile in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance where the mode conversion of the EBWs is expected to occur. Initial results suggest EBW emission and EBW heating are viable concepts for plasmas where {omega}{sub pe}>>{Omega}{sub ce}.

  11. Electron profile stiffness and critical gradient studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBoo, J. C.; Petty, C. C.; White, A. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Holland, C.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Smith, S. P.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.

    2012-08-01

    Electron profile stiffness was studied in DIII-D L-mode discharges by systematically varying the heat flux in a narrow region with electron cyclotron heating and measuring the local change produced in ∇Te. Electron stiffness was found to slowly increase with toroidal rotation velocity. A critical inverse temperature gradient scale length 1/LC ˜ 3 m-1 was identified at ρ =0.6 and found to be independent of rotation. Both the heat pulse diffusivity and the power balance diffusivity, the latter determined by integrating the measured dependence of the heat pulse diffusivity on -∇Te, were fit reasonably well by a model containing a critical inverse temperature gradient scale length and varying linearly with 1/LT above the threshold.

  12. Electron profile stiffness and critical gradient studies

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoo, J. C.; Petty, C. C.; Burrell, K. H.; Smith, S. P.; White, A. E.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Holland, C.; McKee, G. R.

    2012-08-15

    Electron profile stiffness was studied in DIII-D L-mode discharges by systematically varying the heat flux in a narrow region with electron cyclotron heating and measuring the local change produced in {nabla}T{sub e}. Electron stiffness was found to slowly increase with toroidal rotation velocity. A critical inverse temperature gradient scale length 1/L{sub C} {approx} 3 m{sup -1} was identified at {rho}=0.6 and found to be independent of rotation. Both the heat pulse diffusivity and the power balance diffusivity, the latter determined by integrating the measured dependence of the heat pulse diffusivity on -{nabla}T{sub e}, were fit reasonably well by a model containing a critical inverse temperature gradient scale length and varying linearly with 1/L{sub T} above the threshold.

  13. Compulsive use of social networking sites in Belgium: prevalence, profile, and the role of attitude toward work and school.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Rozane; Vangeel, Jolien; Klein, Annabelle; Minotte, Pascal; Rosas, Omar; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan

    2014-03-01

    A representative sample (n=1,000) of the Belgian population aged 18 years and older filled out an online questionnaire on their Internet use in general and their use of social networking sites (SNS) in particular. We measured total time spent on the Internet, time spent on SNS, number of SNS profiles, gender, age, schooling level, income, job occupation, and leisure activities, and we integrated several psychological scales such as the Quick Big Five and the Mastery Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling shows that gender and age explain an important part of the compulsive SNS score (5%) as well as psychological scales (20%), but attitude toward school (additional 3%) and income (2.5%) also add to explained variance in predictive models of compulsive SNS use. PMID:24111599

  14. Compulsive use of social networking sites in Belgium: prevalence, profile, and the role of attitude toward work and school.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Rozane; Vangeel, Jolien; Klein, Annabelle; Minotte, Pascal; Rosas, Omar; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan

    2014-03-01

    A representative sample (n=1,000) of the Belgian population aged 18 years and older filled out an online questionnaire on their Internet use in general and their use of social networking sites (SNS) in particular. We measured total time spent on the Internet, time spent on SNS, number of SNS profiles, gender, age, schooling level, income, job occupation, and leisure activities, and we integrated several psychological scales such as the Quick Big Five and the Mastery Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling shows that gender and age explain an important part of the compulsive SNS score (5%) as well as psychological scales (20%), but attitude toward school (additional 3%) and income (2.5%) also add to explained variance in predictive models of compulsive SNS use.

  15. Effect of crossbreeding with Limousine, Rubia Gallega and Belgium Blue on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Antonio; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Sanchez, Luciano; Cantalapiedra, Jesus; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The object of this work was to study the effects of crossbreeding on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves. Samples were taken from Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 calves of three different groups (Holstein crossed with Rubia Gallega (HF×RG), Holstein crossed with Limousine (HF×LI) and Holstein crossed with Belgian Blue (HF×BB)). Significant differences were observed in carcass weight and killing out percentage (P < 0.001) among, groups reaching the highest values in the HF×BB group (228 kg and 59.4%, respectively), while the cross with Limousine presented the lowest values for carcass weight (191 kg) and the cross with Rubia Gallega showed the lowest killing out percentages (54.9%). Meat from HF×RG animals was redder (a* 13.31) and lightest (L* 39.55) than meat from HF×LI and HF×BB groups. With regard to fatty acid profile, the saturated fatty acids were the most abundant fatty acid, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the three groups. Crossbreeding did not affect the proportion of fatty acid. Finally, live weight, cold carcass weight, killing out, shear force, L* from LT, b*from LT, a* from fat, b* from fat, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:3n-6, MUFA and price-to-sales ratio were the selected variables from discriminant analysis to classify the types of crossbreeding.

  16. Effect of crossbreeding with Limousine, Rubia Gallega and Belgium Blue on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Antonio; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Sanchez, Luciano; Cantalapiedra, Jesus; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The object of this work was to study the effects of crossbreeding on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves. Samples were taken from Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 calves of three different groups (Holstein crossed with Rubia Gallega (HF×RG), Holstein crossed with Limousine (HF×LI) and Holstein crossed with Belgian Blue (HF×BB)). Significant differences were observed in carcass weight and killing out percentage (P < 0.001) among, groups reaching the highest values in the HF×BB group (228 kg and 59.4%, respectively), while the cross with Limousine presented the lowest values for carcass weight (191 kg) and the cross with Rubia Gallega showed the lowest killing out percentages (54.9%). Meat from HF×RG animals was redder (a* 13.31) and lightest (L* 39.55) than meat from HF×LI and HF×BB groups. With regard to fatty acid profile, the saturated fatty acids were the most abundant fatty acid, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the three groups. Crossbreeding did not affect the proportion of fatty acid. Finally, live weight, cold carcass weight, killing out, shear force, L* from LT, b*from LT, a* from fat, b* from fat, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:3n-6, MUFA and price-to-sales ratio were the selected variables from discriminant analysis to classify the types of crossbreeding. PMID:25706373

  17. Assessment of persistent brominated and chlorinated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders, Belgium: Levels, profiles and health risk.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Eulaers, Igor; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Pooled yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) samples, consisting of 3-10 eels, collected between 2000 and 2009 from 60 locations in Flanders (Belgium) were investigated for persistent contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). The current study expands the knowledge regarding these contaminant concentrations, their patterns and distribution profiles in aquatic ecosystems. PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs, and DDTs were detected in all eel samples and some samples had high concentrations (up to 1400, 9500, 41,600 and 7000ng/g lw, respectively). PCB levels accounted for the majority of the contamination in most samples. The high variability in PBDE, HBCD, PCB and DDT concentrations reported here is likely due to the variety in sampling locations demonstrating variable local pollution pressures, from highly industrialised areas to small rural creeks. Among PBDEs, BDE-47 (57% contribution to the sum PBDEs), -100 (19%) and -99 (15%) were the predominant congeners, similar to the composition reported in the literature in eel samples. For HBCDs, α-HBCD (74%) was predominant followed by γ-(22%) and β-HBCD (4%) isomers in almost all eel samples. CB-153 (19%) was the most dominant PCB congener, closely followed by CB-138 (11%), CB-180 (9%), CB-187 (8%) and CB-149 (7%). The contribution to the total human exposure through local wild eel consumption was also highly variable. Intake of PBDEs and HBCDs, through consumption of wild eel, was below the RfD values for the average population (consuming on average 2.9g eel/day). At 16 out 60 sites, eels exceeded largely the new EU consumption threshold for PCBs (300ng/g ww for the sum of 6 indicator PCBs). The current data shows an on-going exposure of Flemish eels to PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs and DDTs through indirect release from contaminated sediments or direct releases from various industries.

  18. Belgium. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    From the end of World War II to 1964, immigration trends in Belgium were largely governed by the need to supply workers for the coal industry, which led to an influx of Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Turks, and Morrocans. In 1971 there were approximately 200,000 foreign workers in Belgium; the majority of these were Italian. Relying heavily on…

  19. Adaptive method for electron bunch profile prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinker, Alexander; Gessner, Spencer

    2015-10-01

    We report on an experiment performed at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in which a new adaptive control algorithm, one with known, bounded update rates, despite operating on analytically unknown cost functions, was utilized in order to provide quasi-real-time bunch property estimates of the electron beam. Multiple parameters, such as arbitrary rf phase settings and other time-varying accelerator properties, were simultaneously tuned in order to match a simulated bunch energy spectrum with a measured energy spectrum. The simple adaptive scheme was digitally implemented using matlab and the experimental physics and industrial control system. The main result is a nonintrusive, nondestructive, real-time diagnostic scheme for prediction of bunch profiles, as well as other beam parameters, the precise control of which are important for the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments being explored at FACET. © 2015 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.

  20. Gyrokinetic modelling of stationary electron and impurity profiles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skyman, A. Tegnered, D. Nordman, H. Strand, P.

    2014-09-15

    Particle transport due to Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG)/Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence is investigated using the gyrokinetic code GENE. Both a reduced quasilinear treatment and nonlinear simulations are performed for typical tokamak parameters corresponding to ITG dominated turbulence. The gyrokinetic results are compared and contrasted with results from a computationally efficient fluid model. A selfconsistent treatment is used, where the stationary local profiles are calculated corresponding to zero particle flux simultaneously for electrons and trace impurities. The scaling of the stationary profiles with magnetic shear, safety factor, electron-to-ion temperature ratio, collisionality, toroidal sheared rotation, plasma β, triangularity, and elongation is investigated. In addition, the effect of different main ion mass on the zero flux condition is discussed. The electron density gradient can significantly affect the stationary impurity profile scaling. It is therefore expected that a selfconsistent treatment will yield results more comparable to experimental results for parameter scans where the stationary background density profile is sensitive. This is shown to be the case in scans over magnetic shear, collisionality, elongation, and temperature ratio, for which the simultaneous zero flux electron and impurity profiles are calculated. A slight asymmetry between hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with respect to profile peaking is obtained, in particular, for scans in collisionality and temperature ratio.

  1. [Euthanasia in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Simón Lorda, Pablo; Barrio Cantalejo, Inés M

    2012-01-01

    The experience of the Netherlands in relation with the legalization and practice of euthanasia is better known in Spain than the Belgian experience in this matter. But the historical process of social debate in Belgium has many specific details which should be known by Spanish healthcare professionals, bioethicists, politicians and lawyers. This paper begins with a comparative analysis of both countries: Spain and Belgium and follows with a description of the milestones of the historical process of debating and, finally, passing the Belgian Law on Euthanasia in 2002. The next chapter consists of a description of the main contents of this important Law. The paper continues then with an approach to the epidemiology of the practice of euthanasia in Belgium and finishes with a description of the different positions of the actors of the process. Two positions are described more in depth: the opinion of the specialists in palliative care, and the opinion of the Catholic Church. The paper ends underlining the reason for the incorporation of the Belgian experience on euthanasia to the debate about the possibility of legalizing euthanasia in Spain.

  2. Ionospheric electron density profile estimation using commercial AM broadcast signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, De; Ma, Hong; Cheng, Li; Li, Yang; Zhang, Yufeng; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-08-01

    A new method for estimating the bottom electron density profile by using commercial AM broadcast signals as non-cooperative signals is presented in this paper. Without requiring any dedicated transmitters, the required input data are the measured elevation angles of signals transmitted from the known locations of broadcast stations. The input data are inverted for the QPS model parameters depicting the electron density profile of the signal's reflection area by using a probabilistic inversion technique. This method has been validated on synthesized data and used with the real data provided by an HF direction-finding system situated near the city of Wuhan. The estimated parameters obtained by the proposed method have been compared with vertical ionosonde data and have been used to locate the Shijiazhuang broadcast station. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed ionospheric sounding method is feasible for obtaining useful electron density profiles.

  3. Adaptive robust control of longitudinal and transverse electron beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeizadeh, Amin; Schilcher, Thomas; Smith, Roy S.

    2016-05-01

    Feedback control of the longitudinal and transverse electron beam profiles are considered to be critical for beam control in accelerators. In the feedback scheme, the longitudinal or transverse beam profile is measured and compared to a desired profile to give an error estimate. The error is then used to act on the appropriate actuators to correct the profile. The role of the transverse feedback is to steer the beam in a particular trajectory, known as the "orbit." The common approach for orbit correction is based on approximately inverting the response matrix, and in the best case, involves regulating or filtering the singular values. In the current contribution, a more systematic and structured way of handling orbit correction is introduced giving robustness against uncertainties in the response matrix. Moreover, the input bounds are treated to avoid violating the limits of the corrector currents. The concept of the robust orbit correction has been successfully tested at the SwissFEL injector test facility. In the SwissFEL machine, a photo-injector laser system extracts electrons from a cathode and a similar robust control method is developed for the longitudinal feedback control of the current profile of the electron bunch. The method manipulates the angles of the crystals in the laser system to produce a desired charge distribution over the electron bunch length. This approach paves the way towards automation of laser pulse stacking.

  4. Tula hantavirus in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Heyman, P; Klingström, J; de Jaegere, F; Leclercq, G; Rozenfeld, F; Escutenaire, S; Vandenvelde, C; Zizi, M; Plyusnin, A; Lundkvist, A

    2002-04-01

    European common voles (Microtus arvalis), captured in Belgium in 1999, were proven by molecular as well as by serological techniques to be infected with Tula hantavirus (TULV). This is the first evidence for the presence of TULV in this country. No indication of spill-over infections of Puumala virus, known to be highly endemic among bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) within the same geographical regions as the trapped TULV-infected common voles, was observed. Together with previous reports on the circulation of TULV in eastern/central Europe, this finding suggests a more wide-spread circulation of this hantavirus serotype throughout the continent. PMID:12002543

  5. Determination of the Electron Cyclotron Current Drive Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, C.C.; Schuster, D.I.; Makowski, M.A.

    1999-11-01

    Evaluation of the profile of non-inductive current density driven by absorption of electron cyclotron waves (ECCD) using time evolution of the poloidal flux indicated a broader profile than predicted by theory. To determine the nature of this broadening, a 1-1/2 D transport calculation of current density evolution was used to generate the signals which the DIII-D motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic would measure in the event that the current density evolution followed the neoclassical Ohm's law with the theoretical ECCD profile. Comparison with the measured MSE data indicates the experimental data is consistent with the ECCD profile predicted by theory. The simulations yield a lower limit on the magnitude of the ECCD which is at or above the value found in Fokker-Planck calculations of the ECCD including quasilinear and parallel electric field effects.

  6. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  7. Estimation of topside electron density profile using on-orbit measured GPS and electron density data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    2015-12-01

    The topside ionophere have lacks of information about plasma, but it is important for human beings and scientific applicaiton. We establish an estimation method for electron density profile using Langmuir Probe and GPS data of CHAMP satellite and have comparision the method results with other satellites measurements. In order to develop the model, hydrostatic mapping function, vertical scale height, and vertical TEC(Total Electron Contents) are used for calculations. The electron density and GPS data with hydrostatic mapping function give the vertical TEC and after some algebra using exponential model of density profile give the vertical scale height of ionosphere. The scale height have about 10^2~10^3 km order of magnitude so it can be used exponential model again since the altitude of CHAMP. Therefore, apply the scale height to exponoential model we can get the topside electron density profile. The result of the density profile model can be compared with other satellite data as STSAT-1, ROCSAT, DMSP which is measured the electron density in similar Local Time, Latitude, Longitude but above the CHAMP. This comparison shows the method is accecptable and it can be applied to other reseach for topside ionosphere.

  8. Acceleration of electrons generated during ionization of a gas by a nearly flat profile laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kunwar Pal

    2009-09-15

    A scheme of acceleration of electrons generated during ionization of krypton by nearly flat radial and nearly flat temporal laser pulse profiles has been suggested. The energy spectrum of the electrons suggests that energy of the electrons is higher for a nearly flat temporal profile than that for a nearly flat radial profile. The suppression of scattering of the electrons is better for a nearly flat radial profile than that for a nearly flat temporal profile. The energy of the electrons increases, scattering decreases, and beam quality improves with an increase in flatness of radial and temporal profiles.

  9. LASER-BASED PROFILE MONITOR FOR ELECTRON BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Marc C

    2003-05-27

    High performance TeV energy electron / positron colliders (LC) are the first machines to require online, non-invasive beam size monitors for micron and sub-micron for beam phase space optimization. Typical beam densities in the LC are well beyond the threshold density for single pulse melting and vaporization of any material, making conventional wire scanners ineffective. Using a finely focused, diffraction limited high power laser, it is possible to devise a sampling profile monitor that, in operation, resembles a wire scanner. Very high resolution laser-based profile monitors have been developed and tested, first at FFTB (SLAC) and later at SLC and ATF. The monitor has broad applicability and we review here the technology, application and status of ongoing research programs.

  10. Automated Processing of ISIS Topside Ionograms into Electron Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter; Hills, H. Kent

    2004-01-01

    Modeling of the topside ionosphere has for the most part relied on just a few years of data from topside sounder satellites. The widely used Bent et al. (1972) model, for example, is based on only 50,000 Alouette 1 profiles. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza, 1990, 2001) uses an analytical description of the graphs and tables provided by Bent et al. (1972). The Alouette 1, 2 and ISIS 1, 2 topside sounder satellites of the sixties and seventies were ahead of their times in terms of the sheer volume of data obtained and in terms of the computer and software requirements for data analysis. As a result, only a small percentage of the collected topside ionograms was converted into electron density profiles. Recently, a NASA-funded data restoration project has undertaken and is continuing the process of digitizing the Alouette/ISIS ionograms from the analog 7-track tapes. Our project involves the automated processing of these digital ionograms into electron density profiles. The project accomplished a set of important goals that will have a major impact on understanding and modeling of the topside ionosphere: (1) The TOPside Ionogram Scaling and True height inversion (TOPIST) software was developed for the automated scaling and inversion of topside ionograms. (2) The TOPIST software was applied to the over 300,000 ISIS-2 topside ionograms that had been digitized in the fkamework of a separate AISRP project (PI: R.F. Benson). (3) The new TOPIST-produced database of global electron density profiles for the topside ionosphere were made publicly available through NASA s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) ftp archive at . (4) Earlier Alouette 1,2 and ISIS 1, 2 data sets of electron density profiles from manual scaling of selected sets of ionograms were converted fiom a highly-compressed binary format into a user-friendly ASCII format and made publicly available through nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov. The new database for the topside

  11. Transverse profile of the electron beam for the RHIC electron lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Costanzo, M.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D. M.; Hock, J.; Luo, Y.; Miller, T.; Tan, Y.; Thieberger, P.; Montag, C.; Pikin, A. I.

    2015-07-10

    To compensate for the beam-beam effects from the proton-proton interactions at the two interaction points IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we are constructing two electron lenses (e-lenses) that we plan to install in the interaction region IR10. Before installing them, the electron gun, collector, instrumentation were tested and the electron beam properties were qualified on an electron lens test bench. We will present the test results and discuss our measurement of the electron beam current and of the electron gun perveance. We achieved a maximum current of 1 A with 5 kV energy for both the pulsed- and the DC-beam (which is a long turn-by-turn pulse beam). We measured beam transverse profiles with an Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) screen and pinhole detector, and compared those to simulated beam profiles. Measurements of the pulsed electron beam stability were obtained by measuring the modulator voltage.

  12. Transverse profile of the electron beam for the RHIC electron lenses

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Costanzo, M.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D. M.; Hock, J.; Luo, Y.; Miller, T.; Tan, Y.; Thieberger, P.; et al

    2015-07-10

    To compensate for the beam-beam effects from the proton-proton interactions at the two interaction points IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we are constructing two electron lenses (e-lenses) that we plan to install in the interaction region IR10. Before installing them, the electron gun, collector, instrumentation were tested and the electron beam properties were qualified on an electron lens test bench. We will present the test results and discuss our measurement of the electron beam current and of the electron gun perveance. We achieved a maximum current of 1 A with 5 kV energy for bothmore » the pulsed- and the DC-beam (which is a long turn-by-turn pulse beam). We measured beam transverse profiles with an Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) screen and pinhole detector, and compared those to simulated beam profiles. Measurements of the pulsed electron beam stability were obtained by measuring the modulator voltage.« less

  13. Profiles of electron temperature and Bz along Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Nakamura, R.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    We study the electron temperature distribution and the structure of the current sheet along the magnetotail using simultaneous observations from THEMIS spacecraft. We perform a statistical study of 40 crossings of the current sheet when the three spacecraft THB, THC, and THD were distributed along the tail in the vicinity of midnight with coordinates XB \\in [-30 RE, -20 RE], XC \\in [-20 RE, -15 RE], and XD ~ -10 RE. We obtain profiles of the average electron temperature \\mlab Te\\mrab and the average magnetic field \\mlab Bz\\mrab along the tail. Electron temperature and \\mlab Bz\\mrab increase towards the Earth with almost the same rates (i.e., ratio \\mlab Te\\mrab/\\mlab Bz\\mrab ≈ 2 keV/7 nT is approximately constant along the tail). We also use statistics of 102 crossings of the current sheet from THB and THC to estimate dependence of Te and Bz distributions on geomagnetic activity. The ratio \\mlab Te \\mrab/\\mlab Bz\\mrab depends on geomagnetic activity only slightly. Additionally we demonstrate that anisotropy of the electron temperature \\mlab T∥/T⊥\\mrab ≈ 1.1 is almost constant along the tail for X \\in [-30 RE, -10 RE].

  14. Dopant profiling based on scanning electron and helium ion microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chee, Augustus K W; Boden, Stuart A

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate and compare doping contrast generated inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and scanning helium ion microscope (SHIM). Specialised energy-filtering techniques are often required to produce strong doping contrast to map donor distributions using the secondary electron (SE) signal in the SEM. However, strong doping contrast can be obtained from n-type regions in the SHIM, even without energy-filtering. This SHIM technique is more sensitive than the SEM to donor density changes above its sensitivity threshold, i.e. of the order of 10(16) or 10(17)donorscm(-3) respectively on specimens with or without a p-n junction; its sensitivity limit is well above 2×10(17)acceptorscm(-3) on specimens with or without a p-n junction. Good correlation is found between the widths and slopes of experimentally measured doping contrast profiles of thin p-layers and the calculated widths and slopes of the potential energy distributions across these layers, at a depth of 1 to 3nm and 5 to 10nm below the surface in the SHIM and the SEM respectively. This is consistent with the mean escape depth of SEs in silicon being about 1.8nm and 7nm in the SHIM and SEM respectively, and we conclude that short escape depth, low energy SE signals are most suitable for donor profiling. PMID:26624515

  15. Dopant profiling based on scanning electron and helium ion microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chee, Augustus K W; Boden, Stuart A

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate and compare doping contrast generated inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and scanning helium ion microscope (SHIM). Specialised energy-filtering techniques are often required to produce strong doping contrast to map donor distributions using the secondary electron (SE) signal in the SEM. However, strong doping contrast can be obtained from n-type regions in the SHIM, even without energy-filtering. This SHIM technique is more sensitive than the SEM to donor density changes above its sensitivity threshold, i.e. of the order of 10(16) or 10(17)donorscm(-3) respectively on specimens with or without a p-n junction; its sensitivity limit is well above 2×10(17)acceptorscm(-3) on specimens with or without a p-n junction. Good correlation is found between the widths and slopes of experimentally measured doping contrast profiles of thin p-layers and the calculated widths and slopes of the potential energy distributions across these layers, at a depth of 1 to 3nm and 5 to 10nm below the surface in the SHIM and the SEM respectively. This is consistent with the mean escape depth of SEs in silicon being about 1.8nm and 7nm in the SHIM and SEM respectively, and we conclude that short escape depth, low energy SE signals are most suitable for donor profiling.

  16. An electron beam profile instrument based on FBGs.

    PubMed

    Sporea, Dan; Stăncălie, Andrei; Becherescu, Nicu; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Along with the dose rate and the total irradiation dose measurements, the knowledge of the beam localization and the beam profile/energy distribution in the beam are parameters of interest for charged particle accelerator installations when they are used in scientific investigations, industrial applications or medical treatments. The transverse profile of the beam, its position, its centroid location, and its focus or flatness depend on the instrument operating conditions or on the beam exit setup. Proof-of-concept of a new type of charged particle beam diagnostics based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) was demonstrated. Its operating principle relies on the measurement of the peak wavelength changes for an array of FBG sensors as function of the temperature following the exposure to an electron beam. Periodically, the sensor irradiation is stopped and the FBG are force cooled to a reference temperature with which the temperature influencing each sensor during beam exposure is compared. Commercially available FBGs, and FBGs written in radiation resistant optical fibers, were tested under electron beam irradiation in order to study their possible use in this application. PMID:25157554

  17. An electron beam profile instrument based on FBGs.

    PubMed

    Sporea, Dan; Stăncălie, Andrei; Becherescu, Nicu; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred

    2014-08-25

    Along with the dose rate and the total irradiation dose measurements, the knowledge of the beam localization and the beam profile/energy distribution in the beam are parameters of interest for charged particle accelerator installations when they are used in scientific investigations, industrial applications or medical treatments. The transverse profile of the beam, its position, its centroid location, and its focus or flatness depend on the instrument operating conditions or on the beam exit setup. Proof-of-concept of a new type of charged particle beam diagnostics based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) was demonstrated. Its operating principle relies on the measurement of the peak wavelength changes for an array of FBG sensors as function of the temperature following the exposure to an electron beam. Periodically, the sensor irradiation is stopped and the FBG are force cooled to a reference temperature with which the temperature influencing each sensor during beam exposure is compared. Commercially available FBGs, and FBGs written in radiation resistant optical fibers, were tested under electron beam irradiation in order to study their possible use in this application.

  18. An Electron Beam Profile Instrument Based on FBGs

    PubMed Central

    Sporea, Dan; Stăncălie, Andrei; Becherescu, Nicu; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Along with the dose rate and the total irradiation dose measurements, the knowledge of the beam localization and the beam profile/energy distribution in the beam are parameters of interest for charged particle accelerator installations when they are used in scientific investigations, industrial applications or medical treatments. The transverse profile of the beam, its position, its centroid location, and its focus or flatness depend on the instrument operating conditions or on the beam exit setup. Proof-of-concept of a new type of charged particle beam diagnostics based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) was demonstrated. Its operating principle relies on the measurement of the peak wavelength changes for an array of FBG sensors as function of the temperature following the exposure to an electron beam. Periodically, the sensor irradiation is stopped and the FBG are force cooled to a reference temperature with which the temperature influencing each sensor during beam exposure is compared. Commercially available FBGs, and FBGs written in radiation resistant optical fibers, were tested under electron beam irradiation in order to study their possible use in this application. PMID:25157554

  19. Implementing and Improving Automated Electronic Tumor Molecular Profiling.

    PubMed

    Rioth, Matthew J; Staggs, David B; Hackett, Lauren; Haberman, Erich; Tod, Mike; Levy, Mia; Warner, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Oncology practice increasingly requires the use of molecular profiling of tumors to inform the use of targeted therapeutics. However, many oncologists use third-party laboratories to perform tumor genomic testing, and these laboratories may not have electronic interfaces with the provider's electronic medical record (EMR) system. The resultant reporting mechanisms, such as plain-paper faxing, can reduce report fidelity, slow down reporting procedures for a physician's practice, and make reports less accessible. Vanderbilt University Medical Center and its genomic laboratory testing partner have collaborated to create an automated electronic reporting system that incorporates genetic testing results directly into the clinical EMR. This system was iteratively tested, and causes of failure were discovered and addressed. Most errors were attributable to data entry or typographical errors that made reports unable to be linked to the correct patient in the EMR. By providing direct feedback to providers, we were able to significantly decrease the rate of transmission errors (from 6.29% to 3.84%; P < .001). The results and lessons of 1 year of using the system and transmitting 832 tumor genomic testing reports are reported. PMID:26813927

  20. Compton profile study and electronic properties of tantalum diboride.

    PubMed

    Raykar, Veera; Bhamu, K C; Ahuja, B L

    2013-07-01

    We have reported the first-ever experimental Compton profile (CP) of TaB2 using 20 Ci(137)Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare the experimental data, we have also computed the theoretical CPs using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and Hartree-Fock (HF) within linear combination of the atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. In addition, we have reported energy bands and density of states of TaB2 using LCAO and full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) methods. A real space analysis of CP of TaB2 confirms its metallic character which is in tune with the cross-overs of Fermi level by energy bands and Fermi surface topology. A comparison of equal-valence-electron-density (EVED) experimental profiles of isoelectronic TaB2 and NbB2 show more covalent (or less ionic) character of TaB2 than that of NbB2 which is in agreement with available ionicity data.

  1. Comparison of the calculated and experimental data of the extracted electron beam profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloichikova, I. A.; Povolná, A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Naumenko, G. A.

    2015-10-01

    The current commercial use of electron accelerators grows in research, industry, medical diagnosis and treatment. Due to this fact, the creation of a model describing the electron beam profile and shape is an actual task. The model of the TPU microtron extracted electron beam created in the program “Computer Laboratory (PCLab)” is described and compared with experimental results in this article. The value of the internal electron beam divergence determination is illustrated. The experimental data of the electron beam profiles at the selected distances from the output window are analysed and compared with the simulation data. The simulation data of the electron beam profiles are shown.

  2. Dopant Profiling of III-V Nanostructures for Electronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alexandra Caroline

    2011-12-01

    High electron mobility III-V compound semiconductors such as indium arsenide (InAs) are promising candidates for future active channel materials of electron devices to further enhance device performance. In particular, compound semiconductors heterogeneously integrated on Si substrates have been studied, combining the high mobility of III-V semiconductors and the well-established, low cost processing of Si technology. However, one of the primary challenges of III-V device fabrication is controllable, post-growth dopant profiling. Here InAs nanowires and ultrathin layers (nanoribbons) on SiO2/Si are investigated as the channel material for high performance field-effect transistors (FETs) and post-growth, patterned doping techniques are demonstrated. First, the synthesis of crystalline InAs nanowires with high yield and tunable diameters by using Ni nanoparticles as the catalyst material on SiO 2/Si substrates is demonstrated. The back-gated InAs nanowire FETs have electron field-effect mobilities of ˜4,000 cm2/Vs and ION/IOFF ˜104. The uniformity of the InAs nanowires is demonstrated by large-scale assembly of parallel arrays of nanowires (˜400 nanowires) on SiO2/Si substrates by a contact printing process. This enables high performance, "printable" transistors with 5--10 mA ON currents. Second, an epitaxial transfer method for the integration of ultrathin layers of single-crystalline InAs on SiO2/Si substrates is demonstrated. As a parallel to silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, the abbreviation "XOI" is used to represent this compound semiconductor-on-insulator platform. A high quality InAs/dielectric interface is obtained by the use of a thermally grown interfacial InAsOx layer (˜1 nm thick). Top-gated FETs exhibit a peak transconductance of ˜1.6 mS/microm at V DS=0.5V with ION/I OFF >104 and subthreshold swings of 107--150 mV/decade for a channel length of ˜0.5 microm. Next, temperature-dependent I-V and C-V studies of single InAs nanowire FETs are

  3. Two dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging study of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations in Tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bihe

    An innovative plasma diagnostic technique, electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), was successfully developed and implemented on the TEXT-U and RTP tokamaks for the study of plasma electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of this new diagnostic, plasma filamentation was observed during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in TEXT-U, and was identified as multiple rotating magnetic islands. In RTP, under special plasma conditions, evidence for magnetic bubbling was first observed, which is characterized by the flattening of the electron temperature and pressure profiles over a small annular region of about 1-2 cm extent near the q = 2 surface. More important results arose from the detailed study of the broadband plasma turbulence in TEXT-U and RTP. With the first measurements of poloidal wavenumbers and dispersion relations, turbulent Te fluctuations in the confinement region of TEXT-U plasmas were identified as electron drift wave turbulence. The fluctuation amplitude is found to follow the mixing length scaling, and the fluctuation-induced conducted- heat flux can account for the observed anomalous energy transport in TEXT-U. In RTP, detailed ECEI study of broadband Te fluctuations has shown that many characteristics of the observed fluctuations are consistent with the predictions of toroidal ηi mode theory. These include the global dependence of the fluctuation frequency and amplitude on the plasma density and current. The measured isotope and impurity scalings quantitatively match the predictions of toroidal ηi mode theory. The ECEI measurements in combination with ECRH modification of T e profiles argue against the Te gradients serving as the driving force of the turbulence. With the detailed 2- D measurements of the fluctuation distribution over the plasma minor cross-section, large scale, coherent structures similar to the eigenmode structures predicted by toroidal ηi mode theory

  4. Cherenkov Light-based Beam Profiling for Ultrarelativistic Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adli, E.; Gessner, S. J.; Corde, S.; Hogan, M. J.; Bjerke, H. H.

    2015-02-09

    We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a charged particle beam in an air gap. The main components of the profile monitor are silicon wafers used to reflect Cherenkov light onto a camera lens system. The design allows for measuring large beam sizes, with large photon yield per beam charge and excellent signal linearity with beam charge. Furthermore, the profile monitor signal is independent of the particle energy for ultrarelativistic particles. Different design and parameter considerations are discussed. A Cherenkov light-based profile monitor has been installed at the FACET User Facility at SLAC. Finally, we report on the measured performance of this profile monitor.

  5. High-resolution ionospheric observations and modeling over Belgium during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 including first results of ionospheric tilt and plasma drift measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2016-06-01

    The ionospheric behavior over Belgium during the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analyzed based on high-resolution solar radio flux, vertical incidence sounding, and GPS TEC measurements. First results of ionosonde-based ionospheric plasma drift and tilt observations are presented and analyzed, including some traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the eclipse. Also, collocated ionosonde and GPS measurements are used to reconstruct the time evolution of the vertical electron density distribution using the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) ionospheric specification system, called Local Ionospheric Electron Density profile Reconstruction (LIEDR).

  6. Cherenkov Light-based Beam Profiling for Ultrarelativistic Electron Beams

    DOE PAGES

    Adli, E.; Gessner, S. J.; Corde, S.; Hogan, M. J.; Bjerke, H. H.

    2015-02-09

    We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a charged particle beam in an air gap. The main components of the profile monitor are silicon wafers used to reflect Cherenkov light onto a camera lens system. The design allows for measuring large beam sizes, with large photon yield per beam charge and excellent signal linearity with beam charge. Furthermore, the profile monitor signal is independent of the particle energy for ultrarelativistic particles. Different design and parameter considerations are discussed. A Cherenkov light-based profile monitor has been installed at the FACET User Facility at SLAC. Finally,more » we report on the measured performance of this profile monitor.« less

  7. [History of anaesthesia in Belgium].

    PubMed

    De Rood, M

    2012-01-01

    Man has for a long time searched means of fighting pain, by administration of plant extracts such as poppy seed, jimson weed, henbane, mandrake and alcohol. These substances were given in the form of cataplasms, potions or clysters. Somniferous sponges, applied on the face, were known since Antiquity and have been in use in some countries up to the 13th century. Surgery and pain were inseparable till mid 19th century. Indications for surgery were few, even though some patients could benefit from these sedative drugs. The anesthetic properties of ether and nitrous oxide (laughing gas), known since the 18th century, were only recognized in the 19th century. William Morton, a dentist, was the first to successfully provide general anesthesia with ether in 1846 in Boston. News spread to England shortly afterwards. On the European continent, the first use of ether was due to 2 Belgian surgeons. Next came chloroform as novel anesthetic. They were administered via either a gauze or a mask by the general practitioner, a medical student or a nurse. Unlike England, the use of these drugs for obstetrical anesthesia (called anesthesia "a la reine", alluding to Queen Victoria who benefited from chloroform during childbirth) was never very popular in Belgium. Since the years 1880, the use of cocaine, then of novocaine allowed to perform local anesthesia, then local nerve blocks and spinal anesthesia, installed by the surgeon prior to operating. Since then, surgery experienced rapid progress, Belgium included. During the 1914-1918 first World War, these advances saved many human lives. When general anesthesia was necessary, it was cared for by another physician or a nurse. The interwar period did not see significant advances in anesthesia, except in intravenous anesthesia with barbiturates, appeared in the late 1930's. Intra- and postoperative complications were frequent. Apart from sulfonamides, antibiotics were non-existent. During the war 1940-45, there was no progress in

  8. [History of anaesthesia in Belgium].

    PubMed

    De Rood, M

    2012-01-01

    Man has for a long time searched means of fighting pain, by administration of plant extracts such as poppy seed, jimson weed, henbane, mandrake and alcohol. These substances were given in the form of cataplasms, potions or clysters. Somniferous sponges, applied on the face, were known since Antiquity and have been in use in some countries up to the 13th century. Surgery and pain were inseparable till mid 19th century. Indications for surgery were few, even though some patients could benefit from these sedative drugs. The anesthetic properties of ether and nitrous oxide (laughing gas), known since the 18th century, were only recognized in the 19th century. William Morton, a dentist, was the first to successfully provide general anesthesia with ether in 1846 in Boston. News spread to England shortly afterwards. On the European continent, the first use of ether was due to 2 Belgian surgeons. Next came chloroform as novel anesthetic. They were administered via either a gauze or a mask by the general practitioner, a medical student or a nurse. Unlike England, the use of these drugs for obstetrical anesthesia (called anesthesia "a la reine", alluding to Queen Victoria who benefited from chloroform during childbirth) was never very popular in Belgium. Since the years 1880, the use of cocaine, then of novocaine allowed to perform local anesthesia, then local nerve blocks and spinal anesthesia, installed by the surgeon prior to operating. Since then, surgery experienced rapid progress, Belgium included. During the 1914-1918 first World War, these advances saved many human lives. When general anesthesia was necessary, it was cared for by another physician or a nurse. The interwar period did not see significant advances in anesthesia, except in intravenous anesthesia with barbiturates, appeared in the late 1930's. Intra- and postoperative complications were frequent. Apart from sulfonamides, antibiotics were non-existent. During the war 1940-45, there was no progress in

  9. Metastable atom probe for measuring electron beam density profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, J. M.; Zorn, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Metastable atom probe was developed for measuring current density in electron beam as function of two arbitrary coordinates, with spatial resolution better than 0.5 mm. Probe shows effects of space charge, magnetic fields, and other factors which influence electron current density, but operates with such low beam densities that introduced perturbation is very small.

  10. Fast electron current density profile and diffusion studies during LHCD in PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Kesner, J.; Luckhardt, S.; Paoletti, F.; von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.; Kaita, R.; Rimini, F.

    1993-08-01

    Successful current profile control experiments using lower hybrid current drive (LCHD) clearly require knowledge of (1) the location of the driven fast electrons and (2) the ability to maintain that location from spreading due to radial diffusion. These issues can be addressed by examining the data from the hard x-ray camera on PBX-M, a unique diagnostic producing two-dimensional, time resolved tangential images of fast electron bremsstrahlung. Using modeling, these line-of-sight images are inverted to extract a radial fast electron current density profile. We note that ``hollow`` profiles have been observed, indicative of off-axis current drive. These profiles can then be used to calculate an upper bound for an effective fast electron diffusion constant: assuming an extremely radially narrow lower hybrid absorption profile and a transport model based on Rax and Moreau, a model fast electron current density profile is calculated and compared to the experimentally derived profile. The model diffusion constant is adjusted until a good match is found. Applied to steady-state quiescent modes on PBX-M, we obtain an upper limit for an effective diffusion constant of about D*=1.1 m{sup 2}/sec.

  11. Determination of Jupiter's electron density profile from plasma wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.; Kurth, W. S.; Shaw, R. R.; Poynter, R. L.

    1981-09-01

    The electron density measurements obtained in the Jovian magnetosphere from the plasma wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are summarized. Three basic techniques for determining the electron density are discussed. They are (1) local measurements from the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation, (2) local measurements from the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and (3) integral measurements from the dispersion of whistlers. The limitations and advantages of each technique are reviewed.

  12. Euthanasia for Detainees in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Devolder, Katrien

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it. Next, it is argued that autonomy-based reasons for euthanizing him outweigh complicity-based reasons against doing so, and that, therefore, it is also morally permissible for a doctor to carry out the euthanasia request. PMID:27348823

  13. Euthanasia for Detainees in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Devolder, Katrien

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it. Next, it is argued that autonomy-based reasons for euthanizing him outweigh complicity-based reasons against doing so, and that, therefore, it is also morally permissible for a doctor to carry out the euthanasia request.

  14. Isolation by language and distance in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Barrai, I; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Manni, F; Ruggiero, V; Tartari, D; Scapoli, C

    2004-01-01

    The isonymy structure of trilingual Belgium was studied using the surname distributions for 1,118,004 private telephone users. The users were distributed in 77 Flemish, 76 French, and 3 German speaking towns, selected on a geographic basis to form an approximately regular grid over Belgium. Lasker's distance was found to be considerably higher between languages than within languages. For the whole of Belgium, irrespective of language, it was highly correlated with linear geographic distance, with r = 0.721+/-0.014, which is the highest correlation observed in European countries to date. Within Belgium and within languages, the correlation was highest among the Flemish (r = 0.878 +/- 0.007), and lowest among the French (r = 0.631+/-0.020). Isolation by distance in Belgium is the highest we have found in Europe, and as high as in Switzerland where the different languages are separated by geographical barriers. This is not the case in Belgium, so that the considerable isolating power of languages emerges clearly from the present analysis. From the comparison of Lasker's distance between (9.48) and within (8.16) languages, and from its regression over geographic distance (b = 0.01206), it was possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the isolating power of languages and that of geographic distance as (9.48-8.16)/0.01206 = 109 kilometres. This transformation of language distance into an equivalent geographic distance, given here for Belgium, can be applied to any similar geo-linguistic situation. PMID:14748826

  15. The Electronic Newspaper: Building a Profile of Potential Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillinghast, Diana Stover; Visvanathan, Nalini

    A study was conducted to determine how a population viewed the prospect of receiving news and information electronically. Subjects were 529 students attending Stanford University (California) in the heart of the "Silicon Valley" computer industry. The survey was conducted by mail with a telephone follow-up, and included 108 questions on usage of…

  16. NMR profiling of quantum electron solids in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L.; Rhone, T. D.; Shibata, N.; Muraki, K.

    2014-09-01

    When the motion of electrons is restricted to a plane under a perpendicular magnetic field, a variety of quantum phases emerge at low temperatures, the properties of which are dictated by the Coulomb interaction and its interplay with disorder. At very strong magnetic field, the sequence of fractional quantum Hall liquid phases terminates in an insulating phase, which is widely believed to be due to the solidification of electrons into domains possessing Wigner crystal order. The existence of such Wigner crystal domains is signalled by the emergence of microwave pinning-mode resonances, which reflect the mechanical properties characteristic of a solid. However, the most direct manifestation of the broken translational symmetry accompanying the solidification--the spatial modulation of particles' probability amplitudes--has not been observed yet. Here, we demonstrate that nuclear magnetic resonance provides a direct probe of the density topography of electron solids in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes. The data uncover quantum and thermal fluctuations of lattice electrons resolved on the nanometre scale. Our results pave the way to studies of other exotic phases with non-trivial spatial spin/charge order.

  17. Simultaneous determination of electron beam profile and material response using self-consistent iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Yudhishthir; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    We develop a novel iterative method to accurately measure electron beam shape (current density distribution) and monotonic material response as a function of position. A common method is to scan an electron beam across a knife edge along many angles to give an approximate measure of the beam profile, however such scans are not easy to obtain in all systems. The present work uses only an electron beam and multiple exposed regions of a thin film of photoresist to measure the complete beam profile for any beam shape, where the material response is characterized externally. This simplifies the setup of new experimental tools. We solve for self-consistent photoresist thickness loss response to dose and the electron beam profile simultaneously by optimizing a novel functional iteratively. We also show the successful implementation of the method in a real world data set corrupted by noise and other experimental variabilities.

  18. Evolution of the electron temperature profile of ohmically heated plasmas in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Johnson, D.W.; McGuire, K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stauffer, F.J.

    1985-08-01

    Blackbody electron cyclotron emission was used to ascertain and study the evolution and behavior of the electron temperature profile in ohmically heated plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The emission was measured with absolutely calibrated millimeter wavelength radiometers. The temperature profile normalized to the central temperature and minor radius is observed to broaden substantially with decreasing limiter safety factor q/sub a/, and is insensitive to the plasma minor radius. Sawtooth activity was seen in the core of most TFTR discharges and appeared to be associated with a flattening of the electron temperature profile within the plasma core where q less than or equal to 1. Two types of sawtooth behavior were identified in large TFTR plasmas (minor radius, a less than or equal to 0.8 m) : a typically 35 to 40 msec period ''normal'' sawtooth, and a ''compound'' sawtooth with 70 to 80 msec period.

  19. Calculating electron momentum densities and Compton profiles using the linear tetrahedron method.

    PubMed

    Ernsting, D; Billington, D; Haynes, T D; Millichamp, T E; Taylor, J W; Duffy, J A; Giblin, S R; Dewhurst, J K; Dugdale, S B

    2014-12-10

    A method for computing electron momentum densities and Compton profiles from ab initio calculations is presented. Reciprocal space is divided into optimally-shaped tetrahedra for interpolation, and the linear tetrahedron method is used to obtain the momentum density and its projections such as Compton profiles. Results are presented and evaluated against experimental data for Be, Cu, Ni, Fe3Pt, and YBa2Cu4O8, demonstrating the accuracy of our method in a wide variety of crystal structures.

  20. Steady-state hollow electron temperature profiles in the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hogeweij, G.M.; Oomens, A.A.; Barth, C.J.; Beurskens, M.N.; Chu, C.C.; van Gelder, J.F.; Lok, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Pijper, F.J.; Polman, R.W.; Rommers, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project steady-state hollow electron temperature ({ital T}{sub {ital e}}) profiles have been sustained with strong off-axis electron cyclotron heating, creating a region of reversed magnetic shear. In this region the effective electron thermal diffusivity ({chi}{sub {ital e}}{sup {ital pb}}) is close to neoclassical in high density plasmas. For medium density, {chi}{sub {ital e}}{sup {ital pb}} is lower than neoclassical and may even be negative, indicating that off-diagonal elements in the transport matrix drive an electron heat flux up the {ital T}{sub {ital e}} gradient. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Installation Status of the Electron Beam Profiler for the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Alvarez, M.; Fitzgerald, J.; Lundberg, C.; Prieto, P.; Roberts, M.; Zagel, J.; Blokland, W.

    2015-11-06

    The planned neutrino program at Fermilab requires large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and often depends on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a probe beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and the installation of a similar device is underway in the Main Injector at Fermilab. The present installation status of the electron beam profiler for the Main Injector will be discussed together with some simulations and test stand results.

  2. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Palmer, Todd A.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  3. Bayesian modeling of JET Li-BES for edge electron density profiles using Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, Jakob; Brix, Mathias; Ghim, Young-Chul; JET Contributors Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A Bayesian model for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system has been developed to infer edge electron density profiles. The 26 spatial channels measure emission profiles with ~15 ms temporal resolution and ~1 cm spatial resolution. The lithium I (2p-2s) line radiation in an emission spectrum is calculated using a multi-state model, which expresses collisions between the neutral lithium beam atoms and the plasma particles as a set of differential equations. The emission spectrum is described in the model including photon and electronic noise, spectral line shapes, interference filter curves, and relative calibrations. This spectral modeling gets rid of the need of separate background measurements for calculating the intensity of the line radiation. Gaussian processes are applied to model both emission spectrum and edge electron density profile, and the electron temperature to calculate all the rate coefficients is obtained from the JET high resolution Thomson scattering (HRTS) system. The posterior distributions of the edge electron density profile are explored via the numerical technique and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplings. See the Appendix of F. Romanelli et al., Proceedings of the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2014, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

  4. Electron density profiles obtained from CHAMP GPS radio occultation measurements: Initial results from GFZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arras, Christina; Schmidt, Torsten; Lee, Woo-Kyoung; Wickert, Jens; Heise, Stefan; Beyerle, Georg; Rothacher, Markus; Jakowski, Norbert

    GPS radio occultation signals received by Low Earth Orbit satellites provide global information about vertical distribution of lower atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature and water vapour) and electron density in the ionosphere. Since its launch in July 2000 the German geoscience satellite CHAMP has collected about 400,000 occultation measurements. These data form a first and unique long-term dataset of ionospheric profiles, but also of other geophysical variables as temperature, pressure and water vapour in the lower atmosphere. We present initial results of the ionospheric occultation data analyses at GFZ. Vertical electron density profiles from CHAMP are derived using a recently developed software package. To obtain electron densities from calibrated TEC (Total Electron Content) data the so-called onion peeling method is used. The application of this technique allows for the derivation of the electron density profile iteratively starting from the top altitude. The derived profiles are compared with corresponding data processed by UCAR (University Corporation of Atmospheric Research) and DLR Neustrelitz, but also with independent PLP (Planar Langmuir Probe) measurements from CHAMP. These investigations are complemented by case studies comparing the profiles with ground based ionosonde measurements. The high vertical resolution of the derived ionospheric profiles reveals thin vertical ionospheric structures such as sporadic E layers. We investigate the occurrence distribution of these layers in more detail. Sporadic E appears predominantly during summer in the lower ionosphere and has a considerable effect on the propagation of the GPS radio occultation signals. This feature is used to derive information on the altitude and on the intensity of these irregularities.

  5. Validation of COSMIC radio occultation electron density profiles by incoherent scatter radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    The COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 is a joint US/Taiwan radio occultation mission consisting of six identical micro-satellites. Each microsatellite has a GPS Occultation Experiment payload to operate the ionospheric RO measurements. FS3/COSMIC data can make a positive impact on global ionosphere study providing essential information about height electron density distribu-tion. For correct using of the RO electron density profiles for geophysical analysis, modeling and other applications it is necessary to make validation of these data with electron density distributions obtained by another measurement techniques such as proven ground based facili-ties -ionosondes and IS radars. In fact as the ionosondes provide no direct information on the profile above the maximum electron density and the topside ionosonde profile is obtained by fitting a model to the peak electron density value, the COSMIC RO measurements can make an important contribution to the investigation of the topside part of the ionosphere. IS radars provide information about the whole electron density profile, so we can estimate the agreement of topside parts between two independent measurements. To validate the reliability of COS-MIC data we have used the ionospheric electron density profiles derived from IS radar located near Kharkiv, Ukraine (geographic coordinates: 49.6N, 36.3E, geomagnetic coordinates: 45.7N, 117.8E). The Kharkiv radar is a sole incoherent scatter facility on the middle latitudes of Eu-ropean region. The radar operates with 100-m zenith parabolic antenna at 158 MHz with peak transmitted power 2.0 MW. The Kharkiv IS radar is able to determine the heights-temporal distribution of ionosphere parameters in height range of 70-1500 km. At the ionosphere in-vestigation by incoherent scatter method there are directly measured the power spectrum (or autocorrelation function) of scattered signal. With using of rather complex procedure of the received signal processing it is possible to estimate the

  6. The evolution of the DGR approach to model electron density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicella, S. M.; Leitinger, R.

