Science.gov

Sample records for profile power spectrum

  1. X-ray variability of 104 active galactic nuclei. XMM-Newton power-spectrum density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Vaughan, Simon; de la Cierva, Juan

    2012-09-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN), powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), are thought to be scaled up versions of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BH-XRBs). In the past few years evidence of such correspondence include similarities in the broadband shape of the X-ray variability power spectra, with characteristic bend times-cales scaling with mass. We have characterized the X-ray temporal properties of a sample of AGN to study the connection among different classes of AGN and their connection with BH-XRBs. We have performed a uniform analysis of the power spectrum densities (PSDs) of 104 nearby (z<0.4) AGN using 209 XMM-Newton/pn observations (Gonzalez-Martin & Vaughan 2012, A&A accepted). Among the entire sample, ~70% show significant variability in at least one of the three bands tested. A high percentage of low-luminosity AGN do not show any significant variability (~90% of LINERs). The PSD of the majority of the variable AGN was well described by a simple power-law with a mean index of ~2. In 15 sources we found that the bending power law model was preferred with a mean slope of 2.8 and a mean bend frequency of nu(break) = 2x 10E-04 Hz. Only KUG 1031+398 (RE J1034+396) shows evidence for quasi-periodic oscillations. The "fundamental plane" relating variability timescale, black hole mass, and luminosity is studied using the new X-ray timing results presented here together with a compilation of the previously detected timescales from the literature. Both quantitative (i.e. scaling with BH mass) and qualitative (overall PSD shapes) found in this sample of AGN are in agreement with the expectations for the SMBHs and BH-XRBs being the same phenomenon scaled-up with the size of the BH. The steep PSD slopes above the high frequency bend bear a closer resemblance to those of the "soft/thermal dominated" BH- XRB states than other states.

  2. X-ray variability of 104 active galactic nuclei. XMM-Newton power-spectrum density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Martín, O.; Vaughan, S.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Active galactic nuclei (AGN), powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), are thought to be scaled up versions of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BH-XRBs). In the past few years evidence of such correspondence include similarities in the broadband shape of the X-ray variability power spectra, with characteristic bend times-scales scaling with mass. Aims: The aim of this project is to characterize the X-ray temporal properties of a sample of AGN to study the connection among different classes of AGN and their connection with BH-XRBs. Methods: We have performed a uniform analysis of the power spectrum densities (PSDs) of 104 nearby (z < 0.4) AGN using 209 XMM-Newton/pn observations. These PSDs span ≃ 3 decades in temporal frequencies, ranging from minutes to days. The PSDs have been estimated in three energy bands: 0.2-10 (total), 0.2-2 (soft), and 2-10 keV (hard). The sample comprises 61 Type-1 AGN, 21 Type-2 AGN, 15 NLSy1, and 7 BLLACS. We have fitted each PSD to two models: (1) a single power-law model and (2) a bending power-law model. Results: Among the entire sample, 72% show significant variability in at least one of the three bands tested. A high percentage of low-luminosity AGN do not show any significant variability (86% of LINERs). The PSD of the majority of the variable AGN was well described by a simple power-law with a mean index of α = 2.01 ± 0.01. In 15 sources we found that the bending power law model was preferred with a mean slope of α = 3.08 ± 0.04 and a mean bend frequency of ⟨ νb ⟩ ≃ 2 × 10-4 Hz. Only KUG 1031+398 (RE J1034+396) shows evidence for quasi-periodic oscillations. The "fundamental plane" relating variability timescale, black hole mass, and luminosity is demonstrated using the new X-ray timing results presented here together with a compilation of the previously detected timescales from the literature. Conclusions: Both quantitative (i.e. scaling with BH mass) and qualitative (overall PSD

  3. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near ℓ ∼ 750–850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near ℓ ∼ 1800–2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ∼ 2.5%. In this context low-ℓ and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  4. THE 1998 NOVEMBER 14 OCCULTATION OF GSC 0622-00345 BY SATURN. II. STRATOSPHERIC THERMAL PROFILE, POWER SPECTRUM, AND GRAVITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Joseph; French, Richard G.; Matcheva, Katia E-mail: rfrench@wellesley.ed

    2010-06-10

    On 1998 November 14, Saturn and its rings occulted the star GSC 0622-00345. The occultation latitude was 55.{sup 0}5 S. This paper analyzes the 2.3 {mu}m light curve derived by Harrington and French. A fixed-baseline isothermal fit to the light curve has a temperature of 140 {+-} 3 K, assuming a mean molecular mass of 2.35 AMU. The thermal profile obtained by numerical inversion is valid between 1 and 60 {mu}bar. The vertical temperature gradient is > 0.2 K km{sup -1} more stable than the adiabatic lapse rate, but it still shows the alternating-rounded-spiked features seen in many temperature gradient profiles from other atmospheric occultations and usually attributed to breaking gravity (buoyancy) waves. We conduct a wavelet analysis of the thermal profile, and show that, even with our low level of noise, scintillation due to turbulence in Earth's atmosphere can produce large temperature swings in light-curve inversions. Spurious periodic features in the 'reliable' region of a wavelet amplitude spectrum can exceed 0.3 K in our data. We also show that gravity-wave model fits to noisy isothermal light curves can lead to convincing wave 'detections'. We provide new significance tests for localized wavelet amplitudes, wave model fits, and global power spectra of inverted occultation light curves by assessing the effects of pre- and post-occultation noise on these parameters. Based on these tests, we detect several significant ridges and isolated peaks in wavelet amplitude, to which we fit a gravity wave model. We also strongly detect the global power spectrum of thermal fluctuations in Saturn's atmosphere, which resembles the 'universal' (modified Desaubies) curve associated with saturated spectra of propagating gravity waves on Earth and Jupiter.

  5. Modelling the TSZ power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Shaw, Laurie D; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The structure formation in university is a hierarchical process. As universe evolves, tiny density fluctuations that existed in the early universe grows under gravitational instability to form massive large scale structures. The galaxy clusters are the massive viralized objects that forms by accreting smaller clumps of mass until they collapse under their self-gravity. As such galaxy clusters are the youngest objects in the universe which makes their abundance as a function of mass and redshift, very sensitive to dark energy. Galaxy clusters can be detected by measuring the richness in optical waveband, by measuring the X-ray flux, and in the microwave sky using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect has long been recognized as a powerful tool for detecting clusters and probing the physics of the intra-cluster medium. Ongoing and future experiments like Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope and Planck survey are currently surveying the microwave sky to develop large catalogs of galaxy clusters that are uniformly selected by the SZ flux. However one major systematic uncertainties that cluster abundance is prone to is the connection between the cluster mass and the SZ flux. As shown by several simulation studies, the scatter and bias in the SZ flux-mass relation can be a potential source of systematic error to using clusters as a cosmology probe. In this study they take a semi-analytic approach for modeling the intra-cluster medium in order to predict the tSZ power spectrum. The advantage of this approach is, being analytic, one can vary the parameters describing gas physics and cosmology simultaneously. The model can be calibrated against X-ray observations of massive, low-z clusters, and using the SZ power spectrum which is sourced by high-z lower mass galaxy groups. This approach allows us to include the uncertainty in gas physics, as dictated by the current observational uncertainties, while measuring the cosmological

  6. Hierarchical cosmic shear power spectrum inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsing, Justin; Heavens, Alan; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Kiessling, Alina; Wandelt, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Till

    2016-02-01

    We develop a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach for cosmic shear power spectrum inference, jointly sampling from the posterior distribution of the cosmic shear field and its (tomographic) power spectra. Inference of the shear power spectrum is a powerful intermediate product for a cosmic shear analysis, since it requires very few model assumptions and can be used to perform inference on a wide range of cosmological models a posteriori without loss of information. We show that joint posterior for the shear map and power spectrum can be sampled effectively by Gibbs sampling, iteratively drawing samples from the map and power spectrum, each conditional on the other. This approach neatly circumvents difficulties associated with complicated survey geometry and masks that plague frequentist power spectrum estimators, since the power spectrum inference provides prior information about the field in masked regions at every sampling step. We demonstrate this approach for inference of tomographic shear E-mode, B-mode and EB-cross power spectra from a simulated galaxy shear catalogue with a number of important features; galaxies distributed on the sky and in redshift with photometric redshift uncertainties, realistic random ellipticity noise for every galaxy and a complicated survey mask. The obtained posterior distributions for the tomographic power spectrum coefficients recover the underlying simulated power spectra for both E- and B-modes.

  7. BASIC program for power spectrum estimation. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1994-05-01

    A standard data set is presented to be used in testing routines that are developed for evaluating the one-dimensional periodogram spectral estimate of a series of uniformly spaced data points representing measurements of a surface profile. These data were generated using the GWBASIC program ``FFTPSD`` which is included in the Appendix of this report. The original purpose of this data set was to allow us to test and debug our own periodogram estimation routines, written in various programming, languages, against a standard data set. At the request of numerous individuals, we are making it available to others who may wish to do the same. We have also included a summary explanation of periodogram estimators and the various considerations that go into generating computer algorithms for power spectrum estimation.

  8. Enhancing the cosmic shear power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Fergus; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Jimenez, Raul; Joachimi, Benjamin; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-01

    Applying a transformation to a non-Gaussian field can enhance the information content of the resulting power spectrum, by reducing the correlations between Fourier modes. In the context of weak gravitational lensing, it has been shown that this gain in information content is significantly compromised by the presence of shape noise. We apply clipping to mock convergence fields, a technique which is known to be robust in the presence of noise and has been successfully applied to galaxy number density fields. When analysed in isolation the resulting convergence power spectrum returns degraded constraints on cosmological parameters. However, substantial gains can be achieved by performing a combined analysis of the power spectra derived from both the original and transformed fields. Even in the presence of realistic levels of shape noise, we demonstrate that this approach is capable of reducing the area of likelihood contours within the Ωm - σ8 plane by more than a factor of 3.