    The paper describes the evolution of the "profiler" proposed by Di Giovanni and Radicella (1990) to calculate the electron density distribution with height up to the F2 peak based on the Epstein layer introduced originally by Rawer. Such model uses ionospheric characteristics routinely scaled from ionograms or models of such characteristics. Radicella and Zhang (1995) presented an improved version of the profiler able to give the electron density distribution on both the bottom and topside of the ionosphere and the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) by introducing a constant shape factor for the semi-Epstein layer above the F2 peak. This version of the DGR model was adopted by the European COST 238 action as the basis for its regional model of the ionosphere. Further efforts were made to improve the topside part of the profiler by taking into account the contribution of the plasmaspherie electron density. The three separate solutions that have been implemented are described. One of them was adopted by the European COST 251 as basis for its regional ionospheric model. Another one developed partially with European Space Agency (ESA) support has been adopted in the ESA European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System project ionospheric specifications. A modified version of this profiler has been implemented to forecast TEC values over Europe as a joint effort with the CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom and the Geophysical Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria.

  7. The probe profile and lateral resolution of scanning transmission electron microscopy of thick specimens.

    PubMed

    Demers, Hendrix; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Drouin, Dominique; de Jonge, Niels

    2012-06-01

    Lateral profiles of the electron probe of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were simulated at different vertical positions in a micrometers-thick carbon sample. The simulations were carried out using the Monte Carlo method in CASINO software. A model was developed to fit the probe profiles. The model consisted of the sum of a Gaussian function describing the central peak of the profile and two exponential decay functions describing the tail of the profile. Calculations were performed to investigate the fraction of unscattered electrons as a function of the vertical position of the probe in the sample. Line scans were also simulated over gold nanoparticles at the bottom of a carbon film to calculate the achievable resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the number of electrons. The resolution was shown to be noise limited for film thicknesses less than 1 μm. Probe broadening limited the resolution for thicker films. The validity of the simulation method was verified by comparing simulated data with experimental data. The simulation method can be used as quantitative method to predict STEM performance or to interpret STEM images of thick specimens.

  8. Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Electron Density Profiles: Interannual Variability and Implications for the Neutral Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Engel, S.; Hinson, D. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) experiment employs an ultrastable oscillator aboard the spacecraft. The signal from the oscillator to Earth is refracted by the Martian ionosphere, allowing retrieval of electron density profiles versus radius and geopotential. The present analysis is carried out on five sets of occultation measurements: (1) four obtained near northern summer solstice (Ls = 74-116, near aphelion) at high northern latitudes (64.7-77.6N), and (2) one set of profiles approaching equinox conditions (Ls = 135- 146) at high southern latitudes (64.7-69.1S). Electron density profiles (95 to 200 km) are examined over a narrow range of solar zenith angles (76.5-86.9 degrees) for local true solar times of (1) 3-4 hours and (2) 12.1 hours. Variations spanning 1-Martian year are specifically examined in the Northern hemisphere.

  9. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of Hα and Hβ radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  10. Gas temperature and electron density profiles in an argon dc microdischarge measured by optical emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belostotskiy, Sergey G.; Ouk, Tola; Donnelly, Vincent M.; Economou, Demetre J.; Sadeghi, Nader

    2010-03-01

    Optical emisssion spectroscopy was employed to study a high pressure (100 s of Torr), slot-type (600 μm interelectrode gap), argon dc microdischarge, with added traces of nitrogen. Spatially resolved gas temperature profiles were obtained by analyzing rovibrational bands of the N2 first positive system. The gas temperature peaked near the cathode and increased with current. The contribution of Stark broadening to the hydrogen Hβ emission lineshape was used to extract the electron density. The axial distribution of electron density as well as visual observation revealed that the microdischarge positive column was highly constricted. The electron density near the sheath edge increased with both pressure and current.

  11. Implementation of e-Bug in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Niels; De Corte, Stijn; Coenen, Samuel; Grieten, Els; Goossens, Herman

    2011-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important issue in Belgium. For more than a decade, national projects aiming to promote the prudent use of antimicrobials and to decrease antimicrobial resistance in ambulatory, nursing-home and hospital settings have been launched by the Belgian Antibiotic Policy Coordination Committee (BAPCOC), coordinated by the Federal Public Service of Public Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the e-Bug Project in Belgium by the University of Antwerp in collaboration with BAPCOC and supported by the Ministries of Education, and how e-Bug complemented a new national campaign focusing on antibiotic use in children first started on the European Antibiotic Awareness Day in 2008. We also describe the impact of the organization of education in Belgium on the implementation process, as well as plans for the future of e-Bug in our country. PMID:21680588

  12. Vary-Chap topside electron density profile for IRI and GIRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter; Huang, Xueqin; Nsumei, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    Using ISIS-2 topside sounding data, a new representative model of the topside electron density distribution in form of ``Vary-Chap'' functions is being developed for use in IRI [Bilitza et al., 2011], and for the profile extension above hmF2 of bottomside profiles measured by the Digisonde Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO). A major challenge for topside N(h) modeling is finding a suitable mathematical representation of the topside vertical profiles. Many representations have been proposed including exponential functions, Epstein functions , sech-squared functions, and Chapman functions with one or two constant scale heights. The Vary-Chap function is a generalized α-Chapman profile, based on the work by Rishbeth and Garriott [1969], that uses a continuously varying shape function S(h): [\\frac{{N}({h})}{{N}_{{m}} } =[{S(h)}]^{{{-1/2}} } {exp}[\\frac{{1}}{{2}} [{1}-{Y(h)}-{exp}(-{Y(h)})

  13. Propagation of terahertz waves in an atmospheric pressure microplasma with Epstein electron density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Chengxun; Zhou Zhongxiang; Zhang, Jingwen W.; Sun Hongguo; Wang He; Du Yanwei; Xiang Xiaoli

    2011-03-15

    Propagation properties of terahertz (THz) waves in a bounded atmospheric-pressure microplasma (AMP) are analyzed in this study. A modified Epstein profile model is used to simulate the electron density distribution caused by the plasma sheaths. By introducing the dielectric constant of a Drude-Lorentz model and using the method of dividing the plasma into a series of subslabs with uniform electron density, the coefficients of power reflection, transmission, and absorption are derived for a bounded microplasma structure. The effects of size of microplasma, electron density profile, and collision frequency on the propagation of THz waves are analyzed numerically. The results indicate that the propagation of THz waves in AMPs depend greatly on the above three parameters. It is demonstrated that the THz wave can play an important role in AMPs diagnostics; meanwhile, the AMP can be used as a novel potential tool to control THz wave propagation.

  14. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C.; Wang, L.; Xu, M.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  15. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  16. A rocket radiobeacon experiment on the electron concentration profile measurements in the bottomside of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, V. M.; Lvova, G. P.; Guliaeva, T. L.; Pakhomov, S. V.; Glotov, A. P.

    The possibility of measuring the electron density profile in the height interval 70-110 km with a two-frequency coherent transmitter set mounted on a 'small' geophysical rocket of type M-100 is investigated. Results are presented of measurements using the phase Doppler method carried out at middle latitudes in May 1979 and February 1980. Good consistency of the profiles measured for the D and E regions of the ionosphere with those of IRI is not always obtained, even when the correct helio and geophysic conditions of the experiments are given for calculations with IRI.

  17. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Xu, M.

    2014-11-15

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  18. An Astronomical Survey Conducted in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazé, Yaël; Fantaine, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest in and knowledge of astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students (2589 questionnaires), but the results are generally similar in both samples. We evaluated people's interest, main information source and…

  19. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  20. The Demand for Higher Education in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, I.; Nonneman, W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates determinants behind the spectacular higher education enrollment growth in Belgium since 1953, using a demand model that integrates consumption and investment aspects and empirically tests time-series data specifications between 1953 and 1992. Income and foregone earnings are driving enrollments. Income, opportunity costs, and the wage…

  1. Electron cyclon emission imaging of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations (invited)(abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Cima, G.; Deng, B.; Domier, C.W.; Geck, W.R.; Hsia, R.P.; Liang, C.; Jiang, F.; Luhmann, N.C.; Brower, D.; Watts, C.

    1997-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is a powerful diagnostic in a high performance/high magnetic field, magnetic confinement experiment, for a number of reasons. The most important one is probably due to the spatial localization of the ECE source, as opposed to most passive plasma diagnostics which perform line integrated measurements. The novel technique of ECE imaging, made possible by the existence of new arrays of high frequency mixers, fully exploits this property of ECE. A description of the device, an analysis of its characteristics, and a review of its preliminary results on TEXT-U will be given.

  2. The electron density distribution and field profile in underdense magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Etehadi-Abari, M.

    2010-03-15

    In this work propagation of a high frequency electromagnetic wave in underdense plasma in presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. When a constant magnetic field perpendicular to the motion of electrons is applied, then the electrons rotate around the magnetic field lines and generate electromagnetic part in the wake with a nonzero group velocity. By using of the Maxwell equations and nonlinear differential equation for the electric field a direct one-dimensional (1D) procedure for calculating hydrodynamic equations are developed and the electric and magnetic field profiles in the plasma are investigated. It is shown that by using the external (dc) magnetic field in constant laser intensity, the magnetic field profile in plasma deviates from the sinusoidal structure. It is found that the wavelength of electric and magnetic field oscillations increases by increasing the external magnetic field and the density distribution of electrons also increases in comparison to the unmagnetized underdense plasma. We noticed that by the increase in electron temperature in the unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas the electron density distribution ratio deltan/n{sub 0e} increases and the wavelength of electric and magnetic fields increase where in the magnetized system it becomes positive in some regions.

  3. Temporal profile measurements of relativistic electron bunch based on wakefield generation

    DOE PAGES

    Bettoni, S.; Craievich, P.; Lutman, A. A.; Pedrozzi, M.

    2016-02-25

    A complete characterization of the time-resolved longitudinal beam phase space is important to optimize the final performances of an accelerator, and in particular this is crucial for Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities. In this study we propose a novel method to characterize the profile of a relativistic electron bunch by passively streaking the beam using its self-interaction with the transverse wakefield excited by the bunch itself passing off-axis through a dielectric-lined or a corrugated waveguide. Results of a proof-of-principle experiment at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility are discussed.

  4. Temporal profile measurements of relativistic electron bunch based on wakefield generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, S.; Craievich, P.; Lutman, A. A.; Pedrozzi, M.

    2016-02-01

    A complete characterization of the time-resolved longitudinal beam phase space is important to optimize the final performances of an accelerator, and in particular this is crucial for Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities. In this paper we propose a novel method to characterize the profile of a relativistic electron bunch by passively streaking the beam using its self-interaction with the transverse wakefield excited by the bunch itself passing off-axis through a dielectric-lined or a corrugated waveguide. Results of a proof-of-principle experiment at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility are discussed.

  5. Triacylglycerols profiling as a chemical tool to identify mushrooms submitted to gamma or electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-09-15

    In order to define irradiation treatment as a routine conservation methodology, it is imperative to develop chemometric indicators with the ability to distinguish irradiated from unirradiated foodstuffs. Electron spin resonance, photostimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence methods were employed to monitor radiation-induced markers, as well as different chemical compounds produced from the lipidic fraction of different foodstuffs. Apart from these methods, the specificity of triacylglycerol profiles has previously been detected in mushroom species, as has the effect of irradiation treatment in the triacylglycerol profiles of chestnut. Accordingly, the feasibility of using this as a chemometric indicator of irradiated mushrooms was evaluated. In line with the obtained results in literature, the effects of each type of irradiation were significantly different, as can be concluded from the correlations among discriminant functions and variables within each statistical test. Triacylglycerol profiling proved to be a useful tool to detect irradiated mushrooms, independently of the species or irradiation source, especially for doses above 1 kGy.

  6. Electron Bunch Profile Reconstruction in the Few fs Regime using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, R.; Clarke, C.; Delerue, N; Doucas, G; Reichold, A; /Oxford U., JAI

    2012-06-20

    Advanced accelerators for fourth generation light sources based on high brightness linacs or laser-driven wakefield accelerators will operate with intense, highly relativistic electron bunches that are only a few fs long. Diagnostic techniques for the determination of temporal profile of such bunches are required to be non invasive, single shot, economic and with the required resolution in the fs regime. The use of a radiative process such as coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR), is particularly promising with this respect. In this technique the beam is made to radiate a small amount of electromagnetic radiation and the temporal profile is reconstructed from the measured spectral distribution of the radiation. We summarise the advantages of SPR and present the design parameters and preliminary results of the experiments at the FACET facility at SLAC. We also discuss a new approach to the problem of the recovery of the 'missing phase', which is essential for the accurate reconstruction of the temporal bunch profile.

  7. Electron Bunch Profile Diagnostics in the Few FS Regime Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, R.; Clarke, C.; Delerue, N.; Doucas, G.; Pattle, K.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Tovey, R.; /Oxford U.

    2011-12-13

    The rapid developments in the field of laser-driven particle acceleration hold the prospect of intense, highly relativistic electron bunches that are only a few fs long. The determination of the temporal profile of such bunches presents new challenges. The use of a radiative process such as Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR), is particularly promising in this respect. In this technique the beam is made to radiate a small amount of e/m radiation and the temporal profile is reconstructed from the measured spectral distribution of the radiation. We summarise the advantages of SPR and present the design parameters and preliminary results of the experiments at the FACET facility at SLAC. We also discuss a new approach to the problem of the recovery of the 'missing phase', which is essential for the accurate reconstruction of the temporal bunch profile.

  8. Generation and Measurement of Relativistic Electron Bunches Characterized by a Linearly Ramped Current Profile

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.

    2008-05-30

    We report the first successful attempt to generate ultrashort (1-10 ps) relativistic electron bunches characterized by a ramped longitudinal current profile that rises linearly from head to tail and then falls sharply to zero. Bunches with this type of longitudinal shape may be applied to plasma-based accelerator schemes as an optimized drive beam, and to free-electron lasers as a means of reducing asymmetry in microbunching due to slippage. The scheme used to generate the ramped bunches employs an anisochronous dogleg beam line with nonlinear correction elements to compress a beam having an initial positive time-energy chirp. The beam current profile is measured using a deflecting mode cavity, and a pseudoreconstruction of the beam's longitudinal phase space distribution is obtained by using this diagnostic with a residual horizontal dispersion after the dogleg.

  9. Characterization of small thermal structures in RFX-mod electron temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassina, A.; Gobbin, M.; Spagnolo, S.; Franz, P.; Terranova, D.

    2016-05-01

    In the RFX-mod reverse field pinch (RFP) experiment, electron temperature profiles often feature structures and fluctuations at fine scale. The present work aims at characterizing their occurrence and their localization, in particular by linking them to underlying tearing modes magnetic islands. The confinement characteristics are discussed, identifying analogies with respect to high scale T e structures. Finally, high frequency magnetic activity (i.e. microtearing instabilities) is confirmed to be closely correlated to the presence and proximity of temperature gradients.

  10. Radial profile of the electron energy distribution function in RF capacitive gas-discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, M.; Popov, Tsv; Puac, N.; Skoro, N.; Spasic, K.; Malovic, G.; Dias, F. M.; Petrovic, Z. Lj

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports experimental results on low-pressure argon capacitive RF discharge (parallel-plate capacitively-coupled plasma - CCP) under different conditions, namely, gas pressure in the range 3 -r- 30 Pa and RF power in the range 10 - 100 W. The IV characteristics measured were processed by two different second-derivative probe techniques for determination of the plasma parameters and the electron energy distribution function. The radial profiles of the main plasma parameters are presented.

  11. Formation of electron bunches with tailored current profiles using multi-frequency linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Stoltz, P.

    2012-12-21

    Tailoring an electron bunch with specific current profile can provide substantial enhancement of the transformer ratio in beam-driven acceleration methods. We present a method relying on the use of a linac with accelerating sections operating at different frequencies followed by a magnetic bunch compressor. The experimental verfification of the technique in a two-frequency linac is presented. The compatibility of the proposed technique with the formation and acceleration of a drive and witness bunches is numerically demonstrated.

  12. Power Dependence of the Electron Mobility Profile in a Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard H.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-01-01

    The electron mobility profile is estimated in a 4.5 kW commercial Hall thruster as a function of discharge power. Internal measurements of plasma potential and electron temperature are made in the thruster channel with a high-speed translating probe. These measurements are presented for a range of throttling conditions from 150 - 400 V and 0.6 - 4.5 kW. The fluid-based solver, Hall2De, is used in conjunction with these internal plasma parameters to estimate the anomalous collision frequency profile at fixed voltage, 300 V, and three power levels. It is found that the anomalous collision frequency profile does not change significantly upstream of the location of the magnetic field peak but that the extent and magnitude of the anomalous collision frequency downstream of the magnetic peak does change with thruster power. These results are discussed in the context of developing phenomenological models for how the collision frequency profile depends on thruster operating conditions.

  13. The observations of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC ionospheric electron density profiles during 2006-2010 major solar eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, C.; Liu, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    This study examines three-dimensional structures of the ionospheric response using electron density profiles derived from the GPS radio occultation experiment (GOX) on board FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) satellites and global ground-based GPS receivers during solar eclipses of 2006-2010. FS3/C electron density profiles observed before, during, and after the solar eclipses are used to find the induced traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) in the vertical direction. We further apply the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to compute the instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes for every point of the decomposed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) from the F3/C electron density profiles. Meanwhile, total electron contents (TECs) derived from co-located ground-based GPS receivers are employed to obtain associated frequencies of the TIDs in the horizontal direction. Comparisons of the TIDs in the concurrent F3/C electron density profiles and GPS TEC allow us to find characteristics of the induced waves.

  14. Polarization profiles of polyvinylidene fluoride films polarized by a focused electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, D.; Dransfeld, K.; Bihler, E.; Holdik, K.; Eisenmenger, W.

    1989-01-01

    The depth profiles of the polarization in films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as well as in vinylidene-fluoride--trifluoroethylene (VDF-TrFE) copolymer films polarized by a focused electron beam were investigated using the piezoelectrically generated pressure step method. The dominant polarization exhibits a broad maximum inside the film. The position of this maximum depends not only on the energy of the incident electrons but also on the material parameters of the sample. Close to the surface exposed to the electron beam we have in addition observed a small secondary maximum of opposite polarization (amounting to about 1 mC/m/sup 2/). A qualitative model is presented for the poling of films of PVDF and its copolymers with TrFE by focused electron beam accounting for most of the observed features. The application of electron beams for the poling of ferroelectric films allows the production of piezoelectric bimorphs. By using a well-focused electron beam also ferroelectric domains of very small lateral dimensions can be created which could become important for ferroelectric data storage.

  15. Medical murder in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Magelssen, Morten

    2016-09-01

    This article is a response to Raphael Cohen-Almagor's paper entitled 'First do no harm: intentionally shortening lives of patients without their explicit request in Belgium'. His paper deals with very important matters of life and death, however its concept usage is in part misleading. For instance, the fact that medical murder takes place both in Belgium and the Netherlands is missed. Cohen-Almagor calls such acts 'worrying' and considers them to be 'abuse'. However, it remains an open question whether or not there can be such a thing as legitimate murder in a medical context. From the combined perspectives of justice and the duty to end unbearable suffering, there might be. Thus, key arguments for euthanasia are also prominent in an argument for medical murder. PMID:27114470

  16. High-latitude topside ionospheric vertical electron density profile changes in response to large magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter; Fung, Shing F.

    2016-05-01

    Large magnetic-storm-induced changes were detected in high-latitude topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h) in a database of profiles and digital topside ionograms, from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program, that enabled Ne(h) profiles to be obtained in nearly the same region of space before, during, and after a major magnetic storm (Dst < -100 nT). Storms where Ne(h) profiles were available in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere had better coverage of solar wind parameters than storms with available Ne(h) profiles in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during all storms, with enhancements and depletions sometimes near a factor of 10 and 0.1, respectively, but with substantial differences in the responses in the two hemispheres. Large spatial and/or temporal Ne(h) changes were often observed during Dst minimum and during the storm recovery phase. The storm-induced Ne(h) changes were the most pronounced and consistent in the Northern Hemisphere in that large enhancements were observed during winter nighttime and large depletions during winter and spring daytime. The limited available cases suggested that these Northern Hemisphere enhancements increased with increases of the time-shifted solar wind velocity v, magnetic field B, and with more negative values of the B components except for the highest common altitude (1100 km) of the profiles. There was also some evidence suggesting that the Northern Hemisphere depletions were related to changes in the solar wind parameters. Southern Hemisphere storm-induced enhancements and depletions were typically considerably less with depletions observed during summer nighttime conditions and enhancements during summer daytime and fall nighttime conditions.

  17. Validation of COSMIC radio occultation electron density profiles by incoherent scatter radar and ionosonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    Various Radio Occultation space missions have proved successful in addressing a broad range of scientific questions on climate change analysis, operational weather prediction, ionospheric research and space weather forecasting, calibrating other observing systems (e.g., radiosonde and other satellite observations), ionosphere studies (layered structures of the F and E layers and global distribution of the Sporadic Es layers), and Geodesy. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC is a joint Taiwan - US mission that provides a constellation of six micro-satellites. Each satellite carries three atmospheric science payloads: (1) a GPS RO receiver for ionospheric and neutral atmospheric profiling and precision orbit determination; (2) a Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) for monitoring the electron density via nadir radiance measurements along the sub-satellite track; and (3) a Tri-Band Beacon (TBB) transmitter for ionospheric tomography and scintillation studies. So, this mission provides the unprecedented opportunities for global observations of the ionosphere and space weather research. In the given paper we used the measurements provided by IS radar located near Kharkiv, Ukraine (geographic coordinates: 49.6oN, 36.3oE, geomagnetic coordinates: 45.7oN, 117.8oE) for the cases of winter and summer seasons (2007 and 2008) during quiet geomagnetic conditions and compare these ground measured data with the GPS COSMIC radio occultation ionospheric profiles. We also used data provided by Pruhonice ionosonde, that located at same latitude with Kharkiv ISR and Juliusruch ionosonde located at same longitude with Pruhonice ionosonde. The comparison of RO indicates that usually COSMIC RO profiles are in a good agreement with IS radar's profiles both in the F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) and the bottom side part of the profiles and a good agreement with ionosonde profiles below the F2 layer peak. The coincidence of profiles is better in the cases when projection of the ray path of tangent

  18. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B. B.; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T. A.

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  19. High-resolution electron density profiles reveal influence of fatty acids on bilayer structure.

    PubMed Central

    Katsaras, J; Stinson, R H

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray diffraction studies were performed on gel phase-oriented bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DPPC containing 40 mol% of either palmitic acid (PA) or palmitic acid brominated at the 2-position (BPA). Oriented samples were prepared using a method developed by us, which is as simple as powder sample preparations while offering all the advantages of oriented samples made by traditional methods. Phases were determined using swelling experiments with structure factors plotted in reciprocal space, creating a relatively smooth curve as the amount of water between the bilayers was changed. Continuous Fourier transforms were also calculated to further test the consistency of the phase assignments. The diffraction data were used to calculate absolute electron density profiles for different bilayers to a resolution of 5-6 A. Analysis indicates the following: (a) The electron density profiles for the three preparations are virtually identical in the hydrocarbon chain region. (b) There is a decrease in the electron density of the glycerol backbone-headgroup region and d-space in DPPC-PA compared to DPPC. (c) The bromine of fatty-acid brominated at the 2-position is in the vicinity of the glycerol backbone. (d) The bilayer thickness of DPPC containing either brominated or unbrominated fatty acid remains relatively constant with increased levels of hydration, unlike DPPC bilayers. PMID:2306509

  20. The sensitivity of H alpha profiles to rapid electron beam fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.; Gayley, Kenneth G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to understand the temporal relationship between H alpha and hard X-ray emission predicted by the nonthermal electron thick target model of impulsive-phase energy transport the time-dependent theoretical H alpha profiles were computed for the dynamic model atmospheres of Fisher, Canfield, and McClymont, which simulate the effects of an impulsively initiated power-law beam of electrons. On the basis of the physical analysis it was expected that a very rapid H alpha response to an instantaneous increase in the flux of a nonthermal deka-keV electron beam, as compared to the timescale associated with the propagation of these electrons over characteristic flare coronal loop spatial scales. It was concluded that observational efforts to test the thick target nonthermal electron model through detection of impulsive H alpha brightenings associated with impulsive hard X-ray or microwave bursts should initially focus attention on the H alpha line center. Additional simultaneous blue-wing measurements will have substantial diagnostic potential.

  1. Public Health Triangulation to inform decision-making in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, N; Van Casteren, V; Goderis, G; Wens, J; Moreels, S; Vanthomme, K; De Clercq, E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a nation-wide ambulatory care complex intervention (the "care trajectory program") on quality of care in Belgium. We used the three-step public health triangulation method described in this paper and data from four different data sources: a national reimbursement database, an electronic patient record-based general practitioner network, the Belgian general practitioner sentinel network, and a new national registry for care trajectory patients. By applying our method and using the available evidence, we identified key findings that have been accepted by experts and stakeholders. We also produced timely recommendations for the decision-making process, four years after the start of the care trajectory program.

  2. SU-E-T-149: Electron Beam Profile Differences Between Elekta MLCi2 and Elekta Agility Treatment Heads

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C; Hatcher, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To report and investigate observed differences in electron beam profiles at various energies/applicators between Elekta MLCi2 and Agility treatment head on Elekta Infinity LINAC Methods: When we upgraded from MLCi2 to Agility on one of our Elekta Infinity LINAC's, electron beam PDDs and profiles were acquired for comparison purpose. All clinical electron energies (6/9/12/15/12/18 MeV) and electron applicators (6/10/14/20/25 square) were included in measurement. PDDs were acquired at 100 SSD in water (PTW MP3 water tank) with a plane-parallel ion chamber (PTW Roos). X and Y Profiles were acquired using IC Profiler (Sun Nuclear Corp.) at 1cm and maximum PDD depths (water equivalent). Results: All PDD curves match very well between MLCi2 and Agility treatment head. However, some significant differences on electron profiles were found. On Agility, even after increasing the default auto-tracking offset values for backup diaphragms in Y and MLC in X by 2.8 cm (the maximum allowed change is 3.0 cm), electron profiles still have rounder shoulders comparing to corresponding MLCi2 profiles. This difference is significantly more pronounced at larger applicators (20 and 25 square), for all electron energies. Conclusion: The significant design change between MLCi2 and Agility beam limiting device seems to affect exit electron beam profiles. In IEC1217 X direction, the main change on Agility is the removal of the original MLCi2 X backup diaphragms and replacing it with MLC leaves; In Y direction, the main change is the radius and materials on Y backup diaphragms.

  3. Rocket Measurement of a Daytime Electron Density Profile up to 620 Kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. E.; Bauer, S. J.

    1961-01-01

    On April 27, 1961 at 1502 EST a four-stage research rocket was fired from Wallops Island, Virginia, to measure the ionospheric electron density distribution by means of Seddon's CW propagation technique. This experimental technique is based upon the dispersive Doppler effect measured at two harmonically related frequencies, in this case f = 12.267 Mc and 6f = 73.6 Mc. The electron density profile measured above the peak of the F2 region is representative of a diffusive-equilibrium distribution in an isothermal ionosphere having a temperature of 1640 deg +/- 90 deg K. This result, when compared with satellite and other data, indicates that the upper ionosphere is in thermodynamic equilibrium.

  4. Nighttime E-region Electron Density Profiles Measured During the EQUIS II Campaign at Kwajalein Atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Fourre, R.; Kudeki, E.; Steigies, C. T.; Chau, K.; Sarango, M.

    2005-05-01

    The EQUIS II nighttime E-region rocket and radar measurements were made in order to improve our understanding of the electrodynamics associated with density gradients, neutral wind shear, and enhanced electric fields that develop post-sunset in the near-equatorial region. Four rocket experiments were launched on two separate nights in September, 2004 from Kwajalein Atoll (9.4° N, 167.5° E), while simultaneous E-region radar observations were made with the ALTAIR radar. The focus of this presentation are the electron density profiles measured by two instrumented rockets as they passed through the unstable region on the upleg and downleg. Each rocket used two Langmuir probes and an impedance probe of a new design to measure both the absolute electron density and small-scale density fluctuations with spatial scales on the order of one meter. The impedance probe returned measurements from 7 kHz to 4 MHz, using a new design that excited the plasma using a pseudo-white-noise generator, allowing for an altitude resolution of approximately 40 meters. These impedance curves allow determination of the electron density from the identification of the upper hybrid frequency. In addition, evidence is presented that the impedance probe observed the lower-frequency "series" resonance which is dependent on the electron temperature. Data from the Langmuir probes, a beacon experiment, and the impedance probe are compared and the resulting density profiles are examined to estimate their contribution to the observed electric field irregularities via the gradient-drift and other instabilities.

  5. Variable magnification dual lens electron holography for semiconductor junction profiling and strain mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Li, J; Domenicucci, A; Bruley, J

    2013-01-01

    Dual lens operation for electron holography, which was developed previously (Wang et al., Ultramicroscopy 101 (2004) 63-72; US patent: 7,015,469 B2 (2006)), is re-investigated for bright field (junction profiling) and dark field (strain mapping) electron holography using FEI instrumentation (i.e. F20 and Titan). It is found that dual lens operation provides a wide operational range for electron holography. In addition, the dark field image tilt increases at high objective lens current to include Si <004> diffraction spot. Under the condition of high spatial resolution (1 nm fringe spacing), a large field of view (450 nm), and high fringe contrast (26%) with dual lens operation, a junction map is obtained and strain maps of Si device on <220> and <004> diffraction are acquired. In this paper, a fringe quality number, N', which is number of fringe times fringe contrast, is proposed to estimate the quality of an electron hologram and mathematical reasoning for the N' number is provided.

  6. Estimates of the Electron Density Profile on LTX Using FMCW Reflectometry and mm-Wave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, W. A.; Kubota, S.; Nguyen, X. V.; Holoman, T.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Labrie, D.; Schmitt, J. C.; Majeski, R.

    2014-10-01

    An FMCW (frequency-modulated continuous-wave) reflectometer has been installed on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) for electron density profile and fluctuation measurements. This diagnostic consists of two channels using bistatic antennas with a combined frequency coverage of 13.5 -33 GHz, which corresponds to electron density measurements in the range of 0 . 2 - 1 . 3 ×1013 cm-3 (in O-mode). Initial measurements will utilize O-mode polarization, which will require modeling of the plasma edge. Reflections from the center stack (delayometry above the peak cutoff frequency), as well as line density measurements from a 296 GHz interferometer (single-chord, radial midplane), will provide constraints for the profile reconstruction/estimate. Typical chord-averaged line densities on LTX range from 2 -6 ×1012 cm-3, which correspond to peak densities of 0 . 6 - 1 . 8 ×1013 cm-3 assuming a parabolic shape. If available, EFIT/LRDFIT results will provide additional constraints, as well as the possibility of utilizing data from measurements with X-mode or dual-mode (simultaneous O- and X-mode) polarization. Supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54527 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Brookman, M. W. Austin, M. E.; Petty, C. C.

    2015-12-10

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T{sub e} measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D.

  8. The direct determination of magnetic domain wall profiles by differential phase contrast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J N; Batson, P E; Waddell, E M; Ferrier, R P

    1978-01-01

    A new technique for the quantitative investigation of magnetic structures in ferromagnetic thin films is proposed. Unlike previous techniques the detected signal is simply related to the magnetic induction in the film, and as such the direct determination of domain wall profiles is possible. The technique utilizes a differential phase contrast mode of scanning transmission electron microscopy in which the normal bright field detector is replaced by a split-detector lying symmetrically about the optic axis of the system. The difference signal from the two halves of the detector provides the required magnetic information. Analysis of the image formation mechanism shows that, using a commercially available scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun, wall profiles should be obtainable directly from most structures of interest in Lorentz microscopy. Furthermore, signal-to-noise considerations indicate that these results can be obtained in acceptably short recording times. Finally, experimental results using both polycrystalline and single crystal specimens are presented, which confirm the theoretical predictions. PMID:358526

  9. Electron temperature profile invariance on OH, L- and H-mode plasmas and consequences for the anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1992-01-01

    The shapes of the electron temperature and electron density profiles in the OH, L- and H-mode confinement regimes of ASDEX are explored by statistical analysis. It is shown that the shape of Te(r) is conserved in the outer half of the plasma in these regimes and that it is invariant with respect to heating power, heating profile, density, density scale length, q value and ion mass. These results suggest that microturbulence constrains the shape of the temperature profile by adjusting the electron heat diffusivity χe(r). No such invariance is found for the temperature profile in the inner half of the plasma and for the density profile over the whole cross-section. Properties of the empirical electron heat diffusivity and the diffusion coefficient in different regimes can be described by Te profile invariance. The improved confinement with peaked density profiles, the reduction of χe in the bulk of H-mode plasmas and the power dependence of χe in the L-regime are discussed

  10. Bovine tuberculosis surveillance alternatives in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Welby, S; Govaerts, M; Vanholme, L; Hooyberghs, J; Mennens, K; Maes, L; Van Der Stede, Y

    2012-09-15

    Belgium obtained the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) officially free status in 2003 (EC Decision 2003/467/EC). This study was carried out to evaluate the components of the current bTB surveillance program in Belgium and to determine the sensitivity of this program. Secondly, alternatives to optimize the bTB surveillance in accordance with European legislation (Council Directive 64/432/EEC) were evaluated. Separate scenario trees were designed for each active surveillance component of the bTB surveillance program. Data from 2005 to 2009 regarding cattle population, movement and surveillance were collected to feed the stochastic scenario tree simulation model. A total of 7,403,826 cattle movement history records were obtained for the 2,678,020 cattle from 36,059 cattle herds still active in 2009. The current surveillance program sensitivity as well as the impact of alternative surveillance protocols was simulated in a stochastic model using 10,000 iterations per simulation. The median (50% percentile) of the component sensitivities across 10,000 iterations was 0.83, 0.85, 0.99, 0.99, respectively, for (i) testing the cattle only during the winter screening, (ii) testing only imported cattle, (iii) testing only purchased cattle and (iv) testing only all slaughtered cattle. The sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input parameter explaining the variability around the output came from the uncertainty distribution around the sensitivity of the diagnostic tests used within the bTB surveillance. Providing all animals are inspected and post mortem inspection is highly sensitive, slaughterhouse surveillance was the most effective surveillance component. If these conditions were not met, the uncertainty around the mean sensitivity of this component was important. Using an antibody ELISA at purchase and an interferon gamma test during winter screening and at import would increase greatly the sensitivity and the confidence level of Belgium's freedom from b

  11. The future of intercultural mediation in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Nierkens, Vera; Krumeich, Anja; de Ridder, Ri; van Dongen, Martien

    2002-04-01

    Intercultural mediation was developed to solve problems between western (Belgian) health professionals and Turkish, Moroccan and Italian clients. The need for intercultural mediation in Belgium Health Care was measured by asking intercultural mediators to complete a questionnaire about situations in which language, culture, social-economic and personal circumstances cause difficulties. Results show that the profession 'intercultural mediator' continues to be important in improving the quality and accessibility of the Belgian health care for ethnic minorities. Even if clients speak Flemish fluently, there are still difficulties between health professional and client caused by culture, social-economic and personal circumstances. PMID:11932124

  12. [Euthanasia and general practice in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Thomas, J M

    2014-09-01

    In Belgium, the GP can perform euthanasia or be called as a consultant. He must know the laws concerning the end of life and be able to explain his rights to his patients. He will know the best practices and techniques for euthanasia. If necessary, he will call help or refer to a more competent colleague. He negotiates with the patient an advanced care planning following the evolution of its pathologies and will witness its wishes regarding end of life against other institutions and doctors.

  13. Radial Profiles of Plasma Electron Characteristics in a Low-Power Arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Codron, Douglas; Nawaz, Anuscheh

    2013-01-01

    Since 1960, the Arc Jet Complex at NASA Ames Research Center has been a source of long-duration, high-enthalpy flow for materials testing with application to the thermal protection of aerospace vehicle components. From their inception the facilities have played an integral role supporting many of NASA's space flight programs and numerous DoD projects. In recent years advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFO) have made the resultant models a valuable tool for assessing and predicting performance, however, the inherent limitation of models to compensate for a dissociated, transitionally high temperature nonequilibrated flowfield have made further measurements necessary. The use of electrostatic probe diagnostics within similarly harsh plasma environments in previous studies have been met with much success. In this study, the use of a single Langmuir probe was implemented to characterize the plasma parameters of interest as they vary radially within a large volume of the plume. Classical Langmuir probe theory was applied to achieve first order estimates of the heavy particle temperature, the ratio T(sub i)/T(sub e), and the ionization fraction. As expected, both the electron temperature and electron density measurements show a dependence on radial distance from the plume centerline, with electron density profiles showing the largest dependence. This paper aims to validate and strengthen modeling work conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center by measuring the critical plasma parameters (electron temperature, electron density, and plasma potential) within the arc plume of a subscale arc jet. These parameters are intended to give physical insight into the flow characteristics while providing the necessary boundary conditions to validate full scale simulations.

  14. Tailored electron bunches with smooth current profiles for enhanced transformer ratios in beam-driven acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemery, F.; Piot, P.

    2015-08-01

    Collinear high-gradient O (GV /m ) beam-driven wakefield methods for charged-particle acceleration could be critical to the realization of compact, cost-efficient, accelerators, e.g., in support of TeV-scale lepton colliders or multiple-user free-electron laser facilities. To make these options viable, the high accelerating fields need to be complemented with large transformer ratios >2 , a parameter characterizing the efficiency of the energy transfer between a wakefield-exciting "drive" bunch to an accelerated "witness" bunch. While several potential current distributions have been discussed, their practical realization appears challenging due to their often discontinuous nature. In this paper we propose several alternative continuously differentiable (smooth) current profiles which support enhanced transformer ratios. We especially demonstrate that one of the devised shapes can be implemented in a photo-emission electron source by properly shaping the photocathode-laser pulse. We finally discuss a possible superconducting linear-accelerator concept that could produce shaped drive bunches at high-repetition rates to drive a dielectric-wakefield accelerator with accelerating fields on the order of ˜60 MV /m and a transformer ratio ˜5 consistent with a recently proposed multiuser free-electron laser facility.

  15. Longitudinal Profile Diagnostic Scheme with Subfemtosecond Resolution for High-Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Andonian, G.; Hemsing, E.; Xiang, D.; Musumeci, P.; Murokh, A.; Tochitsky, S.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; /UCLA

    2012-05-03

    High-resolution measurement of the longitudinal profile of a relativistic electron beam is of utmost importance for linac based free-electron lasers and other advanced accelerator facilities that employ ultrashort bunches. In this paper, we investigate a novel scheme to measure ultrashort bunches (subpicosecond) with exceptional temporal resolution (hundreds of attoseconds) and dynamic range. The scheme employs two orthogonally oriented deflecting sections. The first imparts a short-wavelength (fast temporal resolution) horizontal angular modulation on the beam, while the second imparts a long-wavelength (slow) angular kick in the vertical dimension. Both modulations are observable on a standard downstream screen in the form of a streaked sinusoidal beam structure. We demonstrate, using scaled variables in a quasi-1D approximation, an expression for the temporal resolution of the scheme and apply it to a proof-of-concept experiment at the UCLA Neptune high-brightness injector facility. The scheme is also investigated for application at the SLAC NLCTA facility, where we show that the subfemtosecond resolution is sufficient to resolve the temporal structure of the beam used in the echo-enabled free-electron laser. We employ beam simulations to verify the effect for typical Neptune and NLCTA parameter sets and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept.

  16. Spatial dependences among precipitation maxima over Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannitsem, S.; Naveau, P.

    2007-09-01

    For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT) has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID) events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV) at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space. Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter) and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.). Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days) strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km) for summer (winter) for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.

  17. [Penicillin in Belgium 1945-1952].

    PubMed

    Billiau, A

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin, discovered now eighty years ago (1929) by Alexander Fleming in London, was developed during the world war II into a revolutionizing drug by Howard Florey and Michael Chain in Oxford. At first, industrial production of penicillin was exclusively in the hands of a consortium of large U.S. pharmaceutical companies. However, the war being ended, European entrepreneurs likewise ventured to set up penicillin production units. Amongst them, in Belgium, was Jacques Lannoye, director and co-owner of 'Papeteries de Genval' and of a modest pharmaceutical company, called 'Soprolac'. Through his connections with several medical faculty professors of the Catholic University of Leuven, Lannoye came in touch with Piet De Somer, then a young researcher at the Leuven 'Institute of Bacteriology', with an interest in production of penicillin. A years-long collaboration followed, from which emerged a booming antibiotic and vaccine factory, 'RIT' (Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutiques) in Genval, as well an industry-supported research laboratory, the later Rega Institute, at the University of Leuven. From 1947 to 1952, while coping with the practical problems of setting up large-scale production of penicillin, De Somer maintained a lively correspondence with some other players in the field, sharing with them the ups and downs of the enterprise. Fortunately these letters have been preserved in the archives of the Rega Institute, such that they allow for a reconstruction of this interesting episode in the medical history of Belgium. PMID:20084833

  18. The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Describes language border fluctuations in Belgium as far as its Dutch-French portion is concerned. Examines the status and function of the language border in Belgium and of actual border fluctuations. Discusses two problem areas in detail: the "Voerstreek, and the Brussels suburban region. Language shift and language change through erosion in…

  19. Target design optimization for an electron accelerator driven subcritical facility with circular and square beam profiles.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, M. Y. A; Sofu, T.; Zhong, Z.; Belch, H.; Naberezhnev, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-30

    A subcritical facility driven by an electron accelerator is planned at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) in Ukraine for medical isotope production, materials research, training, and education. The conceptual design of the facility is being pursued through collaborations between ANL and KIPT. As part of the design effort, the high-fidelity analyses of various target options are performed with formulations to reflect the realistic configuration and the three dimensional geometry of each design. This report summarizes the results of target design optimization studies for electron beams with two different beam profiles. The target design optimization is performed via the sequential neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and structural analyses for a comprehensive assessment of each configuration. First, a target CAD model is developed with proper emphasis on manufacturability to provide a basis for separate but consistent models for subsequent neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and structural analyses. The optimizations are pursued for maximizing the neutron yield, streamlining the flow field to avoid hotspots, and minimizing the thermal stresses to increase the durability. In addition to general geometric modifications, the inlet/outlet channel configurations, target plate partitioning schemes, flow manipulations and rates, electron beam diameter/width options, and cladding material choices are included in the design optimizations. The electron beam interactions with the target assembly and the neutronic response of the subcritical facility are evaluated using the MCNPX code. the results for the electron beam energy deposition, neutron generation, and utilization in the subcritical pile are then used to characterize the axisymmetric heat generation profiles in the target assembly with explicit simulations of the beam tube, the coolant, the clad, and the target materials. Both tungsten and uranium are considered as target materials. Neutron spectra from tungsten

  20. Fast Thermal Helium Beam diagnostic for measurements of edge electron profiles and fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, M. Scarin, P.; Cavazzana, R.; Carraro, L.; Grando, L.; Taliercio, C.; Franchin, L.; Tiso, A.

    2015-12-15

    The edge of fusion experiments is a region where strong gradients develop, together with the presence of strong fluctuations due to turbulence. The thermal helium beam diagnostic developed for the RFX-mod experiment allows the measurements with a single diagnostic of both low frequency time evolution of the edge radial profiles of electron density and temperature (tens of hertz), and the high frequency fluctuations (hundreds of kHz). To maximize the collected light, the three HeI lines necessary to be measured for the evaluation of n{sub e} and T{sub e} are separated with a spectrograph, and multianode photomultipliers are used as light detectors. The paper describes the diagnostic setup, with the interface hardware with the machine and the optical layout, and the characterization of its performances.

  1. Fast Thermal Helium Beam diagnostic for measurements of edge electron profiles and fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Agostini, M; Scarin, P; Cavazzana, R; Carraro, L; Grando, L; Taliercio, C; Franchin, L; Tiso, A

    2015-12-01

    The edge of fusion experiments is a region where strong gradients develop, together with the presence of strong fluctuations due to turbulence. The thermal helium beam diagnostic developed for the RFX-mod experiment allows the measurements with a single diagnostic of both low frequency time evolution of the edge radial profiles of electron density and temperature (tens of hertz), and the high frequency fluctuations (hundreds of kHz). To maximize the collected light, the three HeI lines necessary to be measured for the evaluation of n(e) and T(e) are separated with a spectrograph, and multianode photomultipliers are used as light detectors. The paper describes the diagnostic setup, with the interface hardware with the machine and the optical layout, and the characterization of its performances. PMID:26724033

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigation of a Sample Depth Profile Through the Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toporski, Jan; Steele, Andrew; Westall, Frances; McKay, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The ongoing scientific debate as to whether or not the Martian meteorite ALH84001 contained evidence of possible biogenic activities showed the need to establish consistent methods to ascertain the origin of such evidence. To distinguish between terrestrial organic material/microbial contaminants and possible indigenous microbiota within meteorites is therefore crucial. With this in mind a depth profile consisting of four samples from a new sample allocation of Martian meteorite Nakhla was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. SEM imaging of freshly broken fractured chips revealed structures strongly recent terrestrial microorganisms, in some cases showing evidence of active growth. This conclusion was supported by EDX analysis, which showed the presence of carbon associated with these structures, we concluded that these structures represent recent terrestrial contaminants rather than structures indigenous to the meteorite. Page

  3. Electronic Properties of ZnO: Band Structure and Directional Compton Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Dhaka, M. S.; Kothari, R. K.; Joshi, K. B.; Sharma, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    The electronic band structure and directional Compton profiles (DCPs) of ZnO are studied in this work. Calculations are performed considering a set of three schemes based on density functional theory (DFT), the Hartree-Fock (HF) method, and a hybrid scheme. All band structures predict direct bandgaps. The best agreement with experiment is, however, shown by the hybrid scheme. The three schemes are also applied to compute DCPs along [100], [110], and [001] directions. These are compared with measurements made on single crystals of ZnO employing a 59.54 keV gamma-ray Compton spectrometer. Calculations overestimate the momentum density in the low-momentum region while underestimate the anisotropies. Positions of extremes in anisotropies deduced from calculations are well reproduced by the measured anisotropies in some cases. Within the experimental limits, the DCPs from the HF method are in better agreement with the measurements compared with DFT.

  4. Compton profiles and electronic structure of monoclinic zinc and cadmium tungstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, B. S.; Heda, N. L.; Mund, H. S.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    We report the first ever Compton scattering study of ZnWO4 and CdWO4 using 20 Ci 137Cs Compton spectrometer at momentum resolution of 0.34 a.u. To compare the experimental Compton profiles, we have also deduced the momentum densities using density functional theory (DFT) within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) methods. It is seen that the experimental Compton profiles of both the tungstates give a better agreement with LCAO-DFT calculations within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) employing Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation energies than other approximations included in the present work. Further, energy bands, density of states (DOS) and band gaps have also been calculated using LCAO-DFT-GGA-PBE scheme and full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. Both the computational schemes show a semiconducting nature of both the tungstates, with a direct band gap at Y point of Brillouin zone. Further, a relative nature of bonding on equal-valence-electron-density scale shows more covalent character in ZnWO4 than CdWO4 which reconciles with the conclusions drawn using integrated DOS and Mulliken's population data.

  5. Intial characterization fo a commerical electron gun for profiling high intensity proton beams in Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thangaraj, J.C.T.; Zhang, D.; Blokland, W.; /Oak Ridge

    2011-03-01

    Measuring the profile of a high-intensity proton beam is problematic in that traditional invasive techniques such as flying wires don't survive the encounter with the beam. One alternative is the use of an electron beam as a probe of the charge distribution in the proton beam as was done at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL. Here we present an initial characterization of the beam from a commercial electron gun from Kimball Physics, intended for use in the Fermilab Main Injector for Project X. Despite the fact that the horizontal spot size is abnormally large in the high current measurement, the spot size at the downstream cross X2 is reasonable in the context of measuring the deflection. A thin foil OTR would help with the beam heating and should be tried. The next phase of this experiment is to simulate the proton beam with a pair of current carrying wires and to design and construct a fast deflector. Some of the remaining issues to be considered include determining the minimum beam current needed to observe the deflected beam for a given sweep time and the impact of longitudinal variations in the charge density of the bunch.

  6. Reconstruction of the vertical electron density profile based on vertical TEC using the simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Yang, Guobin; Zhu, Peng; Nishioka, Michi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Zhou, Chen; Song, Huan; Lan, Ting; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yuannong

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to reconstruct the vertical electron density profile based on vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) using the simulated annealing algorithm. The present technique used the Quasi-parabolic segments (QPS) to model the bottomside ionosphere. The initial parameters of the ionosphere model were determined from both International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza et al., 2014) and vertical TEC (vTEC). Then, the simulated annealing algorithm was used to search the best-fit parameters of the ionosphere model by comparing with the GPS-TEC. The performance and robust of this technique were verified by ionosonde data. The critical frequency (foF2) and peak height (hmF2) of the F2 layer obtained from ionograms recorded at different locations and on different days were compared with those calculated by the proposed method. The analysis of results shows that the present method is inspiring for obtaining foF2 from vTEC. However, the accuracy of hmF2 needs to be improved in the future work.

  7. Ionospheric specification with analytical profilers: Evidences of non-Chapman electron density distribution in the upper ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, T.; Stankov, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    In relation to the development of an operational ionospheric monitoring and imaging system, the most frequently used analytical ionospheric profilers (Chapman, Epstein, Exponential) were investigated in terms of suitability for topside ionosphere modelling. For the purpose, topside sounder measurements onboard Alouette and ISIS satellites have been analysed. We have come to the conclusion that the use of the Chapman profiler should be exercised with precaution as there are evidences that there are conditions when other profilers are better fit for modelling purposes. This is highlighted during ionospheric disturbances (e.g. during geomagnetic storms), when the shape of the topside electron density distribution might be better described by an Epstein profiler rather than a Chapman profiler.

  8. Feminism and the health movement in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Segers, A; Chartier, D; Filosof, F; Osteaux, M

    1984-04-01

    Feminism in Belgium is characterized by its openness and its flexibility. The feminist movement is characterized by; 1) the existence of groups which think about the theory of feminism, encompassing the entire sphere of action of women and concerning itself with private matters and politics; and 2) the existence of action groups which specialize in certain areas. Health has become a matter of great concern for these groups, and one reason for this is the urgent need to put a stop to the scandal of illicit abortion, and the family planning situation in Belgium. It was not until 1973 that information on contraceptive use was permitted. Illicit abortions are still performed, and only women from well-to-do backgrounds have access to "tourist abortion" and can have abortions in England and Holland. The legislative text states that abortion remains an offense against the family and until 1983 the law only allowed certain therapeutic abortions. The women who join the feminist movement are usually professional middle-class women and those of the left and extreme left. These women helped to establish the Groupe d'Action des Centres Extra-Hospitaliers Praiquant des Avortements, an organization of non-hosppital centers that provide abortion services and which provide women with full information on contraception, emphasizing that the decision must be made by the woman herself. Good medial and psychological conditions are provided as well as postabortion care. At present there are 15 centers in Brussels and Wallonia and 2 Flemish centers have recently opened. The centers use a system of payment by the hour or on the basis of fixed fees. The feminist movement has also helped to open up the medical profession to women, opened up hospital services sensitive to feminist ideas, and fought resistence to change among the medical hierarchy, that remains predominantly male. PMID:12178363

  9. Untangling the contributions of image charge and laser profile for optimal photoemission of high-brightness electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Portman, J.; Zhang, H.; Makino, K.; Ruan, C. Y.; Berz, M.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2014-11-07

    Using our model for the simulation of photoemission of high brightness electron beams, we investigate the virtual cathode physics and the limits to spatio-temporal and spectroscopic resolution originating from the image charge on the surface and from the profile of the exciting laser pulse. By contrasting the effect of varying surface properties (leading to expanding or pinned image charge), laser profiles (Gaussian, uniform, and elliptical), and aspect ratios (pancake- and cigar-like) under different extraction field strengths and numbers of generated electrons, we quantify the effect of these experimental parameters on macroscopic pulse properties such as emittance, brightness (4D and 6D), coherence length, and energy spread. Based on our results, we outline optimal conditions of pulse generation for ultrafast electron microscope systems that take into account constraints on the number of generated electrons and on the required time resolution.

  10. Comparison of the Ionospheric Electron Density Profiles Obtained by COSMIC Radio Occultation with Ground-based Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Shagimuratov, I.; Krankowski, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Radio Occultation technique using GPS signals has been proven to be a promising technique to retrieve accurate profiles of the ionospheric electron density with high vertical resolution on a global scale. Formosat-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) is a joint scientific mission between Taiwan and the U.S.A. The mission placed six small micro-satellites into six different orbits at 700~800 kilometer above the earth surface. Each microsatellite has a GPS Occultation Experiment payload to operate the ionospheric radio occultation (RO). With the ability of performing both rising and setting occultation, Formosat-3/COSMIC has been producing about 2000 profiles of the ionospheric electron density per day - much more than ever before. In the given paper we used the ionograms recorded by European ionosonde stations for the cases of winter and summer solstices and time of quiet and geomagnetically disturbed days in March 2008 and compare these ground measured data with the GPS COSMIC radio occultation ionospheric profiles. This result is important to validate the reliability of the COSMIC ionospheric observations using the radio occultation technique. The comparison of RO data with measurements provided by European ionosondes (Pruhonice, Iuliusruh, Ebre, Rome) indicates that usually COSMIC RO profiles are in a good agreement with ionosonde's profiles both in the F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) and the bottom side part of the profiles. The coincidence of profiles is better in the cases when projection of the ray path of tangent points is closer to the ionosonde location. But it is necessary to mention that practically for all analyzed cases there are observed the understated values of electron density in the topside part of the ionosonde's profiles in compare with RO profiles. As the topside ionosonde profile is obtained by fitting a model to the peak electron density value, the COSMIC radio occultation measurements

  11. On the possible use of radio occultation middle latitude electron density profiles to retrieve thermospheric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Andrei V.; Belehaki, Anna; Perrone, Loredanna; Zolesi, Bruno; Tsagouri, Ioanna

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates possible use of middle latitude daytime COSMIC and CHAMP ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) electron density profiles (EDPs) to retrieve thermospheric parameters, based on the Mikhailov et al. (2012) method. The aim of this investigation is to assess the applicability of this type of observations for the routine implementation of the method. According to the results extracted from the analysis presented here, about half of COSMIC IRO EDP observed under solar minimum (2007-2008) conditions gave neutral gas density with an inaccuracy close to the declared absolute inaccuracy ±(10-15)% of CHAMP observations, with the results being better than the empirical models JB-2008 and MSISE-00 provide. For the other half of IRO EDP, either the solution provided by the method had to be rejected due to insufficient accuracy or no solution could be obtained. For these cases, the parameters foF2 and hmF2 extracted from the corresponding IRO profiles have been found to be inconsistent with the classic mid-latitude daytime F2-layer formalism that the method relies on, and they are incompatible with the general trend provided by the IRI model. For solar maximum conditions (2002) the method was tested with IRO EDP from CHAMP and it is indicated that its performance is quite stable in the sense that a solution could be obtained for all the cases analyzed here. However available CHAMP EDP are confined by ~ 400 km in altitude and this might be the reason for the 20% bias of the retrieved densities toward larger values in respect to the observed densities. IRO observations up to 600 km under solar maximum are required to confirm the exact performance of the method.

  12. In vitro and in vivo degradation profile of aliphatic polyesters subjected to electron beam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Dånmark, S; Finne-Wistrand, A; Schander, K; Hakkarainen, M; Arvidson, K; Mustafa, K; Albertsson, A-C

    2011-05-01

    Degradation characteristics in response to electron beam sterilization of designed and biodegradable aliphatic polyester scaffolds are relevant for clinically successful synthetic graft tissue regeneration. Scaffold degradation in vitro and in vivo were documented and correlated to the macroscopic structure and chemical design of the original polymer. The materials tested were of inherently diverse hydrophobicity and crystallinity: poly(L-lactide) (poly(LLA)) and random copolymers from L-lactide and ε-caprolactone or 1,5-dioxepan-2-one, fabricated into porous and non-porous scaffolds. After sterilization, the samples underwent hydrolysis in vitro for up to a year. In vivo, scaffolds were surgically implanted into rat calvarial defects and retrieved for analysis after 28 and 91days. In vitro, poly(L-lactide-co-1,5-dioxepan-2-one) (poly(LLA-co-DXO)) samples degraded most rapidly during hydrolysis, due to the pronounced chain-shortening reaction caused by the sterilization. This was indicated by the rapid decrease in both mass and molecular weight of poly(LLA-co-DXO). Poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) samples were also strongly affected by sterilization, but mass loss was more gradual; molecular weight decreased rapidly during hydrolysis. Least affected by sterilization were the poly(LLA) samples, which subsequently showed low mass loss rate and molecular weight decrease during hydrolysis. Mechanical stability varied greatly: poly(LLA-co-CL) withstood mechanical testing for up to 182 days, while poly(LLA) and poly(LLA-co-DXO) samples quickly became too brittle. Poly(LLA-co-DXO) samples unexpectedly degraded more rapidly in vitro than in vivo. After sterilization by electron beam irradiation, the three biodegradable polymers present widely diverse degradation profiles, both in vitro and in vivo. Each exhibits the potential to be tailored to meet diverse clinical tissue engineering requirements. PMID:21316490

  13. In vitro and in vivo degradation profile of aliphatic polyesters subjected to electron beam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Dånmark, S; Finne-Wistrand, A; Schander, K; Hakkarainen, M; Arvidson, K; Mustafa, K; Albertsson, A-C

    2011-05-01

    Degradation characteristics in response to electron beam sterilization of designed and biodegradable aliphatic polyester scaffolds are relevant for clinically successful synthetic graft tissue regeneration. Scaffold degradation in vitro and in vivo were documented and correlated to the macroscopic structure and chemical design of the original polymer. The materials tested were of inherently diverse hydrophobicity and crystallinity: poly(L-lactide) (poly(LLA)) and random copolymers from L-lactide and ε-caprolactone or 1,5-dioxepan-2-one, fabricated into porous and non-porous scaffolds. After sterilization, the samples underwent hydrolysis in vitro for up to a year. In vivo, scaffolds were surgically implanted into rat calvarial defects and retrieved for analysis after 28 and 91days. In vitro, poly(L-lactide-co-1,5-dioxepan-2-one) (poly(LLA-co-DXO)) samples degraded most rapidly during hydrolysis, due to the pronounced chain-shortening reaction caused by the sterilization. This was indicated by the rapid decrease in both mass and molecular weight of poly(LLA-co-DXO). Poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) samples were also strongly affected by sterilization, but mass loss was more gradual; molecular weight decreased rapidly during hydrolysis. Least affected by sterilization were the poly(LLA) samples, which subsequently showed low mass loss rate and molecular weight decrease during hydrolysis. Mechanical stability varied greatly: poly(LLA-co-CL) withstood mechanical testing for up to 182 days, while poly(LLA) and poly(LLA-co-DXO) samples quickly became too brittle. Poly(LLA-co-DXO) samples unexpectedly degraded more rapidly in vitro than in vivo. After sterilization by electron beam irradiation, the three biodegradable polymers present widely diverse degradation profiles, both in vitro and in vivo. Each exhibits the potential to be tailored to meet diverse clinical tissue engineering requirements.

  14. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Y; Manabe, T; Kajita, S; Ohno, N; Takagi, M; Tsuchiya, H; Morisaki, T

    2014-09-01

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ~4 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  15. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y. Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M.; Kajita, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.

    2014-09-15

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ∼4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  16. Energy confinement time and electron density profile shape in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Goldston, R.J.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Scott, S.D.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.; Budny, R.; Dylla, H.F.; Grek, B.; Howell, R.B.; Hsuan , H.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schivell, J.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.

    1989-11-01

    The electron density profiles of intense deuterium neutral-beam- heated plasmas (P{sub tot}/P{sub ohm} {gt} 10) are characterized as a peakedness parameter (F{sub ne} = n{sub eo}/{l angle}n{sub e}{r angle}) in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The gross energy confinement time ({tau}{sub E} = E{sub tot}/P{sub tot}) at the time of maximum stored energy is found to be a weak function of the plasma current and total heating power but depends strongly on the peakedness parameter. A regression study showed {tau}{sub E} = 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}F{sub ne}{sup 0.76}I{sub P}{sup 0.18}P{sub tot}{sup {minus}0.12} for a data set of 561 discharges in the TFTR. Also {tau}{sub E} can be represented as {tau}{sub E} = {tau}{sub E}{sup L}f(F{sub ne}), where {tau}{sub E}{sup L} is the empirical L-mode scaling result. A similar scaling applies to an appropriately defined incremental energy confinement time ({tau}{sub inc} = dE{sub tot}/dP{sub tot}{vert bar}{sub F{sub ne} = constant}). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a "Data Profiling" Tool for Electronic Health Data.

    PubMed

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a "data profiling" tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool's functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  18. Attitudes of physicians and pharmacists towards International Non-proprietary Name prescribing in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Elien; Elseviers, Monique; Plovie, Marijke; Vandeputte, Lieselot; Van Bortel, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert

    2015-03-01

    International Non-proprietary Name (INN) prescribing is the use of the name of the active ingredient(s) instead of the brand name for prescribing. In Belgium, INN prescribing began in 2005 and a major policy change occurred in 2012. The aim was to explore the opinions of Dutch-speaking general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists. An electronic questionnaire with 39 five-point Likert scale statements and one open question was administered in 2013. Multivariate analysis was performed with multiple linear regression on a sum score for benefit statements and for drawback statements. Answers to the open question were qualitatively analysed. We received 745 valid responses with a representable sample for both subgroups. Participants perceived the motives to introduce INN prescribing as purely economic (to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures for the government and the patient). Participants accepted the concept of INN prescribing, but 88% stressed the importance of guaranteed treatment continuity, especially in older, chronic patients, to prevent patient confusion, medication non-adherence and erroneous drug use. In conclusion, the current way in which INN prescribing is applied in Belgium leads to many concerns among primary health professionals about patient confusion and medication adherence. Slightly adapting the current concept of INN prescribing to these concerns can turn INN prescribing into one of the major policies in Belgium to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures and to stimulate rational drug prescribing. PMID:25155133

  19. Measurement of a density profile of a hot-electron plasma in RT-1 with three-chord interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Yano, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Nishiura, M.; Morikawa, J.; Kawazura, Y.; Nogami, T.; Yamasaki, M.

    2015-02-15

    The electron density profile of a plasma in a magnetospheric dipole field configuration was measured with a multi-chord interferometry including a relativistic correction. In order to improve the accuracy of density reconstruction, a 75 GHz interferometer was installed at a vertical chord of the Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device in addition to previously installed ones at tangential and another vertical chords. The density profile was calculated by using the data of three-chord interferometry including relativistic effects for a plasma consisting of hot and cold electrons generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH). The results clearly showed the effects of density peaking and magnetic mirror trapping in a strongly inhomogeneous dipole magnetic field.

  20. The State University at Ghent, Belgium, Educates Engineers in Rwanda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Impe, W. F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical development and programs of engineering education at the University of Rwanda in cooperation with a Belgium university. Provides lists of courses for electromechanical and civil engineering programs. (YP)

  1. Magnon, phonon, and electron temperature profiles and the spin Seebeck effect in magnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Michael; Kamra, Akashdeep; Weiler, Mathias; Xiao, Jiang; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2013-09-01

    We calculate the phonon, electron, and magnon temperature profiles in yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers by diffusive theory with appropriate boundary conditions, in particular taking into account interfacial thermal resistances. Our calculations show that in thin film hybrids, the interface magnetic heat conductance qualitatively affects the magnon temperature. Based on published material parameters we assess the degree of nonequilibrium at the yttrium iron garnet/platinum interface. The magnitude of the spin Seebeck effect derived from this approach compares well with experimental results for the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect. Additionally, we address the temperature profiles in the transverse spin Seebeck effect.

  2. Assimilating Electron Density Profiles Measured by the Real Time Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory - GIRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, B. W.; Galkin, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    Operational applications of ionospheric models, whether they are first principles or data-driven models, rely on the accuracy of the models during quiet and disturbed conditions. Of course models can correctly describe ionospheric weather only if they assimilate measured ionospheric characteristics and electron density profiles (EDPs). For the "assimilating model" to make correct predictions, the measurements in turn must be accurate and reliable. Ionosondes provide the most accurate vertical EDPs at the site locations but do not cover all parts of the globe. Ionogram-derived EDPs have become the ground truth reference for ionospheric specification, presenting the unrivaled accuracy of the data on continuous demand for validation of alternative ionospheric techniques, including radio occultation, ultraviolet, and tomography. In recent years the digisonde network of ionosondes has grown to eighty stations and is expected to expand to more than 100 stations in the next couple of years. The new Digisonde-4D is running the Automatic Real Time Ionogram Scaler with True height inversion, ARTIST-5. The ARTIST-5 autoscaling program now calculates the EDPs together with density uncertainty limits at each height, making the data products suitable for ingestion in assimilative ionospheric models. In order to specify uncertainty at each height, two boundary profiles, inner and outer, are determined. The inner and outer boundaries reflect the uncertainties of the critical frequencies of each layer, the internal uncertainty of the starting height of the profile, and the uncertainties of the E valley model representation. The actual uncertainties are calculated from a cumulative difference characteristic representing a mismatch between automatically and manually scaled parameters (i.e., foF2, foF1) for the same ionogram. The cumulative differences are determined from statistical analysis of a large amount of ionograms for a specific station. The characteristics of interest are

  3. Profile and Morphology of Fungal Aerosols Characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM)

    PubMed Central

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Skare, Øivind; Green, Brett James; Tronsmo, Arne; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-01-01

    Fungal aerosols consist of spores and fragments with diverse array of morphologies; however, the size, shape, and origin of the constituents require further characterization. In this study, we characterize the profile of aerosols generated from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum grown for 8 weeks on gypsum boards. Fungal particles were aerosolized at 12 and 20 L min−1 using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) and the Stami particle generator (SPG). Collected particles were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). We observed spore particle fraction consisting of single spores and spore aggregates in four size categories, and a fragment fraction that contained submicronic fragments and three size categories of larger fragments. Single spores dominated the aerosols from A. fumigatus (median: 53%), while the submicronic fragment fraction was the highest in the aerosols collected from A. versicolor (median: 34%) and P. chrysogenum (median: 31%). Morphological characteristics showed near spherical particles that were only single spores, oblong particles that comprise some spore aggregates and fragments (<3.5 μm), and fiber-like particles that regroup chained spore aggregates and fragments (>3.5 μm). Further, the near spherical particles dominated the aerosols from A. fumigatus (median: 53%), while oblong particles were dominant in the aerosols from A. versicolor (68%) and P. chrysogenum (55%). Fiber-like particles represented 21% and 24% of the aerosols from A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum, respectively. This study shows that fungal particles of various size, shape, and origin are aerosolized, and supports the need to include a broader range of particle types in fungal exposure assessment. PMID:26855468

  4. New developments in electron microscopy for serial image acquisition of neuronal profiles.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki

    2015-02-01

    Recent developments in electron microscopy largely automate the continuous acquisition of serial electron micrographs (EMGs), previously achieved by laborious manual serial ultrathin sectioning using an ultramicrotome and ultrastructural image capture process with transmission electron microscopy. The new systems cut thin sections and capture serial EMGs automatically, allowing for acquisition of large data sets in a reasonably short time. The new methods are focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, ultramicrotome/serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, automated tape-collection ultramicrotome/scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope camera array. In this review, their positive and negative aspects are discussed.

  5. New developments in electron microscopy for serial image acquisition of neuronal profiles.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki

    2015-02-01

    Recent developments in electron microscopy largely automate the continuous acquisition of serial electron micrographs (EMGs), previously achieved by laborious manual serial ultrathin sectioning using an ultramicrotome and ultrastructural image capture process with transmission electron microscopy. The new systems cut thin sections and capture serial EMGs automatically, allowing for acquisition of large data sets in a reasonably short time. The new methods are focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, ultramicrotome/serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, automated tape-collection ultramicrotome/scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope camera array. In this review, their positive and negative aspects are discussed. PMID:25564566

  6. High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density-Profile Changes in Response to Large Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter; Fung, Shing F.

    2015-01-01

    Large magnetic-storm induced changes have been detected in high-latitude topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). The investigation was based on the large database of topside Ne(h) profiles and digital topside ionograms from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program available from the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) at http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/isis/isis-status.html. This large database enabled Ne(h) profiles to be obtained when an ISIS satellite passed through nearly the same region of space before, during, and after a major magnetic storm. A major goal was to relate the magnetic-storm induced high-latitude Ne(h) profile changes to solar-wind parameters. Thus an additional data constraint was to consider only storms where solar-wind data were available from the NASA/SPDF OMNIWeb database. Ten large magnetic storms (with Dst less than -100 nT) were identified that satisfied both the Ne(h) profile and the solar-wind data constraints. During five of these storms topside ionospheric Ne(h) profiles were available in the high-latitude northern hemisphere and during the other five storms similar ionospheric data were available in the southern hemisphere. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during each one of these storms. Our concentration in this paper is on the northern hemisphere. The data coverage was best for the northern-hemisphere winter. Here Ne(h) profile enhancements were always observed when the magnetic local time (MLT) was between 00 and 03 and Ne(h) profile depletions were always observed between 08 and 10 MLT. The observed Ne(h) deviations were compared with solar-wind parameters, with appropriate time shifts, for four storms.

  7. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: a tutorial on the i(V e) profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumsa, Doe W.; Bhadra, Narendra; Hudak, Eric M.; Kelley, Shawn C.; Untereker, Darrel F.; Mortimer, J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this tutorial is to encourage members of the neuroprosthesis community to incorporate electron transfer processes into their thinking and provide them with the tools to do so when they design and work with neurostimulating devices. The focus of this article is on platinum because it is the most used electrode metal for devices in commercial use. The i(V e) profile or cyclic voltammogram contains information about electron transfer processes that can occur when the electrode-electrolyte interface, V e, is at a specific potential, and assumed to be near steady-state conditions. For the engineer/designer this means that if the potential is not in the range of a specific electron transfer process, that process cannot occur. An i(V e) profile, recorded at sweep rates greater than 0.1 mVs-1, approximates steady-state conditions. Rapid transient potential excursions, like that seen with neural stimulation pulses, may be too fast for the reaction to occur, however, this means that if the potential is in the range of a specific electron transfer process it may occur and should be considered. The approach described here can be used to describe the thermodynamic electron transfer processes on other candidate electrode metals, e.g. stainless steel, iridium, carbon-based, etc.

  8. Geophysical investigation of the Hockai Fault Zone, Eastern Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Nguyen, Frédéric; Halleux, Lucien; Hölz, Sebastian; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of a regional project evaluating the geothermal potential of the Wallonian Region of Belgium, the Hockai Fault Zone has been identified as one of the most interesting targets. It is a seismically active fault zone that hosted the largest historical earthquake in Northwestern Europe, the M6-6.5 Verviers event in 1692 as well as a swarm of small earthquakes that was recorded in 1989-90. On the surface, the presence of the fault zones is marked by a series of geomorphic features, such as several landslides near the borders in the northern part, repeated NW-SE oriented scarps all along the Eastern border (over a distance of 40 km), river diversions and captures with formation of paleo-valleys. Along the most prominent paleo-valley, the Paleo-Warche Valley crossing the fault zone over a distance of 5 km, a geophysical survey has been organized by several teams to better characterize the shallow (<150 m) subsurface of the fault zone. It included electro-magnetic sounding (frequency-based and TEM), shallow seismics (refraction, walk-away, surface waves analysis), electrical resistivity tomography as well as ambient noise recordings. To support an integrated interpretation of all geophysical results in combination with geomorphic and seismo-tectonic aspects, surface morphology, soundings and profiles were represented in a 3D model. This model clearly reveals low-resistivity and low-velocity zones near the Eastern border of the fault zone, vertically above the hypocenters of the 1989-90 earthquake swarm. Across the structure, low-resistivity zones have a limited extent while they are repeatedly identified all along Eastern border.

  9. Electron bunch profile reconstruction based on phase-constrained iterative algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali Taheri, F.; Konoplev, I. V.; Doucas, G.; Baddoo, P.; Bartolini, R.; Cowley, J.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The phase retrieval problem occurs in a number of areas in physics and is the subject of continuing investigation. The one-dimensional case, e.g., the reconstruction of the temporal profile of a charged particle bunch, is particularly challenging and important for particle accelerators. Accurate knowledge of the longitudinal (time) profile of the bunch is important in the context of linear colliders, wakefield accelerators and for the next generation of light sources, including x-ray SASE FELs. Frequently applied methods, e.g., minimal phase retrieval or other iterative algorithms, are reliable if the Blaschke phase contribution is negligible. This, however, is neither known a priori nor can it be assumed to apply to an arbitrary bunch profile. We present a novel approach which gives reproducible, most-probable and stable reconstructions for bunch profiles (both artificial and experimental) that would otherwise remain unresolved by the existing techniques.

  10. Inclusion body disease in snakes: a review and description of three cases in boa constrictors in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vancraeynest, D; Pasmans, F; Martel, A; Chiers, K; Meulemans, G; Mast, J; Zwart, P; Ducatelle, R

    2006-06-01

    Inclusion body disease, a fatal disorder in Boidae, is reviewed, and three cases in boa constrictors, the first reported cases in Belgium, are described. The snakes showed nervous signs, and numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions, which are considered to be characteristic of the disease, were found in the liver and pancreas. The disease is suspected to be caused by a retrovirus, but transmission electron microscopic examinations of several tissues from one of the snakes did not reveal particles with a typical retroviral morphology.

  11. Molecular typing of monophasic Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- strains isolated in Belgium (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie; Mattheus, Wesley; Dierick, Katelijne; Wattiau, Pierre

    2014-01-31

    To assess the distribution of Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- subtypes in the Belgian food chain and compare it to the subtypes associated with human infections, a molecular assessment was initiated. Two hundred fifty-three Salmonella isolates serotyped as 4,[5]:i:- during the period 2008-2011 in Belgium and originating from animal productions, food or human clinical samples were analysed by a specific duplex PCR. One hundred ninety-four isolates (76.7%) fit the profile of a S. Typhimurium monophasic variant as defined by the European Food Safety Authority. The other isolates possessed but did not express the phase II flagellin gene (23.3%). Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) revealed many but closely related profiles in the fljB-negative S. Typhimurium monophasic variant isolates. Some MLVA types were associated with both human and animal isolates but no unique source of human contamination could be demonstrated.

  12. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  13. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E

    2014-09-15

    Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (P<0.05). The present study is the first report that analyzed the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population.

  15. Updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle; Schaffner, Francis; Coosemans, Marc; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic

    2015-12-01

    Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species).

  16. Compton profiles and electronic properties of TiB{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Samir Suthar, K. K.; Ahuja, B. L.; Mishra, Suman K.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, we report the experimental Compton profile (CP) of TiB{sub 2} using high energy {sup 137}Cs γ-rays Compton spectrometer. To interpret the experimental momentum density, we have calculated the CPs using Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and HF within linear combination of atomic orbitals. The theoretical profile with generalized gradient approximation is found to be relatively in better agreement with the experimental profile. A sharp valley in density of states and hence the pseudogap near the Fermi energy is attributed to hybridization of Ti-3d and B-2p states and almost reverse trend of energy bands below and above the Fermi energy.

  17. Radial Profiles of the Plasma Electron Characteristics in a 30 kW Arc Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Codron, Douglas A.; Nawaz, Anuscheh

    2013-01-01

    The present effort aims to strengthen modeling work conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center by measuring the critical plasma electron characteristics within and slightly outside of an arc jet plasma column. These characteristics are intended to give physical insights while assisting in the formulation of boundary conditions to validate full scale simulations. Single and triple Langmuir probes have been used to achieve estimates of the electron temperature (T(sub e)), electron number density (n(sub e)) and plasma potential (outside of the plasma column) as probing location is varied radially from the flow centerline. Both the electron temperature and electron number density measurements show a large dependence on radial distance from the plasma column centerline with T(sub e) approx. = (3 - 12 eV and n(sub e) approx. = 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 14)/cu cm.

  18. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  19. Characterization of metal profile notching as a result of electron shading in a high-density plasma etcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, Fred

    1999-04-01

    In today's high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices large amounts of capital are required to establish and operate production facilities. Therefore, IC manufacturers are now `cloning' processes to enable products and technologies to be transferred to other sites to provide optimum production flexibility. Unfortunately, these processes cannot always simply be lifted and `dropped' into a new facility, even if identical tools are used. During a process and product transfer from one Motorola fab to another the metal etch process exhibited some unexpected complications as severely undercut metal profiles were seen on certain products. Although initially not very well understood the reason for this defect turned out to be ion deflection due to electron shading. This paper will show that by applying the relevant statistical tools this mechanism can be controlled or even completely eliminated. Adjustment of plasma parameters will result in a process which yields excellent profile control.

  20. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Dohlus, M.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Stoltz, P.; Vogt, M.

    2011-09-07

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak acceleratingmore » electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.« less

  1. Efficient analysis of mode profiles in elliptical microcavity using dynamic-thermal electron-quantum medium FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Khoo, E H; Ahmed, I; Goh, R S M; Lee, K H; Hung, T G G; Li, E P

    2013-03-11

    The dynamic-thermal electron-quantum medium finite-difference time-domain (DTEQM-FDTD) method is used for efficient analysis of mode profile in elliptical microcavity. The resonance peak of the elliptical microcavity is studied by varying the length ratio. It is observed that at some length ratios, cavity mode is excited instead of whispering gallery mode. This depicts that mode profiles are length ratio dependent. Through the implementation of the DTEQM-FDTD on graphic processing unit (GPU), the simulation time is reduced by 300 times as compared to the CPU. This leads to an efficient optimization approach to design microcavity lasers for wide range of applications in photonic integrated circuits.

  2. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Dohlus, M.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Stoltz, P.; Vogt, M.

    2011-09-07

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.

  3. Characterization of saturated MHD instabilities through 2D electron temperature profile reconstruction from 1D ECE measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertoli, M.; Horváth, L.; Pokol, G. I.; Igochine, V.; Barrera, L.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for the reconstruction of two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature profiles in the presence of saturated magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) modes from the one-dimensional (1D) electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic is presented. The analysis relies on harmonic decomposition of the electron temperature oscillations through short time Fourier transforms and requires rigid poloidal mode rotation as the only assumption. The method is applicable to any magnetic perturbation as long as the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers m and n are known. Its application to the case of a (m, n) = (1, 1) internal kink mode on ASDEX Upgrade is presented and a new way to estimate the mode displacement is explained. For such modes, it is shown that the higher order harmonics usually visible in the ECE spectrogram arise also for the pure m = n = 1 mode and that they cannot be directly associated with m = n > 1 magnetic perturbations. This method opens up new possibilities for electron heat transport studies in the presence of saturated MHD modes and a way to disentangle the impurity density contributions from electron temperature effects in the analysis of the soft x-ray data.

  4. Measurements of electron temperature profiles on Alcator C-Mod using a novel energy-resolving x-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, J.; Delgado, L.; Pablant, N.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Rice, J.

    2015-11-01

    The most common electron temperature diagnostics, Thomson Scattering (TS) and Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE), both require large diagnostic footprints and expensive optics. Another electron temperature diagnostic is the Pulse-Height-Analysis (PHA) system, which derives the electron temperature from the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. However, the main disadvantage of the PHA method is poor temporal resolution of the Si(Li) diode detectors. This paper presents a novel x-ray pinhole camera, which uses a pixilated Pilatus detector that allows single photon counting at a rate 2MHz per pixel and the setting of energy thresholds. The detector configuration is optimized by Shannon-sampling theory, such that spatial profiles of the x-ray continuum intensity can be obtained simultaneously for different energies, in the range from 4 to 16 keV. The exponential-like dependence of the x-ray intensity with photon energies is compared with a model describing the Be filter, attenuation in air, and detector efficiency, as well as different sets of energy thresholds. Electron temperature measurements are compared with TS and ECE measurements. This work was supported by the US DOE Contract No.DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the DoE Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program.

  5. Spatially resolved measurements of electron cyclotron resonance ion source beam profile characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2011-03-15

    Simulations predict that the concentric rings and the triangular structures in the profiles of strongly focused ion beams that are found in different experiments should be dominated by ion species with the same or at least similar m/q-ratio. To verify these theoretical predictions we have tuned our ECR ion source to deliver a beam consisting of multiple ion species whose particular m/q-depending focusing ranges from weakly focused to overfocused. We then recorded spatially resolved charge-state distributions of the beam profile at characteristic positions in the plane perpendicular to the beam line. The results validate theoretical predictions and are summarized in this paper. To achieve the required beam profile characteristics we moved the extraction along the beam line to achieve stronger focusing than by only changing the extraction voltage. To fit the regions of interest of the beam profile into the transmission area of the sector magnet, we steered the beam by moving the extraction in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis. The results of both investigations, beam focusing and beam steering by using a 3D-movable extraction, are also reported in this paper. A brief overview of the new beam monitor extensively used during these measurements, the Faraday cup array, is also given.

  6. Acidification of forested podzols in North Belgium during the period 1950-2000.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, An; Mertens, Jan; Geudens, Guy; Staelens, Jeroen; Campforts, Elke; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; De Temmerman, Ludwig; De Keersmaeker, Luc; De Neve, Stefaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2006-05-15

    Acidification of forest soils in Europe and North America has been an important concern over the last decades. The last area-covering survey of forest soil acidification in Flanders (North Belgium) goes back to 1985 [Ronse A, De Temmerman L, Guns M, De Borger R. Evolution of acidity, organic matter content, and CEC in uncultivated soils of North Belgium during the past 25 years. Soil Sci; 146, (1988), 453-460] and highlighted a significant acidification of the upper layer (0.3-0.4 m) of forested podzols during the period 1950-1985. The present study aimed to assess (1) to what extent further acidification of forested podzols occurred during the period 1985-2000 at different depths and (2) whether the average annual acidification rate accelerated or slowed down between 1985 and 2000 compared to the period 1950-1985. Average soil pH-KCl values of podzols in northern Belgium dropped during the period 1985-2000. This decline extends to a depth of about 50 cm but was most pronounced and significant in the A horizon. In the A(0), A(1) and A(2) horizons, average pH dropped with 0.2, 0.3 and 0.1 units, and in the B(ir) and C horizons with 0.1 units. No change in average pH value occurred in the B(h) horizon. Average annual acidification rate of the A(1) horizon was significantly higher in the period 1985-2000 than in the period 1950-1985. Changes in pH occurred in the entire soil profile during the period 1950/67-1985 likely because sulphate was the major form of acid deposition before 1985. After 1985, acid sulphur deposition decreased with more than 50% in North Belgium. In contrast, ammonium deposition almost doubled between 1950 and 1980, which may explain why soil acidification between 1985 and 2000 has been restricted to the upper soil horizons.

  7. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice...

  8. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  9. Depth profile characterization technique for electron density in GaN films by infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamijoh, Takaaki; Ma, Bei; Morita, Ken; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is a noncontact measurement method for carrier density and mobility. In this article, the model determination procedure of layer-type nonuniform electron distribution is investigated, since the spectrum fitting hitherto has been conducted on the basis of a multilayer model defined in advance. A simplified case of a high-electron-density GaN layer embedded in a GaN matrix is mainly studied. The following procedure is found to be applicable. The first step is the determination of the high-density layer position in the vicinity of the surface, in the middle region, or in the vicinity of the interface. This is followed by the specification of the sheet electron density and the layer thickness of the high-density region. It is found that this procedure is also applicable to the characterization of two-dimensional electron gases in the vicinity of AlGaN/GaN heterointerfaces.

  10. Oxygen chemisorption on Cu(19 19 1) studied by spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.

    2007-12-15

    Cu(110) and the vicinal Cu(19 19 1) surfaces were characterized by recording maps of the reciprocal space by means of spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). For both surfaces, kinematic simulations were performed to get insight into the main features of the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that chemisorption of oxygen and subsequent annealing lead to the formation of a Cu-CuO stripe phase and induce faceting of the Cu(19 19 1) surface. The evolution from the clean Cu(19 19 1) surface to the coexistence of the (110) and (111) facets with increasing oxygen exposure was characterized by SPA-LEED.

  11. Producing Dangerous Knowledge: Researching Knowledge Production in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangez, Catherine; Mangerz, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This is an article about the struggle for control of knowledge in a divided society. It starts off by describing Belgium as a consociational democracy--that is, a society organized around integrated pillars of society (Catholic, secular), each of which provides a wide range of services (educational, training, health, health insurance, social care,…

  12. Educational Reconstruction in Belgium. Bulletin, 1921, No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1921-01-01

    Belgium's progress in rehabilitation has been the most marked of all the countries devastated by the World War. In resumption of operation of the iron and steel industries, of coal mining, of railroad rebuilding, of the sugar factories, of cotton spinning, of rebuilding residences and communal buildings, the Government, private initiative,…

  13. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Flemish Community of Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Miron, Gary; Santiago, Paulo; Teese, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This report for the Flemish Community of Belgium forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools and explores how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.…

  14. Nonlinear dispersion and transverse profile of intense electromagnetic waves, propagating through electron-positron-ion hot magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Javan, N. Sepehri Homami, S. H. H.

    2015-02-15

    Self-guided nonlinear propagation of intense circularly-polarized electromagnetic waves in a hot electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma is studied. Using a relativistic fluid model, a nonlinear equation is derived, which describes the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the plasma in the quasi-neutral approximation. Transverse Eigen modes, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the group velocity are obtained. Results show that the transverse profile in the case of magnetized plasma with cylindrical symmetry has a radially damping oscillatory form. Effect of applying external magnetic fields, existence of the electron-positron pairs, changing the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave, and its polarization on the nonlinear dispersion relation and Eigen modes are studied.

  15. How does electron beam irradiation dose affect the chemical and antioxidant profiles of wild dried Amanita mushrooms?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Rafalski, Andrzej; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-09-01

    As with all mushrooms, Amanita species demonstrates several conservation problems, due to a post-harvest life limited to a few days. Drying is one of the most commonly used methods in mushroom preservation. Food irradiation is another possible way to improve food quality and insure its security. Among the emerging irradiation technologies, electron beam irradiation has wide applications, allowing for high throughput, wide flexibility and potential, without any negative effect on the environment. The effects of different electron beam irradiation doses in Amanita genus, were assessed by measuring the changes produced on a wide variety of nutritional, chemical and antioxidant indicators. The evaluated profiles indicated differences between non-irradiated and irradiated samples, however a high similarity was observed among different doses. This finding advises that the highest assayed dose (10 kGy) be applied, ensuring a higher effectiveness from a decontamination and disinfestation perspective, without having any stronger effects than those observed by the lower doses.

  16. Weather based risks and insurances for crop production in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as late frosts, droughts, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The risk of soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that drought stress occurs in spring and summer. Conversely, waterlogging occurs mostly during early spring and autumn. Risks of temperature stress appear during winter and spring for chilling and during summer for heat. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, the regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims for different crops. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage as demonstrated for cropping systems in Belgium. Extreme weather events have already precipitated contraction of insurance coverage in some markets (e.g. hail insurance), and the process can be expected to continue if the losses or damages from such events increase in the future. Climate

  17. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, Brandon R. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Barnat, E. V. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Xiong, Zhongmin E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Kushner, Mark J. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu

    2014-09-14

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3×10⁹cm s⁻¹, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  18. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M. Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-15

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as β{sub e}, ν{sub e}{sup ∗}, the MHD α parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of T{sub e}, T{sub i}, and n{sub e} were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when β{sub e} and ν{sub e}{sup ∗} were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both β{sub e} and ν{sub e}{sup ∗} increased, microtearing became the dominant low-k{sub θ} mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-k{sub θ}, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting T{sub e} for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  19. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-01

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as βe, ν*e, the MHD α parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of Te, Ti, and ne were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when βe and ν*e were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both βe and ν*e increased, microtearing became the dominant low-κθ mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-κθ, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting Te for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  20. A long-term study on the deletion criterion of questionable electron density profiles caused by ionospheric irregularities - COSMIC radio occultation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, G.; Brahmanandam, P. S.; Chu, Y. H.

    2016-06-01

    The crucial assumption made in the retrieval of radio-occultated atmospheric parameters is the spherical symmetry of the atmospheric refractive index, which implies that no horizontal gradient of the refractive index exists along the spherical shell. Nevertheless, the presence of density irregularities will lead to scintillation and multipath effects that often create highly fluctuating and random electron density profiles. In this study, it is proposed a reliable data quality control (QC) approach to remove questionable electron density profiles (due to the presence of ionospheric irregularities) retrieved using the COSMIC radio occultation (RO) technique based on two parameters, namely, the gradient and fluctuation of the topside density profile. Statistics of seven years density profiles (July 2006-May 2013) are presented by determining the aforementioned parameters for every density profile. The main advantage of this data QC is that it uses COSMIC RO electron density profiles retrieved from the slant total electron content (TEC) that is estimated from the excess phases of the GPS L1 and L2 frequencies only to delete the questionable profiles, instead of relying on any model and other observations. A systematic criterion has been developed based on the statistics to relinquish the so-called questionable density profiles. The computed gradients and fluctuations of the topside ionosphere electron density profiles have shown a few important features including, solar activity dependency and pronounced variations in between around +40° and -40° latitudes. After the removal of questionable profiles, both peak densities and heights of the ionosphere F layer are presented globally in different seasons of years during 2007 and 2012 that revealed several important features.

  1. A New Inversion Routine to Produce Vertical Electron-Density Profiles from Ionospheric Topside-Sounder Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yongli; Benson, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Two software applications have been produced specifically for the analysis of some million digital topside ionograms produced by a recent analog-to-digital conversion effort of selected analog telemetry tapes from the Alouette-2, ISIS-1 and ISIS-2 satellites. One, TOPIST (TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height algorithm) from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, is designed for the automatic identification of the topside-ionogram ionospheric-reflection traces and their inversion into vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). TOPIST also has the capability of manual intervention. The other application, from the Goddard Space Flight Center based on the FORTRAN code of John E. Jackson from the 1960s, is designed as an IDL-based interactive program for the scaling of selected digital topside-sounder ionograms. The Jackson code has also been modified, with some effort, so as to run on modern computers. This modification was motivated by the need to scale selected ionograms from the millions of Alouette/ISIS topside-sounder ionograms that only exist on 35-mm film. During this modification, it became evident that it would be more efficient to design a new code, based on the capabilities of present-day computers, than to continue to modify the old code. Such a new code has been produced and here we will describe its capabilities and compare Ne(h) profiles produced from it with those produced by the Jackson code. The concept of the new code is to assume an initial Ne(h) and derive a final Ne(h) through an iteration process that makes the resulting apparent-height profile fir the scaled values within a certain error range. The new code can be used on the X-, O-, and Z-mode traces. It does not assume any predefined profile shape between two contiguous points, like the exponential rule used in Jackson s program. Instead, Monotone Piecewise Cubic Interpolation is applied in the global profile to keep the monotone nature of the profile, which also ensures better smoothness

  2. Determination of the time evolution of the electron-temperature profile of reactor-like plasmas from the measurement of blackbody electron-cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Bitzer, R.A.; Hosea, J.C.

    1982-04-01

    Plasma characteristics (i.e., n/sub e/ greater than or equal to 1 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/, T/sub e/ greater than or equal to 10/sup 7/ /sup 0/K, B/sub psi/ greater than or equal to 20 kG) in present and future magnetically confined plasma devices, e.g., Princeton Large Torus (PLT) and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), meet the conditions for blackbody emission near the electron cyclotron frequency and at few harmonics. These conditions, derived from the hot plasma dielectric tensor, have been verified by propagation experiments on PLT and the Princeton Model-C Stellarator. Blackbody emission near the fundamental electron cyclotron frequency and the second harmonic have been observed in PLT and is routinely measured to ascertain the time evolution of the electron temperature profile. These measurements are especially valuable in the study of auxiliary heating of tokamak plasma. Measurement and calibration techniques will also be discussed with special emphasis on our fast-scanning heterodyne receiver concept.

  3. Measurements of ion and electron temperature profiles on NSTX with an X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.

    2005-10-01

    The prototype of a new X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been installed on NSTX to measure profiles of the ion and electron temperatures from spatially resolved dielectronic satellite spectra of ArXVII in the wavelength range from 3.9 to 4.0 A [1]. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent 110-quartz crystal, with a radius of curvature of 389 cm and a diameter of 10 cm, and a 10 cm x 30 cm, two-dimensional, position-sensitive, multi-wire proportional counter. It projects an image of a large area of the plasma with an extension of +/- 40 cm below and above the horizontal mid-plane of NSTX onto the detector with a demagnification of 2.5. The resolution in the plasma is solely determined by the Bragg angle, the height of the crystal and its distance from the plasma; and it is about 3 cm, if the crystal is fully opened. The concept of this new spectrometer is also of interest for ion temperature measurements on ITER [2]. The paper will present results from profile measurements of the ion and electron temperature from NSTX discharges with pure ohmic heating as well as RF and neutral-beam heating. [1] M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum.75, 3660 (2004); [2] R. Barnsley et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum.75, 3743 (2004).

  4. Environmental Profiles of Paper vs. Electronic UC-CEAS Annual Reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences (UC-CEAS) created a new electronic format for the Annual Report that could be distributed through the college’s website to replace the prior print version. In order to determine the environmental co...

  5. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital Alouette/ISIS Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Electron Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Huang, Xueqin; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35 mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the Topside Ionogram Scalar With True-Height (TOPIST) algorithm, has been produced and used for the automatic inversion of the ionogram reflection traces on more than 100,000 ISIS-2 digital topside ionograms into topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h). Here we present some topside ionospheric solar cycle variations deduced from the TOPIST database to illustrate the scientific benefit of improving and expanding the topside ionospheric Ne(h) database. The profile improvements will be based on improvements in the TOPIST software motivated by direct comparisons between TOPIST profiles and profiles produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. The database expansion will be based on new software designed to overcome limitations in the original digital topside ionogram database caused by difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. This improved and expanded TOPIST topside Ne(h) database will greatly enhance investigations into both short- and long-term ionospheric changes, e.g., the observed topside ionospheric responses to magnetic storms, induced by interplanetary magnetic clouds, and solar cycle variations, respectively.

  6. Definition of an electronic profile of compounds with inhibitory activity against hematin aggregation in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Portela, César; Afonso, Carlos M M; Pinto, Madalena M M; Ramos, Maria João

    2004-06-15

    Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases, affecting almost half of the world and posing a threat to the other half. Xanthone derivatives can behave as antimalarial drugs in the same mechanistic way as chloroquine and other related quinolines. This action is due to the inhibition of the detoxification pathway of the parasite, responsible for the production of hemozoin. We report a study of the electronic properties of the xanthonic and quinolinic compounds based on DFT calculations, in order to determine a pattern that could be applied to the development of new potentially active antimalarial molecules. As a result, a new interpretation of structure-activity relationship of the quinoline antimalarial drugs, and of the active hydroxylated xanthones is proposed here. We conclude that electronic features rather than steric factors control primarily the inhibitory activity of the studied compounds against hematin aggregation, concurring to a potential antimalarial activity.

  7. Effect of magnetic field profile on the uniformity of a distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C. C.; Chou, S. F.; Chang, T. H.; Chao, H. W.; Chen, C. C.

    2013-07-15

    This study extensively measured the uniformity of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma versus the magnetic field distribution. The influence of magnetic field distribution on the generation of uniform ECR plasma was examined. It is suggested that in addition to the uniformity of the magnetic field distribution at ECR zone and at the downstream zone near the substrate, the transition of the magnetic field between these two zones is also crucial. A uniform ECR plasma with the electron density uniformity of ±7.7% over 500 × 500 mm{sup 2} was measured at the downstream. The idea of generating uniform ECR plasma can be scaled up to a much larger area by using an n × n microwave input array and a well-designed magnetic system.

  8. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, R. Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M.

    2014-11-15

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  9. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror.

    PubMed

    Minami, R; Imai, T; Kariya, T; Numakura, T; Eguchi, T; Kawarasaki, R; Nakazawa, K; Kato, T; Sato, F; Nanzai, H; Uehara, M; Endo, Y; Ichimura, M

    2014-11-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  10. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    1997-03-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  11. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    2008-12-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  12. Ionosphere modeling by means of electron density profiles based on the satellite missions COSMIC, CHAMP and GRACE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limberger, Marco; Hugentobler, Urs; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Liang, Wenjing; Jakowski, Norbert; Hoque, Mainul; Gerzen, Tatjana; Berdermann, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The Chapman function for the F2-layer of the ionsphere contains three physically defined key parameters, namely the maximum electron density NmF2, the corresponding peak height hmF2 and scale height HF2. Every quantity can be expressed as a series expansion in terms of the tensor product of three one-dimensional polynomial B-splines referring to longitude, latitude and time with unknown series coefficients. Polynomial B-splines are localizing base functions whose number depends on a level that is specified based on the density of given observations. In order to determine the three key parameters, an iterative estimation procedure is required since the Chapman function is non-linear. Therefore, prior information for the series coefficients have to be determined from initial values which can be extracted from a given model such as the Neustrelitz TEC model (NTCM). Depending on the spatial and temporal resolution of this initial model, the B-spline level will be set to allow for the representation of the parameters on a desired scale. The availability of observations with comparable density cannot be guaranteed but even in scenarios of less observation density it is possible to improve the initial parameters at those locations where measurements are given. Otherwise, data gaps are bridged by prior information. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) provide observations of the slant total electron content (STEC) with a high spatial and temporal resolution from a dense network of ground-based receivers. Nevertheless, the estimation of the key parameters suffers from an unfavorable geometry and the fact, that observations are given as integrated values of the electron density. The introduction of electron density profiles consisting of point wise measurements stabilizes the adjustment system. They can be derived for instance from radio occultation measurements between the Global Positioning System (GPS) and low earth orbiter (LEO) satellites. In the context of this

  13. Morphology of foliar trichomes of the Chinese cork oak Quercus variabilis by electron microscopy and three-dimensional surface profiling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Cho, Do-Hyun; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2011-06-01

    Morphology of foliar trichomes was analyzed in Quercus variabilis by electron microscopy and three-dimensional surface profiling. Leaves from suppressed or dominant sprouts of the oak species were collected after a forest fire to unravel the effects of the disturbance factor on sprouting of the oak species. Scanning electron microscopy revealed two types of trichomes depending on the leaf surface. The trichomes on the adaxial surface were branched and constricted, and possessed a single row of thin-walled cells with a collapsed morphology (glandular branched uniseriate trichomes). Meanwhile, the trichomes on the abaxial surface were star-shaped, unfused with each other, and had 6 to 10 rays (nonglandular simple stellate trichomes). An apparent proliferation of trichomes was evident on the adaxial surface of the dominant sprouts. Uniseriate trichomes could be discernable as an elevation from the surface by white light scanning interferometry. By transmission electron microscopy, thin and convoluted cell wall, degenerated cytoplasm, and a single row of cells were characteristic of the trichomes on the adaxial surface. The thick cell walls of the mature trichomes on the abaxial surface represented the nonglandular nature. This is the first report on the morphological and ultrastructural characterization of foliar trichomes of the oak species.

  14. Gene and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidensis during anaerobic growth with different electron acceptors.

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaev, A. S.; Thompson, D. K.; Khare, T.; Lim, H.; Brandt, C. C.; Li, G.; Murray, A. E.; Heidelberg, J. F.; Giometti, C. S.; Yates, J., III; Nealson, K. H.; Tiedje, J. M.; Zhou, J.; Biosciences Division; ORNL; Scripps Research Inst.; Michigan State Univ.; The Inst. for Genomic Research; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; California Inst. of Tech.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in mRNA and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1 during switch from aerobic to fumarate-, Fe(III)-, or nitrate-reducing conditions were examined using DNA microarrays and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In response to changes in growth conditions, 121 of the 691 arrayed genes displayed at least a two-fold difference in transcript abundance as determined by microarray analysis. Genes involved in aerobic respiration encoding cytochrome c and d oxidases and TCA cycle enzymes were repressed under anaerobic conditions. Genes induced during anaerobic respiration included those involved in cofactor biosynthesis and assembly (moaACE, ccmHF, nosD, cysG), substrate transport (cysUP, cysTWA, dcuB), and anaerobic energy metabolism (dmsAB, psrC, pshA, hyaABC, hydA). Transcription of genes encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase (napBHGA), cytochrome c{sub 552}, and prismane was elevated 8- to 56-fold in response to the presence of nitrate, while cymA, ifcA, and frdA were specifically induced three- to eightfold under fumarate-reducing conditions. The mRNA levels for two oxidoreductase-like genes of unknown function and several cell envelope genes involved in multidrug resistance increased two- to fivefold specifically under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Analysis of protein expression profiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 14 protein spots that showed significant differences in abundance on 2-D gels. Protein identification by mass spectrometry indicated that the expression of prismane, dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, and alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis protein correlated with the microarray data.