  9. The spectrum of power from wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apt, Jay

    The power spectral density of the output of wind turbines provides information on the character of fluctuations in turbine output. Here both 1-second and 1-hour samples are used to estimate the power spectrum of several wind farms. The measured output power is found to follow a Kolmogorov spectrum over more than four orders of magnitude, from 30 s to 2.6 days. This result is in sharp contrast to the only previous study covering long time periods, published 50 years ago. The spectrum defines the character of fill-in power that must be provided to compensate for wind's fluctuations when wind is deployed at large scale. Installing enough linear ramp rate generation (such as a gas generator) to fill in fast fluctuations with amplitudes of 1% of the maximum fluctuation would oversize the fill-in generation capacity by a factor of two for slower fluctuations, greatly increasing capital costs. A wind system that incorporates batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, or other fast-ramp-rate energy storage systems would match fluctuations much better, and can provide an economic route for deployment of energy storage systems when renewable portfolio standards require large amounts of intermittent renewable generating sources.

  10. Angular-planar CMB power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Thiago S.; Abramo, L. Raul

    2009-09-15

    Gaussianity and statistical isotropy of the Universe are modern cosmology's minimal set of hypotheses. In this work we introduce a new statistical test to detect observational deviations from this minimal set. By defining the temperature correlation function over the whole celestial sphere, we are able to independently quantify both angular and planar dependence (modulations) of the CMB temperature power spectrum over different slices of this sphere. Given that planar dependence leads to further modulations of the usual angular power spectrum C{sub l}, this test can potentially reveal richer structures in the morphology of the primordial temperature field. We have also constructed an unbiased estimator for this angular-planar power spectrum which naturally generalizes the estimator for the usual C{sub l}'s. With the help of a chi-square analysis, we have used this estimator to search for observational deviations of statistical isotropy in WMAP's 5 year release data set (ILC5), where we found only slight anomalies on the angular scales l=7 and l=8. Since this angular-planar statistic is model-independent, it is ideal to employ in searches of statistical anisotropy (e.g., contaminations from the galactic plane) and to characterize non-Gaussianities.

  11. The minimal power spectrum: Higher order contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    It has been an accepted belief for some time that gravity induces a minimal tail P(k) approximately k(exp 4) in the power spectrum as k approaches 0 for distributions with no initial power on large scales. In a recent numerical experiment with initial power confined to a restricted range in k, Shandarin and Melott (1990) found a k approaches 0 tail that at early stages of evolution behaves as k(exp 4) and grows with time as a(exp 4)(t), where a(t) is the cosmological expansion factor, and at late times depends on scale as k(exp 3) and grows with time as a(exp 2)(t). I compute analytically several contributions to the power spectrum of higher order than those included in earlier work, and I apply the results to the particular case of initial power restricted to a finite range of k. As expected, in the perturbative regime P(k) approximately a(exp 4)k(exp 4) from the first correction to linear perturbation theory is the dominant term as k approaches 0. Numerical investigations show that the higher order contributions go as k(exp 4) also. However, perturbation theory alone cannot tell whether the P approximately a(exp 2)k(exp 3) result is 'nonperturbative' or a numerical artifact.

  12. Feature selection using Haar wavelet power spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Prabakaran; Sahu, Rajendra; Verma, Shekhar

    2006-01-01

    Background Feature selection is an approach to overcome the 'curse of dimensionality' in complex researches like disease classification using microarrays. Statistical methods are utilized more in this domain. Most of them do not fit for a wide range of datasets. The transform oriented signal processing domains are not probed much when other fields like image and video processing utilize them well. Wavelets, one of such techniques, have the potential to be utilized in feature selection method. The aim of this paper is to assess the capability of Haar wavelet power spectrum in the problem of clustering and gene selection based on expression data in the context of disease classification and to propose a method based on Haar wavelet power spectrum. Results Haar wavelet power spectra of genes were analysed and it was observed to be different in different diagnostic categories. This difference in trend and magnitude of the spectrum may be utilized in gene selection. Most of the genes selected by earlier complex methods were selected by the very simple present method. Each earlier works proved only few genes are quite enough to approach the classification problem [1]. Hence the present method may be tried in conjunction with other classification methods. The technique was applied without removing the noise in data to validate the robustness of the method against the noise or outliers in the data. No special softwares or complex implementation is needed. The qualities of the genes selected by the present method were analysed through their gene expression data. Most of them were observed to be related to solve the classification issue since they were dominant in the diagnostic category of the dataset for which they were selected as features. Conclusion In the present paper, the problem of feature selection of microarray gene expression data was considered. We analyzed the wavelet power spectrum of genes and proposed a clustering and feature selection method useful for

  13. Cosmic string power spectrum, bispectrum, and trispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, D. M.; Shellard, E. P. S.

    2010-09-15

    We use analytic calculations of the post-recombination gravitational effects of cosmic strings to estimate the resulting CMB power spectrum, bispectrum and trispectrum. We place a particular emphasis on multipole regimes relevant for forthcoming CMB experiments, notably the Planck satellite. These calculations use a flat-sky approximation, generalizing previous work by integrating string contributions from last scattering to the present day, finding the dominant contributions to the correlators for multipoles l>50. We find a well-behaved shape for the string bispectrum (without divergences) which is easily distinguishable from the inflationary bispectra which possess significant acoustic peaks. We estimate that the nonlinearity parameter characterizing the bispectrum is approximately 0 > or approx. f{sub NL} > or approx. -40 (given present string constraints from the CMB power spectrum). We also apply these unequal time correlator methods to calculate the trispectrum for parrallelogram configurations, again valid over a large range of angular scales relevant for WMAP and Planck, as well as on very small angular scales. We find that, unlike the bispectrum which is suppressed by symmetry considerations, the trispectrum for cosmic strings is large. Our current estimate for the trispectrum parameter is {tau}{sub NL{approx}}10{sup 5}, which may provide one of the strongest constraints on the string model in future analysis.

  14. Spectrum of power laws for curved hand movements

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2015-01-01

    In a planar free-hand drawing of an ellipse, the speed of movement is proportional to the −1/3 power of the local curvature, which is widely thought to hold for general curved shapes. We investigated this phenomenon for general curved hand movements by analyzing an optimal control model that maximizes a smoothness cost and exhibits the −1/3 power for ellipses. For the analysis, we introduced a new representation for curved movements based on a moving reference frame and a dimensionless angle coordinate that revealed scale-invariant features of curved movements. The analysis confirmed the power law for drawing ellipses but also predicted a spectrum of power laws with exponents ranging between 0 and −2/3 for simple movements that can be characterized by a single angular frequency. Moreover, it predicted mixtures of power laws for more complex, multifrequency movements that were confirmed with human drawing experiments. The speed profiles of arbitrary doodling movements that exhibit broadband curvature profiles were accurately predicted as well. These findings have implications for motor planning and predict that movements only depend on one radian of angle coordinate in the past and only need to be planned one radian ahead. PMID:26150514

  15. Polypharmacy Profiles and Predictors among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Johanna K.; Balogh, Robert; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions are frequently used to treat commonly associated mental health and behavioural issues in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite high rates of psychotropic drug use documented in children with ASD, very few studies have examined medication profiles, side effects, and rates of polypharmacy in…

  16. Neuropsychological Profile in High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narzisi, Antonio; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses of children with autism may help to better describe their cognitive abilities and to design appropriate interventions. To this end we compared the NEPSY-II profiles of 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) with those of 44 healthy control…

  17. Power spectrum analysis for defect screening in integrated circuit devices

    DOEpatents

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole Jr., Edward I.; Stein, David J.

    2011-12-01

    A device sample is screened for defects using its power spectrum in response to a dynamic stimulus. The device sample receives a time-varying electrical signal. The power spectrum of the device sample is measured at one of the pins of the device sample. A defect in the device sample can be identified based on results of comparing the power spectrum with one or more power spectra of the device that have a known defect status.

  18. Constraining the power spectrum using clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgani, S.; Moscardini, L.; Plionis, M.; Górski, K. M.; Holtzman, J.; Klypin, A.; Primack, J. R.; Smith, C. C.; Stompor, R.

    1997-03-01

    We analyze an extended redshift sample of Abell/ACO clusters and compare the results with those coming from numerical simulations of the cluster distribution, based on the truncated Zel'dovich approximation (TZA), for a list of eleven dark matter (DM) models. For each model we run several realizations, so that we generate a set of 48 independent mock Abell/ACO cluster samples per model, on which we estimate cosmic variance effects. Other than the standard CDM model, we consider (a) Ω0 = 1 CDM models based on lowering the Hubble parameter and/or on tilting the primordial spectrum; (b) Ω0 = 1 Cold + Hot DM models with 0.1 ≤ Ων ≤0.5; (c) low-density flat ΛCDM models with 0.3 ≤ Ω0 ≤0.5. We compare real and simulated cluster distributions by analysing correlation statistics, the probability density function, and supercluster properties from percolation analysis. We introduce a generalized definition of the spectrum shape parameter Γ in terms of σ25/ σ8, where σ ris the rms fluctuation amplitude within a sphere of radius r. As a general result, we find that the distribution of galaxy clusters provides a constraint only on the shape of the power spectrum, but not on its amplitude: a shape parameter 0.18 ≲ Γ ≲ 0.25 and an effective spectral index at the 20 h-1 Mpc scale -1.1 ≲ neff ≲ -0.9 are required by the Abell/ACO data. In order to obtain complementary constraints on the spectrum amplitude, we consider the cluster abundance as estimated using the Press-Schechter approach, whose reliability is explicitly tested against N-body simulations. By combining results from the analysis of the distribution and the abundance of clusters we conclude that, of the cosmological models considered here, the only viable models are either Cold + Hot DM ones with 0.2 ≲ Ων ≲ 0.3, better if shared between two massive ν species, and ΛCDM ones with 0.3 ≲ Ω0≲0.5.