  15. Gene and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidensis during anaerobic growth with different electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Beliaev, Alex S; Thompson, Dorothea K; Khare, Tripti; Lim, Hanjo; Brandt, Craig C; Li, Guangshan; Murray, Alison E; Heidelberg, John F; Giometti, Carol S; Yates, John; Nealson, Kenneth H; Tiedje, James M; Zhoui, Jizhong

    2002-01-01

    Changes in mRNA and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1 during switch from aerobic to fumarate-, Fe(III)-, or nitrate-reducing conditions were examined using DNA microarrays and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In response to changes in growth conditions, 121 of the 691 arrayed genes displayed at least a two-fold difference in transcript abundance as determined by microarray analysis. Genes involved in aerobic respiration encoding cytochrome c and d oxidases and TCA cycle enzymes were repressed under anaerobic conditions. Genes induced during anaerobic respiration included those involved in cofactor biosynthesis and assembly (moaACE, ccmHF, nosD, cysG), substrate transport (cysUP, cysTWA, dcuB), and anaerobic energy metabolism (dmsAB, psrC, pshA, hyaABC, hydA). Transcription of genes encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase (napBHGA), cytochrome c552, and prismane was elevated 8- to 56-fold in response to the presence of nitrate, while cymA, ifcA, and frdA were specifically induced three- to eightfold under fumarate-reducing conditions. The mRNA levels for two oxidoreductase-like genes of unknown function and several cell envelope genes involved in multidrug resistance increased two- to fivefold specifically under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Analysis of protein expression profiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 14 protein spots that showed significant differences in abundance on 2-D gels. Protein identification by mass spectrometry indicated that the expression of prismane, dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, and alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis protein correlated with the microarray data. PMID:11881834

  16. Generation and characterization of electron bunches with ramped current profile at the FLASH facility

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Vogt, M.; /DESY

    2011-09-01

    We report on the successful generation of electron bunches with current prof les that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal coordinate. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a linac operating at two frequencies (1.3 and 3.9 GHz) and a bunch compressor. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method. The produced bunches have parameters well matched to drive high-gradient accelerating field with enhanced transformer ratio in beam-driven accelerators based on sub-mm-sizes dielectric or plasma structures.

  17. Fidelity of a Time-Resolved Imaging Diagnostic for Electron Beam Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Frayer, Daniel; Ekdahl, Carl A.; Johnson, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    An optical tomographic diagnostic instrument has been fielded at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Four optical lines of sight create projections of an image of an electron beam on a Cerenkov target, which are relayed via optical fiber to streak cameras. From these projections, a reconstruction algorithm creates time histories of the beam’s cross section. The instrument was fielded during and after facility commissioning, and tomographic reconstructions reported beam parameters. Results from reconstructions and analysis are noted.

  18. Electron acceptor redox potential globally regulates transcriptomic profiling in Shewanella decolorationis S12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yingli; Yang, Yonggang; Guo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiaojing; Fang, Yun; Gan, Lixia; Xu, Meiying

    2016-08-01

    Electron acceptor redox potential (EARP) was presumed to be a determining factor for microbial metabolism in many natural and engineered processes. However, little is known about the potentially global effects of EARP on bacteria. In this study, we compared the physiological and transcriptomic properties of Shewanella decolorationis S12 respiring with different EARPs in microbial electrochemical systems to avoid the effects caused by the other physicochemical properties of real electron acceptor. Results showed that the metabolic activities of strain S12 were nonlinear responses to EARP. The tricarboxylic acid cycle for central carbon metabolism was down-regulated while glyoxylate shunt was up-regulated at 0.8 V compared to 0.2 and ‑0.2 V, which suggested that EARP is an important but not the only determinant for metabolic pathways of strain S12. Moreover, few cytochrome c genes were differentially expressed at different EARPs. The energy intensive flagella assembly and assimilatory sulfur metabolism pathways were significantly enriched at 0.8 V, which suggested strain S12 had stronger electrokinesis behavior and oxidative stress-response at high EARP. This study provides the first global information of EARP regulations on microbial metabolism, which will be helpful for understanding microorganism respiration.

  19. Electron acceptor redox potential globally regulates transcriptomic profiling in Shewanella decolorationis S12

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Yang, Yonggang; Guo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiaojing; Fang, Yun; Gan, Lixia; Xu, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Electron acceptor redox potential (EARP) was presumed to be a determining factor for microbial metabolism in many natural and engineered processes. However, little is known about the potentially global effects of EARP on bacteria. In this study, we compared the physiological and transcriptomic properties of Shewanella decolorationis S12 respiring with different EARPs in microbial electrochemical systems to avoid the effects caused by the other physicochemical properties of real electron acceptor. Results showed that the metabolic activities of strain S12 were nonlinear responses to EARP. The tricarboxylic acid cycle for central carbon metabolism was down-regulated while glyoxylate shunt was up-regulated at 0.8 V compared to 0.2 and −0.2 V, which suggested that EARP is an important but not the only determinant for metabolic pathways of strain S12. Moreover, few cytochrome c genes were differentially expressed at different EARPs. The energy intensive flagella assembly and assimilatory sulfur metabolism pathways were significantly enriched at 0.8 V, which suggested strain S12 had stronger electrokinesis behavior and oxidative stress-response at high EARP. This study provides the first global information of EARP regulations on microbial metabolism, which will be helpful for understanding microorganism respiration. PMID:27503002

  20. Electron acceptor redox potential globally regulates transcriptomic profiling in Shewanella decolorationis S12.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yingli; Yang, Yonggang; Guo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiaojing; Fang, Yun; Gan, Lixia; Xu, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Electron acceptor redox potential (EARP) was presumed to be a determining factor for microbial metabolism in many natural and engineered processes. However, little is known about the potentially global effects of EARP on bacteria. In this study, we compared the physiological and transcriptomic properties of Shewanella decolorationis S12 respiring with different EARPs in microbial electrochemical systems to avoid the effects caused by the other physicochemical properties of real electron acceptor. Results showed that the metabolic activities of strain S12 were nonlinear responses to EARP. The tricarboxylic acid cycle for central carbon metabolism was down-regulated while glyoxylate shunt was up-regulated at 0.8 V compared to 0.2 and -0.2 V, which suggested that EARP is an important but not the only determinant for metabolic pathways of strain S12. Moreover, few cytochrome c genes were differentially expressed at different EARPs. The energy intensive flagella assembly and assimilatory sulfur metabolism pathways were significantly enriched at 0.8 V, which suggested strain S12 had stronger electrokinesis behavior and oxidative stress-response at high EARP. This study provides the first global information of EARP regulations on microbial metabolism, which will be helpful for understanding microorganism respiration. PMID:27503002

  1. The Extension of Belgium's Euthanasia Law to Include Competent Minors.

    PubMed

    Raus, Kasper

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable debate, the practice of euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002, thereby making Belgium one of the few places in the world where this practice is legal. In 2014 the law was amended for the first time. The 2014 amendment makes euthanasia legally possible for all minors who repeatedly and voluntarily request euthanasia and who are judged to possess "capacity of discernment" (regardless of their biological age), as well as fulfil a number of other criteria of due care. This extension of the 2002 euthanasia law generated a lot of national and international debate and has been applauded by many and heavily criticized by others. This evolution is clearly of interest to end-of-life debates in the entire world. This paper will therefore describe how this amendment came to get passed using official documents from Belgium's Senate and Chamber of Representatives where this amendment was discussed and subsequently passed. Next, some of the most commonly given arguments in favour of the law are identified, as well as the arguments most often voiced against the amendment. All these arguments will be expanded upon and it will be examined whether they hold up to ethical scrutiny. Analysing the official documents and identifying the most commonly voiced arguments gives valuable insight into how Belgium came to amend its euthanasia law and why it did so in 2014. It also becomes clear that although the current amendment is often seen as far-reaching, more radical ideas were proposed during the drafting of the law. Also, in analysing those arguments in favour of the amendment and those against, it is clear that the validity of some of these is questionable.

  2. The Extension of Belgium's Euthanasia Law to Include Competent Minors.

    PubMed

    Raus, Kasper

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable debate, the practice of euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002, thereby making Belgium one of the few places in the world where this practice is legal. In 2014 the law was amended for the first time. The 2014 amendment makes euthanasia legally possible for all minors who repeatedly and voluntarily request euthanasia and who are judged to possess "capacity of discernment" (regardless of their biological age), as well as fulfil a number of other criteria of due care. This extension of the 2002 euthanasia law generated a lot of national and international debate and has been applauded by many and heavily criticized by others. This evolution is clearly of interest to end-of-life debates in the entire world. This paper will therefore describe how this amendment came to get passed using official documents from Belgium's Senate and Chamber of Representatives where this amendment was discussed and subsequently passed. Next, some of the most commonly given arguments in favour of the law are identified, as well as the arguments most often voiced against the amendment. All these arguments will be expanded upon and it will be examined whether they hold up to ethical scrutiny. Analysing the official documents and identifying the most commonly voiced arguments gives valuable insight into how Belgium came to amend its euthanasia law and why it did so in 2014. It also becomes clear that although the current amendment is often seen as far-reaching, more radical ideas were proposed during the drafting of the law. Also, in analysing those arguments in favour of the amendment and those against, it is clear that the validity of some of these is questionable. PMID:26842904

  3. DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION PROFILES OF MEDICATION REGIMENS EXTRACTED FROM A DE-IDENTIFIED ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Restrepo, Nicole A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2016-01-01

    With age, the number of prescribed medications increases and subsequently raises the risk for adverse drug-drug interactions. These adverse effects lower quality of life and increase health care costs. Quantifying the potential burden of adverse effects before prescribing medications can be a valuable contribution to health care. This study evaluated medication lists extracted from a subset of the Vanderbilt de-identified electronic medical record system. Reported drugs were cross-referenced with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes DRUG database to identify known drug-drug interactions. On average, a medication regimen contained 6.58 medications and 2.68 drug-drug interactions. Here, we quantify the burden of potential adverse events from drug-drug interactions through drug-drug interaction profiles and include a number of alternative medications as provided by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. PMID:27570646

  4. DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION PROFILES OF MEDICATION REGIMENS EXTRACTED FROM A DE-IDENTIFIED ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Restrepo, Nicole A; Haines, Jonathan L; Crawford, Dana C

    2016-01-01

    With age, the number of prescribed medications increases and subsequently raises the risk for adverse drug-drug interactions. These adverse effects lower quality of life and increase health care costs. Quantifying the potential burden of adverse effects before prescribing medications can be a valuable contribution to health care. This study evaluated medication lists extracted from a subset of the Vanderbilt de-identified electronic medical record system. Reported drugs were cross-referenced with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes DRUG database to identify known drug-drug interactions. On average, a medication regimen contained 6.58 medications and 2.68 drug-drug interactions. Here, we quantify the burden of potential adverse events from drug-drug interactions through drug-drug interaction profiles and include a number of alternative medications as provided by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. PMID:27570646

  5. First measurement of time evolution of electron temperature profiles with Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system on Heliotron J

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmochi, N. Tei, S.; Zang, L.; Ohtani, Y.; Kasajima, K.; Minami, T.; Takahashi, C.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Okada, H.; Kado, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Ohshima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Shi, N.; Sano, F.

    2014-11-15

    A Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system has been developed for Heliotron J. The system consists of two 550 mJ 50 Hz lasers, large collection optics, and 25 radial channel (∼1 cm spatial resolution) interference polychromators. This measurement system achieves a S/N ratio of ∼50 for low-density plasma (n{sub e} ∼ 0.5 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). A time evolution of electron temperature profiles was measured with this system for a high-intensity gas-puff (HIGP) fueling neutral-beam-injection plasma. The peripheral temperature of the higher-density phase after HIGP recovers to the low-density pre-HIGP level, suggesting that improving particle transport in the HIGP plasma may be possible.

  6. Electronic structure computation and differential capacitance profile in δ-doped FET as a function of hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos-Pinedo, C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work we present the results obtained from the calculation of the level structure of a n-type delta-doped well Field Effect Transistor when is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. We study the energy level structure as a function of hydrostatic pressure within the range of 0 to 6 kbar for different Schottky barrier height (SBH). We use an analytical expression for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the SBH and the pressure dependence of the basic parameters of the system as the effective mass m(P) and the dielectric constant ε(P) of GaAs. We found that due to the effects of hydrostatic pressure, in addition to electronic level structure alteration, the profile of the differential capacitance per unit area C{sup −2} is affected.

  7. Ageism in Belgium and Burundi: a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Manon; Missotten, Pierre; Schroyen, Sarah; Nindaba, Desiderate; Adam, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than from the culture itself. We tested this assumption by conducting a survey among people living in a least developed country compared with those living in a developed country. Participants and methods Twenty-seven Belgians living in Belgium, 29 Burundians living in Belgium, and 32 Burundians living in Burundi were included in this study. Their attitudes toward older adults were assessed using several self-reported measures. Results Statistical analyses confirmed that older people are more negatively perceived by Burundians living in Burundi than by Burundians and Belgians living in Belgium, whose attitudes did not differ from each other. Conclusion Consistent with our hypothesis, our results suggest that the level of development of a country and more particularly the lack of government spending on older people (pension and health care systems) may contribute to their younger counterparts perceiving them more negatively.

  8. Investigation of the passage of a derecho in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Karim

    2012-04-01

    From the 7th July, 2010 until 14th July, 2010, a heat wave dominated the weather in Belgium. Three major storm situations occurred during this period and all three caused severe damage. In this paper, we discuss the last storm case of 14th July. That day, a quasi-linear convective system (QLCS) crossed parts of France, Belgium and the Netherlands and caused very important wind damages and at least 2 people were killed. Most of the damage was caused by straight-line wind but at least one tornado was observed over the north of the Netherlands. This complex was induced in a very favorable synoptic configuration for severe weather and also the timing of the storm was favorable. In the frame of the Supercell project at the RMI, a damage survey was made of one of the most affected regions, which yielded useful information about the origin of the losses. Careful examination of the radar imagery revealed some connections between internal mesovortices and tracks of enhanced damage. As far as known, this paper is the first description of a derecho in Belgium. It is also the first time a connection is shown between some mesovortices and several damage tracks over the country. During the evolution of the QLCS, several examples of successive vortices were found in front of the system. Several of the vortices were accompanied by a tornado or a funnel cloud and the damage was typically concentrated along elongated tracks.

  9. Ageism in Belgium and Burundi: a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Manon; Missotten, Pierre; Schroyen, Sarah; Nindaba, Desiderate; Adam, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than from the culture itself. We tested this assumption by conducting a survey among people living in a least developed country compared with those living in a developed country. Participants and methods Twenty-seven Belgians living in Belgium, 29 Burundians living in Belgium, and 32 Burundians living in Burundi were included in this study. Their attitudes toward older adults were assessed using several self-reported measures. Results Statistical analyses confirmed that older people are more negatively perceived by Burundians living in Burundi than by Burundians and Belgians living in Belgium, whose attitudes did not differ from each other. Conclusion Consistent with our hypothesis, our results suggest that the level of development of a country and more particularly the lack of government spending on older people (pension and health care systems) may contribute to their younger counterparts perceiving them more negatively. PMID:27601889

  10. Characterization of oxide layers on amorphous Zr-based alloys by Auger electron spectroscopy with sputter depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baunack, S.; Mudali, U. Kamachi; Gebert, A.

    2005-09-01

    Amorphous Zr-Cu-Ni-Al-[Ti, Nb] ribbons prepared by melt spinning under argon atmosphere were subjected to electrochemical investigations. Passive films developed at potentiostatic anodic polarization in sulphuric acid solution were investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and sputter depth profiling. Changes in the shape of the Auger peaks have been analyzed by factor analysis of the spectra obtained during depth profiling. Pronounced changes in shape and position occur for the Zr, Al, and Ti Auger transitions, but not for Cu and Ni. At least three different peak shapes for O(KVV) were found and attributed to different oxygen binding states. The alloy composition has no significant effect on the thickness and composition of the oxide layer. In multi-element alloys preferential sputtering is a common phenomenon. In the steady state of sputtering, a significant depletion in Cu is found. At the oxide/metal interface, a distinct enrichment of copper is found for all alloys and treatments. The degree of this Cu enrichment depends on the pretreatment. It is higher for the electrochemically-passivated samples than for samples with oxide layers grown during melt spinning.

  11. Edge electron density profiles and fluctuations measured by two-dimensional beam emission spectroscopy in the KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Y. U. Wi, H. M.; Zoletnik, S.; Lampert, M.; Kovácsik, Ákos

    2014-11-15

    Beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has recently been upgraded. The background intensity was reduced from 30% to 2% by suppressing the stray lights. This allows acquisition of the relative electron density profiles on the plasma edge without background subtraction from the beam power modulation signals. The KSTAR BES system has its spatial resolution of 1 cm, the temporal resolution of 2 MHz, and a total 32 channel (8 radial × 4 poloidal) avalanche photo diode array. Most measurements were done on the plasma edge, r/a ∼ 0.9, with 8 cm radial measurement width that covers the pedestal range. High speed density profile measurements reveal temporal behaviors of fast transient events, such as the precursors of edge localized modes and the transitions between confinement modes. Low background level also allows analysis of the edge density fluctuation patterns with reduced background fluctuations. Propagation of the density structures can be investigated by comparing the phase delays between the spatially distributed channels.

  12. Radial profile measurement of electron temperature in edge stochastic magnetic field layer of LHD using intensity ratio of extreme ultraviolet line emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Murakami, Izumi; Goto, Motoshi; Dong Chunfeng

    2012-10-15

    Vertical profile of neon line emissions in 30-650 A wavelength range has been observed in horizontally elongated plasma cross section of Large Helical Device (LHD). Intensity ratio between the neon line emissions is studied to measure the radial profile of electron temperature in the edge stochastic magnetic field layer of LHD. The edge temperature profile successfully obtained from the line ratio of NeVIII 2s-3p to 2p-3s transitions is compared with the simulation based on three-dimensional edge transport code. The result shows a reasonably good agreement with the edge temperature profile analyzed from atomic data and analysis structure code. The electron temperature at last closed flux surface measured from the intensity ratio is also in good agreement with that measured from Thomson scattering.

  13. Practical procedure for discriminating monofloral honey with a broad pollen profile variability using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mara E B C; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Estevinho, Letícia; Peres, António M; Machado, Adélio A S C

    2014-10-01

    Colour and floral origin are key parameters that may influence the honey market. Monofloral light honey are more demanded by consumers, mainly due to their flavour, being more valuable for producers due to their higher price when compared to darker honey. The latter usually have a high anti-oxidant content that increases their healthy potential. This work showed that it is possible to correctly classify monofloral honey with a high variability in floral origin with a potentiometric electronic tongue after making a preliminary selection of honey according their colours: white, amber and dark honey. The results showed that the device had a very satisfactory sensitivity towards floral origin (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp. and Rubus sp.), allowing a leave-one-out cross validation correct classification of 100%. Therefore, the E-tongue shows potential to be used at analytical laboratory level for honey samples classification according to market and quality parameters, as a practical tool for ensuring monofloral honey authenticity. PMID:25059162

  14. Reaction of sulfur dioxide with modified 440C, studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and depth profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.

    1975-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy and sputtering were used to study the interaction of SO2 with modified 440C, which is a nominally 77-wt%-Fe, 14-wt%-Cr, and 4-wt%-Mo bearing steel with C, S, Si, Ni, V, P, and Mn making up the balance. The sample was polycrystalline. Three temperatures were used: room temperature, 500 C, and 600 C. The reaction time was varied from 30 minutes to 2 hours. A surface cleaned of oxides was the starting point for each reaction. For reactions at 500 C, the major constituents Cr, O, Fe, and S were present in the surface film. At 600 C, the principal constituents of the film were Cr, O, and S with no Fe present. Therefore, a transition in film composition occurred between 500 and 600 C. Oxides were the primary constituents of the films at both temperatures. Room-temperature reactions indicated that SO2 adsorbed dissociatively, with approximately equal quantities of S and O on the surface. For the same reaction time (1 hr) and pressure, a strong temperature dependence of film thickness was observed. The film formed at 600 C was approximately seven times thicker than that formed at 500 C.

  15. Practical procedure for discriminating monofloral honey with a broad pollen profile variability using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mara E B C; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Estevinho, Letícia; Peres, António M; Machado, Adélio A S C

    2014-10-01

    Colour and floral origin are key parameters that may influence the honey market. Monofloral light honey are more demanded by consumers, mainly due to their flavour, being more valuable for producers due to their higher price when compared to darker honey. The latter usually have a high anti-oxidant content that increases their healthy potential. This work showed that it is possible to correctly classify monofloral honey with a high variability in floral origin with a potentiometric electronic tongue after making a preliminary selection of honey according their colours: white, amber and dark honey. The results showed that the device had a very satisfactory sensitivity towards floral origin (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp. and Rubus sp.), allowing a leave-one-out cross validation correct classification of 100%. Therefore, the E-tongue shows potential to be used at analytical laboratory level for honey samples classification according to market and quality parameters, as a practical tool for ensuring monofloral honey authenticity.

  16. Electron beam induced current profiling of the p-ZnO:N/n-GaN heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Przeździecka, E. Stachowicz, M.; Chusnutdinow, S.; Jakieła, R.; Kozanecki, A.

    2015-02-09

    The high quality p-n structures studied consist of nitrogen doped ZnO:N films grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on n-type GaN templates. The nitrogen concentration, determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, is about 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Temperature dependent photoluminescence studies confirm the presence of acceptor centers with an energy level lying approximately 130 meV above the valence band. The maximum forward-to-reverse current ratio I{sub F}/I{sub R} in the obtained p-n diodes is about 10{sup 7} at ±5 V, which is 2–5 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported for this type of heterojunctions. Electron-beam-induced current measurements confirm the presence of a p–n junction, located at the p-ZnO/n-GaN interface. The calculated diffusion length and activation energy of minority carriers are presented. The heterostructures exhibit strong absorption in the UV range with a four orders of magnitude high bright-to-dark current ratio.

  17. Guideline-driven telemonitoring and follow-up of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices using IEEE 11073, HL7 & IHE profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maohua; Chronaki, Catherine E; Lüpkes, Christian; Thiel, Andreas; Plössnig, Manuela; Hinterbuchner, Lynne; Arbelo, Elena; Laleci, Gokce Banu; Kabak, Yildiray; Duarte, Fernandez; Guillén, Alejandra; Navarro, Xavier; Dogac, Asuman; Eichelberg, Marco; Hein, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    For patients with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs), telemonitoring promises improved quality of life and safety, since events recorded by the device or observed by the patient can alert a health professional. Taking into account the latest clinical guidelines when responding to such alerts, is a topic of active research addressed by the iCARDEA project. A key technical challenge is correlating telemonitoring CIED report data in a vendor-independent format with Electronic Health Record (EHR) data collected in the hospital and Personal Health Record (PHR) data entered by the patient, in guideline-driven care processes. The iCARDEA CIED exposure service component presented in this paper employs standards specifications from ISO/IEEE 11073 (Health Informatics, Point-of-care Medical Device Communication) and HL7v2.x in the context of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles to deliver telemonitoring CIED report data from two different CIED vendors to the adaptive care planner that implements guideline-driven care plans. Experience gained with implementation and initial component testing is discussed, while challenges and expectations for future health information standards to effectively support EHR-integrated guide-line-driven telemonitoring services are highlighted.

  18. Variation Of Odour Profile Detected In The Floral Stages of Prunus Persica (L) Batsch Using An Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeria, Messina; Silvia, Radice; Rosa, Baby; de Reca Noemí, Walsöe

    2009-05-01

    Bees use signals from plants to identify worthwhile visits. They learn quickly to differentiate mainly their floral odor than their colour. In some species the flowers remain open, intact and turgid until they are pollinated (anthesis) after which they are no longer attractive to pollinators (post-anthesis). Pollinators use fragrance for distance orientation, approach, landing, feeding and associative learning. The aim of this work was to study the variation of odor profile between anthesis and post-anthesis produced in flowers of different cultivars of Prunus Persica (L.) batsch, using an electronic nose since odor is a communication between flowering plants and bees. Visual results on field showed that peach flowers are generally more visited in the anthesis stage. Among all the analysed cultivars, Forastero cultivar was the only one visited in this floral stage. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose data showed that doped semiconductuvtive SnO2 sensors could differentiate between stages (anthesis and post-anthesis) only in case of Forastero cultivar.

  19. Guideline-driven telemonitoring and follow-up of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices using IEEE 11073, HL7 & IHE profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maohua; Chronaki, Catherine E; Lüpkes, Christian; Thiel, Andreas; Plössnig, Manuela; Hinterbuchner, Lynne; Arbelo, Elena; Laleci, Gokce Banu; Kabak, Yildiray; Duarte, Fernandez; Guillén, Alejandra; Navarro, Xavier; Dogac, Asuman; Eichelberg, Marco; Hein, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    For patients with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs), telemonitoring promises improved quality of life and safety, since events recorded by the device or observed by the patient can alert a health professional. Taking into account the latest clinical guidelines when responding to such alerts, is a topic of active research addressed by the iCARDEA project. A key technical challenge is correlating telemonitoring CIED report data in a vendor-independent format with Electronic Health Record (EHR) data collected in the hospital and Personal Health Record (PHR) data entered by the patient, in guideline-driven care processes. The iCARDEA CIED exposure service component presented in this paper employs standards specifications from ISO/IEEE 11073 (Health Informatics, Point-of-care Medical Device Communication) and HL7v2.x in the context of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles to deliver telemonitoring CIED report data from two different CIED vendors to the adaptive care planner that implements guideline-driven care plans. Experience gained with implementation and initial component testing is discussed, while challenges and expectations for future health information standards to effectively support EHR-integrated guide-line-driven telemonitoring services are highlighted. PMID:22255018

  20. Integrated compound profiling screens identify the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the molecular target of the natural products manassantin, sesquicillin, and arctigenin.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kevin; Selinger, Douglas W; Solomon, Jonathan M; Wu, Hua; Schmitt, Esther; Serluca, Fabrizio C; Curtis, Daniel; Benson, John D

    2013-01-18

    Phenotypic compound screens can be used to identify novel targets in signaling pathways and disease processes, but the usefulness of these screens depends on the ability to quickly determine the target and mechanism of action of the molecules identified as hits. One fast route to discovering the mechanism of action of a compound is to profile its properties and to match this profile with those of compounds of known mechanism of action. In this work, the Novartis collection of over 12,000 pure natural products was screened for effects on early zebrafish development. The largest phenotypic class of hits, which caused developmental arrest without necrosis, contained known electron transport chain inhibitors and many compounds of unknown mechanism of action. High-throughput transcriptional profiling revealed that these compounds are mechanistically related to one another. Metabolic and biochemical assays confirmed that all of the molecules that induced developmental arrest without necrosis inhibited the electron transport chain. These experiments demonstrate that the electron transport chain is the target of the natural products manassantin, sesquicillin, and arctigenin. The overlap between the zebrafish and transcriptional profiling screens was not perfect, indicating that multiple profiling screens are necessary to fully characterize molecules of unknown function. Together, zebrafish screening and transcriptional profiling represent sensitive and scalable approaches for identifying bioactive compounds and elucidating their mechanism of action.

  1. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital ISIS-2 Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Vertical Electron-Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.; Truhlik, V.; Huang, X.; Wang, Y.; Bilitza, D.

    2011-01-01

    The topside-sounders on the four satellites of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35-mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height (TOPIST) algorithm has been produced that enables the automatic inversion of ISIS-2 ionogram reflection traces into topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). More than million digital Alouette/ISIS topside ionograms have been produced and over 300,000 are from ISIS 2. Many of these ISIS-2 ionograms correspond to a passive mode of operation for the detection of natural radio emissions and thus do not contain ionospheric reflection traces. TOPIST, however, is not able to produce Ne(h) profiles from all of the ISIS-2 ionograms with reflection traces because some of them did not contain frequency information. This information was missing due to difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame-sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. Of the many digital topside ionograms that TOPIST was able to process, over 200 were found where direct comparisons could be made with Ne(h) profiles that were produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. While many of these comparisons indicated excellent agreement (<10% average difference over the entire profile) there were also many cases with large differences (more than a factor of two). Here we will report on two approaches to improve the automatic inversion process: (1) improve the quality of the digital ionogram database by remedying the missing frequency-information problem when possible, and (2) using the above-mentioned comparisons as

  2. Diagnosis of equilibrium magnetic profiles, current transport, and internal structures in a reversed-field pinch using electron temperature fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, Eli

    Due to long fast ion confinement times, neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) yields large fast ion populations with substantial density gradients. Novel application of the unique high-rep-rate (>10 kHz) Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST has enabled characterization of a newly observed beam-driven instability, and detailed measurement of equilibrium changes caused by the fast ion population. While previous work has focused on high-frequency energetic particle modes (EPMs), recent observations indicate that fast ions drive a bursting instability near the plasma rotation frequency under appropriate conditions. The mode chirps strongly, with a frequency of approximately 7 kHz in the plasma reference frame at peak amplitude. Bursts are correlated with EPM activity and core neutral particle analyzer signals drop by 30% during a burst, suggesting that this mode participates in avalanches of the higher frequency EPMs and drives enhanced fast ion transport. Electron temperature fluctuations correlated with this low-frequency mode exhibit a core-peaked structure with a sensitive dependence on the safety factor q. Although this mode has not yet been positively identified, its characteristics and internal structure are suggestive of an internal kink (fishbone) or beta-induced Alfven eigenmode. In addition to driving EPMs, the large fast ion population also modifies the current profile. An increase in on-axis current density driven by NBI is offset by a reduction in the mid-radius, leading to net-zero current drive. This results in a slight flattening of the safety factor profile, observed by precise measurement of the rational surface locations of the dominant tearing modes; these are identified from the phase flip in correlated electron temperature fluctuations recorded by Thomson scattering. For the core n = 6 rational surface, an inward shift of 1.1 +/- 0.6 cm is observed, with an estimated reduction in q0 of 5%. This technique provides a

  3. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Estevinho, Letícia; Machado, Adélio A S C; Peres, António M

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10-20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation. PMID:26572837

  4. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Estevinho, Letícia; Machado, Adélio A S C; Peres, António M

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10-20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation.

  5. Safety-factor profile tailoring by improved electron cyclotron system for sawtooth control and reverse shear scenarios in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, C.; Sauter, O.; Fable, E.; Henderson, M. A.; Polevoi, A.; Saibene, G.

    2008-11-01

    The effect of the predicted local electron cyclotron current driven by the optimized electron cyclotron system on ITER is discussed. A design variant was recently proposed to enlarge the physics program covered by the upper and equatorial launchers. By extending the functionality range of the upper launcher, significant control capabilities of the sawtooth period can be obtained. The upper launcher improvement still allows enough margin to exceed the requirements for neoclassical tearing mode stabilization, for which it was originally designed. The analysis of the sawtooth control is carried on with the ASTRA transport code, coupled with the threshold model by Por-celli, to study the control capabilities of the improved upper launcher on the sawtooth instability. The simulations take into account the significant stabilizing effect of the fusion alpha particles. The sawtooth period can be increased by a factor of 1.5 with co-ECCD outside the q = 1 surface, and decreased by at least 30% with co-ECCD inside q = 1. The present ITER base-line design has the electron cyclotron launchers providing only co-ECCD. The variant for the equatorial launcher proposes the possibility to drive counter-ECCD with 1 of the 3 rows of mirrors: the counter-ECCD can then be balanced with co-ECCD and provide pure ECH with no net driven current. The difference between full co-ECCD off-axis using all 20MW from the equatorial launcher and 20MW co-ECCD driven by 2/3 from the equatorial launcher and 1/3 from the upper launcher is shown to be negligible. Cnt-ECCD also offers greater control of the plasma current density, therefore this analysis addresses the performance of the equatorial launcher to control the central q profile. The equatorial launcher is shown to control very efficiently the value of q{sub 0.2}-q{sub min} in advanced scenarios, if one row provides counter-ECCD.

  6. [Adherence to chronic medication: also a frequent problem in Belgium!].

    PubMed

    Liekens, S; Hulshagen, L; Dethier, M; Laekeman, G; Foulon, V

    2013-12-01

    Medication adherence in chronic conditions such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer appears to be a frequent problem. However, the literature on adherence in patients who use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), oral hypoglycemic agents, drugs for heart failure, antiretrovirals or oral chemotherapy, contains little or no relevant data for Belgium. In the context of a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical care at KU Leuven, a quantitative study was performed to determine the prevalence of adherence to chronic medication in Belgium. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a database containing refill data of a regional pharmacists' association (KLAV). Out of the 603 pharmacies affiliated with this association, all 50 pharmacies where HIV medication was delivered, were selected. Dispensing data from the selected pharmacies were collected from 01/07/2008 to 31/12/2009 for five pathologies, i.e.; asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer. Adherence (TT) was calculated with the Medication Refill Adherence (MRA) method. In order to determine whether there were associations between age, gender, drug class and adherence, Chi-square tests were used. Compared with the other patients, cancer patients were the most adherent in taking their drugs (median adherence rate = 88%). In addition, this was the only group in which the median adherence rate was above the set limit of 80%. The patients who were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were the least adherent (median adherence rate = 38%). More than 50% of patients with asthma/COPD, heart failure and diabetes were classified as "under-users". Furthermore, the results showed a significant association within asthma patients between gender and adherence. In asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure and HIV patients there was a significant relationship between age and adherence and drug class and adherence. As the current study has some limitations, the results should be handled with caution. Nevertheless

  7. Varicella paediatric hospitalisations in Belgium: a 1-year national survey

    PubMed Central

    Blumental, Sophie; Sabbe, Martine; Lepage, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real burden of infection. We assessed the burden of varicella in Belgium through analysis of hospitalised cases during a 1-year period. Methods Data on children admitted to hospital with varicella were collected through a national network from November 2011 to October 2012. Inclusion criteria were either acute varicella or related complications up to 3 weeks after the rash. Results Participation of 101 hospitals was obtained, covering 97.7% of the total paediatric beds in Belgium. 552 children were included with a median age of 2.1 years. Incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalisations reached 29.5/105 person-years, with the highest impact among those 0–4 years old (global incidence and odds of hospitalisation: 79/105 person-years and 1.6/100 varicella cases, respectively). Only 14% (79/552) of the cohort had an underlying chronic condition. 65% (357/552) of children had ≥1 complication justifying their admission, 49% were bacterial superinfections and 10% neurological disorders. Only a quarter of children (141/552) received acyclovir. Incidence of complicated hospitalised cases was 19/105 person-years. Paediatric intensive care unit admission and surgery were required in 4% and 3% of hospitalised cases, respectively. Mortality among Belgian paediatric population was 0.5/106 and fatality ratio 0.2% among our cohort. Conclusions Varicella demonstrated a substantial burden of disease in Belgian children, especially among the youngest. Our thorough nationwide study, run in a country without varicella UV, offers data to support varicella UV in Belgium. PMID:26130380

  8. CORDEX.be: COmbining Regional climate Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termonia, Piet; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the ongoing project CORDEX.be, "COmbining Regional Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond" is to gather existing and ongoing Belgian research activities in the domain of climate modelling to create a coherent scientific basis for future climate services in Belgium. The project regroups eight Belgian Institutes under a single research program of the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). The project involves three regional climate models: the ALARO model, the COSMO-CLM model and the MAR model running according to the guidelines of the CORDEX project and at convection permitting resolution on small domains over Belgium. The project creates a framework to address four objectives/challenges. First, this projects aims to contribute to the EURO-CORDEX project. Secondly, RCP simulations are executed at convection-permitting resolutions (3 to 5 km) on small domains. Thirdly, the output of the atmospheric models is used to drive land surface models (the SURFEX model and the Urbclim model) with urban modules, a crop model (REGCROP), a tides and storm model (COHERENS) and the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model that simulates the fluxes emitted by vegetation. Finally, one work package will translate the uncertainty present in the CORDEX database to the high-resolution output of the CORDEX.be project. The organization of the project will be presented and first results will be shown, demonstrating that convection-permitting models can add extra skill to the mesoscale version of the regional climate models, in particular regarding the extreme value statistics and the diurnal cycle.

  9. ETMB-RBF: Discrimination of Metal-Binding Sites in Electron Transporters Based on RBF Networks with PSSM Profiles and Significant Amino Acid Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Wu, Sheng-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Cellular respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose and is a very important biological process in living cell. As cells do cellular respiration, they need a pathway to store and transport electrons, the electron transport chain. The function of the electron transport chain is to produce a trans-membrane proton electrochemical gradient as a result of oxidation–reduction reactions. In these oxidation–reduction reactions in electron transport chains, metal ions play very important role as electron donor and acceptor. For example, Fe ions are in complex I and complex II, and Cu ions are in complex IV. Therefore, to identify metal-binding sites in electron transporters is an important issue in helping biologists better understand the workings of the electron transport chain. Methods We propose a method based on Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) profiles and significant amino acid pairs to identify metal-binding residues in electron transport proteins. Results We have selected a non-redundant set of 55 metal-binding electron transport proteins as our dataset. The proposed method can predict metal-binding sites in electron transport proteins with an average 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 93.2% and 93.1% for metal-binding cysteine and histidine, respectively. Compared with the general metal-binding predictor from A. Passerini et al., the proposed method can improve over 9% of sensitivity, and 14% specificity on the independent dataset in identifying metal-binding cysteines. The proposed method can also improve almost 76% sensitivity with same specificity in metal-binding histidine, and MCC is also improved from 0.28 to 0.88. Conclusions We have developed a novel approach based on PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs for identifying metal-binding sites from electron transport proteins. The proposed approach achieved a significant improvement with independent test set of metal-binding electron transport proteins

  10. The Coca-Cola incident in Belgium, June 1999.

    PubMed

    Nemery, B; Fischler, B; Boogaerts, M; Lison, D; Willems, J

    2002-11-01

    The present paper describes the outbreak of health complaints that occurred in Belgium, in June 1999, among schoolchildren and members of the general public in relation to the consumption of Coca-Cola and other soft drinks. The outbreak took place in the wake of a major food crisis, caused by PCB/dioxin contamination of animal feed, that had erupted shortly before. The clinical features (absence of serious poisoning) and epidemiological characteristics of the Coca-Cola outbreak pointed to mass sociogenic illness, and no subsequent toxicological or other data have refuted this hypothesis.

  11. A paradise for LGBT rights? The paradox of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Eeckhout, Bart; Paternotte, David

    2011-01-01

    How is it that a small country such as Belgium, with its reputation of relative conservatism, has jumped to the forefront of LGBT-friendly nations when it comes to the extension of rights to, and implementation of government policies for, its LGBT population? The analysis offered here focuses on a combination of six causes: the impact of wider secularization processes; the political history and culture of the country; the organization of especially the Flemish LGBT movement and reasons for its political effectiveness; mainstream social trends in national scapegoating hierarchies; the overall media environment; and the window of opportunity opened by the political landslide of 1999. PMID:21902492

  12. Organ donation in Belgium: discrepancy between offer and demand.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R

    1987-01-01

    Belgium shows one of the highest numbers of patients with terminal renal failure, treated by means of dialysis, compared to other European countries. Transplantation accounts for only one third of the therapeutic modalities in these patients. As the number of new patients, presenting with terminal renal failure, is equally rising, an always growing discrepancy exists between offered kidneys and patients, desperately waiting for these organs. The same holds true for other organs, as heart, pancreas and liver. This study examines the multiple causes that induce this growing discrepancy and points to some solutions and suggestions that can deal with it. PMID:3303774

  13. The neutral atmosphere of Mars at ionospheric heights: A method to derive neutral atmospheric parameters from MaRS electron density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Kerstin; Pätzold, Martin; Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio; Witasse, Olivier; Tellmann, Silvia; Häusler, Bernd; Bird, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The radio-science experiment MaRS (Mars Radio Science) on the Mars Express spacecraft sounds the atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars since 2004. More than 600 vertical profiles of the Mars ionospheric electron density and lower atmosphere neutral density and temperature have been aquired. These simultaneous soundings of the ionosphere and the lower neutral atmosphere make it possible to get information on the behavior of the Mars neutral atmosphere at ionospheric heights, which is directly not accessible by radio sounding but indirectly from the observed ionospheric electron density profiles. A simple 1D neutral atmospheric model is combined with a 1D ionospheric model for altitude ranges from 80 km to 160 km. The start-scenario of the model neutral atmosphere depends on the observed neutral atmospheric density at lower altitudes. The modelled neutral atmosphere profile as input for the ionospheric model is iterated until an agreement with the true observed electron density has been achieved. Information on the state of the upper neutral atmosphere are derived from the agreement between the modeled and observed electron density profiles.

  14. Auger electron spectroscopy study and depth profile analyses of the CaS:Eu2+ pulsed laser deposited thin luminescent films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenge, R. L.; Swart, H. C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the chemical composition, depth profile analyses of pulsed laser deposited CaS:Eu2+ thin films grown at different substrate temperatures. Using Auger electron spectroscopy, we have shown that the thin film grown in an argon atmosphere shows sulfur deficiency as the substrate temperature is increased from 200 to 650 °C.

  15. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-01

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator.

  16. Spectral line profiles of nickel and argon in supernova 1987A - Expansion velocity and electron scattering effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witteborn, F. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Wooden, D. H.; Pinto, P. A.; Rank, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra of SN 1987A showing the Ni II 6.634-micron and Ar II 6.983-micron fine-structure lines were obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory in April 1988. The signal-to-noise ratio of 100 near the peaks and resolving power of 200 are sufficient to show the average velocity of expansion from the core of about 1400 km/s and to indicate the range of velocities. An asymmetry in the profiles of both lines and a redshift of the line centroids of about 440 km/s above the 280-km/s recessional velocity of the LMC can be explained in terms of scattering of the photons by electrons in the expanding hydrogen envelope of the supernova. A mass of 0.0030 solar masses of Ni II can be deduced from the line strength of the Ni II line and a mass of 0.0009 solar masses of Ar II from the Ar II line strength.

  17. Study of elf propagation anomalies as related to improved knowledge of electron density profiles produced by energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, W. L.; Gunton, R. C.; Larsen, T. R.; Reagan, J. B.; Gaines, E. E.; Meyeroff, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been made of extremely low frequency (ELF) wave propagation anomalies as related to energetic particle precipitation, principally during solar particle events (SPE). Based on calculation of the predicted signal strengths at Tromso for transmissions from the Wisconsin Test Facility (WTF) a criterion has been selected for possible use in a field test operation. If the ion pair production rates at 40 km are equal to or greater than 1 x 1000/cc/sec then it is probable that a 3 dB or larger reduction in signal strength would occur for such an event. Since this preliminary criterion is based on ELF signal strength computation assuming no local time variations along the propagation path, more detailed calculations of the local time ionospheric effects should be performed. A study was made of the expected effect of local time variations during solar particle events on the ELF propagation over the path from WTF to Tromso. Electron and ion density profiles for the various segments of the test path were calculated with the ion chemistry model, taking into account the local time for each segment. In a comparison of conditions measured and calculated for SPE72 on 4 August 1972 near the peak of the event and conditions measured and calculated for a similar case assuming a season of 21 December, very little difference in signal strength attenuation over the path was found.

  18. New Vary-Chap Profile of the Topside Ionosphere Electron Density Distribution for use with the IRI Model and the GIRO Real-Time Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nsumei, Patrick; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    A new Vary-Chap function is introduced for the empirical modeling of the electron density N(h) profile in the topside ionosphere that uses a shape function S(h) in the generalized Chapman function. The Vary-Chap profile extends the bottomside profile that is specified by the IRI model or measured by the Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO) to the altitude of the ISIS-2 satellite. Some 80,000 topside profiles, measured by the topside sounder on the ISIS-2 satellite were analyzed, and the shape function S(h) was calculated for each profile. A parameterized function S*(h), composed of two sub-functions S1(h) and S2(h), is fitted to the measured S(h) profile using three free parameters. At altitudes just above the F2 layer peak height hmF2, the shape function S1 controls S(h), and at greater altitudes S2 controls S(h). The height of the intersection of S1 and S2 is defined as the transition height h(sub T) indicating the transition from an O(+) to an H(+)-dominated profile shape. The observed transition heights range from approx.500 km to 800 km.

  19. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  20. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: Psychometric Characteristics and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dries, Nicky; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot survey was administered to 700 high school,…

  1. 78 FR 34644 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... in Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 64 FR 27756... Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 11520 (March 11, 2003..., Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 16117 (April 2, 2003); Notice...

  2. Global characteristics of the upper transition height derived from the topside Alouette/ISIS topside sounder electron density profiles, the Formosat-3/COSMIC density profiles and the IRI ion composition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlik, Vladimir; Triskova, Ludmila; Benson, Robert; Bilitza, Dieter; Chu, Philip; Richards, Phil G.; Wang, Yongli

    The upper transition height (Ht) (the altitude of the transition from heavy atomic ions to light ions or in the simplest form the transition from O+ to H+) is an important parameter, representing the boundary between the ionosphere and the plasmasphere. Ht is very sensitive to various geophysical parameters, like solar and magnetic activity and strongly depends on latitude and local time. There were numerous studies of this parameter in past decades. In spite of these efforts, no model satisfactorily represents this parameter so far. Moreover, surprising evidence of very low transition heights during the last prolonged solar minimum, of a level never obtained before, have been reported. We investigate the upper transition height on the global scale. We made progress in processing large data sets of Ht deduced from the Alouette/ISIS topside sounder and from the Formosat-3/COSMIC vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h) using the theoretical Global Plasma Ionosphere Density (GPID) model (Webb and Essex, 2004) and a revised non-linear function describing the scale height vs. altitude (Titheridge, 1976) to fit the vertical density profiles to the observed profiles and to determine the upper transition height. Since both methods require the plasma temperatures and their gradients as input, these are calculated using the IRI2012 model. Both methods are verified using a large amount of electron and ion density profiles simulated by the FLIP theoretical model and their accuracy is discussed. We compare the results from Alouette/ISIS and Formosat-3/COSMIC and present a global distribution of the calculated Ht and its dependence on geophysical parameters. Finally we compare it with Ht calculated using the IRI ion composition model. Titheridge, J.E., 1976. Ion Transition Heights from Topside Electron-Density Profiles. Planetary and Space Science 24 (3), 229-245. Webb, P.A., Essex, E.A., 2004. A dynamic global model of the plasmasphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar

  3. First experimental test of quadrupole lens-free multiple profile monitor technique for electron beam emittance measurement with a PW laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krus, M.; Levato, T.; Kim, H. T.; Grittani, G.; Margarone, D.; Jeong, T. M.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.

    2015-05-01

    The quadrupole lens free multiple profile emittance measurement method is an adaptation of the standard multiple profile monitor method for electron beam emittance measurement which was tested at PW laser system. This single shot technique allows to obtain the emittance from beam profile radii fit by means of Twiss (Courant-Snyder) parameters. Lanex scintillating screens were used as profile monitors due to their high yield of visible photons. However, on the other hand, the screen is a source of multiple Coulomb scattering which can influence the beam profile on the following screens at relatively low electron energies. Nevertheless, the contribution of the multiple scattering can be effectively subtracted from the signal by e.g. Bayes unfolding. For high energy beams (E > 0.5 GeV), the multiple scattering contribution is negligible. The presented diagnostics is easy to be implemented into standard experimental setups without any special requests for alignment procedure. Moreover, it can be useful in the optimization phase of the laser plasma accelerator where beam fundamental parameters (energy, energy spread, divergence, pointing) typically fluctuate shot-to- shot.

  4. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  5. Depth profile reconstructions of electronic transport properties in H{sup +} MeV-energy ion-implanted n-Si wafers using photocarrier radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Rui; Wang, Chinhua Hu, Jingpei; Mandelis, Andreas

    2014-07-21

    A depth profiling technique using photocarrier radiometry (PCR) is demonstrated and used for the reconstruction of continuously varying electronic transport properties (carrier lifetime and electronic diffusivity) in the interim region between the ion residence layer and the bulk crystalline layer in H{sup +} implanted semiconductor wafers with high implantation energies (∼MeV). This defect-rich region, which is normally assumed to be part of the homogeneous “substrate” in all existing two- and three-layer models, was sliced into many virtual thin layers along the depth direction so that the continuously and monotonically variable electronic properties across its thickness can be considered uniform within each virtual layer. The depth profile reconstruction of both carrier life time and diffusivity in H{sup +} implanted wafers with several implantation doses (3 × 10{sup 14}, 3 × 10{sup 15}, and 3 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) and different implantation energies (from 0.75 to 2.0 MeV) is presented. This all-optical PCR method provides a fast non-destructive way of characterizing sub-surface process-induced electronic defect profiles in devices under fabrication at any intermediate stage before final metallization and possibly lead to process correction and optimization well before electrical testing and defect diagnosis becomes possible.

  6. 76 FR 45511 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR... Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 16117 (April 2... Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 20114...

  7. Electron density profile measurements at a self-focusing ion beam with high current density and low energy extracted through concave electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Y. Nakamiya, A.; Sakakita, H.; Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.

    2014-02-15

    The self-focusing phenomenon has been observed in a high current density and low energy ion beam. In order to study the mechanism of this phenomenon, a special designed double probe to measure the electron density and temperature is installed into the chamber where the high current density ion beam is injected. Electron density profile is successfully measured without the influence of the ion beam components. Estimated electron temperature and density are ∼0.9 eV and ∼8 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3} at the center of ion beam cross section, respectively. It was found that a large amount of electrons are spontaneously accumulated in the ion beam line in the case of self-forcing state.

  8. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  9. [Control of the legal practice of euthanasia in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Englert, M

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian law legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions came into effect September 22, 2002. Any physician performing euthanasia has to complete a registration document and to send it within four days to a federal commission whose mission is to verify that the legal conditions were fulfilled. From September 22, 2002 to December 31, 2013, 8.767 documents have been registered and analyzed by this commission. They are described in six reports referred to Parliament. The present paper analyzes the work of this commission and answers the criticisms concerning its quality and its efficiency. The allegations that clandestine euthanasia's escaping any control are performed are also discussed. In conclusion, it appears that the legal obligations concerning the practice of euthanasia in Belgium are fully effective.

  10. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium.

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Pecceu, Bert; Theunis, Laetitia; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne; Jorens, Philippe G; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated.

  11. Observation of dopant-profile independent electron transport in sub-monolayer TiOx stacked ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Das, Gangadhar; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopant-profile independent electron transport has been observed through a combined study of temperature dependent electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements on a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films with varying degree of static-disorder. These films were grown by atomic layer deposition through in-situ vertical stacking of multiple sub-monolayers of TiOx in ZnO. Upon decreasing ZnO spacer layer thickness, electron transport smoothly evolved from a good metallic to an incipient non-metallic regime due to the intricate interplay of screening of spatial potential fluctuations and strength of static-disorder in the films. Temperature dependent phase-coherence length as extracted from the magnetotransport measurement revealed insignificant role of inter sub-monolayer scattering as an additional channel for electron dephasing, indicating that films were homogeneously disordered three-dimensional electronic systems irrespective of their dopant-profiles. Results of this study are worthy enough for both fundamental physics perspective and efficient applications of multi-stacked ZnO/TiOx structures in the emerging field of transparent oxide electronics.