  19. Geometric biases in power-spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samushia, L.; Branchini, E.; Percival, W. J.

    2015-10-01

    The observed distribution of galaxies has local transverse isotropy around the line of sight (LOS) with respect to the observer. The difference in the statistical clustering signal along and across the LOS encodes important information about the geometry of the Universe, its expansion rate and the rate of growth of structure within it. Because the LOS varies across a survey, the standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) based methods of measuring the anisotropic power spectrum (APS) cannot be used for surveys with wide observational footprint, other than to measure the monopole moment. We derive a simple analytic formula to quantify the bias for higher order Legendre moments, and we demonstrate that it is scale independent for a simple survey model, and depends only on the observed area. We derive a similar numerical correction formula for recently proposed alternative estimators of the APS that are based on summing over galaxies rather than using an FFT, and can therefore incorporate a varying LOS. We demonstrate that their bias depends on scale but not on the observed area. For a quadrupole the bias is always less than 1 per cent for k > 0.01 h Mpc^{-1} at z > 0.32. For a hexadecapole the bias is below 5 per cent for k > 0.05 h Mpc^{-1} at z > 0.32.

  20. Wind speed power spectrum analysis for Bushland, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, E.D.

    1996-12-31

    Numerous papers and publications on wind turbulence have referenced the wind speed spectrum presented by Isaac Van der Hoven in his article entitled Power Spectrum of Horizontal Wind Speed Spectrum in the Frequency Range from 0.0007 to 900 Cycles per Hour. Van der Hoven used data measured at different heights between 91 and 125 meters above the ground, and represented the high frequency end of the spectrum with data from the peak hour of hurricane Connie. These facts suggest we should question the use of his power spectrum in the wind industry. During the USDA - Agricultural Research Service`s investigation of wind/diesel system power storage, using the appropriate wind speed power spectrum became a significant issue. We developed a power spectrum from 13 years of hourly average data, 1 year of 5 minute average data, and 2 particularly gusty day`s 1 second average data all collected at a height of 10 meters. While the general shape is similar to the Van der Hoven spectrum, few of his peaks were found in the Bushland spectrum. While higher average wind speeds tend to suggest higher amplitudes in the high frequency end of the spectrum, this is not always true. Also, the high frequency end of the spectrum is not accurately described by simple wind statistics such as standard deviation and turbulence intensity. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Estimating the Crustal Power Spectrum From Vector Magsat Data: Crustal Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, David A. J.; Parker, Robert L.; Purucker, Michael E.; Constable, Catherine G.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field can be subdivided into core and crustal components and we seek to characterize the crustal part through its spatial power spectrum (R(sub l)). We process vector Magsat data to isolate the crustal field and then invert power spectral densities of flight-local components along-track for R(sub l) following O'Brien et al. [1999]. Our model (LPPC) is accurate up to approximately degree 45 (lambda=900 km) - this is the resolution limit of our data and suggests that global crustal anomaly maps constructed from vector Magsat data should not contain features with wavelengths less than 900 km. We find continental power spectra to be greater than oceanic ones and attribute this to the relative thicknesses of continental and oceanic crust.

  2. Power spectrum analysis of staggered quadriphase-shift-keyed signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwhorter, F. L.; Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of power spectrum of outputs from high-reliability communication system is used to determine system bandwidth. Analysis provides mathematical relationships of signal power spectrum at output of hard limiter for any type of baseband pulse input subjected only to output parameter constraints.

  3. Power spectrum of the fluctuation of the spectral staircase function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Aun Ng, Jin; Santhanam, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    The one-sided power spectrum P(f) of the fluctuation Nfluc (E) and Nfluc(\\varepsilon) of the spectral staircase function, for respectively the original and unfolded spectrum, from its smooth average part is numerically estimated for Poisson spectrum and spectra of three Gaussian-random matrices: real symmetric, complex Hermitian, and quaternion-real Hermitian. We found that the power spectrum of Nfluc (E) and Nfluc (\\varepsilon) is a/f2 (brown) for Poisson spectrum but c/(1+ df^2) (Lorentzian) for all three random matrix spectra. This result and the Berry-Tabor and Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjectures imply the following conjecture: the power spectrum of Nfluc (E) and Nfluc (\\varepsilon) is brown for classically integrable systems but Lorentzian for classically chaotic systems. Numerical evidence in support of this conjecture is presented.

  4. Autism spectrum disorder profile in neurofibromatosis type I.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study characterized the phenotypic profile of ASD symptomatology presenting in 4-16 year old children with NF1 (n = 36) using evidence from parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale and researcher autism diagnostic observation Scale-2. Compared to IQ-matched reference groups of children with autism and ASD, the NF1 profile shows overall similarity but improved eye contact, less repetitive behaviors and better language skills.

  5. The REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey: power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C.; Guzzo, L.; Phleps, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the power spectrum of galaxy clusters measured from the new ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-Ray (REFLEX II) galaxy cluster catalogue. This new sample extends the flux limit of the original REFLEX catalogue to 1.8 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2, yielding a total of 911 clusters with ≥94 per cent completeness in redshift follow-up. The analysis of the data is improved by creating a set of 100 REFLEX II-catalogue-like mock galaxy cluster catalogues built from a suite of large-volume Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations (L-BASICC II). The measured power spectrum is in agreement with the predictions from a ΛCDM cosmological model. The measurements show the expected increase in the amplitude of the power spectrum with increasing X-ray luminosity. On large scales, we show that the shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a scale-independent bias and provide a model for the amplitude that allows us to connect our measurements with a cosmological model. By implementing a luminosity-dependent power-spectrum estimator, we observe that the power spectrum measured from the REFLEX II sample is weakly affected by flux-selection effects. The shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a featureless power spectrum on scales k > 0.01 h Mpc-1 and hence no statistically significant signal of baryonic acoustic oscillations can be detected. We show that the measured REFLEX II power spectrum displays signatures of non-linear evolution.

  6. The Murchison Widefield Array 21 cm Power Spectrum Analysis Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Hazelton, B. J.; Trott, C. M.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Pindor, B.; Sullivan, I. S.; Pober, J. C.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Thyagarajan, N.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.

  7. Precise measurements of primordial power spectrum with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the issue of how precisely we can measure the primordial power spectrum by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). For this purpose, we investigate projected constraints on the quantities characterizing primordial power spectrum: the spectral index n{sub s}, its running α{sub s} and even its higher order running β{sub s}. We show that future 21 cm observations in combinations with CMB would accurately measure above mentioned observables of primordial power spectrum. We also discuss its implications to some explicit inflationary models.

  8. Intellectual Profiles in the Autism Spectrum and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mouga, Susana; Café, Cátia; Almeida, Joana; Marques, Carla; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-09-01

    The influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in Intelligence Quotients (IQ), Indexes and subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III was investigated in 445 school-aged children: ASD (N = 224) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 221), matched by Full-Scale IQ and chronological age. ASD have lower scores in the VIQ than PIQ. The core distinctive scores between groups are Processing Speed Index and "Comprehension" and "Coding" subtests with lower results in ASD. ASD group with normal/high IQ showed highest score on "Similarities" subtest whereas the lower IQ group performed better on "Object Assembly". The results replicated our previous work on adaptive behaviour, showing that adaptive functioning is positively correlated with intellectual profile, especially with the Communication domain in ASD.

  9. Intellectual Profiles in the Autism Spectrum and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mouga, Susana; Café, Cátia; Almeida, Joana; Marques, Carla; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-09-01

    The influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in Intelligence Quotients (IQ), Indexes and subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III was investigated in 445 school-aged children: ASD (N = 224) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 221), matched by Full-Scale IQ and chronological age. ASD have lower scores in the VIQ than PIQ. The core distinctive scores between groups are Processing Speed Index and "Comprehension" and "Coding" subtests with lower results in ASD. ASD group with normal/high IQ showed highest score on "Similarities" subtest whereas the lower IQ group performed better on "Object Assembly". The results replicated our previous work on adaptive behaviour, showing that adaptive functioning is positively correlated with intellectual profile, especially with the Communication domain in ASD. PMID:27312715

  10. CMB anisotropy power spectrum using linear combinations of WMAP maps

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Rajib; Prunet, Simon; Jain, Pankaj; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-15

    In recent years the goal of estimating different cosmological parameters precisely has set new challenges in the effort to accurately measure the angular power spectrum of the CMB. This has required removal of foreground contamination as well as detector noise bias with reliability and precision. Recently, a novel, model-independent method for the estimation of the CMB angular power spectrum solely from multifrequency observations has been proposed and implemented on the first year WMAP data by Saha et al. 2006. All previous estimates of the power spectrum of the CMB are based upon foreground templates using data sets from different experiments. However, our methodology demonstrates that the CMB angular spectrum can be reliably estimated with precision from a self-contained analysis of the WMAP data. In this work we provide a detailed description of this method. We also study and identify the biases present in our power spectrum estimate. We apply our methodology to extract the power spectrum from the WMAP data.