  12. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Lan, T.; Yao, Y.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  13. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  14. Family planning of Portuguese immigrants and integration in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ferro Bucher, A S

    1978-01-01

    A substantial immigration of Portuguese and other foreign nationals to Belgium due to a favorable immigration policy guides this investigation to focus on this group in order to study the influence of the acculturation experience on birth-control practices. Choosing a sample of 100 married women within a group of 998 Portuguese immigrants in an urban municipality in Brussels, the study sets out specifically to investigate whether these immigrants adopt attitude patterns of the receiving social group or if they preserve the customs of their original community. The hypothesis held by the study was that the better the woman's integration into Belgian society, the larger her knowledge and acceptance of contraceptives would be. The study found that the majority of interviewed immigrants remained poorly integrated into the Belgian society, and that the transition from a traditional to an industrial society had not included great changes in attitudinal behavior which would facilitate social and cultural integration into the new society. In terms of attitudes toward contraception, negative behavior was observed to be linked not to levels of acculturation, but rather to lack of information. Though the majority of respondents expressed desires for controlled fecundity even when still in Portugal, those who came to Belgium with no previous knowledge or desires admitted to having felt the need for contraceptive practice. The crucial factor in acceptance of modern contraceptive practices is singled out as one of communication. Access to information about contraception is readily available in the Belgian society. The information actually obtained by the women, however, depended on their access to informational channels, the circumstances through which they got in touch with such sources, and their problems with a language barrier when relying on the media through which contraceptive knowledge was made available.

  15. Transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange: a versatile tool for shaping the current and energy profiles of relativistic electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Over the recent years, the emergence of accelerator beamlines capable of exchanging the phase space coordinates between two degrees of freedom have opened the path toward the precise control of phase space distribution and in particular to the production of relativistic electron beams with shaped current profiles. After briefly reviewing the technique, we present its application to produce a train of sub-picosecond microbunches and report on its experimental implementation at the Fermilab's A0 photoinjector facility.

  16. A field-based technique for the longitudinal profiling of ultrarelativistic electron or positron bunches down to lengths of {le}10 microns

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, R.

    1993-05-01

    Present and future generations of particle accelerating and storage machines are expected to develop ever-decreasing electron/positron bunch lengths, down to 100 {mu} and beyond. In this paper a method for measuring the longitudinal profiles of ultrashort (1000 {mu} {approx} 10 {mu}) bunches, based on: (1) the extreme field compaction attained by ultrarelativistic particles, and (2) the reduction of the group velocity of a visible light pulse in a suitably-chosen dielectric medium, is outline.

  17. Estimate of a D region ionospheric electron density profile from MF radio wave observations by the S-310-37 rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashihara, Y.; Ishisaka, K.; Miyake, T.

    2016-01-01

    The S-310-37 rocket, launched at 11:20 (JST) on 16 January 2007, was equipped with a radio receiver to observe the medium-frequency (MF) radio wave propagation characteristics in the ionosphere. The radio receiver measured the intensity and the waveform of the radio wave at 873 kHz from the NHK Kumamoto broadcasting station. The polarized mode waves' intensity characteristics were obtained by analyzing the observed waveform. In this study, the S-310-37 rocket-observed polarized mode waves' propagation characteristics are analyzed in order to estimate the electron density profile in the ionospheric D region. These observations become better measurement approach because the electron density profile in the ionospheric D region is difficult to be observed by other equipment such as a Langmuir probe. A Langmuir probe can measure in the ionospheric D region; however, the absolute values may be off by the influence of wake effects around the sounding rocket. It is demonstrated that the propagation characteristics of the polarized mode waves can be successfully used to derive the electron density profile in the ionospheric D region.

  18. Exploratory and structural data analysis of a sandy aquifer at Mol/Dessel, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogiers, Bart; Mallants, Dirk; Batelaan, Okke; Gedeon, Matej; Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the disposal of short-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in a near-surface disposal facility in Dessel, Belgium, additional extensive site characterization has been performed in 2008. The gathered data now enclose 388 hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples of 8 cored boreholes. Additionally, secondary information as grain size analysis, resistivity, porosity, etc. was gathered. With this dataset, a small-scale probabilistic approach can be used 1) to validate the current existing deterministic groundwater models based on large-scale average hydraulic conductivity values, and 2) to support design for a monitoring network. In preparation for stochastic realizations of the subsurface, an exploratory and structural data analysis was performed and is presented here. The exploratory data analysis allows definition of hydrogeological units, independent from the existing lithostratigraphy. It also shows the presence of three conductivity classes within a strongly heterogeneous unit. Currently, only vertical structural data analysis is performed based on vertical data profiles. Semi-variograms and cross-variograms are calculated to characterize the spatial variance of the different hydrogeological units. Additional sampling and measurements will be performed in the future to provide information of the horizontal spatial variance. Together with the current results, these will serve as the basis for conditional stochastic simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

  19. [Evaluation of the bacteriologic quality of breast milk in a neonatology service in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Vervoort, A; Delsat, L; Pieltain, C; De Halleux, V; Carpentier, M; Rigo, J

    2007-03-01

    Many studies demonstrated that human milk is the recommended source of enteral nutrition in preterm infants providing several benefits with regards to feeding tolerance, immunity and cognitive development However, neurological immaturity and associated clinical conditions prevent them from suckling effectively. Therefore, mother's milk must be expressed, stored and transported to the neonatal unit and could be contaminated. The microbiological quality of human milk was evaluated on each donation to the neonatal intensive care unit of the University of Liege, Belgium from November 1, 2003 to January 31, 2005. In all, 5842 samples from 176 mothers were included in the study. Samples were classified according to the exclusive presence of coagulase negative Staphylococcus and their number (less or more than 104 germs per ml) or to contamination with pathogens. More than 50% of analyzed milks had to be pasteurized (46%; >104 coagulase negative Staphylococcus per ml) or to be discarded (7% pathogen contamination). The incidence of pasteurisation tends to increase during the summer, suggesting a seasonal influence. Maternal profiles were established longitudinally. Among the 60 mothers whose at least one sample had pathogen contamination, 27% had a contamination occurring only during a few days, but 73% had more than 50% of their samples discarded. This study suggest the need to promote the use and the financial support of intrahospital human milk bank units to support the safe use of raw and pasteurised human milk in preterm infants.

  20. Pulsed HF radiowave absorption measurements at 2.1 MHZ. over Delhi under quiet and solar flare conditions and related electron density height profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandra Swamy, A. C.

    EXTENDED ABSTRACT Pulsed HF radiowave absorption measurements at 2.1 MHZ. over Delhi under quiet and solar flare conditions and related electron density height profiles A.C.Balachandra swmay & Late C.S.G.K. Setty Absorption of radio waves in the ionosphere is of great practical importance for radio communication and navigation systems. The first attempt to measure the absolute magnitude of the radiowave absorption were made by appletion and Ratcliffe (1930) using the frequency change method for medium frequency waves reflected from the E-region. They concluded from their experiment that the main part of the attenuation occurred below the reflection level and named the absorption region, D-region of the ionosphere. One of the basic properties of the ionosphere is the absorption of high Frequency Radiowaves. HF radiowave absorption results mainly from collisions between electrons (which are set into forced oscillations by the electric field of the wave) and neutral air particles, the RF energy abstracted from the wave being converted into thermal energy. The radiowave absorption in the ionosphere depends on electron density and collision frequency. The most important absorbing regions are the D-region and the lower E-region (50-100 Km.) The regular diurnal variation of the electron density in this height range is caused mainly by the changes in the depth of penetration of solar XUV radiations with solar zenith angle under quiet solar conditions. In 1937 Dellinger J.H.identified fade outs in high frequency radio circuits as due to abnormal ionospheric absorption associated with solar flares. The onset of the fade out was usually rapid and the duration was typically tens of minutes like that of the visible flare, because of the sudden onset, the immediate effects of solar flares are known collectively as sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (STD). The phenomenon discovered by Dellinger is usually called a short Wave Fadeout(SWF). Since the SWF is due to abnormal absorption

  1. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th 16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalm, O.; Caluwé, D.; Wouters, H.; Janssens, K.; Verhaeghe, F.; Pieters, M.

    2004-10-01

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Façon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century.

  2. Spatial density profile of electrons near the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yasuhiro Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Sato, Hiroki K.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2014-04-14

    The depth profile of the electron density near the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface has been studied by means of time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. A broad blue PL band is observed at 2.9 eV, originating from the two-carrier radiative recombination of interface-induced electrons and photoexcited holes. The PL lifetime of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface is dominated by the three-carrier Auger recombination of electrons and holes and is sensitive to electron density. We tuned the probing depth by changing the excitation photon energy and evaluated the carrier-density profile using the relation between the carrier density and the PL lifetime. Our non-contact probe method based on PL spectroscopy indicates that the carriers are confined within several nanometers in depth near the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructures.

  3. Asymmetric band profile of the Soret band of deoxymyoglobin is caused by electronic and vibronic perturbations of the heme group rather than by a doming deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Gorden, John Paul; Hagarman, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    We measured the Soret band of deoxymyoglobin (deoxyMb), myoglobin cyanide (MbCN), and aquo-metmyoglobin (all from horse heart) with absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. A clear non-coincidence was observed between the absorption and CD profiles of deoxyMb and MbCN, with the CD profiles red- and blueshifted with respect to the absorption band position, respectively. On the contrary, the CD and absorption profiles of aquametMb were nearly identical. The observed noncoincidence indicates a splitting of the excited B state due to heme-protein interactions. CD and absorption profiles of deoxyMb and MbCN were self-consistently analyzed by employing a perturbation approach for weak vibronic coupling as well as the relative intensities and depolarization ratios of seven bands in the respective resonance Raman spectra measured with B-band excitation. The respective By component was found to dominate the observed Cotton effect of both myoglobin derivatives. The different signs of the noncoincidences between CD and absorption bands observed for deoxyMb and MbCN are due to different signs of the respective matrix elements of A1g electronic interstate coupling, which reflects an imbalance of Gouterman's 50:50 states. The splitting of the B band reflects contributions from electronic and vibronic perturbations of B1g symmetry. The results of our analysis suggest that the broad and asymmetric absorption band of deoxyMb results from this band splitting rather than from its dependence on heme doming. Thus, we are able to explain recent findings that the temperature dependences of CO rebinding to myoglobin and the Soret band profile are uncorrelated[Ormos et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 95, 6762 (1998)].

  4. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  5. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-01

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator. PMID:25665600

  6. Environmental engineering education at Ghent University, Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Demeestere, K; Dewulf, J; Janssen, C; Van Langenhove, H

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, environmental engineering education has been a rapidly growing discipline in many universities. This paper discusses the history, the current status and the near future of environmental engineering education at Ghent University. This university, with about 50% of the Flemish university environmental engineering students, can be considered as representative for the situation in Flanders, Belgium. In contrast to many other universities, environmental engineering education at Ghent University does not have its historical roots in civil engineering, but has been developed from the curricula organized by the former Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. As part of a reorganisation of the education and research activities at this faculty, a curriculum leading to the degree of "bio-engineer in environmental technology" was established in 1991. This curriculum covers a 5-year study and is constructed around 8 main components. Exchange of students with other European universities, e.g. within the Socrates framework, has become a prominent aspect of student life and education. This paper also briefly describes the employment opportunities of graduated bio-engineers in environmental technology. Finally, the current implementation of the bachelor's-master's structure, leading to a "master of science in environmental technology" degree is summarized.

  7. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  8. Income-related health inequality in Belgium: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Lecluyse, Ann

    2007-09-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the degree of income-related inequality in self-assessed health in Belgium. First of all, we combine the time dimension, which has been shown to be very important in the analysis of inequality, and the use of the recently developed interval regression approach to transform a categorical health variable in a continuous one. Second, we measure how the long-run inequality differs from the short-run inequality. Finally, we decompose this health-related income mobility index as well as the long-run concentration index (CI) itself into its contributors. Using data from the panel survey of Belgian households (1994-2002), we find that health is pro-rich distributed and that its inequality is underestimated by 9.45% when neglecting the dynamics of individuals over time. Income, education, job status and age are the most important contributors in the CI and the difference between the short-run and long-run inequality.

  9. The road user behaviour of school students in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Sullman, Mark J M; Thomas, Abigail; Stephens, Amanda N

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate both the on road behaviour of Belgian school students and the validity of the Adolescent Road User Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) in a sample of students attending school in Belgium. In total, 294 adolescents completed the ARBQ along with measures of their self-reported accident involvement and sensation seeking behaviour. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the original factor structure of: "unsafe road crossing", "playing on the road" and "planned protective behaviour" for the 21-item version of the questionnaire, but not for the full scale. Males were found to engage more often in unsafe crossing behaviour and playing on the roads. There were also age differences, with unsafe road crossing increasing with age and engagement in planned protective behaviours improving with age. Those who reported being involved in an accident also reported more frequent engagement in unsafe crossing, playing on the roads, thrill seeking behaviour and lower levels of behaviour inhibition. Therefore, this study confirms that the ARBQ is a useful tool for investigating safety-related behaviours that contribute to accident involvement.

  10. Polyphasic analysis of a middle ages coprolite microbiota, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Appelt, Sandra; Armougom, Fabrice; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Robert, Catherine; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Paleomicrobiological investigations of a 14(th)-century coprolite found inside a barrel in Namur, Belgium were done using microscopy, a culture-dependent approach and metagenomics. Results were confirmed by ad hoc PCR--sequencing. Investigations yielded evidence for flora from ancient environment preserved inside the coprolite, indicated by microscopic observation of amoebal cysts, plant fibers, seeds, pollens and mold remains. Seventeen different bacterial species were cultured from the coprolite, mixing organisms known to originate from the environment and organisms known to be gut inhabitants. Metagenomic analyses yielded 107,470 reads, of which known sequences (31.9%) comprised 98.98% bacterial, 0.52% eukaryotic, 0.44% archaeal and 0.06% viral assigned reads. Most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The 16 S rRNA gene dataset yielded 132,000 trimmed reads and 673 Operational Taxonomic Units. Most abundant bacterial phyla observed in the 16 S rRNA gene dataset belonged to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chlamydia. The Namur coprolite yielded typical gut microbiota inhabitants, intestinal parasites Trichuris and Ascaris and systemic pathogens Bartonella and Bordetella. This study adds knowledge to gut microbiota in medieval times. PMID:24586319

  11. Basic epidemiology of opiate misuse substitution treatment in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Y

    2012-09-01

    The Substitution Treatment National Registry provided from mid 2006 till mid 2009 an exhaustive documentation on all patients being prescribed methadone or buprenorphine in Belgium. This endeavour was possible through cooperation of all community pharmacies and their representative organizations was supported at the time by the former Health federal minister. The Liberal belgian opiate medical substitution process authorizes untill now de facto any doctor to prescribe methadone and pharmacists are supported to dispense it. Results show the regional, provincial and county numbers of professionals and patients prevalence in the population. Nationwide, n = 16974 patients (prevalence for population aged 20-64: 26/10000) have been offered substitution from mid 2008 till mid 2009, n = 3390 pharmacies 164,4% of all pharmacies) and n = 2937 MDs (16,75% of all MDs) have been involved. Subutex or Suboxone have been dispensed to 11,1% of substitution patients with 7,4% receiving only buprenorphine on a yearly basis. Number of substitution patients by MD and prevalence by gender, age group and region are presented. Important variations are observed locally, possibly mirroring heroin addiction due to widespread access to substitution treatment. Younger patients are more prevalent in semi rural or border areas. The exhaustivity of available data enables also to observe patients quitting substitution altogether and a strong difference of maintenance rate is observed favoring methadone over buprenorphine. PMID:23697094

  12. Polyphasic Analysis of a Middle Ages Coprolite Microbiota, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Appelt, Sandra; Armougom, Fabrice; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Robert, Catherine; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Paleomicrobiological investigations of a 14th-century coprolite found inside a barrel in Namur, Belgium were done using microscopy, a culture-dependent approach and metagenomics. Results were confirmed by ad hoc PCR – sequencing. Investigations yielded evidence for flora from ancient environment preserved inside the coprolite, indicated by microscopic observation of amoebal cysts, plant fibers, seeds, pollens and mold remains. Seventeen different bacterial species were cultured from the coprolite, mixing organisms known to originate from the environment and organisms known to be gut inhabitants. Metagenomic analyses yielded 107,470 reads, of which known sequences (31.9%) comprised 98.98% bacterial, 0.52% eukaryotic, 0.44% archaeal and 0.06% viral assigned reads. Most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The 16 S rRNA gene dataset yielded 132,000 trimmed reads and 673 Operational Taxonomic Units. Most abundant bacterial phyla observed in the 16 S rRNA gene dataset belonged to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chlamydia. The Namur coprolite yielded typical gut microbiota inhabitants, intestinal parasites Trichuris and Ascaris and systemic pathogens Bartonella and Bordetella. This study adds knowledge to gut microbiota in medieval times. PMID:24586319

  13. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers. PMID:12425106

  14. Changes in the High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density Profiles in Response to Solar-Wind Perturbations During Large Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Arbacher, Becca

    2011-01-01

    The latest results from an investigation to establish links between solar-wind and topside-ionospheric parameters will be presented including a case where high-latitude topside electron-density Ne(h) profiles indicated dramatic rapid changes in the scale height during the main phase of a large magnetic storm (Dst < -200 nT). These scale-height changes suggest a large heat input to the topside ionosphere at this time. The topside profiles were derived from ISIS-1 digital ionograms obtained from the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDA Web). Solar-wind data obtained from the NASA OMNIWeb database indicated that the magnetic storm was due to a magnetic cloud. This event is one of several large magnetic storms being investigated during the interval from 1965 to 1984 when both solar-wind and digital topside ionograms, from either Alouette-2, ISIS-1, or ISIS-2, are potentially available.

  15. Electron-beam induced variation of surface profile in amorphous As{sub 20}Se{sub 80} films

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovskii, Yu. E-mail: trunov.m@gmail.com; Trunov, M. L. E-mail: trunov.m@gmail.com; Cserhati, C.; Beke, D. L.; Kökényesi, S.

    2014-05-14

    Unusual profile variation of holographic surface relief gratings is detected in thin (2 μm) As{sub 20}Se{sub 80} chalcogenide films under e-beam irradiation: gratings of small periods were smoothed, whereas the gratings of larger periods increased their amplitudes. Irradiation was carried out in SEM, with 20 kV voltage and 8 nA current; the profiles of the irradiated areas were analyzed both by AFM and SEM. It is found that the kinetics of both flattening and growth followed by exponential law and took place due to lateral mass transport accelerated by e-irradiation. It is shown that the profile variation is mainly caused by competition between capillary forces and “chemical” forces induced by broken and deformed atomic bonds under e-beam irradiation. The kinetics of profile variation was calculated assuming that the mechanism of e-beam induced mass transfer is volume diffusion. The diffusion coefficients were estimated from the experimental data using theoretical expressions derived.

  16. User's Guide: An Enhanced Modified Faraday Cup for the Profiling of the Power Density Distribution in Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J W; Teruya, A T; Palmer, T A

    2002-06-01

    This handbook describes the assembly and operation of an enhanced Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) diagnostic device for measuring the power density distribution of high power electron beams used for welding. The most recent version of this diagnostic device, [1] Version 2.0, contains modifications to the hardware components of previous MFC designs.[2] These modifications allow for more complete capture of the electrons and better electrical grounding, thus improving the quality of the acquired data and enabling a more accurate computed tomographic (CT) reconstruction [3,4] of the power density distribution of the electron beam to be performed. [ 5-9

  17. Radial Profiles of Electron Density and Current Components at Cathode Surface in LaB6 Hollow Cathode Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Setsuo; Asano, Toshiaki; Morimiya, Osami

    1987-06-01

    Experimental studies on a hydrogen-fed LaB6 hollow cathode arc have been pursued. The plasma parameter in the cathode has been measured by a Langmuir probe. The radial variation in the electron density inside the cathode was calculated using the continuity and momentum equations, showing good agreement with the experimental results. The electron density at the cathode surface was estimated to be 15%-20% of that at the cathode axis. It was also found from the current balance that the arc current components at the cathode surface consist of a thermionic current which takes into account the Schottky effect, the ion current and the secondary electron current induced by ion bombardment. The ion current and the cathode surface is larger than the electron current emitted from the cathode.

  18. Electron Microscopy Studies, Surface Analysis and Microbial Culturing Experiments on a Depth Profile Through Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toporski, J. K. W.; Steele, A.; Westall, F.; Griffin, C.; Whitby, C.; Avci, R.; McKay, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Combined electron microscopy studies and culturing experiments have shown that Nakhla became contaminated with recent terrestrial microorganisms. Additional surface analysis detected an as yet unknown organic species which may represent a biomarker.

  19. Resonant enhancement of mode conversion in unmagnetized plasmas due to a periodic density modulation superimposed on a linear electron density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Dae Jung; Kim, Kihong; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2010-10-15

    Mode conversion of p-polarized electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations at resonance points in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas, where a small periodic density modulation is superimposed on a linear electron density profile, is theoretically studied. The mode conversion coefficient and the magnetic field distribution are calculated in a numerically exact manner using the invariant imbedding theory of mode conversion. It is found that resonant enhancement of mode conversion, which is sometimes as high as 100%, can be achieved by tuning the incident angle, the modulation period, or the wave frequency. This phenomenon is explained as due to the formation of a standing wave near the resonance point.

  20. Profiles of ion beams and plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-15

    In order to contribute to various applications of plasma and beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance, a new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed with enhanced efficiency for broad and dense ion beam. The magnetic field configuration consists of a pair of comb-shaped magnet surrounding plasma chamber cylindrically. Resonance zones corresponding for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are positioned at spatially different positions. We launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves operated individually, try to control profiles of the plasma parameters and the extracted ion beams, and to measure them in detail.

  1. Spot profile analysis and lifetime mapping in ultrafast electron diffraction: Lattice excitation of self-organized Ge nanostructures on Si(001)

    PubMed Central

    Frigge, T.; Hafke, B.; Tinnemann, V.; Witte, T.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast high energy electron diffraction in reflection geometry is employed to study the structural dynamics of self-organized Germanium hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters on Si(001) upon femtosecond laser excitation. Utilizing the difference in size and strain state the response of hut- and dome clusters can be distinguished by a transient spot profile analysis. Surface diffraction from {105}-type facets provide exclusive information on hut clusters. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of the dynamics of the entire diffraction pattern gives time constants of 40, 160, and 390 ps, which are assigned to the cooling time constants for hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters. PMID:26798797

  2. Impact of soil characteristics and land use on pipe erosion in a temperate humid climate: Field studies in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verachtert, E.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Nadal-Romero, E.; Poesen, J.; Devoldere, S.; Wijnants, N.; Deckers, J.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the role of soil characteristics and land use in the development of soil pipes in the loess belt of Belgium. First, we tested the hypothesis that discontinuities in the soil profile enhance lateral flow and piping by impeding vertical infiltration. We focus on discontinuities in soil characteristics that can vary with soil depth, including texture, saturated hydraulic conductivity, penetration resistance, and bulk density. These characteristics as well as soil biological activity were studied in detail on 12 representative soil profiles for different land use types. Twelve sites were selected in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium): four pastures with collapsed pipes (CP), four pastures without CP, two sites under arable land without CP and two sites under forest without CP. Secondly, this study aimed at evaluating the interaction of groundwater table positions (through soil augerings) and CP in a larger area, with a focus on pastures. Pasture is the land use where almost all CP in the study area are observed. Therefore, the position of the groundwater table was compared for 15 pastures with CP and 14 pastures without CP, having comparable topographical characteristics in terms of slope gradient and contributing area. Finally, the effect of land use history on the occurrence of pipe collapse was evaluated for a database of 84 parcels with CP and 84 parcels without CP, currently under pasture. As to the first hypothesis, no clear discontinuities for abiotic soil characteristics in soil profiles were observed at the depth where pipes occur, but pastures with CP had significantly more earthworm channels and mole burrows at larger depths (> 120 cm: mean of > 200 earthworm channels per m2) than pastures without CP, arable land or forest (> 120 cm depth, a few or no earthworm channels left). The land use history appeared to be similar for the pastures with and without CP. Combining all results from soil profiles and soil augering indicates that intense

  3. Dissemination of the Project's Findings. National Seminar: French-Speaking Belgium (10th, Brussels, Belgium, December 2, 1988). The CDCC's Project No. 8: "Innovation in Primary Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delmelle, Rene

    A seminar was held in Brussels for the purpose of disseminating results of the Council of Europe's Council for Cultural Cooperation's (CDCC) Project 8, Innovation in Primary Education (IPE), and information about IPE-related educational innovation in French-speaking Belgium. Participants were 92 educators. A review of aims of the CDCC and aspects…

  4. Clinical radiotherapy audits in Belgium, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Scalliet, P G M

    2015-10-01

    Systematic clinical radiotherapy audits have been introduced in Belgium in 2011, as part of the Federal Cancer Plan. This is in compliance with article 11 of the 97/43 Council directive of Euratom states, translated into the Belgian legislation by royal decree in 2002. The principle of clinical audits has thus been part of the federal legal requirements for more than 10 years. However, its application had to wait for the development of a practical approach: what authority will audit, who will be the auditors, along which methodology, at what frequency, etc. Since 2002, the Federal College of Radiotherapy has the mission to monitor quality of radiotherapy at large. It was therefore decided after discussions with the relevant administration at the Ministry of Health and the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control that the College would practically organise the audits. Early in the 2000s, the IAEA developed a manual for comprehensive audits, as a tool for quality improvement. Auditors were professionals of the domain and the audit visit took the form of a peer review. Great care was taken to assemble an audit party able to cover all aspects of clinical radiotherapy with a radiation oncologist, a medical physicist, a radiation therapist and, on demand, a quality officer. The IAEA manual contains a series of questionnaires to be prepared by the audited centre in advance (pre-audit and self-assessment), indicating what specific areas the auditors would assess. It is also a template for the auditors, ensuring that no area is left aside or forgotten during the site visit. The report, at the end of the visit, is drafted according to a specific report template, also developed by IAEA. Several members of the Belgian radiotherapy community have developed their auditor's skills by participating to the IAEA audit program; they are the core of the auditor Belgian team.

  5. Clinical radiotherapy audits in Belgium, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Scalliet, P G M

    2015-10-01

    Systematic clinical radiotherapy audits have been introduced in Belgium in 2011, as part of the Federal Cancer Plan. This is in compliance with article 11 of the 97/43 Council directive of Euratom states, translated into the Belgian legislation by royal decree in 2002. The principle of clinical audits has thus been part of the federal legal requirements for more than 10 years. However, its application had to wait for the development of a practical approach: what authority will audit, who will be the auditors, along which methodology, at what frequency, etc. Since 2002, the Federal College of Radiotherapy has the mission to monitor quality of radiotherapy at large. It was therefore decided after discussions with the relevant administration at the Ministry of Health and the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control that the College would practically organise the audits. Early in the 2000s, the IAEA developed a manual for comprehensive audits, as a tool for quality improvement. Auditors were professionals of the domain and the audit visit took the form of a peer review. Great care was taken to assemble an audit party able to cover all aspects of clinical radiotherapy with a radiation oncologist, a medical physicist, a radiation therapist and, on demand, a quality officer. The IAEA manual contains a series of questionnaires to be prepared by the audited centre in advance (pre-audit and self-assessment), indicating what specific areas the auditors would assess. It is also a template for the auditors, ensuring that no area is left aside or forgotten during the site visit. The report, at the end of the visit, is drafted according to a specific report template, also developed by IAEA. Several members of the Belgian radiotherapy community have developed their auditor's skills by participating to the IAEA audit program; they are the core of the auditor Belgian team. PMID:26321683

  6. Control of sawflies in apple and pear in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    In the Belgian fruit growing area, sawflies are generally common but minor pests in pome fruit. Though, intensity and frequency of sawfly damage in apple and pear is increasing the last years in IPM and especially in organic orchards. The main species are apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) and pear sawfly (Hoplocaompa brevis Klug) and recently also pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius). Here we report efficacy results on all three sawfly species fromtrial of three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013). Flights and embryonic development were monitored and small plot efficacy trials were executed. Control of apple sawfly was complete (97.6% Abbott -trial 2011) when thiacloprid at 120 g/ha LWA was applied at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs. In 2012, a trial was executed on pear sawfly. Applications with thiacloprid were executed when the embryo was visible in the pear sawfly eggs and earlier at the start of egg laying. At both application timings, 100% Abbott efficacy was reached. A number of other active ingredients were tested at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs and very interesting efficacy results were reached for thiofanate-methyl, indoxacarb, spinosad, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and acetamiprid. In 2013, a preflowering application with pyrethrins + PBO reached the highest control against this pest. The most effective active ingredients of the pear sawfly trial were applied also in a trial on pear shoot sawfly. Efficacies were low or lacking, except for thiacloprid. Thiacloprid is in pear growing in Belgium only registered before flowering and after harvest. Therefore further research is needed to test the effect of earlier applications against this pest. This is a valuable efficacy study on occasionally occurring pests that are able to cause considerable economic losses. PMID:25145248

  7. Control of sawflies in apple and pear in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    In the Belgian fruit growing area, sawflies are generally common but minor pests in pome fruit. Though, intensity and frequency of sawfly damage in apple and pear is increasing the last years in IPM and especially in organic orchards. The main species are apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) and pear sawfly (Hoplocaompa brevis Klug) and recently also pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius). Here we report efficacy results on all three sawfly species fromtrial of three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013). Flights and embryonic development were monitored and small plot efficacy trials were executed. Control of apple sawfly was complete (97.6% Abbott -trial 2011) when thiacloprid at 120 g/ha LWA was applied at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs. In 2012, a trial was executed on pear sawfly. Applications with thiacloprid were executed when the embryo was visible in the pear sawfly eggs and earlier at the start of egg laying. At both application timings, 100% Abbott efficacy was reached. A number of other active ingredients were tested at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs and very interesting efficacy results were reached for thiofanate-methyl, indoxacarb, spinosad, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and acetamiprid. In 2013, a preflowering application with pyrethrins + PBO reached the highest control against this pest. The most effective active ingredients of the pear sawfly trial were applied also in a trial on pear shoot sawfly. Efficacies were low or lacking, except for thiacloprid. Thiacloprid is in pear growing in Belgium only registered before flowering and after harvest. Therefore further research is needed to test the effect of earlier applications against this pest. This is a valuable efficacy study on occasionally occurring pests that are able to cause considerable economic losses.

  8. Uptake of preventive health care among Mediterranean migrants in Belgium.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Stuyft, P; Woodward, M; Amstrong, J; De Muynck, A

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the influence of ethnicity on the demand for preventive care by Mediterranean migrants in Belgium. DESIGN--This was a survey of patient contacts with general practitioners. SETTING AND PATIENTS--33 general practitioners working in Belgian localities with the highest migrant density collaborated in the study. During two months they recorded information on consultations with an estimated 72,600 clients. Participation was obtained from all subjects attending for preventive care or for a new episode of illness (n = 6256). MAIN RESULTS--An average of 30% of the patients sought preventive care, but multivariate analysis showed ethnicity to be a strong independent predictor of this type of demand. The higher primary preventive uptake by female Moroccans and Turks and the higher secondary preventive uptake by males from the same ethnic groups, as compared with the Belgian reference population, contrasted with a lower demand for tertiary prevention in migrants of either gender. The relative demand for preventive care by the more acculturated migrants was, however, quite similar to the demand of the Belgian population. CONCLUSIONS--The differential uptake of primary preventive care could be partly explained by the higher fertility rates of immigrant women, and the differential secondary uptake by a lower incidence of tuberculosis in the indigenous population. The meagre demand for tertiary prevention by Moroccan and Turkish migrants could be due to weaker compliance with treatments for chronic disorders, which is related to the perceptions of illness in these ethnic groups. The establishment of cross cultural mechanisms of dialogue should enhance compliance and improve the access of immigrants to the benefits of tertiary preventive care. PMID:8436884

  9. Profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade, COMPASS, and ISTTOK tokamak using Thomson scattering, triple, and ball-pen probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, J.; Müller, H. W.; Silva, C.; Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Horacek, J.; Kurzan, B.; Bilkova, P.; Böhm, P.; Aftanas, M.; Vondracek, P.; Stöckel, J.; Panek, R.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H.

    2016-04-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment), COMPASS (COMPact ASSembly), and ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Tecnico TOKamak) tokamak. The electron temperature is provided by a combination of the BPP potential (ΦBPP) and the floating potential (Vfl) of the Langmuir probe (LP), which is compared with the Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained for circular and diverted plasmas and different heating mechanisms (Ohmic, NBI, ECRH) in deuterium discharges with the same formula Te = (ΦBPP - Vfl)/2.2. The comparative measurements of the electron temperature using BPP/LP and triple probe (TP) techniques on the ISTTOK tokamak show good agreement of averaged values only inside the separatrix. It was also found that the TP provides the electron temperature with significantly higher standard deviation than BPP/LP. However, the resulting values of both techniques are well in the phase with the maximum of cross-correlation function being 0.8.

  10. Profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade, COMPASS, and ISTTOK tokamak using Thomson scattering, triple, and ball-pen probes.

    PubMed

    Adamek, J; Müller, H W; Silva, C; Schrittwieser, R; Ionita, C; Mehlmann, F; Costea, S; Horacek, J; Kurzan, B; Bilkova, P; Böhm, P; Aftanas, M; Vondracek, P; Stöckel, J; Panek, R; Fernandes, H; Figueiredo, H

    2016-04-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment), COMPASS (COMPact ASSembly), and ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Tecnico TOKamak) tokamak. The electron temperature is provided by a combination of the BPP potential (ΦBPP) and the floating potential (Vfl) of the Langmuir probe (LP), which is compared with the Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained for circular and diverted plasmas and different heating mechanisms (Ohmic, NBI, ECRH) in deuterium discharges with the same formula Te = (ΦBPP - Vfl)/2.2. The comparative measurements of the electron temperature using BPP/LP and triple probe (TP) techniques on the ISTTOK tokamak show good agreement of averaged values only inside the separatrix. It was also found that the TP provides the electron temperature with significantly higher standard deviation than BPP/LP. However, the resulting values of both techniques are well in the phase with the maximum of cross-correlation function being 0.8. PMID:27131677

  11. Profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade, COMPASS, and ISTTOK tokamak using Thomson scattering, triple, and ball-pen probes.

    PubMed

    Adamek, J; Müller, H W; Silva, C; Schrittwieser, R; Ionita, C; Mehlmann, F; Costea, S; Horacek, J; Kurzan, B; Bilkova, P; Böhm, P; Aftanas, M; Vondracek, P; Stöckel, J; Panek, R; Fernandes, H; Figueiredo, H

    2016-04-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment), COMPASS (COMPact ASSembly), and ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Tecnico TOKamak) tokamak. The electron temperature is provided by a combination of the BPP potential (ΦBPP) and the floating potential (Vfl) of the Langmuir probe (LP), which is compared with the Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained for circular and diverted plasmas and different heating mechanisms (Ohmic, NBI, ECRH) in deuterium discharges with the same formula Te = (ΦBPP - Vfl)/2.2. The comparative measurements of the electron temperature using BPP/LP and triple probe (TP) techniques on the ISTTOK tokamak show good agreement of averaged values only inside the separatrix. It was also found that the TP provides the electron temperature with significantly higher standard deviation than BPP/LP. However, the resulting values of both techniques are well in the phase with the maximum of cross-correlation function being 0.8.

  12. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J L; Karasik, M; Chan, L Y

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (∼1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 10(15) W/cm(2). The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 10(21) cm(-3) with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting n(e) and T(e) profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light. PMID:26329186

  13. Variability of the bottomside (B0, B1) profile parameters of ionospheric electron density over the lower mid-latitude Cyprus and comparisons with IRI-2012 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Sampad Kumar; Haralambous, Haris; Mostafa, Md Golam

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the variations of the bottomside ionospheric electron density profile thickness (B0) and shape (B1) parameters, deduced from the manually scaled digisonde (DPS-4D) ionograms at the lower mid-latitude Cyprus (Geographic 35°N, 33°E) covering the period 2009-2014. The monthly median hourly values of these parameters during different seasons and solar activity conditions are compared with the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012) estimations using three different options namely: Bil-2000, Gul-1987, and ABT-2009. To ensure the quiet time profile, the ionograms of the geomagnetically disturbed periods are discarded from the datasets and the storm model in the IRI is intentionally turned off. The statistical studies reveal considerable discrepancies in the observed B0 parameters from the model simulations, though the divergences are minimal around the daytime and during the summer solstice seasons. Nevertheless, B0 with the Gul-1987 option apparently shows closer daytime value during the low solar active summer, whereas the ABT-2009 option manifested relatively better agreement during the high solar active summer months. The characteristic morning, evening, as well as nighttime departure in the model derived B0 parameters are conspicuous in all the seasons in spite of unnoticed perturbations in the B1, suggesting that further improvement in the existing model database is essential with additional in-situ experimental data across the lower mid-latitude region. The important extracts from this study may support in the international efforts of determining the best set of profile parameters for the climatological representation of the ionospheric electron density variation across the globe.

  14. Electron Beam Lithography Double Step Exposure Technique for Fabrication of Mushroom-Like Profile in Bilayer Resist System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornelia, Indykiewicz; Bogdan, Paszkiewicz; Tomasz, Szymański; Regina, Paszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    The Hi/Lo bilayer resist system exposure in e-beam lithography (EBL) process, intended for mushroom-like profile fabrication, was studied. Different exposure parameters and theirs influence on the resist layers were simulated in CASINO software and the obtained results were compared with the experimental data. The AFM technique was used for the estimation of the e-beam penetration depth in the resist stack. Performed numerical and experimental results allow us to establish the useful ranges of the exposure parameters.

  15. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Linard, Catherine; Tersago, Katrien; Leirs, Herwig; Lambin, Eric F

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-vector-borne zoonoses such as Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) can be transmitted directly, by physical contact between infected and susceptible hosts, or indirectly, with the environment as an intermediate. The objective of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ, such that the risk of transmission to humans is not only determined by host abundance. We explored the relationship between, on one hand, environmental variables and, on the other hand, host abundance, PUUV prevalence in the host, and human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE). Statistical analyses were carried out on 17 field sites situated in Belgian broadleaf forests. Results Linear regressions showed that landscape attributes, particularly landscape configuration, influence the abundance of hosts in broadleaf forests. Based on logistic regressions, we show that PUUV prevalence among bank voles is more linked to variables favouring the survival of the virus in the environment, and thus the indirect transmission: low winter temperatures are strongly linked to prevalence among bank voles, and high soil moisture is linked to the number of NE cases among humans. The transmission risk to humans therefore depends on the efficiency of the indirect transmission path. Human risk behaviours, such as the propensity for people to go in forest areas that best support the virus, also influence the number of human cases. Conclusion The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV depends on a combination of various environmental factors. To understand the complex causal pathways between the environment and disease risk, one should distinguish between environmental factors related to the abundance of hosts such as land

  16. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Trans Persons in Belgium: A Secondary Data Analysis of Medical, State, and Social Data.

    PubMed

    Motmans, Joz; Ponnet, Koen; De Cuypere, Griet

    2015-07-01

    By performing secondary data analyses of existing medical, social, and state data, this study examined the sociodemographic profile of trans persons in Belgium and gains knowledge on those who are functionally invisible in traditional epidemiological studies or clinical samples. Based on medical interventions, post-operative transsexual persons were selected from a social survey data set, to compare their sociodemographic profile with available data on legal sex changes from the Belgian National Register and with published data on clinical samples of post-operative transsexual persons. Furthermore, based on self-chosen gender identity categories in the social survey data, transsexual participants were compared with the transgender participants (those people feeling neither female nor male, or both female and male, or otherwise). The sociodemographic data on the post-operative transsexual persons from the three datasets appeared to be very similar. Based on identity categories, the data on transsexual and transgender persons from the social survey showed differences in marital status and employment. Transsexual persons were significantly more often divorced than transgender persons. Both groups differed significantly in employment status. Information about transgender people (or the "in-between" group) is too often lacking from studies but can be obtained when identity instead of medical criteria are used in research.

  17. Climate change scenarios for precipitation and potential evapotranspiration over central Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguis, P.; Roulin, E.; Willems, P.; Ntegeka, V.

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we examine climate model estimations for the future climate over central Belgium. Our analysis is focused mainly on two variables: potential evapotranspiration (PET) and precipitation. PET is calculated using the Penman equation with parameters appropriately calibrated for Belgium, based on RCM data from the European project PRUDENCE database. Next, we proceed into estimating the model capacity to reproduce the reference climate for PET and precipitation. The same analysis for precipitation is also performed based on GCM data from the IPCC AR4 database. Then, the climate change signal is evaluated over central Belgium using RCM and GCM simulations based on several SRES scenarios. The RCM simulations show a clear shift in the precipitation pattern with an increase during winter and a decrease during summer. However, the inclusion of another set of SRES scenarios from the GCM simulations leads to a less clear climate change signal.

  18. Construction and application of an electronic spatiotemporal expression profile and gene ontology analysis platform based on the EST database of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Gan, Li-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Yu; Niu, Yan-Shan; Xu, Li; Xi, Jian; Ji, Ming-Ming; Xu, Shi-Qing

    2010-01-01

    An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) is a short sub-sequence of a transcribed cDNA sequence. ESTs represent gene expression and give good clues for gene expression analysis. Based on EST data obtained from NCBI, an EST analysis package was developed (apEST). This tool was programmed for electronic expression, protein annotation and Gene Ontology (GO) category analysis in Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). A total of 245,761 ESTs (as of 01 July 2009) were searched and downloaded in FASTA format, from which information for tissue type, development stage, sex and strain were extracted, classified and summed by running apEST. Then, corresponding distribution profiles were formed after redundant parts had been removed. Gene expression profiles for one tissue of different developmental stages and from one development stage of the different tissues were attained. A housekeeping gene and tissue-and-stage-specific genes were selected by running apEST, contrasting with two other online analysis approaches, microarray-based gene expression profile on SilkDB (BmMDB) and EST profile on NCBI. A spatio-temporal expression profile of catalase run by apEST was then presented as a three-dimensional graph for the intuitive visualization of patterns. A total of 37 query genes confirmed from microarray data and RT-PCR experiments were selected as queries to test apEST. The results had great conformity among three approaches. Nevertheless, there were minor differences between apEST and BmMDB because of the unique items investigated. Therefore, complementary analysis was proposed. Application of apEST also led to the acquisition of corresponding protein annotations for EST datasets and eventually for their functions. The results were presented according to statistical information on protein annotation and Gene Ontology (GO) category. These all verified the reliability of apEST and the operability of this platform. The apEST can also be applied in other species by modifying some

  19. Invisible visibility: intergenerational transfer of identity and social position of Chinese women in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Pang, C L

    1998-01-01

    "The effects of migration on identity and the social position of Chinese women in Belgium were examined from an intergenerational perspective. At the macro level, policies and the general discourse on migration and migrants in Belgium were examined to assess the level of inclusion or exclusion of Chinese women.... The findings will show that although the Chinese are non-existent in official policy and statistics, they are set apart in mainstream society because of their different phenotypical traits. This leads to their exocitization and discrimination in many such social settings as daily life, the workplace and at recreational centers."

  20. [An unusual case in Belgium of intestinal myiasis due to Eristalis tenax].

    PubMed

    Dubois, E; Durieux, M; Franchimont, M M; Hermant, P

    2004-01-01

    We report an unusual case in Belgium of indigenous intestinal myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax during canicular summer 2003 in a 36 year old man living in Belgium. This patient complain near its general practitioner about diarrhea and intestinal rumbles. Larvae emitted on several occasions were identified as Eristalis tenax larvae. Socio-economical status of the patient and atmospheric conditions seems to be related to this observation. Clinical evolution has been spontaneously and quickly positive. An empirical treatment with an association of metronidazole and nifuroxazide was however prescribed. PMID:15462515

  1. First Do No Harm: Euthanasia of Patients with Dementia in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    In Memory of Ed Pellegrino. Euthanasia in Belgium is not limited to terminally ill patients. It may be applied to patients with chronic degenerative diseases. Currently, people in Belgium wish to make it possible to euthanize incompetent patients who suffer from dementia. This article explains the Belgian law and then explores arguments for and against euthanasia of patients with dementia. It probes the dementia paradox by elucidating Dworkin's distinction between critical and experiential interests, arguing that at the end-of-life this distinction is not clearcut. It argues against euthanasia for patients with dementia, for respecting patients' humanity and for providing them with more care, compassion, and good doctoring.

  2. Sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification corresponding to different electron donors and microbial profiling in anoxic fluidized-bed membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Huijuan; Bai, Yaohui; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-11-15

    Sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrifying anoxic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AnFB-MBR) were developed for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated groundwater with minimized sulfate production. The nitrate removal rates obtained in the methanol- and ethanol-fed mixotrophic denitrifying AnFB-MBRs reached 1.44-3.84 g NO3 -N/L reactor d at a hydraulic retention time of 0.5 h, which were significantly superior to those reported in packed bed reactors. Compared to methanol, ethanol was found to be a more effective external carbon source for sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification due to lower sulfate and total organic carbon concentrations in the effluent. Using pyrosequencing, the phylotypes of primary microbial groups in the reactor, including sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifiers, methanol- or ethanol-supported heterotrophic denitrifiers, were investigated in response to changes in electron donors. Principal component and heatmap analyses indicated that selection of electron donating substrates largely determined the microbial community structure. The abundance of Thiobacillus decreased from 45.1% in the sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying reactor to 12.0% and 14.2% in sulfur-based methanol- and ethanol-fed mixotrophic denitrifying bioreactors, respectively. Heterotrophic Methyloversatilis and Thauera bacteria became more dominant in the mixotrophic denitrifying bioreactors, which were possibly responsible for the observed methanol- and ethanol-associated denitrification.

  3. Global Knowledge-Based Policy in Fragmented Societies: The Case of Curriculum Reform in French-Speaking Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangez, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between knowledge and policy in French-speaking Belgium. It starts by describing Belgium as a consociational democracy, i.e. a society that is largely organised around integrated pillars of society (Catholic, secular), each of which provides a wide range of services (educational, training, health, health…

  4. 76 FR 25666 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Final Results of Full Sunset Review and Revocation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010). ] Within the deadline specified in... From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review, 75 FR 81217, 81218 (December 27, 2010... Duty Orders on Certain Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, and South Africa, 70...

  5. 76 FR 66271 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 64 FR 27756 (May 21, 1999); Notice of Amended Antidumping Duty Orders... Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR... Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68...

  6. 77 FR 21963 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 64 FR 27756 (May 21... From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 11520 (March 11..., Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 16117 (April 2, 2003); and...

  7. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and..., South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of...

  8. 76 FR 75870 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The preliminary results... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium, covering...

  9. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Belgium. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denys, Jan; And Others

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Belgium's motor vehicle repair and sales sector: structure and characteristics; institutional and social context; relationship to Belgium's overall labor market; changing structural, economic, and organizational conditions; and training and recruitment and…

  10. Reading Comprehension of Flemish Deaf Children in Belgium: Sources of Variability in Reading Comprehension after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kant, Anne; Vermeulen, Anneke; De Raeve, Leo; Schreuder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies of reading comprehension of Flemish children in Belgium. In the northern part of Belgium (Flanders), Dutch is the official language. The Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Flanders are called Flemish. Dutch is also the national language of the Netherlands. Despite both groups using Dutch, cultural…

  11. Elemental relationships in rock varnish as seen with SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray) elemental line profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Harrington, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of rock varnish requires a thorough survey of elemental and mineralogic compositions before relating chemical variability of rock varnish to past geochemical environments. Elemental relationships in rock varnish can be examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with an elemental line profiling routine using semi-quantitative, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Results of SEM/EDX analysis suggest: variations in cation concentrations used in varnish cation ratio dating relate more specifically to variations in detritus within the varnish than to element mobility as defined by weathering indices; Mn concentration rather than Mn:Fe ratios may be a more appropriate indicator of paleoclimatic fluctuations; and the Mn-oxide phase existing in varnish is most likely a Ba-enriched phase rather than birnessite. Element line profiling offers great potential for gaining insights into geochemical processes affecting the deposition and diagenesis of rock varnish and for testing hypotheses relating to its chemical variability. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Solar cycle effects on the structure of the electron density profiles in the dayside ionosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliore, Arvydas J.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations from the changes in the electron density structure of the dayside ionosphere of Venus that were brought about by changing solar activity. The ionopause height is generally low for values of the solar zenith angle below about 50 deg regardless of the phase in the solar cycle. At solar maximum, and at times of intermediate solar activity, the ionopause height for solar zenith angles greater than about 50 deg is highly variable, ranging from a minimum of about 200 km to a maximum of more than 1000 km. At times of solar minimum the great majority of all ionopause heights for all solar zenith angles are uniformly low, lying between 200 and 300 km. It is argued that the compressed nature of the Venus atmosphere at solar minimum is produced by permeation of the ionosphere by the solar wind magnetic field, which occurs when the solar wind dynamic pressure exceeds the ionospheric plasma pressure.

  13. The definition of the railway position control error in the plane and profile using the optical-electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Anton V.; Timofeev, Alexandr N.; Nekrylov, Ivan S.

    2015-05-01

    Continuous development of high-speed railway traffic in the world toughens requirements, including to the accuracy of installation and control of provision of a railway track. For the current technologies of service of a railway track using its absolute coordinates the perspective decision is creation along railway lines of a special fiducial network. In this case by means of optical-electronic systems, concerning reference points, obtaining the objective information on actual position of a railway track in a longitudinal cross-section and the plan with a margin error which isn't exceeding 1,5 mm in rather severe conditions of continuous operation of traveling machines at speeds up to 10 km/h is possible.