  11. The wedge bias in reionization 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Hannes; Majumdar, Suman; Mellema, Garrelt; Lidz, Adam; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.

    2016-02-01

    A proposed method for dealing with foreground emission in upcoming 21-cm observations from the epoch of reionization is to limit observations to an uncontaminated window in Fourier space. Foreground emission can be avoided in this way, since it is limited to a wedge-shaped region in k∥, k⊥ space. However, the power spectrum is anisotropic owing to redshift-space distortions from peculiar velocities. Consequently, the 21-cm power spectrum measured in the foreground avoidance window - which samples only a limited range of angles close to the line-of-sight direction - differs from the full redshift-space spherically averaged power spectrum which requires an average over all angles. In this paper, we calculate the magnitude of this `wedge bias' for the first time. We find that the bias amplifies the difference between the real-space and redshift-space power spectra. The bias is strongest at high redshifts, where measurements using foreground avoidance will overestimate the redshift-space power spectrum by around 100 per cent, possibly obscuring the distinctive rise and fall signature that is anticipated for the spherically averaged 21-cm power spectrum. In the later stages of reionization, the bias becomes negative, and smaller in magnitude (≲20 per cent).

  12. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  13. Magnetic power spectrum of the ocean crust on large scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Michael S.; Parker, Robert L.; Constable, Catherine G.

    1999-12-01

    The geomagnetic power spectrum Rl is the squared magnetic field in each spherical harmonic degree averaged over a spherical surface. Satellite measurements have given reliable estimates of the spectrum for the part that originates in the core, but above l = 15, where the geomagnetic field arises primarily from crustal magnetization, there is considerable disagreement between various estimates derived from observation. Furthermore, several theoretical models for the spectrum disagree with each other and the data. We have examined observations from a different source, 5000-km-long Project Magnet aeromagnetic survey lines; we make new estimates of the spectrum which overlap with the wavelength interval accessible to the satellites. The usual way the spectrum is derived from observation is to construct a large spherical harmonic decomposition first, then square, weight, and add the Gauss coefficients in each degree, but this method cannot be applied to isolated flight lines. Instead, we apply a statistical technique based on an idea of McLeod and Coleman which relates the geomagnetic spectrum to the power and cross spectra of magnetic field components measured on the survey lines. Power spectra from the 17 aeromagnetic surveys, all of which were conducted over the oceans, are averaged together to improve geographic coverage and reduce variance, and the average spectra are then inverted for the geomagnetic spectrum Rl. Like most of the theoretical models, our spectrum exhibits a maximum, but at a wavelength of 100 km, about a factor of 2 smaller than the closest theoretical prediction. Our spectrum agrees quite well with the most recent estimates based on satellite observations in the range 20≤l≤50, but above l = 50, our values increase slowly, while all the satellite data suggest a sharply rising curve. In this wavelength range we believe our measurements are more trustworthy. Further work is planned to confirm the accuracy of our spectrum when continental survey

  14. Power Equipment Technology. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for power equipment technology occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and…

  15. Probing the primordial power spectrum with cluster number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Chantavat, Teeraparb; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph

    2009-04-15

    We investigate how well galaxy cluster number counts can constrain the primordial power spectrum. Measurements of the primary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background may be limited, by the presence of foregrounds from secondary sources, to probing the primordial power spectrum at wave numbers less than about 0.30h Mpc{sup -1}. We break up the primordial power spectrum into a number of nodes and interpolate linearly between each node. This allows us to show that cluster number counts could then extend the constraints on the form of the primordial power spectrum up to wave numbers of about 0.45h Mpc{sup -1}. We estimate combinations of constraints from PLANCK and SPT primary cosmic microwave background and their respective Sunyaev-Zeldovich surveys. We find that their constraining ability is limited by uncertainties in the mass-scaling relations. We also estimate the constraint from clusters detected from a SNAP-like gravitational lensing survey. As there is an unambiguous and simple relationship between the filtered shear of the lensing survey and the cluster mass, it may be possible to obtain much tighter constraints on the primordial power spectrum in this case.

  16. On the information content of the matter power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, J.; Wolk, M.; Szapudi, I.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss an analytical approximation for the matter power spectrum covariance matrix and its inverse on translinear scales, k ˜ 0.1h - 0.8 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. We proceed to give an analytical expression for the Fisher information matrix of the non-linear density-field spectrum, and derive implications for its cosmological information content. We find that the spectrum information is characterized by a pair of upper bounds, `plateaux', caused by the trispectrum, and a `knee' in the presence of white noise. The effective number of Fourier modes, normally growing as a power law, is bounded from above by these plateaux, explaining naturally earlier findings from N-body simulations. These plateaux limit best possible measurements of the non-linear power at the per cent level in an h-3 Gpc3 volume; the extraction of model parameters from the spectrum is limited explicitly by their degeneracy to the non-linear amplitude. The value of the first, supersurvey (SS) plateau depends on the characteristic survey volume and the large-scale power; the second, intra-survey plateau is set by the small-scale power. While both have simple interpretations within the hierarchical Ansatz, the SS plateau can be predicted and generalized to still smaller scales within Takada and Hu's spectrum response formalism. Finally, the noise knee is naturally set by the density of tracers.

  17. Methods for Bayesian power spectrum inference with galaxy surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2013-12-10

    We derive and implement a full Bayesian large scale structure inference method aiming at precision recovery of the cosmological power spectrum from galaxy redshift surveys. Our approach improves upon previous Bayesian methods by performing a joint inference of the three-dimensional density field, the cosmological power spectrum, luminosity dependent galaxy biases, and corresponding normalizations. We account for all joint and correlated uncertainties between all inferred quantities. Classes of galaxies with different biases are treated as separate subsamples. This method therefore also allows the combined analysis of more than one galaxy survey. In particular, it solves the problem of inferring the power spectrum from galaxy surveys with non-trivial survey geometries by exploring the joint posterior distribution with efficient implementations of multiple block Markov chain and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Our Markov sampler achieves high statistical efficiency in low signal-to-noise regimes by using a deterministic reversible jump algorithm. This approach reduces the correlation length of the sampler by several orders of magnitude, turning the otherwise numerically unfeasible problem of joint parameter exploration into a numerically manageable task. We test our method on an artificial mock galaxy survey, emulating characteristic features of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, such as its survey geometry and luminosity-dependent biases. These tests demonstrate the numerical feasibility of our large scale Bayesian inference frame work when the parameter space has millions of dimensions. This method reveals and correctly treats the anti-correlation between bias amplitudes and power spectrum, which are not taken into account in current approaches to power spectrum estimation, a 20% effect across large ranges in k space. In addition, this method results in constrained realizations of density fields obtained without assuming the power spectrum or bias parameters

  18. Reexamination of the Power Spectrum in De Sitter Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agulló, Iván; Navarro-Salas, José; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Parker, Leonard

    2008-10-01

    We find that the amplitude of quantum fluctuations of the invariant de Sitter vacuum coincides exactly with that of the vacuum of a comoving observer for a massless scalar (inflaton) field. We propose redefining the actual physical power spectrum as the difference between the amplitudes of the above vacua. An inertial particle detector continues to observe the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. However, although the resulting power spectrum is still scale-free, its amplitude can be drastically reduced since now, instead of the Hubble’s scale at the inflationary period, it is determined by the square of the mass of the inflaton fluctuation field.

  19. The X-ray variability of NGC 6814 - Power spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Turner, T. J.; Koyama, K.; Kunieda, H.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of the periodic component seen in NGC 6814 with Exosat at 12,000 +/- 100 s is confirmed by a power spectrum and folded light curve analysis of unevenly sampled Ginga data. A comparison of the power spectra produced from simulated light curves with that observed enables the intrinsic shape of the power spectrum of the source to be determined despite the distortions introduced by the window function. The best estimate for the period is 12,132 +/- 3 s, where the error is that derived from simulations. An upper limit to the rate of change of period of about 10 exp -9 is inferred if the light curves are truly phase-coherent, but as this is not required by the data, the conservative upper limit is not greater than 5 x 10 exp -7. The large amount of power in the periodic component and its stability both suggest occultation of the source as its origin.

  20. Generalized slow roll approximation for large power spectrum features

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorkin, Cora; Hu, Wayne

    2010-01-15

    We develop a variant of the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the curvature power spectrum that is well suited for order unity deviations in power caused by sharp features in the inflaton potential. As an example, we show that predictions for a step function potential, which has been proposed to explain order unity glitches in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum at multipoles l=20-40, are accurate at the percent level. Our analysis shows that to good approximation there is a single source function that is responsible for observable features and that this function is simply related to the local slope and curvature of the inflaton potential. These properties should make the generalized slow roll approximation useful for inflation-model-independent studies of features, both large and small, in the observable power spectra.

  1. A robust power spectrum split cancellation-based spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Pei-Han; Li, Zan; Si, Jiang-Bo; Gao, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Spectrum sensing is an essential component to realize the cognitive radio, and the requirement for real-time spectrum sensing in the case of lacking prior information, fading channel, and noise uncertainty, indeed poses a major challenge to the classical spectrum sensing algorithms. Based on the stochastic properties of scalar transformation of power spectral density (PSD), a novel spectrum sensing algorithm, referred to as the power spectral density split cancellation method (PSC), is proposed in this paper. The PSC makes use of a scalar value as a test statistic, which is the ratio of each subband power to the full band power. Besides, by exploiting the asymptotic normality and independence of Fourier transform, the distribution of the ratio and the mathematical expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection in different channel models are derived. Further, the exact closed-form expression of decision threshold is calculated in accordance with Neyman—Pearson criterion. Analytical and simulation results show that the PSC is invulnerable to noise uncertainty, and can achive excellent detection performance without prior knowledge in additive white Gaussian noise and flat slow fading channels. In addition, the PSC benefits from a low computational cost, which can be completed in microseconds.