  14. Risk assessment of soil compaction in Walloon Region (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlotte, Rosiere; Marie-France, Destain; Jean-Claude, Verbrugge

    2010-05-01

    The proposed Soil Framework Directive COM(2006)232 requires Member States to identify areas at risk of erosion, decline in organic matter, salinisation, compaction, sealing and landslides, as well as to set up an inventory of contaminated sites. The present project aims to identify the susceptibility to compaction of soils of the Walloon Region (Belgium) and to recommend good farming practices avoiding soil compaction as far as possible. Within this scope, the concept of precompression stress (Pc) (Horn and Fleige, 2003) was used. Pc is defined as the maximum major principal stress that a soil horizon can withstand against any applied external vertical stress. If applied stress is higher than Pc, the soil enters in a plastic state, not easily reversible. For a given soil, the intensity of soil compaction is mainly due to the applied load which depends on vehicle characteristics (axle load, tyre dimensions, tyre inflation pressure, and vehicle velocity). To determine soil precompression stress, pedotransfert functions of Lebert and Horn (1991) defined at two water suctions (pF 1.8 and 2.5) were used. Parameters required by these functions were found within several databases (Aardewerk and Digital Map of Walloon Soils) and literature. The validation of Pc was performed by measuring stress-strain relationships using automatic oedometers. Stresses of 15.6, 31, 3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 kPa were applied for 10 min each. In this study, the compaction due to beet harvesters was considered because the axle load can exceed 10 tons and these machines are often used during wet conditions. The compaction at two depth levels was considered: 30 and 50 cm. Compaction of topsoil was not taken into account because, under conventional tillage, the plough depth is lower than 25 cm. Before and after the passage of the machines, following measurements were performed: granulometry, density, soil moisture, pF curve, Atterberg limits, ... The software Soilflex (Keller et al., 2007

  15. Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

    2009-04-01

    Although scientific research on landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (710 km²; Belgium), has been conducted over the last decades, the Flemish Government only took account of slope failure as a soil degradation process after the occurrence of several damaging landslides in the beginning of the 21st century. Here we aim to present the successful collaboration between the Physical and Regional Geography Research Group (FRG; Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences K.U.Leuven) and the Environment, Nature and Energy Department (LNE; Flemish Government) in landslide management. We will demonstrate how geomorphologists produced practical tools for landslide management which can be directly applied by LNE as well as other local and regional authorities and planners. Since 2004 three projects on landslide inventory mapping and susceptibility assessment in the Flemish Ardennes have been funded by LNE, and a fourth one on landslide susceptibility assessment in remaining hilly regions in Flanders west of Brussels recently started. Together with a steering committee composed of stakeholders, persons from LNE supervise the research carried out by geomorphologists experienced in landslide studies. For the establishment of the landslide inventory map of the Flemish Ardennes we combined the analysis of LIDAR-derived hillshade and contour line maps with detailed field controls. Additional information was collected through interviews with local authorities and inhabitants and from analysis of newspaper articles and technical reports. Then, a statistical model, logistic regression, was applied to produce a high quality classified landslide susceptibility map. The unique part of this collaboration is that all end products are online available at user-friendly websites designed by LNE. The scientific report containing (1) general information on landslides, (2) a description of the study area, (3) an explanation of the materials and methods used, (4) a presentation of the resulting

  16. Comparison of Intact Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Transcript Profiles during Treatment with Inhibitors of Mitochondrial Electron Transport and TCA Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianping; Ruckle, Michael E.; McIntosh, Lee; Hock, Jeffery J.; Bingham, Scott; White, Samuel J.; George, Rajani M.; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C.; Rhoads, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant mitochondria signal to the nucleus leading to altered transcription of nuclear genes by a process called mitochondrial retrograde regulation (MRR). MRR is implicated in metabolic homeostasis and responses to stress conditions. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are a MRR signaling component, but whether all MRR requires ROS is not established. Inhibition of the cytochrome respiratory pathway by antimycin A (AA) or the TCA cycle by monofluoroacetate (MFA), each of which initiates MRR, can increase ROS production in some plant cells. We found that for AA and MFA applied to leaves of soil-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants, ROS production increased with AA, but not with MFA, allowing comparison of transcript profiles under different ROS conditions during MRR. Variation in transcript accumulation over time for eight nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein genes suggested operation of both common and distinct signaling pathways between the two treatments. Consequences of mitochondrial perturbations for the whole transcriptome were examined by microarray analyses. Expression of 1316 and 606 genes was altered by AA and MFA, respectively. A subset of genes was similarly affected by both treatments, including genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins. MFA treatment resulted in more down-regulation. Functional gene category (MapMan) and cluster analyses showed that genes with expression levels affected by perturbation from AA or MFA inhibition were most similarly affected by biotic stresses such as pathogens. Overall, the data provide further evidence for the presence of mtROS-independent MRR signaling, and support the proposed involvement of MRR and mitochondrial function in plant responses to biotic stress. PMID:23028523

  17. Minimum time and fuel flight profiles for an F-15 airplane with a Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, E. A., Jr.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize minimum time and fuel consumption paths for an F-15 airplane powered by two F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD) engines. The benefits of using variable stall margin (uptrim) to increase performance were also determined. This study supports the NASA Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program. The basis for this comparison was minimum time and fuel used to reach Mach 2 at 13,716 m (45,000 ft) from the initial conditions of Mach 0.15 at 1524 m (5000 ft). Results were also compared to a pilot's estimated minimum time and fuel trajectory determined from the F-15 flight manual and previous experience. The minimum time trajectory took 15 percent less time than the pilot's estimate for the standard EMD engines, while the minimum fuel trajectory used 1 percent less fuel than the pilot's estimate for the minimum fuel trajectory. The F-15 airplane with EMD engines and uptrim, was 23 percent faster than the pilot's estimate. The minimum fuel used was 5 percent less than the estimate.

  18. In Vitro Dosing Performance of the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler Using Asthma and COPD Patient Inhalation Profiles Replicated with the Electronic Lung (eLung™)

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Richard; Pang, Cheng; Charles, Stephen; Gillett, Ben; Prime, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the in vitro dose delivery characteristics of approved asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA® dry powder inhaler across inhalation endpoints representative of the target patient population, using the Electronic Lung (eLung™) to replicate inhaler-specific patient inhalation profiles that were previously recorded in vivo. Methods: Selected profiles, representative of the range of inhalation endpoints achieved by patients with all severities of asthma and COPD, were replicated using the eLung breathing simulator in conjunction with an oropharyngeal cast. A Next Generation Impactor was coupled to the eLung to determine the aerodynamic particle size distribution of the ex-throat dose (ETD) of asthma and COPD therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA inhaler. Delivered dose (DD), ETD, and fine particle dose (FPD; defined as a mass of active substance less than 5 μm) were determined for fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) 100/25 μg and 200/25 μg (asthma and COPD), umeclidinium (UMEC)/VI 62.5/25 μg (COPD only), FF 100 μg and 200μg monotherapy (asthma only), and UMEC 62.5 μg monotherapy (COPD only). Results: Inhalation profiles replicated by eLung covered a wide range of peak inspiratory flow rates (41.6–136.9 L/min), pressure drops (1.2–13.8 kPa), and inhaled volumes through the inhaler (0.7–4.2L). DD was consistent across the range of patient representative inhalation parameters for all components (FF, VI, and UMEC) of each therapy assessed; although ETD and FPD were also generally consistent, some small variation was observed. Dose delivery was consistent for each of the components, whether delivered as mono- or combination therapy. Conclusions: The in vitro performance of the ELLIPTA inhaler has been demonstrated for the delivery of FF/VI, UMEC/VI, FF monotherapy, and UMEC monotherapy. Across a range of inspiratory profiles, DD was consistent, while ETD

  19. Different measles outbreaks in Belgium, January to June 2016 - a challenge for public health.

    PubMed

    Grammens, Tine; Maes, Virginie; Hutse, Veronik; Laisnez, Valeska; Schirvel, Carole; Trémérie, Jean Marie; Sabbe, Martine

    2016-08-11

    During the first half of 2016, several outbreaks of measles were reported in the three regions of Belgium. Main challenges for public health were severe complications occurring in adults, nosocomial transmission and infection in healthcare workers. Here, we describe those outbreaks and lessons learnt for public health. PMID:27541858

  20. [Belgium: an innovation in the training and assessment of student nurses].

    PubMed

    Bay, Corinne

    2014-11-01

    The pedagogical team of the Haute École Robert Schuman in Libramont, Belgium, has introduced an original form of clinical assessment. Called "structured objective clinical assessment", this approach is based on simulated scenarios carried out in the training institution. An integrated active pedagogical method which ensures the optimal preparation of students for their future profession and the continuation of university studies. PMID:25532268

  1. "It Is Not Easy": Challenges for Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling in Flanders, Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Debackaere, Pieterjan; Nostlinger, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    This study identified physicians' HIV testing practices and their barriers toward implementing provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) for Sub-Saharan African migrants (SAM) in Flanders, Belgium. In-depth interviews were conducted on a purposive sample of 20 physicians (ten GPs and ten internists). GPs performed mainly…

  2. Factors, Processes and Outcomes of Early Immersion Education in the Francophone Community in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Although Belgium is characterized by a widespread consensus that a functional proficiency in the two major national languages, Dutch and French, as well as in English is desirable, educational provision to achieve such proficiency has long been constrained by an official language policy which mandates that education must be monolingual in Dutch,…

  3. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa..., South Africa, and Taiwan. \\3\\ Commissioner Charlotte R. Lane dissents with respect to the...

  4. Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: A Qualitative Study of Parental Decision-Making Processes in Flanders, Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardonk, Stefan; Bosteels, Sigrid; Desnerck, Greetje; Loots, Gerrit; Van Hove, Geert; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Vanroelen, Christophe; Louckx, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Factors contributing to parents' decision when they choose between cochlear implantation (CI) and traditional hearing aids for their child were examined. The subjects were children with severe/profound hearing loss, born 1999-2001, registered in the universal neonatal hearing screening program in the Flanders region of Belgium. Qualitative data…

  5. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  6. 75 FR 30434 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847... FR 25288). On May 21, 1999, Commerce issued antidumping duty orders on imports of certain stainless steel plate from Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan (64 FR 27756). On March...

  7. Different measles outbreaks in Belgium, January to June 2016 – a challenge for public health

    PubMed Central

    Grammens, Tine; Maes, Virginie; Hutse, Veronik; Laisnez, Valeska; Schirvel, Carole; Trémérie, Jean Marie; Sabbe, Martine

    2016-01-01

    During the first half of 2016, several outbreaks of measles were reported in the three regions of Belgium. Main challenges for public health were severe complications occurring in adults, nosocomial transmission and infection in healthcare workers. Here, we describe those outbreaks and lessons learnt for public health. PMID:27541858

  8. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions. PMID:27356309

  9. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions.

  10. 75 FR 64709 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 23236, (May 3, 2010). On June 1, 2009, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), the... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). On September 17, 2010... SSPC from Belgium. See 64 FR 27756 (May 21, 1999) and 64 FR 25288 (May 11, 1999), respectively....

  11. 76 FR 28809 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... review concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from Belgium (75 FR 30777 and 75 FR 30434). On May 5, 2011, Commerce published notice in the Federal Register of the final results of... recurrence of a countervailable subsidy. Therefore, Commerce revoked the countervailing duty order (76...

  12. Towards Integrative Religious Education in Belgium and Flanders: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loobuyck, Patrick; Franken, Leni

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the way in which religious education (RE) has been organised in Flanders and Belgium, and gives attention to the problems and challenges that arise these days. We argue that the "Schoolpact" of 1958 which implies separate RE in different religions in public schools needs a revision. Therefore, we propose an alternative…

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Nova Virus, a Hantavirus Circulating in the European Mole in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Laenen, Lies; Vergote, Valentijn; Nauwelaers, Inne; Verbeeck, Ina; Kafetzopoulou, Liana E.; Van Ranst, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nova virus, a divergent hantavirus, originating from the kidney tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea) from Belgium was determined. The 3 genomic segments have a total length of 11,979 nucleotides, and nucleotide identities to other Nova viruses are between 80 and 89%. PMID:26251483

  14. Current Trends in Environmental Education in the French-Speaking Areas of Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffin, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The current status of environmental education in French-speaking Belgium is described, with attention given to the development of environmental interest and awareness, the evolution of an environmental education information dissemination network, other governmental and nongovernmental groups involved, school syllabuses, teacher training…

  15. Fast magnetic reconnection in thin current sheets: effects of different current profiles and electron inertia in Ohm's law.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Fulvia; Del Sarto, Daniele; Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    By examining sheets with thicknesses scaling as different powers of the Lundquist number S, we previously showed (Pucci and Velli, 2014) that the growth rate of the tearing mode increases as current sheets thin and, once the inverse aspect ratio reaches a scaling a/L = S-1/3, the time-scale for the instability to develop becomes of the order of the Alfvén time. That means that a fast instability sets in well before Sweet-Parker type current sheets can form. In addition, such an instability produces many islands in the sheet, leading to fast nonlinear evolution and most probably a turbulent disruption of the sheet itself. This has fundamental implications for magnetically driven reconnection throughout the corona, and in particular for coronal heating and the triggering of coronal mass ejections. Here we extend the study of reconnection instabilities to magnetic fields of grater complexity, displaying different current structures such as, for example, multiple or asymmetric current layers. We also consider the possibility of a Δ' dependence on wave-number k-p for different values of p, studying analogies and variations of the trigger scaling relation a/L ~ S-1/3 with respect to the Harris current sheet equilibrium. At large Lundquist numbers in typical Heliospheric plasmas kinetic effects become more important in Ohm's law: we consider the effects of electron skin depth reconnection, showing that we can define a trigger relation similar to the resistive case. The results are important to the transition to fast reconnection in the solar corona, solar wind, magnetosphere as well as laboratory plasmas. F. Pucci and M. Velli, "Reconnection of quasi-singular current sheets: the 'ideal" tearing mode" ApJ 780:L19, 2014.

  16. Implementation of surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Belgium according to the ECDC guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2012, the new guidelines for the surveillance of IMS in Europe, produced by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), were tested in Belgium. This study aimed at (1) testing the usefulness and applicability in the field of the ECDC guidelines for the surveillance of IMS in Europe and (2) surveying IMS throughout Belgium. Methods First, the scenarios, which Belgium is facing, were identified according to the ECDC guidelines. Second, the surveillance strategy and the methods were identified based on the guidelines and adjusted to the Belgium context. Two areas colonised by IMS and 20 potential points of entry (PoE) were selected. Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus (CO2-baited) traps (23) and oviposition traps (147) were set-up, and larval sampling was performed monthly or bi-monthly from July till October 2012. Finally, the costs and workload of the surveillance activities were compared to the estimates provided by the ECDC guidelines. Results Surveillance at 20 potential PoE (complying with scenario 1) revealed that no new IMS were established in Belgium. Surveillance at two sites colonised by IMS (scenario 2) indicated that although control measures have drastically reduced the Ae. j. japonicus population this species is still present. Furthermore, Ae. koreicus is permanently established. For both scenarios, the problems encountered are discussed and recommendations are given. In addition, the actual workload was lower than the estimated workload, while the actual costs were higher than the estimated ones. Conclusions The ECDC guidelines are helpful, applicable and efficient to implement surveillance of IMS in Belgium. Recommendations were customised to the local context (political demands, salary and investment costs, and existing expertise). The workload and costs related to the preparatory phase (i.e., planning, contacts with the PoE, writing a protocol) were found to be missing in the cost evaluation suggested in the guidelines

  17. Characterizing the hypersiliceous rocks of Belgium used in (pre-)history: a case study on sourcing sedimentary quartzites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldeman, Isis; Baele, Jean-Marc; Goemaere, Eric; Deceukelaire, Marleen; Dusar, Michiel; De Doncker, H. W. J. A.

    2012-08-01

    Tracking raw material back to its extraction source is a crucial step for archaeologists when trying to deduce migration patterns and trade contacts in (pre-)history. Regarding stone artefacts, the main rock types encountered in the archaeological record of Belgium are hypersiliceous rocks. This is a newly introduced category of rock types comprising those rocks made of at least 90% silica. These are strongly silicified quartz sands or sedimentary quartzites, siliceous rocks of chemical and biochemical origin (e.g. flint), very pure metamorphic quartzites and siliceous volcanic rocks (e.g. obsidian). To be able to distinguish between different extraction sources, ongoing research was started to locate possible extraction sources of hypersiliceous rocks and to characterize rocks collected from these sources. Characterization of these hypersiliceous rocks is executed with the aid of optical polarizing microscopy, optical cold cathodoluminescence and scanning-electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry and with back-scatter electron imaging. In this paper, we focus on various sedimentary quartzites of Paleogene stratigraphical level.

  18. Reconstruction of the Schmallenberg virus epidemic in Belgium: Complementary use of disease surveillance approaches.

    PubMed

    Poskin, Antoine; Théron, Léonard; Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Saegerman, Claude; Vervaeke, Muriel; Van der Stede, Yves; Cay, Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged across Europe in 2011 and Belgium was among the first countries affected. In this study, published findings are combined with new data from veterinary surveillance networks and the Belgian reference laboratory for SBV at the Veterinary and Agrochemical Research centre (CODA-CERVA) to reconstruct the epidemic in Belgium. First retrospective cases of SBV were reported by veterinarians that observed decreased milk yield and fever in dairy cattle in May 2011. The number of SBV suspicions subsequently increased in adult cattle in August 2011. That month, first SBV positive pools of Culicoides were detected and extensive virus circulation occurred in Belgium during late summer and autumn 2011. As a consequence, most pregnant ruminants were infected and their fetuses exposed to the virus. This resulted in an outbreak of abortions, still-births and malformed new-borns observed between January and April 2012. The number of cases drastically diminished in 2012-2013, although multiple lines of evidence obtained from cross-sectional serological surveys, analyses on aborted foetuses, sentinel herd surveillance and surveillance of SBV in vectors prove that SBV was still circulating in Belgium at that time. Virus circulation was then probably strongly reduced in 2013-2014, while increasing evidence indicates its recirculation in 2014-2015 in Belgium. Based on the experience gathered with the closely related Akabane virus, recurrent outbreaks of congenital events can be expected for a long period. Vaccination of seronegative animals before the first mating could be used to prevent the deleterious effects of SBV. During this epidemic, different surveillance approaches including syndromic surveillance, sentinel herd surveillance, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies and pathogen surveillance in vectors have proven their utility and should be considered to continue in the future. PMID:26790935

  19. Usefulness of the European Epidemic Intelligence Information System in the management of an outbreak of listeriosis, Belgium, 2011.

    PubMed

    Yde, M; Naranjo, M; Mattheus, W; Stragier, P; Pochet, B; Beulens, K; De Schrijver, K; Van den Branden, D; Laisnez, V; Flipse, W; Leclercq, A; Lecuit, M; Dierick, K; Bertrand, S

    2012-01-01

    A cluster of time-linked cases and the identification of a clonal strain suggest the occurrence of an outbreak of listeriosis in Belgium in 2011, presumably due to the consumption of hard cheese made with pasteurised milk and produced by a Belgium manufacturer. The outbreak clone was identified as Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a, sensitive to arsenic and cadmium and of multilocus sequence typing MLST-type 37. Food investigation of this outbreak was facilitated by the European Epidemic Intelligence Information System and data exchanged between French and Belgium listeriosis surveillance systems. PMID:23040965

  20. Usefulness of the European Epidemic Intelligence Information System in the management of an outbreak of listeriosis, Belgium, 2011.

    PubMed

    Yde, M; Naranjo, M; Mattheus, W; Stragier, P; Pochet, B; Beulens, K; De Schrijver, K; Van den Branden, D; Laisnez, V; Flipse, W; Leclercq, A; Lecuit, M; Dierick, K; Bertrand, S

    2012-01-01

    A cluster of time-linked cases and the identification of a clonal strain suggest the occurrence of an outbreak of listeriosis in Belgium in 2011, presumably due to the consumption of hard cheese made with pasteurised milk and produced by a Belgium manufacturer. The outbreak clone was identified as Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a, sensitive to arsenic and cadmium and of multilocus sequence typing MLST-type 37. Food investigation of this outbreak was facilitated by the European Epidemic Intelligence Information System and data exchanged between French and Belgium listeriosis surveillance systems.

  1. Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes Strains of Clinical and Food Chain Origins in Belgium between 1985 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ceyssens, P. J.; Yde, M.; Dierick, K.; Boyen, F.; Vanderpas, J.; Vanhoof, R.; Mattheus, W.

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare but severe disease, mainly caused by Listeria monocytogenes. This study shows the results of the laboratory-based surveillance of Listeriosis in Belgium over the period 1985–2014. Besides the incidence and some demographic data we present also more detailed microbiological and molecular characteristics of human strains isolated since 2000. The strains from the latter period were compared to food and animal strains from the same period. Our study shows that different food matrices were commonly contaminated with L. monocytogenes presenting the same PFGE profile as in patient’s isolates. Since 1985, we observed a significant decrease in incidence of the Materno-Neonatal cases (from 0.15 to 0.04 cases /100,000 inhabitants-year), which is probably to be attributed to active prevention campaigns targeting pregnant women. Despite the strengthening of different control measures by the food industry, the incidence of non-Materno-Neonatal listeriosis increased in Belgium (from 0.3 to 0.7 cases /100,000 inhabitants-year), probably due to the rise of highly susceptible patients in an aging population. This significant increase found in non-Materno-Neonatal cases (slope coefficient 7.42%/year, P<0.0001) can be attributed to significant increase in incidence of isolates belonging to serovars 1/2a (n = 393, slope coefficient 6.62%/year, P<0.0001). Although resistance to antimicrobials is rare among L. monocytogenes isolates, a trend to increasing MIC values is evident with chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. We show that fluoroquinolone resistance is not linked to chromosomal mutations, but caused by a variety of efflux pumps. Our study also shows that huge majority of known underlying pathologies (426 out of 785 cases) were cancers (185/426, 43.1%) and haematological malignancies (75/185, 40.5%). Moreover the risk population is susceptible to low levels of contamination in food stressing the need of prevention campaigns

  2. Towards quantifying long-term erosion rates in the Campine Basin, NE Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerten, Koen; Vanacker, Veerle

    2016-04-01

    The Campine Basin, NE Belgium, is situated between the uplifting Ardennes Massif and rapidly subsiding Roer Valley Graben. It contains a thick series of marine, estuarine and continental Neogene and Quaternary sediments, locally more than 300 m. As a result of relief inversion during the Quaternary, the Campine Plateau is nowadays a distinct morphological feature in this basin. Its surface elevation dips from 100 m in the south to 30 m in the north over a distance of about 60 km, which is the result of differential uplift. The Campine Plateau is covered by Early and Middle Pleistocene erosion-resistant fluvial sediments from the Rhine and Meuse and can thus be regarded as a fluvial terrace. The age of deposition and time of abandonment of the terrace have not yet been resolved by direct numerical dating. In this study, we apply the cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) profiling technique that, in ideal circumstances, allows one to constrain the exposure age, burial age and amount of post-depositional erosion of the landform. Samples were taken from a 3.5 m deep cross-section in coarse river sands that were deposited by the river Rhine, and now situated at an altitude of about 50 m (a.s.l.). Nine of them were prepared for CRN measurements according to state-of-the-art techniques. The in-situ 10Be concentration of the samples was determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (ETH, Zurich). The in-situ 10Be concentrations are 1.5x10e5 atoms/g for the uppermost sample (at 0.3 m depth) and 0.9x10e5 at/g for the lowermost sample (at 3.1 m depth), yielding an estimated 0.6x10e5 at/g of radionuclide accumulation following sediment deposition. Using forward modelling, we solved for the exposure duration and erosion rate that best fit the measured in-situ 10Be depth profile data, nuclide inheritance and their associated analytical uncertainties. Model optimisation is here based on the sum of chi-squared between the measured and modelled 10Be concentrations. When taking previous

  3. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries. PMID:17980813

  4. Insect Visitors and Potential Pollinators of Orchis militaris (Orchidaceae) in Southern Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Henneresse, Thomas; Tyteca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research project on the food deception strategy in Orchis militaris (L.), the objective of this study was to identify insect visitors and potential pollinators of this orchid species in Belgium. In 2013, insects were collected over 2 d per site in five localities distributed in Southern Belgium (Wallonia). A total of 104 insects belonging to 49 species were caught. Dipterans were the most abundant visitors (50% of total specimens), followed by Hymenopterans (32%). Rhingia campestris Meigen, Bombylius venosus Mikan, Apis mellifera (L.), and Bombus lapidarius (L.) were the most abundant species. Only five specimens bore one to more than 10 pollinia: four honeybees (A. mellifera) and one bumblebee worker (B. lapidarius). These two species should be considered as potential pollinators in the study area, but probably not confirmed ones.

  5. Insect Visitors and Potential Pollinators of Orchis militaris (Orchidaceae) in Southern Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Henneresse, Thomas; Tyteca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research project on the food deception strategy in Orchis militaris (L.), the objective of this study was to identify insect visitors and potential pollinators of this orchid species in Belgium. In 2013, insects were collected over 2 d per site in five localities distributed in Southern Belgium (Wallonia). A total of 104 insects belonging to 49 species were caught. Dipterans were the most abundant visitors (50% of total specimens), followed by Hymenopterans (32%). Rhingia campestris Meigen, Bombylius venosus Mikan, Apis mellifera (L.), and Bombus lapidarius (L.) were the most abundant species. Only five specimens bore one to more than 10 pollinia: four honeybees (A. mellifera) and one bumblebee worker (B. lapidarius). These two species should be considered as potential pollinators in the study area, but probably not confirmed ones. PMID:27694346

  6. Overview of Seismic Hazard and Vulnerability of Ordinary Buildings in Belgium: Methodological Aspects and Study Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Barszez, Anne-Marie; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Plumier, Andre; Sabbe, Alain; Wilquin, Hugues

    2008-07-08

    Northwest Europe is a region in which damaging earthquakes exist. Assessing the risks of damages is useful, but this is not an easy work based on exact science.In this paper, we propose a general tool for a first level assessment of seismic risks (rapid diagnosis). General methodological aspects are presented. For a given building, the risk is represented by a volume in a multi-dimensional space. This space is defined by axes representing the main parameters that have an influence on the risk. We notably express the importance of including a parameter to consider the specific value of cultural heritage.Then we apply the proposed tool to analyze and compare methods of seismic risk assessment used in Belgium. They differ by the spatial scale of the studied area. Study cases for the whole Belgian Territory and for part of cities in Liege and Mons (Be) aim also to give some sense of the overall risk in Belgium.

  7. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.; Horii, Y.; Wu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Sensitivity of hydrological extremes in climate and land use changes in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguis, P.; Roulin, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the present work we analyze, through hydrological modeling, the impacts of climate change on the hydrological extremes in Belgium. The study is carried out for the river Meuse and Scheldt basins in Belgium using the SCHEME hydrological model. The climate change scenarios considered in the analysis have been derived for Belgium from the results of Regional Climate Model simulations that have been performed in the context of the European PRUDENCE project. These simulations are based on the A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Our approach involves in particular calculation of potential evapotranspiration from all simulations in the PRUDENCE database, based on the Penman equation, as part of the input for the SCHEME model. Furthermore, we consider the hydrological impact of non-meteorological changes and especially of land use changes. Several possibilities of land use in the future are considered in the context of a sensitivity analysis. In both cases of climate and land use change scenarios, the variation in the total streamflow and in the frequency of exceedance of certain thresholds is analyzed.

  9. A national cohort of HIV-infected patients in Belgium: design and main characteristics.

    PubMed

    Van Beckhoven, D; Buvé, A; Ruelle, J; Seyler, L; Sasse, A

    2012-01-01

    In Belgium, individual laboratory and treatment data of all HIV-infected patients seen in the 9 AIDS Reference Centres and 7 AIDS Reference Laboratories are collected prospectively since 2006. We present here an analysis of patients recorded in the cohort database between 1st of January 2006 and 31st of December 2008. During that period, 11982 patients were under medical follow-up in Belgium. Sixty-one percent of the patients were male and the median age was 39.8 at the time of first recorded viral load. Among the patients whose nationality or probable mode of transmission was recorded, nearly half (48.0%) were Belgian and 38.3% originated from Sub-Saharan Africa; heterosexual contacts were reported in the majority of cases (56.0%) followed by homosexual contacts (35.3%). A total of 145 deaths were reported. Around three quarters of the patients were on ART. The median CD4 cell count rose from 470 cells/mm3 in 2006 to 501 cells/mm3 in 2008. This cohort enabled us to obtain comprehensive information on the numbers and characteristics of HIV-infected patients currently being followed up in Belgium, and on trends in antiretroviral therapy and biological results. This will serve for planning purposes, evaluation of access to care and as a source of information for further studies.

  10. Genetic characterization of seoul hantavirus originated from norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) captured in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Plyusnina, Angelina; Heyman, Paul; Baert, Kristof; Stuyck, Jan; Cochez, Christel; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus (cardio)pulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. So far, in Europe, four pathogenic hantaviruses have been found, often in co-circulation: Puumala virus (PUUV), Dobrava virus (DOBV), Saaremaa virus (SAAV), and Seoul virus (SEOV). Of those, only PUUV was found in Belgium. Recently, in our search for hantaviruses in the Flanders region of Belgium we collected genetic and serological evidence for the presence of SEOV virus in local brown rats. In this article, the results of (phylo)genetic analysis of wild-type SEOV strain from the Flanders are presented. The analysis based on the complete S segment sequence and also partial M- and L-segment sequences revealed that the Belgian SEOV strain was related most closely to strains from France, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, Cambodia (those associated with the species Rattus norvegicus) and Vietnam. Such a clustering was in perfect agreement with the results of direct sequence comparison and suggested the same evolutionary history for all three genome segments of the Belgian SEOV strain (i.e., no reassortment of genome segments). So far, SEOV has been found in two European countries, France and Belgium, and there is every reason to believe that the area of the virus distribution in Europe is not restricted to those countries.

  11. Sero-epidemiological study of the presence of hantaviruses in domestic dogs and cats from Belgium.

    PubMed

    Dobly, A; Cochez, C; Goossens, E; De Bosschere, H; Hansen, P; Roels, S; Heyman, P

    2012-04-01

    Hantaviruses are worldwide rodent-borne pathogens infecting humans and other animals mainly through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with rodent excreta. Few data are available on hantavirus serology and geographical distribution in dogs and cats. We therefore screened sera from pet dogs (N=410) and cats (N=124) in two regions of Belgium, using IgG ELISA and IFA. We analysed the effect of the owner's address as well as pet gender and age on hantavirus status. Hantavirus antibodies were found in both species with a significantly higher seroprevalence in cats than in dogs (16.9% vs. 4.9%, P=0.001). More dogs were infected in highly forested southern Belgium (harbouring more rodents) than in northern Belgium (10.5% vs. 3.0%, P=0.002). In the south, hantavirus sero-positive cats were found in more densely forested localities than sero-negatives ones were (P=0.033). These results are consistent with the ecological variations of hantavirus risks in humans.

  12. Ethics on the dental treatment of patients with mental disability: results of a Netherlands - Belgium survey.

    PubMed

    Marks, Luc; Adler, Naomi; Blom-Reukers, Helen; Elhorst, Jan H; Kraaijenhagen-Oostinga, Annelies; Vanobbergen, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates several ethical dilemmas of by dental practitioners treating persons with mental disabilities (PMD) by dentists in the Netherlands and Belgium. Ethical dental care for PMD is a hot topic. Worldwide different treatment strategies are used in the dental treatment of this patient group. In addition, cultural aspect seems to play an important role in the choices made. The latter can explain the difficulty in creating European and worldwide guidelines on this issue. A questionnaire was sent to dental practitioners interested in treating PMD persons both in the Netherlands and in Belgium including questions on the use of behaviour management techniques, use and attitude towards sedation and physical fixation and the cooperation with other health care personal. Behaviour management techniques and sedation are frequently used. Dentist of the Netherlands and Belgium in general reject the restraint of PMD persons. However, limited use of manual restraint in accordance with the carers and the close surrounding of the patient seems to be accepted. Dental practitioners are sometimes confronted with an emotional dilemma in treating PMD and the majority feels that it is a continuous challenge to obtain optimal result of the dental treatment.

  13. Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Thijssen, A; Dhont, N; Vandormael, E; Cox, A; Klerkx, E; Creemers, E; Ombelet, W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre's website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres.

  14. Electron cyclotron emission spectra in X- and O-mode polarisation at JET: Martin-Puplett interferometer, absolute calibration, revised uncertainties, inboard/outboard temperature profile, and wall properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Boom, J. E.; Meneses, L.; Abreu, P.; Belonohy, E.; Lupelli, I.

    2016-09-01

    At the tokamak Joint European Torus (JET), the electron cyclotron emission spectra in O-mode and X-mode polarisations are diagnosed simultaneous in absolute terms for several harmonics with two Martin-Puplett interferometers. From the second harmonic range in X-mode polarisation, the electron temperature profile can be deduced for the outboard side (low magnetic field strength) of JET but only for some parts of the inboard side (high magnetic field strength). This spatial restriction can be bypassed, if a cutoff is not present inside the plasma for O-mode waves in the first harmonic range. Then, from this spectral domain, the profile on the entire inboard side is accessible. The profile determination relies on the new absolute and independent calibration for both interferometers. During the calibration procedure, the antenna pattern was investigated as well, and, potentially, an increase in the diagnostic responsivity of about 5% was found for the domain 100-300 GHz. This increase and other uncertainty sources are taken into account in the thorough revision of the uncertainty for the diagnostic absolute calibration. The uncertainty deduced and the convolution inherent for Fourier spectroscopy diagnostics have implications for the temperature profile inferred. Having probed the electron cyclotron emission spectra in orthogonal polarisation directions for the first harmonic range, a condition is derived for the reflection and polarisation-scrambling coefficients of the first wall on the outboard side of JET.

  15. Pollution profiles and risk assessment of PBDEs and phenolic brominated flame retardants in water environments within a typical electronic waste dismantling region.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jukun; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng; Li, Guiying

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pollution profiles of various typical brominated flame retardants in water and surface sediment near a typical electronic waste dismantling region in southern China. We found that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), pentabromophenol (PeBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and bisphenol A (BPA) were ubiquitous in the water and sediment samples collected in the study region. In water, Σ19PBDEs (sum of all 20 PBDE congeners studied except BDE-209, which was below the detection limit) levels ranged from 0.31 to 8.9 × 10(2) ng L(-1). TBP, PeBP, TBBPA, and BPA concentrations in the water samples ranged from not being detectable (nd-under the detection limit) to 3.2 × 10(2) (TBP), from nd to 37 (PeBP), from nd to 9.2 × 10(2) (TBBPA) and from nd-8.6 × 10(2) ng L(-1) (BPA). In sediment, Σ19PBDEs ranged from nd to 5.6 × 10(3) ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was the predominant congener, with a range of nd to 3.5 × 10(3) ng g(-1). Tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations were significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with each other, except for BDE-71 and BDE-183, and octa- to nona-BDEs concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with each other, except for BDE-208. BDE-209 was not significantly correlated with tri- to nona-BDEs. Risk assessments indicated that the water and sediment across the sampling sites posed no estrogenic risk. However, different eco-toxicity risk degrees at three trophic levels did exist at most sampling sites.

  16. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the q

  17. Atmospheric deposition of Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, V, Cr, Co, Cd and Zn recorded in the Misten peat bog (Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium) during the Industrial Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, M.; Le Roux, G.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Mattielli, N.; Fagel, N.

    2012-04-01

    A 40 cm peat core was studied from ombrotrophic bog in Western Europe (Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium). Trace metal and metalloid content (TM) and Pb isotopes were analysed by Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively. We focused our attention to a selected number of TM according to their specific enrichment (i.e. Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn). Our aims were: 1) to investigate TM mobility; 2) to determine TM accumulation rates and 3) to link TM accumulation rates with established histories of anthropogenic atmospheric emission. According to 210Pb and 14C data the studied peat core section covered the last two centuries. The general agreement in TM concentration and flux profiles suggested that all TM (except Zn and Cd), were immobile in the Misten peat bog. The temporal increase of TM fluxes between the inception of the Industrial Revolution and the present vary by a factor of 5 to 50 according to TM. The maximum fluxes of TM were found between 1991 and 1995 AD. The coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant source of pollution. The historical TM profiles in the Misten peat profile are in agreement with other European records, reflecting the influence of regional European pollution.

  18. MLVA as a Tool for Public Health Surveillance of Human Salmonella Typhimurium: Prospective Study in Belgium and Evaluation of MLVA Loci Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wuyts, Véronique; Mattheus, Wesley; De Laminne de Bex, Guillaume; Wildemauwe, Christa; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; Marchal, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is generally considered to benefit from molecular techniques like multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA), which allow earlier detection and confinement of outbreaks. Here, a surveillance study, including phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the in Europe most commonly used 5-loci MLVA on 1,420 S. Typhimurium isolates collected between 2010 and 2012 in Belgium, was used to evaluate the added value of MLVA for public health surveillance. Phage types DT193, DT195, DT120, DT104, DT12 and U302 dominate the Belgian S. Typhimurium population. A combined resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (ASSuT) with or without additional resistances was observed for 42.5% of the isolates. 414 different MLVA profiles were detected, of which 14 frequent profiles included 44.4% of the S. Typhimurium population. During a serial passage experiment on selected isolates to investigate the in vitro stability of the 5 MLVA loci, variations over time were observed for loci STTR6, STTR10, STTR5 and STTR9. This study demonstrates that MLVA improves public health surveillance of S. Typhimurium. However, the 5-loci MLVA should be complemented with other subtyping methods for investigation of possible outbreaks with frequent MLVA profiles. Also, variability in these MLVA loci should be taken into account when investigating extended outbreaks and studying dynamics over longer periods. PMID:24391880

  19. The compositional mosaic of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed products in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Adriaan; Audenaert, Kris; De Boevre, Marthe; Landschoot, Sofie; Bekaert, Boris; Munaut, Françoise; Eeckhout, Mia; Höfte, Monica; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert

    2014-07-01

    Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin and physiology of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) related mycotoxins and the correlations within their ranks. Two hundred and thirty-seven samples were analyzed from diverse cereal matrices, representing the most important stages of the cereal food and feed chain in Belgium. Food, feed and non-processed field samples were investigated, with a strong emphasis on whole-grain food products. Two approaches were pursued to estimate the full scope of FHB and its repercussions: UPLC-MS/MS was applied to detect twelve different mycotoxins, and Q-PCR was used to measure the presence of ten Fusarium species. We found that different matrices have different characteristic contamination profiles, and extensive correlation studies identified certain mycotoxins for future assessment (e.g. moniliformin produced by the Fusarium avenaceum/Fusarium tricinctum species group). The investigated harvest year of 2012 yielded many non-processed field materials containing elevated levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), while even in a so-called DON-year less prevalent toxins such as T-2 and HT-2 might be considered problematic due to their consistent co-occurrence with related mycotoxins. Our data illustrate complex interactions between the many Fusarium species that are responsible for FHB and their mycotoxins. Correlation studies demonstrate that consistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins is not to be neglected, and pinpoint issues for future surveillance and legislation.

  20. A trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from several livestock species in Belgium (2011-2014).

    PubMed

    Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Jaspers, Stijn; Butaye, Patrick; Wattiau, Pierre; Méroc, Estelle; Aerts, Marc; Imberechts, Hein; Vermeersch, Katie; Van der Stede, Yves

    2015-12-01

    A temporal trend analysis was performed on antimicrobial resistance data collected over 4 consecutive years (2011-2014) in the official Belgian antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme. Commensal Escherichia coli strains were isolated from faecal samples of four livestock categories (veal calves, young beef cattle, broiler chickens and slaughter pigs) and the trends of resistance profiles were analysed. The resistance prevalence remained high (>50%) during the study period for ampicillin in veal calves and chickens, for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in chickens, for sulfamethoxazole in veal calves, chickens and pigs and for tetracycline in veal calves. Using logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equation and after p value adjustment for multiple testing (Linear step-up method), statistically significant decreasing temporal trends were observed for several of the 11 tested antimicrobials in several livestock categories: in veal calves (10/11), in chickens (6/11) and in pigs (5/11). A significant increasing trend was observed for the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin in chickens. Multi-resistance, considered as the resistance to at least three antimicrobials of different antibiotic classes, was observed in the four livestock categories but was significantly decreasing in veal calves, chickens and pigs. Overall, the prevalence of resistance and of multi-resistance was lowest in the beef cattle livestock category and highest in broiler chickens. These decreasing temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance might be due to a decrease of the total antimicrobial consumption for veterinary use in Belgium which was reported for the period between 2010 and 2013. The methodology and statistical tools developed in this study provide outputs which can detect shifts in resistance levels or resistance trends associated with particular antimicrobial classes and livestock categories. Such outputs can be used as objective evidence to evaluate the possible

  1. Chemkar PM10: An extensive look at the local differences in chemical composition of PM10 in Flanders, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, Jordy; Matheeussen, Christina; Wauters, Eric; Roekens, Edward; van Grieken, René; Krata, Agnieszka; Makarovska, Yaroslava; Maenhaut, Willy; Chi, Xuguang; Geypens, Benny

    2011-01-01

    The results of Chemkar PM10, the first large scale chemical characterisation project of PM10 in Flanders are presented. Between September 2006 and September 2007 a total of 365 PM10 samples were collected by sampling every sixth day at six different sites in Flanders (Belgium) varying in character from urban background to rural. Samples were analysed for a series of elements, elemental and organic carbon, 13C/ 12C- and 15N/ 14N-isotopic ratios, and water-soluble ions. At three sites extra sampling was carried out to determine PAHs by means of a novel technique that uses sorption tubes consisting of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) foam, PDMS particles and a TENAX TA bed. Results showed that the most important fractions were secondary inorganic ions (nitrate, sulphate and ammonium): 41% (12.6 μg m -3), organic matter: 20% (6.1 μg m -3), crustal matter: 14% (4.3 μg m -3), sea salt: 8% (2.4 μg m -3) and elemental carbon: 4% (1.2 μg m -3). Although the general composition profile was rather similar for the six sites, substantial differences could be observed for some main components and for several trace metals such as chromium, copper, zinc, arsenic and lead. Although the average sum of the "PAH 16" was quite variable between the three sites (between 132 and 248 ng m -3) the average sum of the "PAH 7" was between 7 and 9 ng m -3 for the three sites. The largest relative differences between sites were found for elemental carbon and crustal matter, thereby indicating that there is some potential for local measures to reduce the concentrations of particulate matter by a few μg m -3. Both for carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios significant differences in time were observed. Isotopic differences in location could only be detected for carbon.

  2. Effect evaluation of a road safety education program based on victim testimonials in high schools in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Cuenen, Ariane; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Van Vlierden, Karin; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert

    2016-09-01

    For several decades policy makers worldwide have experimented with testimonials as a strategy to promote road safety supportive views in a wide variety of target populations such as recidivists and students. In its basic format, a (relative of) a victim or an offender brings a personal testimonial of what it is to experience a traffic accident. The underlying idea is that such a testimonial will emotionally affect participants, thereby stimulating them to cognitively reflect upon their own behavior and responsibility as a road user. Unfortunately, empirical literature on the effectiveness of this strategy is rather scarce and inconsistent. This study investigated the effect of a large-scale program with victim testimonials for high schools in Belgium on five socio-cognitive and behavioral variables drawn from the Theory of Planned Behavior (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention and behavior). Moreover, this study investigated program effects on participants' cognitive and emotional estate and whether this influences the program's impact on socio-cognitive and behavioral variables. Our test sample included 1362 students, who were assigned to a baseline - follow-up group and a post-test - follow-up group. We questioned both groups, a first time (just before or after session attendance) on paper, and a second time (two months after session attendance) online. Results indicate the program had, both immediate and two months after attendance, small to medium positive effects on most socio-cognitive and behavioral variables. However, effects depended on participants' demographic profile, their baseline values on the socio-cognitive and behavioral variables, and the degree to which they were cognitively/emotionally affected by the program. We discuss the practical implications of these findings and formulate recommendations for the development of future interventions based on victim testimonials. PMID:27240125

  3. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.

  4. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards

    PubMed Central

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. Aim To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Design of study Large scale, retrospective study. Setting General practice in Belgium. Method A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005–2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Results Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Conclusion Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met. PMID:20353662

  5. Changes in medical end-of-life practices during the legalization process of euthanasia in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bilsen, Johan; Vander Stichele, Robert; Broeckaert, Bert; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2007-08-01

    Changes in medical practices during transitions in regulating healthcare are rarely investigated. In this study, we investigated changes in medical end-of-life decisions with a possible or certain life-shortening effect (ELDs) that occurred during the legalization process of euthanasia in Belgium. We took representative random samples from deaths reported to registries in Flanders, Belgium in 1998 (n=3999) at the beginning of the process and in 2001 (N=5005), at the end of the process. The reporting physicians received an anonymous mail questionnaire about possible ELDs preceding the death involved. We found no significant shifts in the epidemiology of diseases between 1998 and 2001. The overall incidence of ELDs did not change. The incidence decreased for euthanasia, administering life-ending drugs without patient's explicit request, and alleviation of pain and symptoms with life-shortening co-intention. Incidence increased for alleviation of pain and symptom without life-shortening intention, and remained stable for non-treatment decisions. All decisions in 2001 were more often discussed with patients, their relatives and nurses. In 2001, continuous deep sedation was reported in 8.3% of deaths. We can conclude that physicians' end-of-life practices have substantially changed during the short but tumultuous legalization process of euthanasia in Belgium. Although follow-up research is needed to investigate the continuance of these changes, it is important for policy makers to keep in mind that social factors related to transitions in healthcare regulation may play an important role in the physicians' actual behaviour.

  6. Skin cancer screening campaign in the German speaking Community of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, A F; Nikkels-Tassoudji, N; Jerusalem-Noury, E; Sandman-Lobusch, H; Sproten, G; Zeimers, G; Schroeder, J; Piérard, G E

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of primary malignant melanoma (MM) and skin carcinomas, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is progressively raising. As long as their diagnosis and therapeutic managements are initiated early, their prognosis remains favorable. This underlines the importance of early recognition of skin cancers. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that skin cancer screening programs are efficacious in increasing the population awareness of the early signs of skin cancer and of the dangers of UV - exposure. A skin cancer screening campaign was organised by dermatologists of the German-speaking Community of Belgium in cooperation with the Department of Family, Health, and Social Affairs of the Regional Ministry of the German-speaking Community of Belgium. In order to increase the screening selectivity, two risk populations were targeted; patients presenting 30 or more moles, and patients over 50 years of age presenting recent skin changes of the head and neck area. A media campaign using radio, television and daily press was started to increase the population awareness of the dangers of UV exposure and of the early signs of skin cancer. During 2 screening days, three-hour sessions were organised in 2 health centers located in Eupen and St Vith. A total of 148 patients were examined. A total of 124/148 patients met the selection criteria predefined during the media announcement. The simultaneous presence of 4 dermatologists during the screening sessions allowed a second opinion for warning lesions. Four BBCs as well as 23 patients pesenting dysplastic nevi were clinically diagnosed. During the 2 months following the screening campaign 5 MMs were identified by the same dermatologists in their routine practice. In conclusion, this skin cancer screening campaign led to the diagnosis of 4 carcinomas. The campaign furthermore increased the patient awareness, permitting the diagnosis of 5 MMs during the 2 following months. This figure

  7. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  8. Albert Siepert Points Out Highlights of Apollo 10 Liftoff to Belgium King and Queen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center Deputy Director for Administration, Albert Siepert, seated at left on third row, points out highlights of Apollo 10 liftoff to Belgiums King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola. Next to the queen is Mrs. Siepert. Former Vice President Hubert Humphrey, in baseball cap at right, talks with Mr. And Mrs. Emil Mosbacher, seated next to him. Mr. Mosbacher is the Chief of U.S. Protocol. The Apollo 10 astronauts were launched by an Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle at 12:49 pm EDT, May 18, 1969, from KSC launch complex 39B.

  9. [Recent population policy measures in Belgium, especially with respect to fertility].

    PubMed

    Bosman, E

    1985-01-01

    Policy measures affecting fertility, recently adopted in Belgium, are reviewed. The author notes that although responsibility for population matters has been delegated to the respective language groups, the responsibility for family law, divorce, abortion, social security, taxation, and labor policy remains a national responsibility. There are currently no measures in these areas adopted primarily for demographic reasons. Differences between the approaches taken by the French- and Dutch-speaking communities are noted. The author suggests that the French-speaking community has focused on problems relating to contraception and abortion, and the Dutch-speaking community has emphasized social welfare and family policy

  10. Satellite Derived Forest Phenology and Its Relation with Nephropathia Epidemica in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Maes, Piet; Clement, Jan; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Haredasht, Sara Amirpour; Wambacq, Julie; Lagrou, Katrien; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Van Ranst, Marc; Berckmans, Daniel; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE) and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission. PMID:20644685

  11. Twenty-two years screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: Liege-Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henri, T; Jacques, S; Rene, L

    1992-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1987, in Liége--Belgium, 20,901 pregnant women were screened for toxoplasmosis. In this period an increase in seronegative women from 30% to 53% and a decrease in the seroconversion rate from 6.4% to 1.2% was observed. This decrease could be the result of advice and prophylactic measures. Due to the low rate of seroconversion (actually less than 1%), the cost/effectiveness of a systematic screening and fetal diagnosis should be investigated.

  12. Lessons learned from a measles outbreak in Antwerp, Belgium 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Asnong, Carine; Van Herck, Koen; Lernout, Tinne; Theeten, Heidi; Van Damme, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    A 2007 to 2008 measles outbreak in Antwerp, Belgium, identified the orthodox Jewish communities as a new risk group. This study analyzes vaccination data of 949 school children of 4 belief systems to assess the completeness and timeliness of their measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Orthodox Jewish children show a 4-fold lower chance of complete vaccination, a delayed start, and increased temporal spacing of childhood vaccinations. Not only belief issues but difficulties to access the regular vaccination program also seem to be the main reason.

  13. eHealth in Belgium, a new "secure" federal network: role of patients, health professions and social security services.

    PubMed

    France, Francis Roger

    2011-02-01

    eHealth platform is the official federal network in Belgium (created by law on 21 August 2008) devoted to a secure exchange of health data in many types of applications, such as health care purposes, simplification of administrative procedures and contribution to health policy. It implies a controlled access to decentralized databases and uses encrypted personal data. The national identification number has been chosen in order to authenticate the requester, the patient, and the receiver of information exchange. Authorizations have to be respected in order to obtain personal health data. Several questions are raised about its security: the lack of mandatory request for systematic journaling on accesses to the electronic patient record as well as the absence of explicit procedures for sanctions in case of unauthorized access, the new role of social security administration in managing security where a eHealth manager can be both judge and party (in the function of trusted third party for health data encryption and of a required lawyer for texts proposed by physicians to the Commission for the protection of private life). Another critic concerns the number of physicians in minority and the absence of patients' delegates in the eHealth Board. At a time when the patient is becoming a partner in the care team, should not he be the gate-keeper for the access to his own health record? How could networks help him to get the appropriate knowledge to contribute to care and to write his testament of life? Recent laws (on private life, patient rights and euthanasia) have contributed to a behavioural change in citizens and physician attitudes. Recommendations are made in order to improve the acceptability of eHealth platform.