  2. Joint resonant CMB power spectrum and bispectrum estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerburg, P. Daniel; Münchmeyer, Moritz; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    We develop the tools necessary to assess the statistical significance of resonant features in the CMB correlation functions, combining power spectrum and bispectrum measurements. This significance is typically addressed by running a large number of simulations to derive the probability density function (PDF) of the feature-amplitude in the Gaussian case. Although these simulations are tractable for the power spectrum, for the bispectrum they require significant computational resources. We show that, by assuming that the PDF is given by a multivariate Gaussian where the covariance is determined by the Fisher matrix of the sine and cosine terms, we can efficiently produce spectra that are statistically close to those derived from full simulations. By drawing a large number of spectra from this PDF, both for the power spectrum and the bispectrum, we can quickly determine the statistical significance of candidate signatures in the CMB, considering both single frequency and multifrequency estimators. We show that for resonance models, cosmology and foreground parameters have little influence on the estimated amplitude, which allows us to simplify the analysis considerably. A more precise likelihood treatment can then be applied to candidate signatures only. We also discuss a modal expansion approach for the power spectrum, aimed at quickly scanning through large families of oscillating models.

  3. A fast spectrum heat pipe cooled thermionic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Joseph C.; Determan, William R.; Van Hagan, Thomas H.; Wuchte, Thomas, Captain

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design and performance characteristics of a heat pipe cooled thermionic (HPTI) power system being developed by a team headed by Rockwell International and General Atomics (GA). The design utilizes multicell, in-core thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) in a fast spectrum reactor core that is passively cooled by in-core heat pipes. The fast spectrum promotes competitive mass scalability over the power range of interest for future military application of 10 to 100 kWe without changing basic components or technologies. The number of TFEs and companion uranium nitride fuel elements are merely varied to achieve the critical mass requirements for each power level. The redundant in-core heat pipes in conjunction with an internally redundant heat pipe radiator help assure meeting key design goals for no single point failures and high survivability to both natural and hostile threats. These attractive attributes are achieved using already developed or under development technology.

  4. Primordial scalar power spectrum from the Euclidean big bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schander, Susanne; Barrau, Aurélien; Bolliet, Boris; Linsefors, Linda; Mielczarek, Jakub; Grain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    In effective models of loop quantum cosmology, the holonomy corrections are associated with deformations of space-time symmetries. The most evident manifestation of the deformations is the emergence of a Euclidean phase accompanying the nonsingular bouncing dynamics of the scale factor. In this article, we compute the power spectrum of scalar perturbations generated in this model, with a massive scalar field as the matter content. Instantaneous and adiabatic vacuum-type initial conditions for scalar perturbations are imposed in the contracting phase. The evolution through the Euclidean region is calculated based on the extrapolation of the time direction pointed by the vectors normal to the Cauchy hypersurface in the Lorentzian domains. The obtained power spectrum is characterized by a suppression in the IR regime and oscillations in the intermediate energy range. Furthermore, the speculative extension of the analysis in the UV reveals a specific rise of the power leading to results incompatible with the data.

  5. Multiredshift Limits on the 21 cm Power Spectrum from PAPER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Aguirre, James E.; Ali, Zaki S.; Bowman, Judd; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Klima, Pat; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David H. E.; Manley, Jason R.; Moore, David F.; Stefan, Irina I.; Walbrugh, William P.

    2015-03-01

    The epoch of the reionization (EoR) power spectrum is expected to evolve strongly with redshift, and it is this variation with cosmic history that will allow us to begin to place constraints on the physics of reionization. The primary obstacle to the measurement of the EoR power spectrum is bright foreground emission. We present an analysis of observations from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) telescope, which place new limits on the H i power spectrum over the redshift range of 7.5\\lt z\\lt 10.5, extending previously published single-redshift results to cover the full range accessible to the instrument. To suppress foregrounds, we use filtering techniques that take advantage of the large instrumental bandwidth to isolate and suppress foreground leakage into the interesting regions of k-space. Our 500 hr integration is the longest such yet recorded and demonstrates this method to a dynamic range of 104. Power spectra at different points across the redshift range reveal the variable efficacy of the foreground isolation. Noise-limited measurements of Δ2 at k = 0.2 hr Mpc-1 and z = 7.55 reach as low as (48 mK)2 (1σ). We demonstrate that the size of the error bars in our power spectrum measurement as generated by a bootstrap method is consistent with the fluctuations due to thermal noise. Relative to this thermal noise, most spectra exhibit an excess of power at a few sigma. The likely sources of this excess include residual foreground leakage, particularly at the highest redshift, unflagged radio frequency interference, and calibration errors. We conclude by discussing data reduction improvements that promise to remove much of this excess.

  6. Thermal power spectrum in the CFT driven cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2013-10-01

    We present an overview of the recently suggested cosmological model driven by conformal field theory (CFT) with the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix. In particular, we discuss the origin of inflationary stage in this model and a novel feature — the thermal nature of the primordial power spectrum of the CMB anisotropy. The relevant effect of ''temperature of the relic temperature anisotropy'' can be responsible for a thermal contribution to the red tilt of this spectrum, additional to its conventional vacuum component. The amplification of this effect due to recently established a-theorem in CFT is briefly discussed.

  7. Decomposition of Heart Rate Variability Spectrum into a Power-Law Function and a Residual Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Jane; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2016-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) of heart rate variability (HRV) contains a power-law relationship that can be obtained by plotting the logarithm of PSD against the logarithm of frequency. The PSD of HRV can be decomposed mathematically into a power-law function and a residual HRV (rHRV) spectrum. Almost all rHRV measures are significantly smaller than their corresponding HRV measures except the normalized high-frequency power (nrHFP). The power-law function can be characterized by the slope and Y-intercept of linear regression. Almost all HRV measures except the normalized low-frequency power have significant correlations with the Y-intercept, while almost all rHRV measures except the total power [residual total power (rTP)] do not. Though some rHRV measures still correlate significantly with the age of the subjects, the rTP, high-frequency power (rHFP), nrHFP, and low-/high-frequency power ratio (rLHR) do not. In conclusion, the clinical significances of rHRV measures might be different from those of traditional HRV measures. The Y-intercept might be a better HRV measure for clinical use because it is independent of almost all rHRV measures. The rTP, rHFP, nrHFP, and rLHR might be more suitable for the study of age-independent autonomic nervous modulation of the subjects. PMID:27314001

  8. Decomposition of Heart Rate Variability Spectrum into a Power-Law Function and a Residual Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jane; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2016-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) of heart rate variability (HRV) contains a power-law relationship that can be obtained by plotting the logarithm of PSD against the logarithm of frequency. The PSD of HRV can be decomposed mathematically into a power-law function and a residual HRV (rHRV) spectrum. Almost all rHRV measures are significantly smaller than their corresponding HRV measures except the normalized high-frequency power (nrHFP). The power-law function can be characterized by the slope and Y-intercept of linear regression. Almost all HRV measures except the normalized low-frequency power have significant correlations with the Y-intercept, while almost all rHRV measures except the total power [residual total power (rTP)] do not. Though some rHRV measures still correlate significantly with the age of the subjects, the rTP, high-frequency power (rHFP), nrHFP, and low-/high-frequency power ratio (rLHR) do not. In conclusion, the clinical significances of rHRV measures might be different from those of traditional HRV measures. The Y-intercept might be a better HRV measure for clinical use because it is independent of almost all rHRV measures. The rTP, rHFP, nrHFP, and rLHR might be more suitable for the study of age-independent autonomic nervous modulation of the subjects.

  9. Rejuvenating the Matter Power Spectrum. III. The Cosmology Sensitivity of Gaussianized Power Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2011-12-01

    It was recently shown that applying a Gaussianizing transform, such as a logarithm, to the nonlinear matter density field extends the range of useful applicability of the power spectrum by a factor of a few smaller. Such a transform dramatically reduces nonlinearities in both the covariance and the shape of the power spectrum. Here, analyzing Coyote Universe real-space dark-matter density fields, we investigate the consequences of these transforms for cosmological parameter estimation. The power spectrum of the log-density provides the tightest cosmological parameter error bars (marginalized or not), giving a factor of 2-3 improvement over the conventional power spectrum in all five parameters tested. For the tilt, ns , the improvement reaches a factor of five. Similar constraints are achieved if the log-density power spectrum and conventional power spectrum are analyzed together. Rank-order Gaussianization seems just as useful as a log transform to constrain ns , but not other parameters. Dividing the overdensity by its dispersion in few-Mpc cells, while it diagonalizes the covariance matrix, does not seem to help with parameter constraints. We also provide a code that emulates these power spectra over a range of concordance cosmological models.