  14. Checklist of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from Belgium with respectively four
    and three new records.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Thomas; Libert, Pierre-Nicolas; Starý, Petr; Japoshvili, George; Hatt, Séverin; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-03-17

    Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the first checklist for the country. To complete the list, aphid parasitoids were sampled in wheat and pea fields near Gembloux (Belgium), in 2013 and 2014. Among the identified species, Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus daucicola Kurdjumov, Aphelinus fusciscapus (Förster), Aphidius asteris Haliday, Aphidius eadyi Starý, Gonzalez & Hall, Praon barbatum Mackauer, and Trioxys auctus (Haliday) were recorded for the first time in Belgium. Thirty-two Aphidiinae and seven Aphelinus species were included in the checklist. It is hoped this study will stimulate further research, as species diversity is still low compared with neighbouring countries.

  15. Checklist of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from Belgium with respectively four
    and three new records.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Thomas; Libert, Pierre-Nicolas; Starý, Petr; Japoshvili, George; Hatt, Séverin; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the first checklist for the country. To complete the list, aphid parasitoids were sampled in wheat and pea fields near Gembloux (Belgium), in 2013 and 2014. Among the identified species, Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus daucicola Kurdjumov, Aphelinus fusciscapus (Förster), Aphidius asteris Haliday, Aphidius eadyi Starý, Gonzalez & Hall, Praon barbatum Mackauer, and Trioxys auctus (Haliday) were recorded for the first time in Belgium. Thirty-two Aphidiinae and seven Aphelinus species were included in the checklist. It is hoped this study will stimulate further research, as species diversity is still low compared with neighbouring countries. PMID:27394473

  16. About three cases of ulceroglandular tularemia, is this the re-emergence of Francisella tularensis in Belgium?

    PubMed

    Dupont, E; Van Eeckhoudt, S; Thissen, X; Ausselet, N; Fretin, D; Stefanescu, I; Glupczynski, Y; Delaere, B

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by Francisella tularensis that can be transmitted by several ways to human being and cause different clinical manifestations. We report three clinical cases of tularemia with ulceroglandular presentation in young males acquired during outdoor activities in Southern Belgium. Confirmation of the diagnosis was established by serology. Only three cases of tularemia have been reported in Belgium between 1950 and 2012 by the National Reference Laboratory CODA-CERVA (Ref Lab CODA-CERVA) but re-emergence of tularemia is established in several European countries and F. tularensis is also well known to be present in animal reservoirs and vectors in Belgium. The diagnosis of tularemia has to be considered in case of suggestive clinical presentation associated with epidemiological risk factors.

  17. [Incidence of head and neck cancers in Belgium: comparison with world wide and French data ].

    PubMed

    Filleul, O; Preillon, J; Crompot, E; Lechien, J; Saussez, S

    2011-10-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tracts are frequent neoplasia,with as much as 466,831 and 168,368 cases diagnosed in 2008 among men and women worldwide,respectively. As such, they make up the sixth most frequent neoplasia among men and the eighth among women. Their frequency shows interesting variations covering the last 20 years, with an ascending tendency among women, which is higher in Europe, and a descending tendency in men, maximal in the USA. The comparison with the Belgian official data reveals a striking elevation of incidence of these cancers between both sexes, with important regional differences in Belgium. Finally, when we compare Belgian and French data, these cancers seem more frequent in France in men, but there is an opposite tendency among women, in which the carcinoma of the larynx is most represented in Belgium. Although the limited quality of the data limits the interpretation of these data, they seem to be partly in line with the evolution of the risk factors of these pathologies. PMID:26649364

  18. First report of a fatal autochthonous canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Sandra; Poncelet, Luc; Lempereur, Laetitia; Caron, Yannick; Bayrou, Calixte; Cassart, Dominique; Grimm, Felix; Losson, Bertrand

    2015-02-01

    Canine angiostrongylosis is considered as an emergent disease in Europe and Canada. A fatal case of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection is described in a four and a half month old puppy born in Belgium. The dog was presented with marked neurological disorders, body weight loss, a profound weakness and mild respiratory signs. The dog was given antibiotics and mucolytic compounds with very little improvement and consequently was referred to a specialist for additional examinations. As the general condition of the dog was rapidly declining, the animal was euthanized shortly after on its owners' request and a necropsy was carried out. Extensive gross pulmonary lesions were observed and histopathological examination revealed the presence of numerous larvae with morphology compatible with A. vasorum. Larvae were also found in the product of a bronchoalveolar lavage but fecal material was not examined. The presence of A. vasorum circulating serum antigen was demonstrated through ELISA; additionally an A. vasorum specific PCR was performed on brain material and yielded a positive result. This case confirms that the clinical diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis can be very challenging especially when respiratory signs are absent or very mild such in the present case. This is the first reported case of canine angiostrongylosis in Belgium.

  19. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  20. Recommendations for further improvement of the deceased organ donation process in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Pieter; Ferdinande, Patrick; Hoste, Eric; Vanhaecht, Kris; Rogiers, Xavier; Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Deynse, Dominique; Ledoux, Didier; Vandewoude, Koenraad; Vogelaers, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Belgium has achieved high deceased organ donation rates but according to the medical record data in the Donor Action database, deceased potential donors are still missed along the pathway. Between 2010 and 2014, 12.9 ± 3.3% of the potential donors after brain death (DBD) and 24.6 ± 1.8% of the potential donors after circulatory (DCD) death were not identified. Conversion rates of 41.7 ± 2.1% for DBD and 7.9 ± 0.9% for DCD indicate room for further improvement. We identify and discuss different issues in the monitoring of donation activities, practices and outcomes; donor pool; legislation on deceased organ donation; registration; financial reimbursement; educational and training programs; donor detection and practice clinical guidance. The overall aim of this position paper, elaborated by a Belgian expert panel, is to provide recommendations for further improvement of the deceased organ donation process up to organ procurement in Belgium.

  1. Incentives for market penetration of biosimilars in Belgium and in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Swartenbroekx, N; Farfan-Portet; Espín, J; Gerkens, S

    2014-12-01

    Biosimilars are products similar to a biological already authorized and no longer protected by a patent. As the biological product, they contain a biological substance produced by or derived from a living organism. Alike with generics, biosimilars are potential tool to ensure savings for health systems. The current lack of market penetration of biosimilars may be seen by national authorities as a lost opportunity in terms of cost- containment. The objective of this paper is therefore to analyze the current situation in Belgium and to identify potential measures to stimulate biosimilar uptake in Belgium through an analysis of the experience in five European countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. This international comparison was performed using a two steps analysis: a structured review of the literature followed by a validation from experts in each country. Potential incentives and constraints were identified, i.e., prescription quotas/target, clinical guidelines, primary substitution, reference price system, fixed payment and public tendering. However, the literature reviewed provided little evaluation of the effectiveness of these policies in terms of biosimilar uptake or potential savings. The impact of these policies on biosimilar related savings is currently based on expectation and assumptions. Such kind of studies is therefore essential in the future.

  2. Culicoides monitoring in Belgium in 2011: analysis of spatiotemporal abundance, species diversity and Schmallenberg virus detection.

    PubMed

    DE Regge, N; DE Deken, R; Fassotte, C; Losson, B; Deblauwe, I; Madder, M; Vantieghem, P; Tomme, M; Smeets, F; Cay, A B

    2015-09-01

    In 2011, Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 locations covering four regions of Belgium with Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) traps and at two locations with Rothamsted suction traps (RSTs). Quantification of the collections and morphological identification showed important variations in abundance and species diversity between individual collection sites, even for sites located in the same region. However, consistently higher numbers of Culicoides midges were collected at some sites compared with others. When species abundance and diversity were analysed at regional level, between-site variation disappeared. Overall, species belonging to the subgenus Avaritia together with Culicoides pulicaris (subgenus Culicoides) were the most abundant, accounting for 80% and 96% of all midges collected with RSTs and OVI traps, respectively. Culicoides were present during most of the year, with Culicoides obsoletus complex midges found from 9 February until 27 December. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening for Schmallenberg virus in the heads of collected midges resulted in the first detection of the virus in August 2011 and identified C. obsoletus complex, Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi midges as putative vector species. At Libramont in the south of Belgium, no positive pools were identified. PMID:25761054

  3. Incentives for market penetration of biosimilars in Belgium and in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Swartenbroekx, N; Farfan-Portet; Espín, J; Gerkens, S

    2014-12-01

    Biosimilars are products similar to a biological already authorized and no longer protected by a patent. As the biological product, they contain a biological substance produced by or derived from a living organism. Alike with generics, biosimilars are potential tool to ensure savings for health systems. The current lack of market penetration of biosimilars may be seen by national authorities as a lost opportunity in terms of cost- containment. The objective of this paper is therefore to analyze the current situation in Belgium and to identify potential measures to stimulate biosimilar uptake in Belgium through an analysis of the experience in five European countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. This international comparison was performed using a two steps analysis: a structured review of the literature followed by a validation from experts in each country. Potential incentives and constraints were identified, i.e., prescription quotas/target, clinical guidelines, primary substitution, reference price system, fixed payment and public tendering. However, the literature reviewed provided little evaluation of the effectiveness of these policies in terms of biosimilar uptake or potential savings. The impact of these policies on biosimilar related savings is currently based on expectation and assumptions. Such kind of studies is therefore essential in the future. PMID:25562926

  4. Media awards for responsible reporting of suicide: Experiences from Australia, Belgium and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark. Aims This study aimed to examine the experiences of Australian, Belgian and Danish award recipients in preparing stories on suicide, and consider the impacts of the awards for these recipients and for media professionals more broadly. Method We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with the majority (14 out of 15) of past recipients of the awards in the three countries of interest. Results Media awards appear to show promise as a method of reinforcing national and international media guidelines on reporting suicide. The recipients of awards were proud to have had their achievements recognized in this way, and had developed a heightened awareness of the issues inherent in reporting suicide. Although relatively few had prepared subsequent stories on suicide, a number had been given opportunities to provide advice to other media professionals about how best to approach this sensitive topic. Recipients viewed the awards as an important means by which good quality reporting can be rewarded, and a springboard for raising community awareness about suicide. Conclusion The experience from Australia, Belgium and Denmark suggests that media awards which recognize responsible reporting of suicide are extremely worthwhile. PMID:21639895

  5. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchments in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Amimul; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Paulussen, Jef; De Coster, Lut; Schoemaker, Toon; Chalmers, Rachel; Grit, Grietje; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-02-01

    Human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., Belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. Our objective was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchment sites in Belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. Monthly samples were collected from raw water and purified drinking water at four catchment sites. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using USEPA method 1623 and positive samples were genotyped. No contamination was found in purified water at any site. In three catchments, only low numbers of (oo)cysts were recovered from raw water samples (<1/liter), but raw water samples from one catchment site were frequently contaminated with Giardia (92 %) and Cryptosporidium (96 %), especially in winter and spring. Genotyping of Giardia in 38 water samples identified the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage AI, AII, BIV, BIV-like, and E. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium horse genotype, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis were detected. The genotyping results suggest that agriculture may be a more important source of surface water contamination than human waste in this catchment. In catchment sites with contaminated surface water, such as the Blankaart, continuous monitoring of treated water for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia would be justified and (point) sources of surface water contamination should be identified.

  6. Can Land Managers Control Japanese Knotweed? Lessons from Control Tests in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbart, Emmanuel; Mahy, Grégory; Weickmans, Bernard; Henriet, François; Crémer, Sébastien; Pieret, Nora; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Monty, Arnaud

    2012-12-01

    Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica is an extremely abundant invasive plant in Belgium and surrounding countries. To date, no eradication method is available for land managers facing the invasion of this rhizomatous plant. We tested different chemical herbicides with two application methods (spraying and stem injection), as well as mechanical treatments, on knotweed clones throughout southern Belgium. The tested control methods were selected to be potentially usable by managers, e.g., using legally accepted rates for herbicides. Stem volume, height and density reduction were assessed after one or two years, depending on the control method. Labor estimations were made for each control method. No tested control method completely eradicated the clones. Stem injection with glyphosate-based herbicide (3.6 kg ha-1 of acid equivalent glyphosate) caused the most damage, i.e., no sprouting shoots were observed the year following the injection. The following year, though, stunted shoots appeared. Among the mechanical control methods, repeated cuts combined with native tree transplanting most appreciably reduced knotweed development. The most efficient methods we tested could curb knotweed invasion, but are not likely to be effective in eradicating the species. As such, they should be included in a more integrated restoration strategy, together with prevention and public awareness campaigns.

  7. Institutional Elderly Care Services and Moroccan and Turkish Migrants in Belgium: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ahaddour, Chaïma; van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2016-10-01

    In several European countries, including Belgium, the rapid ageing of the migrant population has emerged only recently on the political agenda. The aim of this literature review is threefold. Firstly, it provides a review of the available studies on the accessibility and use of institutional care services by Moroccan and Turkish migrants in the Flemish part of Belgium including Flanders and Brussels. Secondly, it identifies their specific needs regarding elderly care services. Finally, it provides an overview of the way in which Belgian policy has dealt with the issue of migration and elderly care. Literature published between 1965 and 2014 and relevant to the Belgian context has been included. This search yielded 21 references, of which 8 empirical studies, 5 policy literature, 3 theoretical studies, 3 news articles and 2 popularized reports. Mainstream elderly care remains relatively inaccessible for these migrants due to the language and a series of cultural and religious barriers, a low level of education, financial constraints, a lack of knowledge of health care systems, and the so-called return and care dilemmas. Their religious and cultural needs are currently not met by elderly care services. The inclusive and neutral Belgian policy seems to pay insufficient attention to these issues.

  8. Did Large-Scale Vaccination Drive Changes in the Circulating Rotavirus Population in Belgium?

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Virginia E.; Bilcke, Joke; Heylen, Elisabeth; Crawford, Forrest W.; Callens, Michael; De Smet, Frank; Van Ranst, Marc; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination can place selective pressures on viral populations, leading to changes in the distribution of strains as viruses evolve to escape immunity from the vaccine. Vaccine-driven strain replacement is a major concern after nationwide rotavirus vaccine introductions. However, the distribution of the predominant rotavirus genotypes varies from year to year in the absence of vaccination, making it difficult to determine what changes can be attributed to the vaccines. To gain insight in the underlying dynamics driving changes in the rotavirus population, we fitted a hierarchy of mathematical models to national and local genotype-specific hospitalization data from Belgium, where large-scale vaccination was introduced in 2006. We estimated that natural- and vaccine-derived immunity was strongest against completely homotypic strains and weakest against fully heterotypic strains, with an intermediate immunity amongst partially heterotypic strains. The predominance of G2P[4] infections in Belgium after vaccine introduction can be explained by a combination of natural genotype fluctuations and weaker natural and vaccine-induced immunity against infection with strains heterotypic to the vaccine, in the absence of significant variation in strain-specific vaccine effectiveness against disease. However, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis is predicted to remain low despite vaccine-driven changes in the distribution of genotypes. PMID:26687288

  9. Interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, Jarl K; Brackenridge, Celia H; Rhind, Daniel J A; Neels, Karel; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-01-01

    The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed with respect to their experiences with childhood psychological, physical, and sexual violence while playing sports. Being the first of its kind in the Netherlands and Belgium, our study has a sufficiently large sample taken from the general population, with a balanced gender ratio and wide variety in socio-demographic characteristics. The survey showed that 38% of all respondents reported experiences with psychological violence, 11% with physical violence, and 14% with sexual violence. Ethnic minority, lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) and disabled athletes, and those competing at the international level report significantly more experiences of interpersonal violence in sport. The results are consistent with rates obtained outside sport, underscoring the need for more research on interventions and systematic follow-ups, to minimize these negative experiences in youth sport.

  10. Cooking up a culinary identity for Belgium. Gastrolinguistics in two Belgian cookbooks (19th century).

    PubMed

    Parys, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The notion of cookbooks as socio-historic markers in a society is generally accepted within food studies. As both representations and prescriptions of food practices, perceived habits and attitudes towards food, they represent a certain identity for their readers. This paper investigates the nature of the identity that Belgian cookbooks constructed through their rhetoric. An important part of this study is to explore how and to what extent explicit reference to Belgium was made. To this end recipe titles/labels and recipe comments used in two leading bourgeois cookbooks from nineteenth-century Belgium were subjected to a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that clear attention was paid to national culinary preferences. In terms of a domestic culinary corpus, it became apparent that both the Dutch and French editions of these cookbooks promoted dishes that were ascribed a Belgian origin. Internationality, however, was also an important building block of Belgian culinary identity. It was part of the desire of Belgian bourgeoisie to connect with an international elite. It fit into the 'search for sophistication', which was also expressed through the high representation of the more costly meats and sweet dishes. In addition, other references associated with bourgeois norms and values, such as family, convenience and frugality, were additional building blocks of Belgian culinary identity. Other issues such as tradition, innovation and health, were also matters of concerns to these Belgian cookbooks.

  11. The use of human tissue in epidemiological research; ethical and legal considerations in two biobanks in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Truyers, Carla; Kellen, Eliane; Arbyn, Marc; Trommelmans, Leen; Nys, Herman; Hensen, Karen; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bartholomeeusen, Stefaan; Hansson, Mats; Buntinx, Frank

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the legal implications of setting up two new biobanks in Belgium. The first is hospital-based and will archive tissue from patients with haematologic cancer, whereas the second is linked to a general practice based morbidity registry and will involve storage of blood samples. To date, Belgium has no specific legislation that regulates storage of human tissue and related databases. Several issues concerning the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal medical data are discussed from the existing privacy legislation. We will address the principle of consent (broad versus specific) and the type of data recorded (anonymous, encoded and identifiable) for both biobanks.

  12. Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather extremes will increase as a result of climate change. European society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many extreme weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of extreme observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of

  13. Universities and the State in Belgium: Past and Present Dimensions of Higher Education in a Divided Society. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L.

    This paper, part of a series of studies on higher education in different countries, traces the origins of higher education in Belgium to the 1970's. From 1835-1876, Belgium universities were shaped by polarization bewteen Catholics and liberals, uncertainty about the basic institutional patterns in higher education, and the legislative intrusion…

  14. Sistemas de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa en Belgica, Paises Bajos y Francia (Educational Documentation and Information Systems in Belgium, Holland, and France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi Etchelouz, Nelly Yvis

    This booklet describes the working and organization of the information and documentation systems in Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. The discussion begins with a look at the Belgium educational system and how information services operate within that system. The central library, specialized services, and specialized information centers are all…

  15. Simulation of the cavity-binding site of three bacterial multicopper oxidases upon complex stabilization: interactional profile and electron transference pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Martiniano; Correa-Basurto, Jose; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multicopper oxidases (MCOs) oxidize organic and inorganic compounds through oxidation-reduction reactions in which three structurally and functionally arranged copper centers coordinate the uptake of an electron from a reduced substrate. Structural comparisons among three bacterial MCOs, with high structural homology and available three-dimensional information, reveal that the primary structural differences between these MCOs are located near the mononuclear copper center (T1Cu), where substrate oxidation occurs, as opposed to where the reduction of oxygen to water occurs at the trinuclear center. Nevertheless, this substrate oxidation is achieved through an outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism that does not generate a stable substrate-enzyme complex. In this study, MCOs from Thermus thermophilus (Tth-MCO), Bacillus subtilis (CotA), and Escherichia coli (CueO), which have been previously determined through X-ray crystallography, were used as models to analyze the binding modes of these MCOs to three organic molecules, with specific interest in the substrate-binding site. The binding mode of the electron-donor molecule to the electron transfer binding site was primarily attributed to hydrophobic contacts, which likely play an important role in the determination of substrate specificity. Some complexes generated in this study showed an electron donor molecule conformation in which an electron could be directly transferred to the histidines coordinating T1Cu, while for others additional electron transference pathways were also possible through the participation of charged residues during electron transfer.

  16. Electronic School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM yearbooks. Bill…

  17. Unexpected bismuth concentration profiles in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy-grown Ga(As{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x})/GaAs superlattices revealed by Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A. W.; Babcock, S. E.; Guan, Y.; Forghani, K.; Anand, A.; Kuech, T. F.

    2015-03-01

    A set of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}/GaAs multilayer quantum-well structures was deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy at 390 °C and 420 °C. The precursor fluxes were introduced with the intent of growing discrete and compositionally uniform GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} well and GaAs barrier layers in the epitaxial films. High-resolution high-angle annular-dark-field (or “Z-contrast”) scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed concentration profiles that were periodic in the growth direction, but far more complicated in shape than the intended square wave. The observed composition profiles could explain various reports of physical properties measurements that suggest compositional inhomogeneity in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys as they currently are grown.

  18. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  19. Obtaining a Permit-To for a Hale-Uav in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaerts, J.; Lewyckyj, N.

    2011-09-01

    Ever since 2000, VITO has been working on the Pegasus project. This involves a solar High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (HALE-UAV) as a stratospheric platform for Earth Observation. This aircraft, called Mercator, is designed to fly for prolonged duration at altitudes up to 20 km. The technology has been proven by the aircraft's manufacturer, QinetiQ (UK) by a series of test flights over the past years, culminating in a world record flight in duration of over 14 days duration. All test flights, however, were conducted in test ranges, where other air traffic does not pose a concern. Pegasus aims to demonstrate the viability of stratospheric Earth Observation in Belgium, as a proof of concept for other areas around the world. The Belgian air space is completely different from a test range. More than 1 million aircraft movements take place over Belgium and Luxembourg every year, with routes to Amsterdam, Paris, Frankfurt, and London. Although Pegasus will usually be flying above this dense traffic, it does interfere with it during ascent and landing, and needs to be monitored during the cruise phase for safety reasons. Air traffic management in Belgium is a shared responsibility of Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs) Belgocontrol (civil), ATCC (military) and Eurocontrol MUAC (high altitude). In 2010, VITO applied for a permit-to-fly for a test flight of one day duration. Although the Belgian Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) had issued a regulation on UAVs in 2007, it was the first application for a permit to fly in controlled airspace. The Belgian CAA decided to use it as a test for the procedures as well. A prerequisite for flying in controlled airspace was that the aircraft has to carry a mode-S transponder and navigation lights. During first half of 2010, the ANSPs collaborated on a Temporary Operations Instruction and studied the safety impact of this flight on their operations. As an outcome, they decided that the Pegasus aircraft would be

  20. Critical use of methyl bromide for soil disinfestation in Belgium during 2005.

    PubMed

    Viaene, N; Eloot, B; De Vis, R; Decadt, R; Vergote, N; Bleyaert, P; Peeters, L; Trybou, M; Heungens, K

    2006-01-01

    During 2005, Belgium enforced a strict procedure for the assignment of critical-use permits for methyl bromide (MeBr) as a soil disinfestant. This procedure involved an inspection of the site before disinfestation by a representative of a registered institute, and a mandatory demonstration of the presence of a pest or disease for which a critical use permit could be granted according to the Critical Use Nominations (CUNs). The procedure was subject to random inspections by an independent institute. The results of these inspections demonstrated proper and timely evaluation of the permit requests. A total of 113 requests for a MeBr disinfestation permit were submitted in 2005. Out of these, 105 referred to applications in 2005. The remaining 8 requests referred to applications in 2006 and were denied a permit based on the lack of MeBr quotum granted to Belgium for 2006. Of the 105 requests for applications in 2005, 93 received a MeBr application permit for soil disinfestation. These 93 permits represented 15911 kg or 37.3% of the total quotum assigned to Belgium in 2005 (42676 kg). Most of the quotum was used for butterhead lettuce (11456 kg or 72% of the applied MeBr). For most commodities, a surplus in quotum was available. However, for chrysanthemum, the amount requested for critical use exceeded the available quotum. The most important pests and diseases for which a permit was assigned were Meloidogyne, Sclerotinia, Rhizoctonia, Olpidium, Pythium, Pyrenochaeta, Verticillium, and a combination of these fungi and nematodes. The 12 requests for which no permit was granted represented 2010 kg or 11.3% of the total amount requested. In addition, institutes carrying out the assignment procedure reported at least 62 extra cases where they had been contacted by a grower but where no official permit request was filed based on the first inspection. When including those cases, the total reduction of the potentially used amount of MeBr is about 44 %. When adding an estimated

  1. Geophysical investigation of landslides and fault scarps in the Hockai Fault Zone, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mreyen, Anne-Sophie; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    During several years, a series of geophysical surveys have been carried out in East Belgium to study the seismically active Hockai Fault Zone (HFZ). The most prominent earthquake that occurred in that fault zone is the 1692 Verviers Earthquake with a magnitude of M6-6.5; it is also the largest historical seismic event in NW Europe. The geomorphic impact of the fault zone is expressed by several landslides, NW-SE orientated scarps and paleo-valleys generated by river diversions. The NW part of the HFZ (near Battice, Belgium) is also known as the Graben de la Minerie; here, geophysical measurements confirmed the presence of a series of fault scarps and helped imaging the general basin structure related to vertical offsets of coal seams that had been found during former mining works. In the southern part of the HFZ, the ENE-SWS orientated Paleo-Warche-Valley (that was formed before upstream capturing of the Warche River) crosses the fault zone over a distance of 5 km. The shallow subsurface of this area was further investigated by geophysics to identify fault structures. The work presented here is focused on the SE prolongation of the HFZ (region of Malmedy, Belgium). Two new clear morphological markers unknown before were detected through analysis of a LiDAR-DEM recently published by the Walloon Region. The following geological-geomorphic survey confirmed the presence of a NNW-SSE oriented, 100 m long and 20 m high, scarp and an associated landslide (about 8 ha) with minimum age of 300 years. The landslide was formed in the Poudingue de Malmedy, a local Permian conglomerate lying on top of a quartz-phyllite bedrock. Different geophysical methods were applied to investigate the subsurface: microseismic measurements (H/V method), seismic refraction tomography (combined with surface wave analysis) and electrical resistivity tomography. To establish the structural relationship between the fault scarp and the landslide and to estimate the offset of the Poudingue de

  2. The Vocational Training of Young Migrants in Belgium, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, and the United Kingdom. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastenier, A.; And Others

    This study looked at the overall situation of the immigrant population, and young immigrants in particular, and analyzed such problem areas as the transition from school to working life and the inadequacies of initial training with relation to the situation in Belgium, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, and the United Kingdom. National monographs for…

  3. Differentiated Financing of Schools in French-Speaking Belgium: Prospectives for Regulating a School Quasi-Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demeuse, Marc; Derobertmasure, Antoine; Friant, Nathanael

    2010-01-01

    The school quasi-market in French-speaking Belgium is characterised by segregation. Efforts to apply measures that encourage greater social mixing have met with stiff resistance. In 2008 and 2009, turbulence was caused by the application of the "social mixing" law influencing the registration procedures. The purpose of this article is to present…

  4. 77 FR 32517 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Belgium: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 77 FR 21963 (April 12... Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 24460 (May 2, 2011). \\3\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  5. 75 FR 81966 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759, 37763 (June 30, 2010... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Extension of Time Limit for.... Statutory Time Limits Section 751(a)(3)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''), requires...

  6. 78 FR 30271 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, South Africa, and Taiwan: Notice of Court Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Orders: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium, Italy and South Africa, 64 FR 25288 (May 11, 1999... Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 64 FR 27756 (May 21, 1999); Notice of Amended Antidumping Duty Orders..., and Taiwan, 68 FR 11520 (March 11, 2003); and Notice of Amended Countervailing Duty Orders;...

  7. Towards Intercultural Education. A Comparative Study of the Education of Migrant Children in Belgium, England, France, and the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boos-Nunning, Ursula; And Others

    This study, originally published in German in 1983, describes results of a comparative evaluation of Commission of the European Communities projects for migrant children's education in four countries (Belgium, England, France, and the Netherlands). The report begins with a discussion of the European Communities' 1970 directive on the teaching of…

  8. 75 FR 58351 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``Act''). See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Extension of Time Limits...

  9. The Paradoxical Visions of Multilingualism in Education: The Ideological Dimension of Discourses on Multilingualism in Belgium and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambye, Philippe; Richards, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we will examine some contrasted discourses on multilingualism that circulate nowadays in the field of education. Focusing on the cases of French-speaking Belgium and of the Franco-Ontarian community in Canada, we will show the existence of two discourses on multilingualism: one that insists on the positive value of multilingualism…

  10. Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

  11. The health and economic burden of chickenpox and herpes zoster in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bilcke, J; Ogunjimi, B; Marais, C; de Smet, F; Callens, M; Callaert, K; van Kerschaver, E; Ramet, J; van Damme, P; Beutels, P

    2012-11-01

    Varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox (CP) and after reactivation herpes zoster (HZ). Vaccines are available against both diseases warranting an assessment of the pre-vaccination burden of disease. We collected data from relevant Belgian databases and performed five surveys of CP and HZ patients. The rates at which a general practitioner is visited at least once for CP and HZ are 346 and 378/100 000 person-years, respectively. The average CP and HZ hospitalization rates are 5·3 and 14·2/100 000 person-years respectively. The direct medical cost for HZ is about twice as large as the direct medical cost for CP. The quality-adjusted life years lost for ambulatory CP patients consulting a physician is more than double that of those not consulting a physician (0·010 vs. 0·004). In conclusion, both diseases cause a substantial burden in Belgium.

  12. Should the "in situ" simulation become the new way in Belgium? Experience of an academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Pospiech, A; Lois, F; Van Dyck, M; Kahn, D; De Kock, M

    2013-01-01

    The place of simulation in medical education, particularly in anesthesia, appears to be more and more evident. However, the history of simulation in Belgium showed that the associated costs remain a barrier. The use of 'in situ' simulation, defined as the practice of simulation in the usual workplace, could solve the problem of providing access to this educational tool. Indeed, it allows reducing equipment and manpower costs: the needed equipment comes from the hospital, and supervision and organization are provided by staff members. It also provides access to simulation for a larger number of individuals on site. The environment is more realistic because the participants operate in their usual workplace, with their customary equipment and team. Furthermore, 'in situ' simulation allows participation of the paramedical staff. This allows developing skills related to teamwork and communication. Despite those numerous advantages, several difficulties persist. The associated logistic and organizational constraints can be cumbersome.

  13. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs.

  14. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs. PMID:27012736

  15. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers. PMID:26922733

  16. Setting scientific standards: publishing in medical societies in nineteenth-century Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vandendriessche, Joris

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the publishing procedures of nineteenth-century medical societies, using the Medical Society of Ghent (Belgium) as a case study. It argues, more precisely, that the introduction of formalized review procedures in medical societies can be considered part of the emergence of a professional scientific culture in the first half of the nineteenth century. First, by participating in these procedures physicians took on different stylized roles, for example of the contributing author, the righteous judge, or the punctual secretary, and articulated new professional values such as contributing to science. Second, the publishing procedures of medical societies also provide insight into the mechanisms of reaching consensus in nineteenth-century medicine. By developing new scientific genres, such as the published meeting report, medical societies aimed to extend the community of peers beyond the group of society members and establish trust and agreement throughout the medical community.

  17. Pediatric cochlear implantation: a qualitative study of parental decision-making processes in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Hardonk, Stefan; Bosteels, Sigrid; Desnerck, Greetje; Loots, Gerrit; Van Hove, Geert; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Vanroelen, Christophe; Louckx, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Factors contributing to parents' decision when they choose between cochlear implantation (CI) and traditional hearing aids for their child were examined. The subjects were children with severe/profound hearing loss, born 1999-2001, registered in the universal neonatal hearing screening program in the Flanders region of Belgium. Qualitative data collected retrospectively from parents were subjected to thematic content analysis. In their responses to professional advice, parents were segmented into 3 groups: (a) those whose primary considerations were the importance of oral language development and the relative potential of CI and traditional hearing aids; (b) those for whom alternative factors (e.g., medical risks, ethical issues) were paramount, even in the face of professional advocacy of CI; (c) those who followed professional advice against CI. The researchers conclude that care professionals should be sensitive to the impact of their advice and other factors in parental decision making.

  18. U-series dating and stable isotope records of speleothem records from the Scladina Cave (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lubbe, Jeroen; Bonjean, Dominique; Hellstrom, John; Verheyden, Sophie; Vonhof, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The Scladina cave, situated in the village of Sclayn (Ardennes, Belgium) at the southern bank of the Meuse, is famous for its Neanderthal fossils and artefacts. The infilling of the cave consists of a succession of flowstone layers interbedded with reworked loess sediment from outside the cave. The younger flowstone layers correspond to interglacials MIS 5 and the Holocene, while the reworked loess sediments represent cooler conditions. By careful diagenetic screening, well-preserved speleothem material was selected for U-series dating and stable isotope analysis of calcite and fluid inclusions. The results provide important new constraints on the age of Neanderthal fossils and artefacts, and bracket the time periods with a hydroclimate favorable for speleothem growth. The combination of fluid inclusion and calcite isotope analysis documents climate variability in the interglacials at high temporal resolution.

  19. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  20. Econophysics of a religious cult: The Antoinists in Belgium [1920-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2012-06-01

    In the framework of applying econophysics ideas in religious topics, the finances of the Antoinist religious movement organised in Belgium between 1920 and 2000 are studied. The interest of investigating financial aspects of such a, sometimes called, sect stems in finding characteristics of conditions and mechanisms under which definitely growth and decay features of communities can be understood. The legally reported yearly income and expenses between 1920 and 2000 are studied. A three wave asymmetric regime is observed over a trend among marked fluctuations at times of crises. The data analysis leads to the proposition of a general mechanistic model taking into account an average GDP growth, oscillatory monetary inflation and a logistic population drift.

  1. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients’ muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level.

  2. PCB and organochlorine pesticides in home-produced eggs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Windal, I; Hanot, V; Marchi, J; Huysmans, G; Van Overmeire, I; Waegeneers, N; Goeyens, L

    2009-07-15

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OC) in home-produced eggs was investigated in Belgium. The concentration of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane (DDT) is above the norm for 17% of the eggs collected during the spring on 58 different locations. For PCB, aldrin, dieldrin, and chlordane, 3-5% of the samples are above the norm too. These levels are surprisingly high for compounds banned for about 30 years. Higher concentrations in home-produced eggs are expected compared to battery eggs because of contact with the environment and especially the soil. For ten selected locations, the concentration in soils, excreta and feed was measured, but no simple correlation between egg and feed or soil level could be established. Hexachlorohexane, endosulfan, endrin, methoxychlor and nitrofen were not detected in any sample. PMID:19150570

  3. PHYTOPLASMAS IN POME FRUIT TREES: UPDATE OF THEIR PRESENCE AND THEIR VECTORS IN BELGIUM.

    PubMed

    G, Peusens; K, De Jonghe; I, De Roo; S, Steyer; T, Olivier; F, Fauche; F, Rys; D, Bylemans; T, Beliën

    2015-01-01

    Among the numerous diseases that can attack pome fruit trees, apple proliferation and pear decline, both caused by a phytoplasma ('Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' (AP) and 'Ca. P. pyri' (PD), respectively), may result into important losses of quality and quantity of the crop. Until a few years ago, no scientific and reliable data on their presence in Belgium was available and so a 2-year survey was organised to obtain more detailed information on the status of both pathogens. Root and leaf samples collected in commercial orchards were analysed using molecular detection tools and tested positive for both phytoplasmas. Additionally, the presence and infectivity of Psyllidae, vectors of AP and PD, was assessed during this survey but no infected Cacopsylla-species were found. Lab trials revealed its vector capacity at the end of summer and autumn and its migration pattern 80 m in line and 10.5 m across trees in an orchard.

  4. Laboratory activities involving transmissible spongiform encephalopathy causing agents: risk assessment and biosafety recommendations in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Leunda, Amaya; Van Vaerenbergh, Bernadette; Baldo, Aline; Roels, Stefan; Herman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread of the disease by appropriate monitoring and control programs in European countries. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on pathogenesis, transmission and persistence outside the host of prion, the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in mammals with a particular focus on risk (re)assessment and management of biosafety measures to be implemented in diagnostic and research laboratories in Belgium. Also, in response to the need of an increasing number of European diagnostic laboratories stopping TSE diagnosis due to a decreasing number of TSE cases reported in the last years, decontamination procedures and a protocol for decommissioning TSE diagnostic laboratories is proposed.

  5. The politicisation of suburbanisation in Belgium: towards an urban–suburban divide.

    PubMed

    De Maesschalck, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The electoral and political consequences of suburbanisation recently regained interest in the Anglo-Saxon literature, pointing to a growing polarisation between city and suburban fringe. This paper analyses these processes in the Antwerp urban region and shows the development of a similar electoral divide that is supported by the political parties involved. These observations add to the existing evidence that city–suburban polarisation in Belgium cannot be simply equated with the Anglo-Saxon experience, where a complete suburban fencing off from the city is observable. Rather, because of the comparatively limited development of functions in the Belgian suburbs, a suburban discourse emerges that focuses on safe and accessible cities for the suburban user, yet without much reference to its present inhabitants.

  6. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers.

  7. Can the 'Heuvelland' region of West Flanders, Belgium, be considered as a 'terroir' for wine making?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, Emma; Verdoodt, Ann; Gabriels, Donald

    2015-04-01

    A 'terroir' can be defined as a group of vineyards from the same region, with the same type of soil, weather conditions, grapes and wine making. The 'Heuvelland' region with a surface are of 19 km² is situated in the Province of West Flanders, Belgium, bordering with France. The region comprises a number of hills (heuvels) on which a fast growing 'wine culture' is developing. Five different vineyards were selected from which soil samples were taken at different depths and locations on the slopes. The Belgian Soil Map, dating from the 1960's, illustrated 6 different soil types, but a detailed study on the soil particle size distribution (texture) enabled to distinguish more soil types in the vineyards. This leads to a 'tentative' conclusion that on the basis of 'soil type' the Heuvelland region cannot be considered as one unique 'terroir'.

  8. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across various microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, and iii) evaluate the correlation between the PDE and ExpoM-RFs measurements. Personal exposure data were collected using the PDE and two ExpoM-RFs simultaneously across 34 microenvironments (17 each in Australia and Belgium) located in urban, suburban and rural areas. Summary statistics of the electric field strengths (V/m) were computed and compared across similar microenvironments in Australia and Belgium. The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those in the rural or suburban microenvironments. Likewise, the exposure levels across the outdoor were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. The five highest median exposure levels were: city centre (0.248V/m), bus (0.124V/m), railway station (0.105V/m), mountain/forest (rural) (0.057V/m), and train (0.055V/m) [Australia]; and bicycle (urban) (0.238V/m), tram station (0.238V/m), city centre (0.156V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.139V/m) and park (0.124V/m) [Belgium]. Exposures in the GSM900 MHz frequency band across most of the microenvironments in Australia were significantly lower than the exposures across the microenvironments in Belgium. Overall correlations between the PDE and the ExpoM-RFs measurements were high. The measured exposure levels were far below the general public reference levels recommended in the guidelines of the ICNIRP and the ARPANSA.

  9. Ethics policies on euthanasia in nursing homes: a survey in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Verbeke, Geert; Van Craen, Katleen; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In many European countries there is a public debate about the acceptability and regulation of euthanasia. In 2002, Belgium became the second country after the Netherlands to enact a law on euthanasia. Although euthanasia rarely occurs, the complexity of the clinical-ethical decision making surrounding euthanasia requests and the need for adequate support reported by caregivers, means that healthcare institutions increasingly need to consider how to responsibly handle euthanasia requests. The development of written ethics policies on euthanasia may be important to guarantee and maintain the quality of care for patients requesting euthanasia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, development, position, and communication of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Flemish nursing homes. Data were obtained through a cross-sectional mail survey of general directors of all Catholic nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. Of the 737 nursing homes invited to participate, 612 (83%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, only 15% had a written ethics policy on euthanasia. Presence of an ethics committee and membership of an umbrella organization were independent predictors of whether a nursing home had such a written ethics policy. The Act on Euthanasia and euthanasia guidelines advanced by professional organizations were the most frequent reasons (76% and 56%, respectively) and reference sources (92% and 64%, respectively) for developing ethics policies on euthanasia. Development of ethics policies occurred within a multidisciplinary context. In general, Flemish nursing homes applied the Act on Euthanasia restrictively by introducing palliative procedures in addition to legal due care criteria. The policy was communicated to the consulting general practitioner and nurses in 74% and 89% of nursing homes, respectively. Although the overall prevalence of ethics policies on euthanasia was low in Flemish nursing homes, institution administrators displayed growing

  10. House Sparrows Do Not Constitute a Significant Salmonella Typhimurium Reservoir across Urban Gradients in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013-2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: <1.3%) of a reservoir in healthy house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines.

  11. Wild Cervids Are Host for Tick Vectors of Babesia Species with Zoonotic Capability in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Wirtgen, Marc; Nahayo, Adrien; Caron, Yannick; Shiels, Brian; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Linden, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by different species of intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites within the genus Babesia. Different species of Babesia are described as potentially zoonotic and cause a malaria-like disease mainly in immunocompromised humans. Interest in the zoonotic potential of Babesia is growing and babesiosis has been described by some authors as an emergent zoonotic disease. The role of cervids to maintain tick populations and act as a reservoir host for some Babesia spp. with zoonotic capability is suspected. To investigate the range and infection rate of Babesia species, ticks were collected from wild cervids in southern Belgium during 2008. DNA extraction was performed for individual ticks, and each sample was evaluated for the absence of PCR inhibition using a PCR test. A Babesia spp. genus-specific PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene was applied to validated tick DNA extracts. A total of 1044 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and 1023 validated samples were subsequently screened for the presence of Babesia spp. DNA. Twenty-eight tick samples were found to be positive and identified after sequencing as containing DNA representing: Babesia divergens (3), B. divergens-like (5), Babesia sp. EU1 (11), Babesia sp. EU1-like (3), B. capreoli (2), or unknown Babesia sp. (4). This study confirms the presence of potentially zoonotic species and Babesia capreoli in Belgium, with a tick infection rate of 2.7% (95% CI 1.8,3.9%). Knowledge of the most common reservoir source for transmission of zoonotic Babesia spp. will be useful for models assessing the risk potential of this infection to humans. PMID:22214270

  12. An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease among visitors to a fair in Belgium in 1999.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, K; Dirven, K; Van Bouwel, K; Mortelmans, L; Van Rossom, P; De Beukelaar, T; Vael, C; Fajo, M; Ronveaux, O; Peeters, M F; Van der Zee, A; Bergmans, A; Ieven, M; Goossens, H

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease at Kapellen in Belgium among visitors of the annual fair. The investigation started on 13th November 1999 after a respiratory physician notified the health authorities of the province of Antwerp of presumptive cases of legionellosis. The annual commercial fair at Kapellen, a small town in northern Belgium, was held 10 days previously and attracted 50,000 visitors. Stand employees (professionals or volunteers), technical staff of the hall and visitors at the fair were affected cases. An exploratory case-control study was conducted to trace the source of the epidemic. To complete the inventory study and to evaluate other risk factors, a cohort study of exhibitors and staff was conducted. Ninety-three people met the case definition, 41 of whom were considered as confirmed, 14 as presumptive cases and 38 as possible/clinical cases. Five people died. Further testing at the reference laboratory confirmed all strains to be Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The sensitivity for culture was low (29.2%), and sensitivity for seroconversion was high (90.9%). For urinary antigen test, a sensitivity with Biotest EIA of 65.6% was found, and the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 85.7%. In all cases, the individual had visited the fair. Those individuals working in the central areas of the tent, near the aerosol-producing devices, were at higher risk of disease. Legionella was detected by PCR on swabs of the surfaces of the whirlpool. Although not fully proven, an aerosol-producing device was the most probable source of the outbreak.

  13. Treatment outcome of intravenous artesunate in patients with severe malaria in the Netherlands and Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intravenous (IV) artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. In Europe, however, no GMP-manufactured product is available and treatment data in European travellers are scarce. Fortunately, artesunate became available in the Netherlands and Belgium through a named patient programme. This is the largest case series of artesunate treated patients with severe malaria in Europe. Methods Hospitalized patients treated with IV artesunate between November 2007 and December 2010 in the Netherlands and Belgium were retrospectively evaluated. Patient characteristics, treatment and clinical outcome were recorded on a standardized form and mortality, parasite clearance times and the occurrence of adverse events were evaluated. Results Of the 68 treated patients, including 55 with severe malaria, two patients died (2/55 = 3.6%). The mean time to 50% parasite clearance (PCT50), 90% and 99% were 4.4 hours (3.9 - 5.2), 14.8 hours (13.0 - 17.2), and 29.5 hours (25.9 - 34.4) respectively. Artesunate was well tolerated. However, an unusual form of haemolytic anaemia was observed in seven patients. The relationship with artesunate remains uncertain. Conclusions Data from the named patient programme demonstrate that IV artesunate is effective and well-tolerated in European travellers lacking immunity. However, increased attention needs to be paid to the possible development of haemolytic anaemia 2-3 weeks after start of treatment. Treatment of IV artesunate should be limited to the period that IV treatment is required and should be followed by a full oral course of an appropriate anti-malarial drug. PMID:22462806

  14. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gael; Sonke, Jeroen E; Piotrowska, Natalia; Streel, Maurice; Fagel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1,500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1,100 μg kg(-1), with the maxima between 840 and 1,100 μg kg(-1). A chronological framework was established using radiometric (210)Pb and (14)C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1,300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 μg m(-2)y(-1) (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 μg m(-2)y(-1) between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European-North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records.

  15. House Sparrows Do Not Constitute a Significant Salmonella Typhimurium Reservoir across Urban Gradients in Flanders, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013–2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: <1.3%) of a reservoir in healthy house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines. PMID:27168186

  16. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ΣDDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ΣDDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples.

  18. Reduction of electrical damage in specimens prepared using focused ion beam milling for dopant profiling using off-axis electron holography.

    PubMed

    Cooper, David; Truche, Robert; Rouviere, Jean-Luc

    2008-04-01

    GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.

  19. Probing channel temperature profiles in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors on 200 mm diameter Si(111) by optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kyaw, L. M.; Bera, L. K.; Dolmanan, S. B.; Tan, H. R.; Bhat, T. N.; Tripathy, S.; Liu, Y.; Bera, M. K.; Singh, S. P.; Chor, E. F.

    2014-08-18

    Using micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, the channel temperature profile is probed in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on a 200 mm diameter Si(111) substrate. In particular, RuO{sub x}-based gate is used due to the semitransparent nature to the optical excitation wavelengths, thus allowing much accurate thermal investigations underneath the gate. To determine the channel temperature profile in devices subjected to different electrical bias voltages, the GaN band-edge PL peak shift calibration with respect to temperature is used. PL analyses show a maximum channel temperature up to 435 K underneath the gate edge between gate and drain, where the estimated thermal resistance in such a HEMT structure is about 13.7 KmmW{sup −1} at a power dissipation of ∼10 W/mm. The temperature profiles from micro-Raman measurements are also addressed from the E{sub 2}-high optical phonon peak shift of GaN, and this method also probes the temperature-induced peak shifts of optical phonon from Si thus showing the nature of thermal characteristics at the AlN/Si substrate interface.

  20. Between and within-field variation in physico-chemical soil properties of vineyards: implications for terroir zoning and management in Heuvelland, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, Emma; Verdoodt, Ann; Cornelis, Wim; Delbecque, Nele; Tiebergijn, Lynn; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Gabriels, Donald

    2015-04-01

    growing region. According to the soil map of Belgium (scale 1:20,000), the soils are characterized by variable depth, texture, internal drainage and profile development. As such, the 23 vineyards in Heuvelland are found on 21 different soil types; of which 12 different soil types are included within our sampling strategy. Our sampling furthermore revealed an even greater variability in physico-chemical soil properties than reflected by the soil map. This leads to a 'tentative' conclusion that Heuvelland cannot be considered as one natural terroir as such and that the wine growers can potentially improve their production by adapting their management to local soil properties using the improved knowledge on the vineyard soils.

  1. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  2. Obstacles in measles elimination: an in-depth description of a measles outbreak in Ghent, Belgium, spring 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background From Mid-February to April 2011 one of the largest measles-outbreak in Flanders, since the start of the 2-dose vaccination scheme in 1995, took place in Ghent, Belgium. The outbreak started in a day care center, infecting children too young to be vaccinated, after which it spread to anthroposophic schools with a low measles, mumps and rubella vaccination coverage. This report describes the outbreak and evaluates the control measures and interventions. Methods Data collection was done through the system of mandatory notification of the public health authority. Vaccination coverage in the schools was assessed by a questionnaire and the electronic immunization database ‘Vaccinnet’. A case was defined as anyone with laboratory confirmed measles or with clinical symptoms and an epidemiological link to a laboratory confirmed case. Towards the end of the outbreak we only sought laboratory confirmation for persons with an atypical clinical presentation or without an epidemiological link. In search for an index patient we determined the measles IgG level of infants from the day care center. Results A total of 65 cases were reported of which 31 were laboratory confirmed. Twenty-five were confirmed by PCR and/or IgM. In 6 infants, too young to be vaccinated, only elevated measles IgG levels were found. Most cases (72%) were young children (0–9 years old). All but two cases were completely unimmunized. In the day care center all the infants who were too young to be vaccinated (N=14) were included as cases. Thirteen of them were laboratory confirmed. Eight of these infants were hospitalized with symptoms suspicious for measles. Vaccination coverage in the affected anthroposophic schools was low, 45-49% of the pupils were unvaccinated. We organized vaccination campaigns in the schools and vaccinated 79 persons (25% of those unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated). Conclusions Clustering of unvaccinated persons, in a day care center and in anthroposophic schools

  3. Near real-time ionospheric monitoring over Europe at the Royal Observatory of Belgium using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine; Pottiaux, Eric; Aerts, Wim; Baire, Quentin; Legrand, Juliette; Defraigne, Pascale; Huang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Various scientific applications and services increasingly demand real-time information on the effects of space weather on Earth's atmosphere. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere over Europe from the measured delays in the GNSS signals, and provides publicly several derived products. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° × 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at http://www.gnss.be/Atmospheric_Maps/ionospheric_maps.php. This paper presents the method used in the ROB-IONO software to generate the maps. The ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed products such as IGS and ESA with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. In addition, we tested the reliability of the ROB-IONO software to detect abnormal ionospheric activity during the Halloween 2003 ionospheric storm. For this period, the mean differences with IGS and ESA maps are 0.9 ± 2.2 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu respectively with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution in time and space of both IGS and ESA maps compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, one on March 17, 2013 and one on February 27, 2014 also highlights the capability of the method adopted in the ROB-IONO software to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. In that frame, ROB maintains a data base publicly available with identified ionospheric events since 2012.

  4. N(h) profile data at World Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. H.; Conkright, R.; Bilitza, D.; Feldstein, A. IA.; Willis, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    The data base for ionospheric electron density profiles at the World Data Centers is assessed. Past and future N(h) profiling from ionograms and profiles from incoherent scatter radar measurements are considered.