  10. REJUVENATING THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM. III. THE COSMOLOGY SENSITIVITY OF GAUSSIANIZED POWER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2011-12-01

    It was recently shown that applying a Gaussianizing transform, such as a logarithm, to the nonlinear matter density field extends the range of useful applicability of the power spectrum by a factor of a few smaller. Such a transform dramatically reduces nonlinearities in both the covariance and the shape of the power spectrum. Here, analyzing Coyote Universe real-space dark-matter density fields, we investigate the consequences of these transforms for cosmological parameter estimation. The power spectrum of the log-density provides the tightest cosmological parameter error bars (marginalized or not), giving a factor of 2-3 improvement over the conventional power spectrum in all five parameters tested. For the tilt, n{sub s} , the improvement reaches a factor of five. Similar constraints are achieved if the log-density power spectrum and conventional power spectrum are analyzed together. Rank-order Gaussianization seems just as useful as a log transform to constrain n{sub s} , but not other parameters. Dividing the overdensity by its dispersion in few-Mpc cells, while it diagonalizes the covariance matrix, does not seem to help with parameter constraints. We also provide a code that emulates these power spectra over a range of concordance cosmological models.

  11. Bayesian optimal reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, M.; Feroz, F.; Hobson, M. P.; Lasenby, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    The form of the primordial power spectrum has the potential to differentiate strongly between competing models of perturbation generation in the early universe and so is of considerable importance. The recent release of five years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations have confirmed the general picture of the primordial power spectrum as deviating slightly from scale invariance with a spectral tilt parameter of ns ~ 0.96. None the less, many attempts have been made to isolate further features such as breaks and cut-offs using a variety of methods, some employing more than ~10 varying parameters. In this paper, we apply the robust technique of the Bayesian model selection to reconstruct the optimal degree of structure in the spectrum. We model the spectrum simply and generically as piecewise linear in lnk between `nodes' in k space whose amplitudes are allowed to vary. The number of nodes and their k-space positions are chosen by the Bayesian evidence so that we can identify both the complexity and location of any detected features. Our optimal reconstruction contains, perhaps, surprisingly few features, the data preferring just three nodes. This reconstruction allows for a degree of scale dependence of the tilt with the `turn-over' scale occurring around k ~ 0.016 Mpc-1. More structure is penalized by the evidence as overfitting the data, so there is currently little point in attempting reconstructions that are more complex.

  12. Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Rickett, B. J.; Spangler, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Interstellar scintillation (ISS), fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of radio waves caused by scattering in the interstellar medium, is important as a diagnostic of interstellar plasma turbulence. ISS is also of interest because it is noise for other radio astronomical observations. The unifying concern is the power spectrum of the interstellar electron density. Here we use ISS observations through the nearby (less than or approximately =1 kpc) (ISM) to estimate the spectrum. From measurements of angular broadening of pulsars and extragalactic sources, decorrelation bandwidth of pulsars, refractive steering of features in pulsar dynamic spectra, dispersion measured fluctuations of pulsars, and refractive scintillation index measurements, we construct a composite structure function that is approximately power law over 2 x 10(exp 6) m less than scale less than 10(exp 13) m. The data are consistent with the structure function having a logarithmic slope versus baseline less than 2; thus there is a meaningful connection between scales in the radiowave fluctuation field and the scales in the electron density field causing the scattering. The data give an upper limit to the inner scale, l(sub o) less than or approximately 10(exp 8) m and are consistent with much smaller values. We construct a composite electron density spectrum that is approximately power law over at least the approximately = 5 decade wavenumber range 10(exp -13)/m less than wavenumber less than 10(exp -8)/m and that may extend to higher wavenumbers. The average spectral index of electron density over this wavenumber range is approximately = 3.7, very close to the value expected for a Kolmogorov process. The outer scale size, L(sub o), must be greater than or approximately = 10(exp 13) m (determined from dispersion measure fluctuations). When the ISS data are combined with measurements of differential Faraday rotation angle, and gradients in the average electron density, constraints can be put on the

  13. Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of Full Field Digital Mammography System

    SciTech Connect

    Isa, Norriza Mohd; Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan

    2010-01-05

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality.

  14. Nonisotropy in the CMB power spectrum in single field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas

    2009-07-15

    Contaldi et al.[C. R. Contaldi, M. Peloso, L. Kofman, and A. Linde, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 07 (2003) 002] have suggested that an initial period of kinetic energy domination in single field inflation may explain the lack of CMB power at large angular scales. We note that in this situation it is natural that there also be a spatial gradient in the initial value of the inflaton field, and that this can provide a spatial asymmetry in the observed CMB power spectrum, manifest at low values of l. We investigate the nature of this asymmetry and comment on its relation to possible anomalies at low l.

  15. Revising the Halofit Model for the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ryuichi; Sato, Masanori; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Taruya, Atsushi; Oguri, Masamune

    2012-12-01

    Based on a suite of state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulations, we revisit the so-called halofit model as an accurate fitting formula for the nonlinear matter power spectrum. While the halofit model has frequently been used as a standard cosmological tool to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a universe dominated by cold dark matter, its precision has been limited by the low resolution of N-body simulations used to determine the fitting parameters, suggesting the necessity of an improved fitting formula at small scales for future cosmological studies. We run high-resolution N-body simulations for 16 cosmological models around the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe best-fit cosmological parameters (one-, three-, five-, and seven-year results), including dark energy models with a constant equation of state. The simulation results are used to re-calibrate the fitting parameters of the halofit model so as to reproduce small-scale power spectra of the N-body simulations, while keeping the precision at large scales. The revised fitting formula provides an accurate prediction of the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a wide range of wavenumbers (k <= 30 h Mpc-1) at redshifts 0 <= z <= 10, with 5% precision for k <= 1 h Mpc-1 at 0 <= z <= 10 and 10% for 1 <= k <= 10 h Mpc-1 at 0 <= z <= 3. We discuss the impact of the improved halofit model on weak-lensing power spectra and correlation functions, and show that the improved model better reproduces ray-tracing simulation results.

  16. REVISING THE HALOFIT MODEL FOR THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ryuichi; Sato, Masanori; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Taruya, Atsushi; Oguri, Masamune

    2012-12-20

    Based on a suite of state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulations, we revisit the so-called halofit model as an accurate fitting formula for the nonlinear matter power spectrum. While the halofit model has frequently been used as a standard cosmological tool to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a universe dominated by cold dark matter, its precision has been limited by the low resolution of N-body simulations used to determine the fitting parameters, suggesting the necessity of an improved fitting formula at small scales for future cosmological studies. We run high-resolution N-body simulations for 16 cosmological models around the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe best-fit cosmological parameters (one-, three-, five-, and seven-year results), including dark energy models with a constant equation of state. The simulation results are used to re-calibrate the fitting parameters of the halofit model so as to reproduce small-scale power spectra of the N-body simulations, while keeping the precision at large scales. The revised fitting formula provides an accurate prediction of the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a wide range of wavenumbers (k {<=} 30 h Mpc{sup -1}) at redshifts 0 {<=} z {<=} 10, with 5% precision for k {<=} 1 h Mpc{sup -1} at 0 {<=} z {<=} 10 and 10% for 1 {<=} k {<=} 10 h Mpc{sup -1} at 0 {<=} z {<=} 3. We discuss the impact of the improved halofit model on weak-lensing power spectra and correlation functions, and show that the improved model better reproduces ray-tracing simulation results.

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder Profile in Neurofibromatosis Type I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D. Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study…

  18. CHIPS: The Cosmological H i Power Spectrum Estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, C. M.; Pindor, B.; Procopio, P.; Wayth, R. B.; Mitchell, D. A.; McKinley, B.; Tingay, S. J.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kim, H. S.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Riding, J.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Detection of the cosmological neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and estimation of its basic physical parameters are principal scientific aims of many current low-frequency radio telescopes. Here we describe the Cosmological H i Power Spectrum Estimator (CHIPS), an algorithm developed and implemented with data from the Murchison Widefield Array, to compute the two-dimensional and spherically-averaged power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations. The principal motivations for CHIPS are the application of realistic instrumental and foreground models to form the optimal estimator, thereby maximizing the likelihood of unbiased signal estimation, and allowing a full covariant understanding of the outputs. CHIPS employs an inverse-covariance weighting of the data through the maximum likelihood estimator, thereby allowing use of the full parameter space for signal estimation (“foreground suppression”). We describe the motivation for the algorithm, implementation, application to real and simulated data, and early outputs. Upon application to a set of 3 hr of data, we set a 2σ upper limit on the EoR dimensionless power at k=0.05 {{h}} Mpc-1 of {{{Δ }}}k2\\lt 7.6× {10}4 mK2 in the redshift range z = [6.2-6.6], consistent with previous estimates.

  19. EEG Power Spectrum Analysis in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kamida, Akira; Shimabayashi, Kenta; Oguri, Masayoshi; Takamori, Toshihiro; Ueda, Naoyuki; Koyanagi, Yuki; Sannomiya, Naoko; Nagira, Haruki; Ikunishi, Saeko; Hattori, Yuiko; Sato, Kengo; Fukuda, Chisako; Hirooka, Yasuaki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pathological condition that is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) power differences between children with ADHD and healthy control children. Methods EEGs were recorded as part of routine medical care received by 80 children with ADHD aged 4–15 years at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in Tottori University Hospital. Additionally, we recorded in 59 control children aged 4–15 years after obtaining informed consent. Specifically, awake EEG signals were recorded from each child using the international 10–20 system, and we used ten 3-s epochs on the EEG power spectrum to calculate the powers of individual EEG frequency bands. Results The powers of different EEG bands were significantly higher in the frontal brain region of those in the ADHD group compared with the control group. In addition, the power of the beta band in the ADHD group was significantly higher in all brain regions, except for the occipital region, compared with control children. With regard to developmental changes, the power of the alpha band in the occipital region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups, with slightly lower power in the ADHD group. Additionally, the intergroup difference decreased in children aged 11 years or older. As with the alpha band in the occipital region, the beta band in the frontal region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups. Unlike the alpha band, the power of the beta band was higher in the ADHD group than in the control group for children of all ages. Conclusion The observed intergroup differences in EEG power may provide insight into the brain function of children with ADHD. PMID:27493489

  20. First Results from COPSS: The CO Power Spectrum Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Garrett K.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Marrone, Daniel P.; DeBoer, David R.; Heiles, Carl; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Carlstrom, John E.; Greer, Christopher H.; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Leitch, Erik; Miller, Amber D.; Muchovej, Stephen; Woody, David P.