  5. Decoding implicit information from the soil map of Belgium and implications for spatial modelling and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Legrain, Xavier; Colinet, Gilles; Van Ranst, Eric; Deckers, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. Soil surveyors were classifying soils in the field according to physical and morphogenetic characteristics such as texture, drainage class and profile development. Mapping units are defined as a combination of these characteristics but to which modifiers can be added such as parent material, stoniness or depth to substrata. Interpretation of the map towards predicting soil properties seems straight forward. Consequently, since the soil map has been digitized, it has been used for e.g. hydrological modelling or for estimating soil organic carbon content at sub-national and national level. Besides the explicit information provided by the legend, a wealth of implicit information is embedded in the map. Based on three cases, we illustrate that by decoding this information, properties pertaining to soil drainage or soil organic carbon content can be assessed more accurately. First, the presence/absence of fragipans affects the soil hydraulic conductivity. Although a dedicated symbol exits for fragipans (suffix "...m"), it is only used explicitly in areas where fragipans are not all that common. In the Belgian Ardennes, where fragipans are common, their occurrence is implicitly implied for various soil types mentioned in explanatory booklets. Second, whenever seasonal or permanent perched water tables were observed, these were indicated by drainage class ".h." or ".i.", respectively. Stagnic properties have been under reported as typical stagnic mottling - i.e. when the surface of soil peds are lighter and/or paler than the more reddish interior - were not distinguished from mottling due to groundwater gley. Still, by combining information on topography and the occurrence of substratum layers, stagnic properties can be inferred. Thirdly, soils with deep anthropogenic enriched organic matter

  6. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The

  7. "Now we feel like we did everything we could": A qualitative study into the experiences of Dutch patients who travelled to Belgium for infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, W; De Sutter, P; Pennings, G

    2014-01-01

    Many Dutch infertility patients go to Belgium for treatment every year. This is the first qualitative interview study looking into the experiences and perspectives of Dutch patients who travel to Belgium for infertility treatment. We recruited 16 heterosexual couples and one single woman to ensure maximal diversity in age, distance to the clinic, type of treatment and number of previously failed cycles. The interview data was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The central theme in the data was that going to Belgium was the next step. The Dutch patients believed that the quality of care was very high in Belgium and that in taking this step, they did everything they could to achieve a pregnancy. PMID:25593693

  8. Modelling of agricultural diffuse pollution and mitigation measures effectiveness in Wallonia (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohier, C.; Deraedt, D.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Implementation of European directives in the environmental field and, specially, in the water management field, generates a request from policy-makers for news tools able to evaluate impact of management measures aiming at reducing pressures on ecosystems. In Wallonia (Southern Region of Belgium), the Nitrate Directive (EEC/676/91) was transposed into the "Walloon action plan for nitrogen sustainable management in agriculture" (PGDA1) in 2002. In 2007, a second plan was launched to reinforce some topics (PGDA2). Furthermore, the goal of "good quality" of surface waters and groundwater imposed by the Water Framework Directive poses new challenges in water management. In this context, a "soil and vadose" hydrological model is used in order to evaluate diffuse pollutions and efficiency of mitigation measures. This model, called EPICgrid, has been developed at catchment scale with an original modular concept on the basis of the field scale "water-soil-plant" EPIC model (Williams J.R., Jones C.A., Dyke P.T. (1984). A modelling approach to determining the relationship between erosion and soil productivity. Transactions of the ASAE. 27, 129-144). The model estimates, for each HRU identified into a 1km2 grid, water and nutrients flows into the plant-soil-vadose zone system (Sohier C., Degré A., Dautrebande S. (2009). From root zone modelling to regional forecasting of nitrate concentration in recharge flows - The case of the Walloon Region (Belgium). Journal of Hydrology, Volume 369, Issues 3-4, 15 May 2009, Pages 350-359). The model is used to make prospective simulations in order to evaluate the impact of measures currently performed to reduce the effect of diffuse pollution on water surface quality and groundwater quality, at regional scale. Response of the soil-vadose zone to agricultural practices modification is analyzed for the deadlines of the Water Framework Directive: 2015, 2021 and 2027, taking into account two climatic scenarios. Simulations results showed

  9. Ground-penetrating radar research in Belgium: from developments to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambot, Sébastien; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Craeye, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar research in Belgium spans a series of developments and applications, including mainly ultra wideband radar antenna design and optimization, non-destructive testing for the characterization of the electrical properties of soils and materials, and high-resolution subsurface imaging in agricultural engineering, archeology and transport infrastructures (e.g., road inspection and pipe detection). Security applications have also been the topic of active research for several years (i.e., landmine detection) and developments in forestry have recently been initiated (i.e., for root zone and tree trunk imaging and characterization). In particular, longstanding research has been devoted to the intrinsic modeling of antenna-medium systems for full-wave inversion, thereby providing an effective way for retrieving the electrical properties of soils and materials. Full-wave modeling is a prerequisite for benefiting from the full information contained in the radar data and is necessary to provide robust and accurate estimates of the properties of interest. Nevertheless, this has remained a major challenge in geophysics and electromagnetics for many years, mainly due to the complex interactions between the antennas and the media as well as to the significant computing resources that are usually required. Efforts have also been dedicated to the development of specific inversion strategies to cope with the complexity of the inverse problems usually dealt with as well as ill-posedness issues that arise from a lack of information in the radar data. To circumvent this last limitation, antenna arrays have been developed and modeled in order to provide additional information. Moreover, data fusion ways have been investigated, by mainly combining GPR data with electromagnetic induction complementary information in joint interpretation analyses and inversion procedures. Finally, inversions have been regularized by combining electromagnetics models together with soil

  10. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  11. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-09-23

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  12. The health and economic burden of haemophilia in Belgium: a rare, expensive and challenging disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemophilia is a rare hereditary haemorrhagic disease that requires regular intravenous injections of clotting factor (CF) concentrates. This study sought to estimate the health and economic burden of haemophilia in Belgium. This is the first study of its type to be conducted, and reflects the Belgian authorities’ growing interest for haemophilia as part of their priority planning for rare and chronic diseases. Methods A probabilistic model was developed in order to estimate the lifetime haemophilia burden for the 2011 birth-year Belgian cohort. The health burden was initially expressed in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), the number of healthy life years lost due to living with disability and dying prematurely. An incidence perspective was used in line with World Health Organization recommendations. The economic burden calculated from direct and indirect haemophilia-related costs was expressed in euros. Data were drawn from the literature if none were available from federal institutions or health insurance. Disability weights for DALY calculation were derived using generic quality-of-life tools such as SF-6D from the SF-36 (36-item Short-Form Health Survey; for adults) and KINDL (generic quality-of-life instrument; for children) compared to population norms. Analyses were stratified according to haemophilia type and severity. Results In Belgium, haemophilia resulted in 145 undiscounted and unweighted DALYs in total (95% credible interval [CrI] = 90-222), which represents an average of 11 DALYs per incident case with haemophilia (95% CrI = 8-15) during his life, varying according to haemophilia severity (17 DALYs for severe haemophilia, 12 DALYs for moderate, and 4 DALYs for mild). Mean total lifetime costs reached €7.8 million per people with haemophilia, 94.3% being direct costs and 5.7% indirect costs. Clotting factors accounted for 82.5% of direct costs. Conclusions Haemophilia represents both an economic and health burden

  13. The seismotectonic significance of the 2008-2010 seismic swarm in the Brabant Massif (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Shah, Anjana K.; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Structural interpretations of the tectonic grain of orogenic mountain belts have often been based on the study of potential field data. The steep architecture of mountain belts can be highlighted by the inclination of the magnetic field and by the persistence of aeromagnetic lineaments with depth. With respect to seismology, matched filtering has proven to be very useful for linking seismicity with deep-seated tectonic structures by separating short-wavelength anomalies, that originate from shallow depths, from long-wavelength anomalies that generally originate at greater depths. Between 2008 and 2010 more than 300 low-magnitude earthquakes occurred 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). Thanks to a locally deployed temporary seismic network covering the epicentral area, very small events could be detected (magnitude variation between ML -0.7 and ML 3.2). The spatial distribution of the hypocenter locations show a dense spatial cluster displaying a narrow, 1.5-km long, NW-SE oriented fault zone at a depth range between 5 and 7 km, located in the Cambrian basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic Anglo-Brabant Massif. Its NW-SE orientation is in agreement with the structural grain in this part of the Brabant Massif. In order to find a relevant tectonic structure that could correspond to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm, we present a full seismotectonic analysis linking local geology to the seismic swarm. A systematic filtering approach was applied in which the magnetic field was carefully bandpass filtered to generate different aeromagnetic maps that highlight sources near the hypocenter depths. Filtering demonstrates that the structure responsible for the seismic swarm is limited in length as it is bordered at both ends by magnetic lineaments with different orientations than the seismic swarm. These observations explain the rather limited spatial distribution of the swarm, both in a vertical and horizontal direction. Although few of the largest historical seismic events in

  14. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  15. Informal home care for elderly in Belgium: a study on the features and challenges of informal care at local level.

    PubMed

    Criel, Bart; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; De Koker, Benedicte; Decraene, Bieke; Engels, Elke; Waltens, Riet

    2014-10-01

    In Belgium, and in other OECD countries, there is a growing awareness about the importance of informal home care for the elderly's well-being. Informal care is considered as an intrinsically valuable social phenomenon. Public authorities in Belgium have been advocating an active policy of support for informal carers. In 2007, an extensive survey was carried out in the Belgian municipality of Kruibeke in order to establish a better picture of the various needs of the elderly in their home situation, but also to better understand the way in which informal care is provided and perceived by care receivers and care givers. The study points to the need for support for the difficult burden of informal care and highlights the need for a coordinated and integrated approach to elderly care.

  16. Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults' leisure-time physical activity: findings from Belgium, Australia and the USA.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cardon, Greet; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F

    2013-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the strength, direction and shape of the associations of environmental perceptions with recreational walking and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, using pooled data from four study sites (Baltimore [USA], Seattle [USA], Adelaide [Australia] and Ghent [Belgium]). Moreover, site- and gender-specificity of the associations were examined. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) completed the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Both a 'recreational walking-friendliness' index and a 'leisure-time activity friendliness' index had a positive linear association with recreational walking and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. The associations were significant in all study sites except Ghent. Present findings were clearly site-specific, imposing possible challenges for built environment recommendations. In Belgium, interventions to promote leisure-time activity may need to target promotion of existing opportunities rather than built environment improvements. PMID:23178650

  17. Does birth history account for educational differences in breast cancer mortality? A comparison of premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Gadeyne, Sylvie; Deboosere, Patrick; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Neels, Karel

    2012-12-15

    This study investigates the impact of reproductive factors on the association between education and breast cancer mortality in Belgium. The role of reproductive factors has been investigated in several studies, with mixed results. Reproductive factors are either completely or partially responsible for the association between education and breast cancer mortality. The data consist of the 1991 census linked to registration data on cause-specific mortality during the period 1991-1995, including all breast cancer deaths in Belgium during the observation period. The study population includes all women aged 35-79 at time of the census. Age-standardized mortality rates and mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression) are computed for educational groups with and without control for reproductive factors. The population is stratified according to age (women aged 35-49 and 50-79) and according to nulliparity. The relationship between education and breast cancer is significant among postmenopausal women. Breast cancer mortality is higher among the higher educated women. These results are consistent with international findings, the gradient not being negative as in most other causes of death, but positive. Statistical control for parity and age at first birth reduces the association largely. In addition, among nonparous women, differences in breast cancer mortality by education are not consistent and generally not significant. Reproductive factors are largely responsible for the positive association between education and breast cancer mortality among postmenopausal women in Belgium. Among premenopausal women, the relation is not significant, a pattern consistent with international studies.

  18. Measurement of indium concentration profiles and segregation efficiencies from high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Mehrtens, Thorsten; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Hu, Dongzhi; Schaadt, Daniel M; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    We investigated segregation of indium in an InxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure via high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), where contrast strongly depends on the nuclear charges of the scattering atoms (Z-contrast). Indium concentration maps have been deduced from HAADF-STEM images by comparing normalized measured intensities with multislice simulations in the frozen lattice approach. Segregation coefficients were derived following the segregation model of Muraki et al.. This is demonstrated for HAADF-STEM images recorded in [100] and [110] zone-axes. Determined indium concentrations and segregation coefficients are compared with results from composition analysis by lattice fringe analysis (CELFA) measurements and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX).

  19. Methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from an electronic waste-recycling site in South China: levels, congener profiles, and chiral signatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; She, Ya-Zhe; Mo, Ling; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Great concerns have been raised about the fate and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organic contaminants contained in electronic waste (e-waste) exported from industrialized countries at midlatitudes to subtropical and tropical regions. Information on the metabolites of these chemicals, for example, methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs) in wildlife from the later regions is scarce. In the present study, 17 MeSO(2)-PCBs, including five chiral congeners, were detected in the muscle, liver, and brain tissues of two benthic fish species--northern snakehead and mud carp--from a small pond near an electronic waste recycling site in South China. The mean concentrations of the sum of the MeSO(2)-PCBs ranged from 80 to 340 ng/g lipid weight in the tissues, with relative higher levels in the liver than the muscle and brain tissues. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO(2)-PCBs previously reported in fish. The 3'-MeSO(2)-CB 87, 3'- and 4'-MeSO(2)-CB 101, 4-MeSO(2)-CB 110, and 4-MeSO(2)-CB 149 were dominant, collectively comprising more than 55% of the total MeSO(2)-PCBs. Except for 4-MeSO(2)-CB149, all of the investigated chiral MeSO(2)-PCBs displayed a clear, congener-specific enantiomeric enrichment in the tissues. No tissue-specific enantioselective retention of the enantiomers was observed in the investigated fish. This is the first report on chiral signatures of MeSO(2)-PCBs in fish tissues. PMID:22927054

  20. Methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from an electronic waste-recycling site in South China: levels, congener profiles, and chiral signatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; She, Ya-Zhe; Mo, Ling; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Great concerns have been raised about the fate and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organic contaminants contained in electronic waste (e-waste) exported from industrialized countries at midlatitudes to subtropical and tropical regions. Information on the metabolites of these chemicals, for example, methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs) in wildlife from the later regions is scarce. In the present study, 17 MeSO(2)-PCBs, including five chiral congeners, were detected in the muscle, liver, and brain tissues of two benthic fish species--northern snakehead and mud carp--from a small pond near an electronic waste recycling site in South China. The mean concentrations of the sum of the MeSO(2)-PCBs ranged from 80 to 340 ng/g lipid weight in the tissues, with relative higher levels in the liver than the muscle and brain tissues. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO(2)-PCBs previously reported in fish. The 3'-MeSO(2)-CB 87, 3'- and 4'-MeSO(2)-CB 101, 4-MeSO(2)-CB 110, and 4-MeSO(2)-CB 149 were dominant, collectively comprising more than 55% of the total MeSO(2)-PCBs. Except for 4-MeSO(2)-CB149, all of the investigated chiral MeSO(2)-PCBs displayed a clear, congener-specific enantiomeric enrichment in the tissues. No tissue-specific enantioselective retention of the enantiomers was observed in the investigated fish. This is the first report on chiral signatures of MeSO(2)-PCBs in fish tissues.

  1. Pressure of non-professional use of pesticides on operators, aquatic organisms and bees in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Fevery, Davina; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-04-15

    Various studies focus on professional pesticide use, whereas pressure of non-professional use on human and the environment is often neglected. In this study, an attempt was made to estimate the pressure of non-professional use of pesticides on operators, aquatic organisms and bees in Belgium based on sales figures and by using three exposure models. A classification in non-professional use was made based on type of pesticide, application method and on intensity of non-professional use. Pressure of non-professional use on operators is highest for intensive operators, caused by the use of insecticides in an aerosol spray can. Pressure of non-professional pesticides on aquatic life is mainly generated by the use of herbicides. The aerosol spray induces the highest pressure whereas the trigger application hardly affects operator and environmental exposure. The ordinary non-professional user generates most pressure on aquatic organisms. Pressure of non-professional pesticides on bees is mainly caused by the use of insecticides, especially the active substance imidacloprid in combination with the aerosol spray can application method applied by an intensive operator. In general, both total usage (kg) and pressure of pesticides decreased for the period 2005 to 2012 due to efforts made by the government and industry. The results of this study suggest to pay special attention to aerosol spray applications and the non-professional use of insecticides.

  2. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations. PMID:25466934

  3. Legislation and refusal of blood transfusion by a minor Jehovah-Witness in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Deneyer, M; Matthys, D; Ramet, J; Michel, L; Holsters, D; Vandenplas, Y

    2011-01-01

    The refusal of blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses in critical situations constitutes an ethical and juridical dilemma. The refusal to receive blood products by Jehovah's Witnesses is based on biblical verses. Recurring arguments to sustain this refusal regard the right to self-determination and the right to freedom of faith. If minors are involved, the problem is rendered even more difficult as the parental authority over young children needs to be taken into account. When adolescents are concerned, the situation if even more ambiguous since adolescents might be considered as mature enough to provide autonomous consent. On the basis of three cases, the most frequent bottlenecks that can come up in paediatric emergency services are highlighted: (1) the refusal of a blood transfusion by the parents of a young child; (2) the refusal by an adolescent and (3) prior refusal based on a "No Blood"-document. Regarding minors, the law on patients' rights in Belgium contains safety mechanisms concerning the preservation of physical integrity. Therefore, a key responsibility has been assigned to the physician. A step-by-step plan and a synoptic diagram are presented. PMID:22299319

  4. The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other.

  5. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations.

  6. Statistics, gymnastics and the origins of sport science in Belgium (and Europe).

    PubMed

    Delheye, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the introduction of statistics in the field of gymnastics and its effect on the institutionalisation of physical education as a fully fledged academic discipline. Soon after Belgian independence, Adolphe Quetelet's research already resulted in large-scale anthropometric statistics - indeed, he developed an index that is still being used and is better known under the name of the body mass index. His insights were applied by promoters of gymnastics who wanted to make physical education more scientific. Thus, Clément Lefébure, director of the Ecole Normale de Gymnastique et d'Escrime in Brussels, set up a comparative experiment (with pre- and post-test measurements) by which he intended to show that the 'rational' method of Swedish gymnastics produced much better results than the 'empirical' method of Belgian/German Turnen. Lefébure's experiment, which was cited internationally but which was also strongly contested by opponents, was one of the factors that led to Swedish gymnastics being officially institutionalised in 1908 at the newly founded Higher Institute of Physical Education of the State University of Ghent, the first institute in the world where students could obtain a doctoral degree in physical education. Although it rested actually on very weak scientific foundations, the bastion of Swedish gymnastics built in Belgium in that pre-war period collapsed only in the 1960s. From then on, sport science could develop fully within the institutes for physical education. PMID:24624946

  7. A field trial in Belgium to control fox rabies by oral immunisation.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Thomas, I; Iokem, A; Ginter, A; Kalpers, J; Paquot, A; Costy, F; Pastoret, P P

    1988-12-10

    Campaigns of fox vaccination against rabies were carried out in Belgium in September 1986 and June and September 1987. The SAD B19 attenuated strain of rabies virus was inserted into baits which were distributed over an area of 2100 km2 at a density of 11 baits/km2. As recommended by the World Health Organisation, the efficacy and the innocuity of the method were controlled in the field and in the laboratory. Samples of blood and brain and jaw were taken from foxes which were shot or found dead in the vaccination area, for the diagnosis of rabies, the titration of antirabies antibody and the detection of tetracycline marker. In rabid animals, the virus strain was characterised by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies. In September 1987, the uptake of the baits had reached 72 per cent by 14 days after distribution. Several wild species competed with foxes in taking the baits. After the last campaign, tetracycline was found in 65 per cent of the healthy foxes collected and rabies virus neutralising antibodies were detected in 77 per cent of them. In 1987, the incidence of rabies decreased markedly in the vaccination area compared with the untreated areas. No vaccine virus was isolated either from rabid animals or from 228 small mammals trapped in the vaccination area.

  8. The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other. PMID:24767595

  9. Safety effects of an extensive black spot treatment programme in Flanders-Belgium.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ellen; Daniels, Stijn; Brijs, Tom; Hermans, Elke; Wets, Geert

    2014-05-01

    Black spot management is a widely implemented measure to improve traffic safety. This study evaluates the safety effects of an extensive black spot programme that has been implemented in Flanders-Belgium. In total, around 800 black spots were selected, from which 134 locations, redesigned between 2004 and 2007, were included in this study. The adopted approach is an empirical Bayes before- and after study that accounts for effects of general trends and for the stochastic nature of crashes, including regression to the mean. Two different comparison groups were established. The analyses showed a decrease in the number of injury crashes of 24-27%, significant at the 1%-level. A separate analysis for crashes with serious or fatal injuries showed a decrease of 46-57%, also significant at the 1% level. The highest effects were found for the implementation of changes in the layout of priority controlled intersections and for the installation of traffic signals, which showed a decrease of respectively 42% and 35% in the number of injury crashes. Signalized intersections at which left-turn phasing was implemented resulted in a decrease of 22% in the number of injury crashes, changes in the layout leaded to a decrease of 11%. The conversion of intersections (both signalized and priority controlled) into roundabouts resulted in a decrease of 21% in injury crashes. The black spot programme generated a favourable effect on each of the road user categories (car occupants, moped riders, cyclists, motorcyclist, pedestrians and truck drivers).

  10. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients’ muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level. PMID:27684098

  11. Nurses' views on their involvement in euthanasia: a qualitative study in Flanders (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    de Casterlé, B Dierckx; Verpoort, C; De Bal, N; Gastmans, C

    2006-01-01

    Background Although nurses worldwide are confronted with euthanasia requests from patients, the views of palliative care nurses on their involvement in euthanasia remain unclear. Objectives In depth exploration of the views of palliative care nurses on their involvement in the entire care process surrounding euthanasia. Design A qualitative Grounded Theory strategy was used. Setting and participants In anticipation of new Belgian legislation on euthanasia, we conducted semistructured interviews with 12 nurses working in a palliative care setting in the province of Vlaams‐Brabant (Belgium). Results Palliative care nurses believed unanimously that they have an important role in the process of caring for a patient who requests euthanasia, a role that is not limited to assisting the physician when he is administering life terminating drugs. Nurses' involvement starts when the patient requests euthanasia and ends with supporting the patient's relatives and healthcare colleagues after the potential life terminating act. Nurses stressed the importance of having an open mind and of using palliative techniques, also offering a contextual understanding of the patient's request in the decision making process. Concerning the actual act of performing euthanasia, palliative care nurses saw their role primarily as assisting the patient, the patient's family, and the physician by being present, even if they could not reconcile themselves with actually performing euthanasia. Conclusions Based on their professional nursing expertise and unique relationship with the patient, nurses participating as full members of the interdisciplinary expert team are in a key position to provide valuable care to patients requesting euthanasia. PMID:16574869

  12. Cross-cultural comparison of motor competence in children from Australia and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bardid, Farid; Rudd, James R; Lenoir, Matthieu; Polman, Remco; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence in childhood is an important determinant of physical activity and physical fitness in later life. However, childhood competence levels in many countries are lower than desired. Due to the many different motor skill instruments in use, children's motor competence across countries is rarely compared. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the motor competence of children from Australia and Belgium using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK). The sample consisted of 244 (43.4% boys) Belgian children and 252 (50.0% boys) Australian children, aged 6-8 years. A MANCOVA for the motor scores showed a significant country effect. Belgian children scored higher on jumping sideways, moving sideways and hopping for height but not for balancing backwards. Moreover, a Chi squared test revealed significant differences between the Belgian and Australian score distribution with 21.3% Belgian and 39.3% Australian children scoring "below average." The very low levels reported by Australian children may be the result of cultural differences in physical activity contexts such as physical education and active transport. When compared to normed scores, both samples scored significantly worse than children 40 years ago. The decline in children's motor competence is a global issue, largely influenced by increasing sedentary behavior and a decline in physical activity.

  13. Preliminary survey on the impact of Schmallenberg virus on sheep flocks in South of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Saegerman, C; Martinelle, L; Dal Pozzo, F; Kirschvink, N

    2014-10-01

    Between late February and May 2012, a preliminary anonym survey was conducted among sheep farmers in south of Belgium in order to contribute to future estimations of the economic losses caused by Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Based on clinical signs consistent with SBV infection, this survey involved 13 meat sheep flocks considered as positive flocks with subsequent SBV detection by RT-qPCR [SBV-positive flocks (PF); total of 961 animals], and 13 meat sheep flocks considered as negative flocks (NF; total of 331 animals). These preliminary results indicated several significant characteristics that were more present in PF than in NF. These include an increased rate of abortions (6.7% in PF versus 3.2% in NF), of lambs born at term but presenting malformations (10.1% in PF versus 2.0% in NF) and of dystocia (10.1% in PF versus 3.4% in NF). Lamb mortality during the first week of life was reported more frequently in PF (8 of 13 PF, 61.5%) than in NF (1 of 13 NF, 7.7%). In PF, the observed prolificacy rate was 2-fold lower (93%) than expected (186%). The implementation of a survey at larger scale, including a high number of breeders, is necessary to allow a more detailed analysis of the SBV impact in the sheep sector.

  14. Optimizing Natural Gas Networks through Dynamic Manifold Theory and a Decentralized Algorithm: Belgium Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Caleb; Winfrey, Leigh

    2014-10-01

    Natural Gas is a major energy source in Europe, yet political instabilities have the potential to disrupt access and supply. Energy resilience is an increasingly essential construct and begins with transmission network design. This study proposes a new way of thinking about modelling natural gas flow. Rather than relying on classical economic models, this problem is cast into a time-dependent Hamiltonian dynamics discussion. Traditional Natural Gas constraints, including inelastic demand and maximum/minimum pipe flows, are portrayed as energy functions and built into the dynamics of each pipe flow. Doing so allows the constraints to be built into the dynamics of each pipeline. As time progresses in the model, natural gas flow rates find the minimum energy, thus the optimal gas flow rates. The most important result of this study is using dynamical principles to ensure the output of natural gas at demand nodes remains constant, which is important for country to country natural gas transmission. Another important step in this study is building the dynamics of each flow in a decentralized algorithm format. Decentralized regulation has solved congestion problems for internet data flow, traffic flow, epidemiology, and as demonstrated in this study can solve the problem of Natural Gas congestion. A mathematical description is provided for how decentralized regulation leads to globally optimized network flow. Furthermore, the dynamical principles and decentralized algorithm are applied to a case study of the Fluxys Belgium Natural Gas Network.

  15. Levels of bisphenol-A in thermal paper receipts from Belgium and estimation of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Geens, Tinne; Goeyens, Leo; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2012-10-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a commonly used color developer in thermal paper. In this application, BPA is present in its free, unbound form and can be readily released, making thermal paper a potential source for human exposure. In this study, BPA was determined in 44 thermal paper samples collected in Belgium. BPA was detected in all the samples; 73% of the samples had concentrations between 0.9% and 2.1% (between 9 and 21 mg BPA/g paper), while the remaining 27% of the samples had concentrations below 0.01% (0.1mg BPA/g paper). The BPA concentrations measured in thermal paper were comparable with those reported in other international studies. Since thermal paper is a feedstock for paper recycling processes, contamination of other "BPA-free" papers can occur. An estimation of human exposure through thermal paper results in a median intake of 445 ng BPA/day for the general population, which corresponds to an exposure of 6.4 ng/kg bw/day for a person of 70 kg. The exposure of those people who come occupationally in contact with thermal paper can be much higher.

  16. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983-2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  17. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  18. Evaluation of long-term bedload virtual velocity in gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houbrechts, Geoffrey; Levecq, Yannick; Peeters, Alexandre; Hallot, Eric; Van Campenhout, Jean; Denis, Anne-Cécile; Petit, François

    2015-12-01

    In many gravel-bed rivers, bed material transfer has been interrupted or perturbed by anthropogenic activities. Currently, restoration projects are being conducted in many countries in order to re-establish bedload continuity. However, until now, few studies have provided indications of the velocity of bed material over the long-term (at least decade to century time-scale). In the context of river restoration projects (e.g. weir removal, addition of spawning gravel), these data are nevertheless crucial to predict the downstream propagation of the geomorphological and biological benefits (e.g. supply-transport equilibrium, morphological and substratum diversity). In our study, PIT-tag tracers were used in eight medium-sized gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne Region, Belgium) to propose a flow competence relationship based on specific stream power, on the one hand, and to determine the long-term virtual velocity of the bed material corresponding to the median diameter (D50) of the surface layer of riffles, on the other hand. After each flow event that exceeded the threshold for sediment entrainment, tagged particles were sought and located, even when they were buried in the subsurface layer. Afterwards, all of the data were used to estimate the virtual velocity of the bed material over the long-term using three approaches. Finally, the results were compared with long-term transport estimations based on iron slag dispersed by the rivers since the end of the middle ages.

  19. Methodology of the biological risk classification of animal pathogens in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, B; Koenen, F; Pauwels, K; Quanten, K; Boyen, F; Declercq, K; Desmecht, D; Thiry, J; Herman, P

    2010-12-01

    Since many micro-organisms are a biological hazard, they have been categorised into risk groups by many countries and organisations and classification lists have been developed. Current classification systems rely on criteria defined by the World Health Organization, which cover the severity of the disease the micro-organism might cause, its ability to spread and the availability of prophylaxis or efficient treatment. Animal pathogens are classified according to the definitions of the World Organisation for Animal Health, which also consider economic aspects of disease. In Europe, classification is often directly linked to containment measures. The Belgian classification system, however, only considers the inherent characteristics of the micro-organism, not its use, making the risk classification independent of containment measures. A common classification list for human and animal pathogens has been developed in Belgium using as comprehensive an approach as possible. The evolution of scientific knowledge will demand regular updating of classification lists. This paper describes the Belgian risk classification system and the methodology that was used for its peer-reviewed revision (with a focus on animal pathogens).

  20. Gastrointestinal protozoa in non-human primates of four zoological gardens in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Levecke, Bruno; Dorny, Pierre; Geurden, Thomas; Vercammen, Francis; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2007-09-30

    Gastrointestinal parasites are important infectious causes of diarrhoea in captive non-human primates (NHP). However, prevalence data of gastrointestinal parasites in zoological gardens are scarce. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in NHP of four zoological gardens in Belgium. Between August 2004 and April 2006, 910 faecal samples were collected from 222 animals housed in 39 groups. The 31 species involved were representatives of prosimians, New World (NW) monkeys, Old World (OW) monkeys and apes. Because individual sampling was impossible, a statistical simulation was performed to estimate a sufficient sample size. All samples were microscopically examined after an acetic acid-ether concentration. Differences in host species susceptibility were examined by non-parametric tests. Entamoeba spp. (44%) and Giardia spp. (41%) were the most prevalent species. Other parasites detected were Endolimax nana (36%), Chilomastix mesnili (21%), Balantidium coli (13%), Trichuris spp. (10%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (5%) and Strongyloides spp. (5%). Parasites for which a significant difference in susceptibility at the level of host taxonomy was noted were Entamoeba spp. (p<0.001) and C. mesnili (p<0.05). Samples containing Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in OW monkeys (p<0.0083). Samples collected from OW monkeys contained the highest number of parasite species (p<0.0083). PMID:17656023

  1. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients' muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level. PMID:27684098

  2. Potable water for a city: a historic perspective from Bruges, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Vandevyvere, E.

    2014-06-01

    Contributing to the optimisation of drinking-water supplies is a key responsibility for professional hydrogeologists. Thus, it is interesting to look back and put current-day practices in the framework of historic evolution and past achievements. The water supply of Bruges (Belgium), with an innovative supply system already established by the end of the 13th century, forms an interesting case study. The supply system consisted of an underground network of pipes feeding public and private wells. A special construction, the Water House, was built to overcome a topographical height difference. Population growth and industrial expansion during the 19th century increased the water demand and new solutions were necessary. Tap water became available from 1925 onwards and, as a stopgap measure to meet demand, deep groundwater was used. This invoked a lively debate among the city council, scientists and entrepreneurs, whereby both water quality and quantity were discussed. Although based on a lack of modern understanding of the groundwater system, some arguments, both pro or contra, look very familiar to current-day hydrogeologists.

  3. The hydrogeology of the military inundation at the 1914-1918 Yser front (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbohede, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Protection against flooding by the sea, drainage of rainwater and integrated management of groundwater and surface-water resources are key issues in low-lying coastal areas. However, under exceptional circumstances, knowledge to keep coastal areas dry and habitable can be used otherwise. Inundation for military purposes is such an example. The hydrogeology of the inundation at the Yser River, Belgium, during the Great War is studied. The inundation started in October 1914 to stop the German advance and lasted until 1918. A water balance and groundwater model are combined to derive the water balance before and during the inundation and to study the impact on the groundwater system. It is concluded that a number of hydrogeological factors contributed to the effectiveness of the inundation. Most importantly, the low-permeability subsoil facilitated loss of inundation water mainly by evaporation. Further, the normal water management strategy of the area (aimed at evacuating excess water towards the sea) was reversed to keep water between the opposing armies. However, the duration of the inundation meant a reorganization of the drainage of areas not inundated; truly an exercise in integrated water management.

  4. Homogenity of geological units with respect to the radon risk in the Walloon region of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Tondeur, François; Cinelli, Giorgia; Dehandschutter, Boris

    2014-10-01

    In the process of mapping indoor radon risk, an important step is to define geological units well-correlated with indoor radon. The present paper examines this question for the Walloon region of Belgium, using a database of more than 18,000 indoor radon measurements. With a few exceptions like the Carboniferous (to be divided into Tournaisian, Visean and Namurian-Westphalian) and the Tertiary (in which all Series may be treated together), the Series/Epoch stratigraphic level is found to be the most appropriate geological unit to classify the radon risk. A further division according to the geological massif or region is necessary to define units with a reasonable uniformity of the radon risk. In particular, Paleozoic series from Cambrian to Devonian show strong differences between different massifs. Local hot-spots are also observed in the Brabant massif. Finally, 35 geological units are defined according to their radon risk, 6 of which still present a clear weak homogeneity. In the case of 4 of these units (Jurassic, Middle Devonian of Condroz and of Fagne-Famenne, Ordovician of the Stavelot massif) homogeneity is moderate, but the data are strongly inhomogeneous for Visean in Condroz and in the Brabant massif. The 35 geological units are used in an ANOVA analysis, to evaluate the part of indoor radon variability which can be attributed to geology. The result (15.4-17.7%) agrees with the values observed in the UK.

  5. VOC and ozone fluxes from a pine forest in the north of Belgium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eerdekens, G.; Gielen, B. N.; Neirynck, J.; Heinesch, B.; Janssens, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    Plants release large amounts of carbon as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These VOCs play an important role in the chemistry of the troposphere as they can be involved in the mechanisms of ozone and aerosol formation. The key mechanisms underneath biogenic VOC emissions are still not well understood, leading to large uncertainties in BVOC inventories on global and regional scales. Measurements of VOCs, ozone and micro-meteorology are conducted at the `De inslag', a 80-year old mixed pine-oak forest located in the Campine region near Antwerp, Belgium. The forest site is a level-II plot of the European Programme of Intensive Monitoring Forest Ecosystems and is part of the Carboeuro and Nitroeurope-flux research network. The site is equipped with a flux tower that reaches above the 23m canopy. A Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer and a Fast Ozone analyser allow determining VOC and ozone fluxes by Eddy Covariance. An analytic footprint model is used to exclude non-forest fluxes. In this study, we will test the accuracy of this footprint model with anthropogenic tracers (benzene and toluene).

  6. The Prevalence of Nine Genetic Disorders in a Dog Population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E. C.; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Soetaert, Sandra S. A.; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n = 476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n = 8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

  7. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D.; Cooper, Bethany T.; Bennett, Melanee B.; Brown, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic. PMID:25361047

  8. The effect of the induced magnetic field on the electron density vertical profile of the Mars' ionosphere: A Mars Express MARSIS radar data analysis and interpretation, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Nicolás, M.; Sánchez-Cano, B.; Witasse, O.; Blelly, P.-L.; Vázquez, L.; Lester, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report the indirect detection of an induced magnetic field in the ionosphere of Mars and its effects on the electron density behaviour. The observations were made by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) aboard Mars Express, in its Active Ionospheric Sounding mode. During several orbits on June 2006, the ionosphere showed an unusual behaviour, characterised by a compression of the plasma above the main ionospheric peak as observed by the topside total electron content, the plasma scale height, and the local plasma in the Mars Express surroundings. The compression was most likely due to an induced magnetic field originating from the solar wind and measured by the MARSIS antennas, which was able to penetrate into the ionosphere. In particular, for several profiles, the density distribution can be clearly defined by two different plasma scale heights, which indicates a transition region between both of them. From the balance of magnetic and thermal plasma pressures and from a comparison with a numerical model of the Martian ionosphere, the hypothesis of a penetrating induced magnetic field down to a transition altitude around 150 km is confirmed. This compressed ionosphere has also been compared with data from other orbits in the same location and at the same time period, i.e. 18.5 days of difference between first and last orbits, where there is no measured induced magnetic field, and the orbits show a clearly different behaviour.

  9. Two-color terahertz interferometer based on the frequency-splitted orthogonal polarization modes of the water vapor laser and designed for measuring the electron density profile in the L-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Letunov, A. A.; Logvinenko, V. P.; Zav'yalov, V. V.

    2008-03-15

    An upgraded diagnostics for measuring the electron density profile in the L-2M stellarator is proposed. The existing diagnostics employs an interferometer based on an HCN laser with a mechanical frequency shifter and unmagnetized InSb detectors cooled with liquid helium. It is proposed to replace the HCN laser with a water vapor laser operating simultaneously at two wavelengths (220 and 118 {mu}m). Being equipped with an anisotropic exit mirror, the water vapor laser allows the generation of orthogonally polarized, frequency-splitted modes at each of these wavelengths with a frequency difference of several tens of kilohertzs. Such a scheme makes it possible to get rid of the mechanical frequency shifter. Moreover, simultaneous measurements at two wavelengths allow one to reliably separate the phase increments introduced by the plasma electron component and by variations in the lengths of the interferometer arms. To take full advantage of this scheme, specially developed cryogenic receivers consisting of Ge and InSb photodetectors placed one after another will be used. To increase the response of the system near {lambda} = 220 {mu}m, the InSb detector is placed in a Almost-Equal-To 0.55-T magnetic field.

  10. Automated permanent resistivity monitoring of charge and discharge processes of subsurface aquifer at the Membach station, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deceuster, J.; Kaufmann, O.; van Camp, M. J.; Lecocq, T.

    2010-12-01

    Permanent monitoring of changes in soil properties is of increasing interest in many engineering applications such as management of groundwater contamination, landslide and sinkhole risks prevention, detection of saline water intrusion, comprehension of charge and discharge processes of subsurface aquifer. As geophysical investigations allow detecting contrasts in physical properties of the subsurface, field and lab experiments have been conducted for a few years to assess the reliability of these methods to monitor temporal changes in soil properties. Among the methods available, DC resistivity tomography is recognized as one of the most promising techniques. In order to assess the efficiency of electrical resistivity in monitoring charge and discharge processes of subsurface aquifer, and also to better model hydrological effects on the gravity measurements, an on-going field experiment is conducted at the Membach station located in the eastern part of Belgium. This geophysical station is equipped with an accelerometer, seismometers and a superconducting gravimeter, installed at the end of a 130 m long tunnel excavated in a low-porosity argillaceous sandstone mount at 48.5 m depth. Continuous gravimetric observations have been taken since August 1995. Since 2004 rainfall and soil moisture changes are measured in situ. In July 2010, an automated permanent geoelectrical acquisition system was installed to monitor subsurface resistivity variations during a test period of about 6 months. The aim of this experiment is to better understand charge and discharge processes of the subsurface aquifer, which are expected to be mainly due to rainfall variations. This aquifer is localized at the top of the weathered bedrock at a depth of 4 to 5 meters. The acquisition system consists in a straight profile of 48 buried electrodes (with a 2 meters spacing) connected to a Syscal R1 resistivimeter which is automatically controlled by a computer. Resistivity measurements are taken

  11. Pioneer Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Channa Beth

    1987-01-01

    Profiles Herbert A. Sweet, founder and director of Acorn Farms Day Camp (Indiana) for 44 years. Includes reminiscences about the camp's program, staffing, food, World War II, affiliation with the American Camping Association, and camps/directors of today. (NEC)

  12. Leadership Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teach, Beverly; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents profiles of two leaders in the field of educational media and technology: Carolyn Guss and Mendel Sherman, both retired professors from Indiana University's program in Information Systems Technology. (KRN)

  13. Comparison of Information Available in the Medication Profile of an Electronic Health Record and the Inpatient Best Possible Medication History in a Mother and Child Teaching Hospital Center.

    PubMed

    Daupin, J; Rosseaux, G; Lebel, D; Atkinson, S; Bedard, P; Bussieres, J-F

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMedication reconciliation (MedRec) can improve patient safety. In Canada, most provinces are implementing electronic health records (EHR). The Quebec Health Record (QHR) can theoretically be used for medication reconciliation. However, the quantity and the quality of information available in this EHR have not been studied. ObjectivesThe main objective was to compare the quantity and quality of the information collected between the inpatient best possible medication history (BPMH) and the QHR.   MethodsThis is a descriptive prospective study conducted at CHU Sainte-Justine, a 500-bed tertiary mother-and-child university hospital center. All inpatients from May 19-26, 2015 were considered for inclusion. Every prescription line in the BPMH and QHR were compared. ResultsThe study included 344 patients and 1,039 prescription lines were analyzed. The medications' name and dosing were more often available in the QHR (95%) than in the BPMH (61%). Concordance between the medication names between QHR and BPMH was found in 48% of the prescription lines; this rate fell to 29% when also factoring daily dosage.  ConclusionsThis study suggests that the QHR can provide high-quality information to support the MedRec hospital process. However, it should be used as a second source to optimize the BPMH obtained from a thorough interview with the patient and/or his or her family. More studies are required to confirm the most optimal way to integrate the QHR to the MedRec process in hospitals. PMID:27462999

  14. Halogenated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an electronic waste recycling region in South China: levels, composition profiles, and human dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; She, Ya-Zhe; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-09-15

    Three regulated halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and several alternative HFRs (AHFRs) including Dechlorane Plus (DP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), were investigated in the home-produced eggs from three recycling sites and a reference site in an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling region, South China. Mean levels of HFRs in eggs from the recycling sites ranged 2640-14100, 700-1620, 44-350, and 720-3920 ng/g lipid weight for ∑PBDEs, ∑PBBs, ∑HBCDs, and ∑AHFRs, respectively, which were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those examined in the reference site. PBDEs were the predominant HFR in those eggs, with contributions >50% to the total HFRs; followed by PBBs and the AHFRs (contributing 14-22% in average). The α-HBCD was the predominant diastereoisomers of HBCDs, with preferential enrichment of the (-)-enantiomer in most of the eggs; but no significant stereoselective enrichment of the DP isomers was observed in these eggs. The average estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PBDEs, PBBs, HBCDs, and the AHFRs via eggs from the recycling sites ranged 4200-20000, 1120-2440, 80-490, and 970-4530 ng/day, respectively, which were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported from other parts of the world. The potential adverse effects of these HFRs to human health in the e-waste sites should be further investigated. This is the first report on the isomer compositions of DP and the chiral signatures of HBCDs in hen eggs. PMID:22609680

  15. Toxic responses in rat embryonic cells to silver nanoparticles and released silver ions as analyzed via gene expression profiles and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liming; Shi, Chang; Shao, Anliang; Li, Xuefei; Cheng, Xiang; Ding, Rigao; Wu, Gang; Chou, Laisheng Lee

    2015-05-01

    After exposing rat embryonic cells to 20 μg/mL of silver nanoparticle (NP) suspension and their released ions for different time periods, silver nanoparticles were found in cellular nuclei, mitochondria, cytoplasm and lysosomes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also observed mitochondrial destruction, distension of endoplasmic reticulum and apoptotic bodies. Global gene expression analysis showed a total of 279 genes that were up-regulated and 389 genes that were down-regulated in the silver-NP suspension exposure group, while 3 genes were up-regulated and 41 genes were down-regulated in the silver ion exposure group. Further, the GO pathway analysis suggested that these differentially expressed genes are involved in several biological processes, such as energy metabolism, oxygen transport, enzyme activities, molecular binding, etc. It is possible that inhibition of oxygen transport is mediated by the significant down-regulation of genes of the globin family, which might play an important role in silver ion-induced toxicity. KEGG pathway analysis showed that there were 23 signal pathways that were affected in the cells after exposure to silver-NP suspension, but not silver ion alone. The most significant change concerned inflammatory signal pathways, which were only found in silver-NP suspension exposed cells, indicating that inflammatory response might play an important role in the mechanism(s) of silver-NP-induced toxicity. The significant up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9 suggests that silver NPs could induce extracellular matrix degradation via an inflammatory signaling pathway. The significant up-regulation of secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor and serine protease inhibitor 2c was considered to be an embryonic cellular defense mechanism in response to silver-NP-induced inflammation.

  16. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Bruno, D.; Binello, S.; Costanzo, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D. M.; Hock, J.; Hock, K.; Harvey, M.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Mi, C.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; Pikin, A. I.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Samms, T.; Shrey, T. C.; Schoefer, V.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; White, S. M.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  17. One technology does not fit all: profiling consumers of tender and tenderised beef steaks.

    PubMed

    Almli, Valérie L; Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Ueland, Øydis

    2013-03-01

    New production technologies can help the beef sector to improve eating quality, in particular the tenderness, of low-value meat cuts. This paper aims at profiling potential consumers for unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus and marinated by injection M. Semitendinosus in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110). Consumers' hedonic expectations for the three beef cuts, along with their general attitudes towards beef and food technology, were collected in central location tests. Results show that tenderloin triggers the highest hedonic expectations and best appeals to consumers profiled with high beef involvement in both countries. Consumers' expectations for steaks from novel technologies vary with consumers' attitudes towards beef, food technology and food risks and their country of residence, resulting in three additional consumer profiles. Furthermore, general attitudinal profiles of beef consumers also differ between the two countries. The results are useful for the positioning of novel beef products within the two national markets. PMID:23273438

  18. Circulation of HRSV in Belgium: from multiple genotype circulation to prolonged circulation of predominant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Houspie, Lieselot; Lemey, Philippe; Keyaerts, Els; Reijmen, Eva; Vergote, Valentijn; Vankeerberghen, Anne; Vaeyens, Freya; De Beenhouwer, Hans; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Molecular surveillance of HRSV in Belgium for 15 consecutive seasons (1996-2011) revealed a shift from a regular 3-yearly cyclic pattern, into a yearly alternating periodicity where HRSV-B is replaced by HRSV-A. Phylogenetic analysis for HRSV-A demonstrated the stable circulation of GA2 and GA5, with GA2 being dominant over GA5 during 5 consecutive seasons (2006-2011). We also identified 2 new genotype specific amino acid mutations of the GA2 genotype (A122 and Q156) and 7 new GA5 genotype specific amino acid mutations (F102, I108, T111, I125, D161, S191 and L217). Several amino acid positions, all located in the second hypervariable region of HRSV-A were found to be under positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis of HRSV-B showed the circulation of GB12 and GB13, where GB13 represented 100% of the isolated strains in 4 out of 5 consecutive seasons (2007-2011). Amino acids under positive selection were all located in the aminoterminal hypervariable region of HRSV-B, except one amino acid located in the conserved region. The genotype distribution within the HRSV-B subgroup has evolved from a co-circulation of multiple genotypes to the circulation of a single predominant genotype. The Belgian GB13 strains circulating since 2006, all clustered under the BAIV branch and contained several branch specific amino acid substitutions. The demographic history of genotypes GA2, GA5 and GB13 demonstrated a decrease in the total GA2 and GA5 population size, coinciding with the global expansion of the GB13 population. The emergence of the GB13 genotype resulted in a newly established balance between the predominant genotypes. PMID:23577109

  19. Implementation of an online tailored physical activity intervention for adults in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Spittaels, Heleen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2006-12-01

    It has been argued that the Internet is a promising channel for distribution of health promoting programs, because of its advantage to reach a wide variety of people at once, at any time and location. However, little research is done to study how we could prompt people to use these online health promoting programs. Therefore the main objective of the present study was to assess if a face-to-face contact stimulates adults to visit a recently developed tailored physical activity website to promote more physical activity in the general Belgian population. The second objective was to test the website under real-life conditions in a small sample. Therefore, 200 flyers, with a call for evaluating the new tailored physical activity website, were distributed to hospital visitors in two different ways. One group of visitors were personally approached by a research assistant and handed over a flyer. Another 100 visitors could simply take a flyer home, without initial personal contact. After two months, telephone interviews were done to make a qualitative evaluation of the website. The results showed that obviously more participants with an initial face-to-face contact (46%) registered on the website in comparison with the participants without personal contact (6%). The used strategy reaches participants of both sexes as well as regular and irregular Internet users. Secondly, the telephone interviews indicated that the website was accepted well, without major problems. We could conclude that distributing flyers combined with a short face-to-face contact, increased the number of visitors compared with distributed flyers without contact and that the tailored physical activity website could be used in real-life situations to promote an active lifestyle in Belgium. However, a controlled study with a larger sample size should be done to test the effectiveness of the tailored intervention in increasing physical activity.

  20. Evaluation of the thermal behaviour of different 'local climate zones' in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdonck, Marie-Leen; Demuzere, Matthias; Hooyberghs, Hans; Van Coillie, Frieke

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas are one of the most important human habitats; already 50% of the world's population is living there and this percentage is expected to rise to 70% by 2050. Global warming and the increasing world population will only put more pressure on the living conditions in these habitats. From a thermal comfort point of view it is clear that there is a need for sustainable urban planning that integrates the thermal behaviour of these new developments. To develop sustainable urban planning it is key to know what the influence of a new development will be on the thermal behaviour of the city. Classifying the city according to the local climate zone (LCZ) scheme can provide insights in the thermal behaviour of a city. The WUDAPT LCZ classification framework makes it possible to do so in a spatially explicit manner. This study presents an evaluation of the thermal behaviour of LCZ in three different Belgian cities (Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent) based on modelled air and surface temperature. First LCZ maps were delineated for the three cities. The maps were built based on Landsat and high resolution LiDAR images conform to the WUDAPT LCZ classification framework. Meter- resolution LiDAR images provide useful information on building height and were used to improve the LCZ maps. An accuracy assessment stage was added to confirm the validity of the maps. Secondly, the LCZ maps were used as input data for the URBCLIM model to model air and surface temperature. With the modelling results we characterized the thermal behaviour of every LCZ. In a next step the results for the different cities are compared and the generic character of the WUDAPT LCZ classification framework is evaluated. The main incentive for this study is to investigate whether LCZ maps can be used to foresee the influence of future urban growth scenario's on the thermal comfort in cities in Belgium.