    2015-12-01

    We present constraints on the abundance of carbon monoxide in the early universe from the CO Power Spectrum Survey. We utilize a data set collected between 2005 and 2008 using the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Array (SZA), which was previously used to measure arcminute-scale fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background. This data set features observations of 44 fields, covering an effective area of 1.7 square degrees, over a frequency range of 27-35 GHz. Using the technique of intensity mapping, we are able to probe the CO(1-0) transition, with sensitivity to spatial modes between k = 0.5-2 h Mpc-1 over a range in redshift of z = 2.3-3.3, spanning a comoving volume of 3.6 × 106 h-3 Mpc3. We demonstrate our ability to mitigate foregrounds, and present estimates of the impact of continuum sources on our measurement. We constrain the CO power spectrum to PCO < 2.6 × 104 μK2 (h-1 Mpc)3, or Δ2CO(k = 1 h Mpc-1) < 1.3 × 103 μK2, at 95% confidence. This limit resides near optimistic predictions for the CO power spectrum. Under the assumption that CO emission is proportional to halo mass during bursts of active star formation, this corresponds to a limit on the ratio of CO(1-0) luminosity to host halo mass of ACO < 1.2 × 10-5 L⊙ M⊙-1. Further assuming a Milky Way-like conversion factor between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass (αCO = 4.3 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc-2)-1), we constrain the global density of molecular gas to {ρ }z˜ 3({M}{{{H}}2})≤slant 2.8× {10}8 {M}⊙ {{Mpc}}-3.

  1. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2016-04-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N-body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k<=1 h Mpc‑1 and to within three percent at k<=10 h Mpc‑1. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k<= 2 h Mpc‑1. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L=0.5 h‑1Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of Mp=109 h‑1Msolar is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  2. HMcode: Halo-model matter power spectrum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    HMcode computes the halo-model matter power spectrum. It is written in Fortran90 and has been designed to quickly (~0.5s for 200 k-values across 16 redshifts on a single core) produce matter spectra for a wide range of cosmological models. In testing it was shown to match spectra produced by the 'Coyote Emulator' to an accuracy of 5 per cent for k less than 10h Mpc^-1. However, it can also produce spectra well outside of the parameter space of the emulator.

  3. An optimised gene selection approach using wavelet power spectrum.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, S; Sahu, Rajendra; Verma, Sekhar

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is a boon to many fields like bioinformatics for processing a vast amount of data. In our previous paper, we proposed a novel feature selection method for microarray data classification using Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS). In this paper, we present optimisation techniques to improve the quality of the features thus selected and to select 'tight genes' from various cancer microarrays. The results show that 'tight genes' thus selected were more qualitative and could be used for a wide variety of data sets. Also, 'tight genes' thus selected in this mining process could be used with any existing classification approach.

  4. Ultrasonic Inspection With Angular-Power-Spectrum Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1994-01-01

    Principal advantage of angular-power-spectrum scanning (APSS) is that, unlike x-radiography and prior ultrasonic techniques, it reveals subtle distributions of microstructural features; e.g., variations in densities of micropores or regions in which fibers and matrices are poorly bonded to each other. Potential applications include development and characterization of composite-material components of large structures, such as buildings and bridges; determination of quality and detection of damage in fiberglass hulls, surfboards, ladders, and scaffolds; and development of porous prosthetic skins and complicated "smart" materials. Superposed diffraction patterns give clues to internal structural features of ceramic composites.

  5. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum by direct inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Gavin; Contaldi, Carlo R.; Paykari, Paniez E-mail: c.contaldi@imperial.ac.uk

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new method for reconstructing the primordial power spectrum, P(k), directly from observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We employ Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to invert the radiation perturbation transfer function. The degeneracy of the multipole l to wavenumber k linear mapping is thus reduced. This enables the inversion to be carried out at each point along a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) exploration of the combined P(k) and cosmological parameter space. We present best-fit P(k) obtained with this method along with other cosmological parameters.

  6. Full wave effects on the lower hybrid wave spectrum and driven current profile in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraiwa, S.; Ko, J.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R.; Schmidt, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J.; Ma, Y.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Wallace, G.; Wolfe, S. M.; C-Mod Group, Alcator; Scott, S.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-08-15

    A numerical modeling of current profile modification by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) using a fullwave/Fokker-Planck simulation code is presented. A MHD stable LHCD discharge on Alcator C-Mod was analyzed, and the current profile from full wave simulations was found to show better agreement with the experiment than a ray-tracing code. Comparison of full wave and ray-tracing simulation shows that, although ray-tracing can reproduce the stochastic wave spectrum broadening, the full wave calculation predicts even wider spectrum broadening, and the wave spectrum fills all of the kinematically allowed domain. This is the first demonstration of LHCD current profile modeling using a full wave simulation code in a multi-pass absorption regime, showing the clear impact of full wave effects on the LHCD driven current profile.

  7. Power Spectrum Density of Stochastic Oscillating Accretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, G. B.; Ou, J. W.; Zheng, Y. G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we employ a stochastic oscillating accretion disk model for the power spectral index and variability of BL Lac object S5 0716+714. In the model, we assume that there is a relativistic oscillation of thin accretion disks and it interacts with an external thermal bath through a friction force and a random force. We simulate the light curve and the power spectrum density (PSD) at (i) over-damped, (ii) critically damped and (iii) under-damped cases, respectively. Our results show that the simulated PSD curves depend on the intrinsic property of the accretion disk, and it could be produced in a wide interval ranging from 0.94 to 2.05 by changing the friction coefficient in a stochastic oscillating accretion disk model. We argue that accretion disk stochastic oscillating could be a possible interpretation for observed PSD variability.

  8. Reconstructing the primordial power spectrum from the CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Christopher; Bucher, Martin

    2012-10-01

    We propose a straightforward and model independent methodology for characterizing the sensitivity of CMB and other experiments to wiggles, irregularities, and features in the primordial power spectrum. Assuming that the primordial cosmological perturbations are adiabatic, we present a function space generalization of the usual Fisher matrix formalism applied to a CMB experiment resembling Planck with and without ancillary data. This work is closely related to other work on recovering the inflationary potential and exploring specific models of non-minimal, or perhaps baroque, primordial power spectra. The approach adopted here, however, most directly expresses what the data is really telling us. We explore in detail the structure of the available information and quantify exactly what features can be reconstructed and at what statistical significance.

  9. Testing for new physics: neutrinos and the primordial power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canac, Nicolas; Aslanyan, Grigor; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C.

    2016-09-01

    We test the sensitivity of neutrino parameter constraints from combinations of CMB and LSS data sets to the assumed form of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using Bayesian model selection. Significantly, none of the tested combinations, including recent high-precision local measurements of H0 and cluster abundances, indicate a signal for massive neutrinos or extra relativistic degrees of freedom. For PPS models with a large, but fixed number of degrees of freedom, neutrino parameter constraints do not change significantly if the location of any features in the PPS are allowed to vary, although neutrino constraints are more sensitive to PPS features if they are known a priori to exist at fixed intervals in log k. Although there is no support for a non-standard neutrino sector from constraints on both neutrino mass and relativistic energy density, we see surprisingly strong evidence for features in the PPS when it is constrained with data from Planck 2015, SZ cluster counts, and recent high-precision local measurements of H0. Conversely combining Planck with matter power spectrum and BAO measurements yields a much weaker constraint. Given that this result is sensitive to the choice of data this tension between SZ cluster counts, Planck and H0 measurements is likely an indication of unmodeled systematic bias that mimics PPS features, rather than new physics in the PPS or neutrino sector.

  10. Joint Bayesian Component Separation and CMB Power Spectrum Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, H. K.; Jewell, J. B.; Dickinson, C.; Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe and implement an exact, flexible, and computationally efficient algorithm for joint component separation and CMB power spectrum estimation, building on a Gibbs sampling framework. Two essential new features are (1) conditional sampling of foreground spectral parameters and (2) joint sampling of all amplitude-type degrees of freedom (e.g., CMB, foreground pixel amplitudes, and global template amplitudes) given spectral parameters. Given a parametric model of the foreground signals, we estimate efficiently and accurately the exact joint foreground- CMB posterior distribution and, therefore, all marginal distributions such as the CMB power spectrum or foreground spectral index posteriors. The main limitation of the current implementation is the requirement of identical beam responses at all frequencies, which restricts the analysis to the lowest resolution of a given experiment. We outline a future generalization to multiresolution observations. To verify the method, we analyze simple models and compare the results to analytical predictions. We then analyze a realistic simulation with properties similar to the 3 yr WMAP data, downgraded to a common resolution of 3 deg FWHM. The results from the actual 3 yr WMAP temperature analysis are presented in a companion Letter.

  11. Towards optimal estimation of the galaxy power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Marian, Laura

    2015-12-01

    The galaxy power spectrum encodes a wealth of information about cosmology and the matter fluctuations. Its unbiased and optimal estimation is therefore of great importance. In this paper, we generalize the framework of Feldman et al. (1994) to take into account the fact that galaxies are not simply a Poisson sampling of the underlying dark matter distribution. Besides finite survey-volume effects and flux limits, our optimal estimation scheme incorporates several of the key tenets of galaxy formation: galaxies form and reside exclusively in dark matter haloes; a given dark matter halo may host several galaxies of various luminosities; galaxies inherit part of their large-scale bias from their host halo. Under these broad assumptions, we prove that the optimal weights do not explicitly depend on galaxy luminosity, other than through defining the maximum survey volume and effective galaxy density at a given position. Instead, they depend on the bias associated with the host halo; the first and second factorial moments of the halo occupation distribution; a selection function, which gives the fraction of galaxies that can be observed in a halo of mass M at position {r} in the survey; and an effective number density of galaxies. If one wishes to reconstruct the matter power spectrum, then, provided the model is correct, this scheme provides the only unbiased estimator. The practical challenges with implementing this approach are also discussed.

  12. Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.

    2016-11-01

    We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (i) removing the contaminant signal, (ii) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum and (iii) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (i), we show that removing the best-fitting contaminant (mode subtraction) and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (ii), performing a quadratic maximum likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (ii) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants, is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.

  13. BAYESIAN ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF INTERFEROMETRIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Malu, Siddarth S.

    2012-09-15

    We present a Bayesian angular power spectrum and signal map inference engine which can be adapted to interferometric observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 21 cm emission line mapping of galactic brightness fluctuations, or 21 cm absorption line mapping of neutral hydrogen in the dark ages. The method uses Gibbs sampling to generate a sampled representation of the angular power spectrum posterior and the posterior of signal maps given a set of measured visibilities in the uv-plane. We use a mock interferometric CMB observation to demonstrate the validity of this method in the flat-sky approximation when adapted to take into account arbitrary coverage of the uv-plane, mode-mode correlations due to observations on a finite patch, and heteroschedastic visibility errors. The computational requirements scale as O(n{sub p} log n{sub p}) where n{sub p} measures the ratio of the size of the detector array to the inter-detector spacing, meaning that Gibbs sampling is a promising technique for meeting the data analysis requirements of future cosmology missions.

  14. Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.

    2016-08-01

    We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (i) removing the contaminant signal, (ii) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum, (iii) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (i), we show that removing the best-fit contaminant (mode subtraction), and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (ii), performing a Quadratic Maximum Likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (ii) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994, FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.

  15. Power spectrum and non-Gaussianities in anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Anindya; Kovetz, Ely D.; Paban, Sonia E-mail: elykovetz@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    We study the planar regime of curvature perturbations for single field inflationary models in an axially symmetric Bianchi I background. In a theory with standard scalar field action, the power spectrum for such modes has a pole as the planarity parameter goes to zero. We show that constraints from back reaction lead to a strong lower bound on the planarity parameter for high-momentum planar modes and use this bound to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of the anisotropic power spectrum in the CMB, which in turn places an upper bound on the Hubble scale during inflation allowed in our model. We find that non-Gaussianities for these planar modes are enhanced for the flattened triangle and the squeezed triangle configurations, but show that the estimated values of the f{sub NL} parameters remain well below the experimental bounds from the CMB for generic planar modes (other, more promising signatures are also discussed). For a standard action, f{sub NL} from the squeezed configuration turns out to be larger compared to that from the flattened triangle configuration in the planar regime. However, in a theory with higher derivative operators, non-Gaussianities from the flattened triangle can become larger than the squeezed configuration in a certain limit of the planarity parameter.

  16. Power spectrum for inflation models with quantum and thermal noises

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Rudnei O.; Silva, L.A. da E-mail: las.leandro@gmail.com

    2013-03-01

    We determine the power spectrum for inflation models covering all regimes from cold (isentropic) to warm (nonisentropic) inflation. We work in the context of the stochastic inflation approach, which can nicely describe both types of inflationary regimes concomitantly. A throughout analysis is carried out to determine the allowed parameter space for simple single field polynomial chaotic inflation models that is consistent with the most recent cosmological data from the nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and in conjunction with other observational cosmological sources. We present the results for both the amplitude of the power spectrum, the spectral index and for the tensor to scalar curvature perturbation amplitude ratio. We briefly discuss cases when running is present. Despite single field polynomial-type inflaton potential models be strongly disfavored, or even be already ruled out in their simplest versions in the case of cold inflation, this is not the case for nonisentropic inflation models in general (warm inflation in particular), though higher order polynomial potentials (higher than quartic order) tend to become less favorable also in this case, presenting a much smaller region of parameter space compatible with the recent observational cosmological data.

  17. Just enough inflation: power spectrum modifications at large scales

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar; Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander E-mail: ssdownes@phys.ntu.edu.tw E-mail: francisco.pedro@desy.de

    2014-12-01

    We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50- 60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic analytic analysis in the limit of a sudden transition between any possible non-slow-roll background evolution and the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low ℓ, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at ℓ∼< 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.

  18. Morphology and variability of helium line profiles in the P Cygni spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.

    1993-03-01

    Results are presented on a three-year study of the morphology and variability of 13 helium lines in the P Cygni optical spectrum. It was found that most lines in the P Cygni spectrum show profiles with a complicated structure: discrete components (with the most probable values for the velocity ranging from -140 to -180 km/s and from -200 to -220 km/s), which are superposed on a broader 'underlying' P Cygni profile. The central velocity of the helium discrete components is nearly the same for all lines in a given spectrum (sigma(v) = +/- 4 km/s). However, this velocity varies with time; the variations are qualitatively similar to those observed in other ions in the spectrum, e.g., HI (Markova, 1986, 1990), O II, Si III, and N II (Markova and Kolka, 1988), and Fe III (Lamers et al., 1985).

  19. Fermi-bounce cosmology and scale-invariant power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Stephon; Bambi, Cosimo; Marcianò, Antonino; Modesto, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    We develop a nonsingular bouncing cosmology using a nontrivial coupling of general relativity to fermionic fields. The usual big bang singularity is avoided thanks to a negative energy density contribution from the fermions. Our theory is ghost free since the fermionic operator that generates the bounce is equivalent to torsion, which has no kinetic terms. The physical system consists of standard general relativity plus a topological sector for gravity and fermionic matter described by Dirac fields with a nonminimal coupling. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum generated in the contracting phase can be recovered by suitable choices of fermion number density and bare mass, thus providing a possible alternative to the inflationary scenario.

  20. Measuring the VIPERS galaxy power spectrum at z∼1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, Stefano; Bel, Julien; Granett, Ben; Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey [VIPERS, Guzzo et al. 2014] is using the VIMOS spectrograph at the ESO VLT to measure redshifts for ~ 100,000 galaxies with IAB < 22.5 and 0.5 < z < 1.2, over an area of 24 deg2 (split over the W1 and W4 fields of CFHTLS). VIPERS currently provides, at such redshifts, the best compromise between volume, number of galaxies and dense spatial sampling. We present here the first estimate of the power spectrum of the galaxy distribution, P(k), at redshifts z ~ 0.75 and z ~ 1, obtained from the ~ 55,000 redshifts of the PDR-1 data release. We discuss first constraints on cosmological quantities, as the matter density and the baryonic fraction, obtained for the first time at an epoch when the Universe was about half its current age.

  1. Power Spectrum Density of Long-Term MAXI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Serino, Motoko; Kitamoto, Shunji; Sato, Ryousuke; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on the International Space Station has been observing the X-ray sky since 2009 August 15. It has accumulated the X-ray data for about four years, so far. X-ray objects are usually variable and their variability can be studied by the power spectrum density (PSD) of the X-ray light curves. We applied our method to calculate PSDs of several kinds of objects observed with MAXI. We obtained significant PSDs from 16 Seyfert galaxies. For blackhole binary Cygnus X-1 there was a difference in the shape of PSD between the hard state and the soft state. For high mass X-ray binaries, Cen X-3, SMC X-1, and LMC X-4, there were several peaks in the PSD corresponding to the orbital period and the superorbital period.

  2. On Removing Interloper Contamination from Intensity Mapping Power Spectrum Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidz, Adam; Taylor, Jessie

    2016-07-01

    Line intensity mapping experiments seek to trace large-scale structures by measuring the spatial fluctuations in the combined emission, in some convenient spectral line, from individually unresolved galaxies. An important systematic concern for these surveys is line confusion from foreground or background galaxies emitting in other lines that happen to lie at the same observed frequency as the “target” emission line of interest. We develop an approach to separate this “interloper” emission at the power spectrum level. If one adopts the redshift of the target emission line in mapping from observed frequency and angle on the sky to co-moving units, the interloper emission is mapped to the wrong co-moving coordinates. Because the mapping is different in the line of sight and transverse directions, the interloper contribution to the power spectrum becomes anisotropic, especially if the interloper and target emission are at widely separated redshifts. This distortion is analogous to the Alcock–Paczynski test, but here the warping arises from assuming the wrong redshift rather than an incorrect cosmological model. We apply this to the case of a hypothetical [C ii] emission survey at z˜ 7 and find that the distinctive interloper anisotropy can, in principle, be used to separate strong foreground CO emission fluctuations. In our models, however, a significantly more sensitive instrument than currently planned is required, although there are large uncertainties in forecasting the high-redshift [C ii] emission signal. With upcoming surveys, it may nevertheless be useful to apply this approach after first masking pixels suspected of containing strong interloper contamination.

  3. On Removing Interloper Contamination from Intensity Mapping Power Spectrum Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidz, Adam; Taylor, Jessie

    2016-07-01

    Line intensity mapping experiments seek to trace large-scale structures by measuring the spatial fluctuations in the combined emission, in some convenient spectral line, from individually unresolved galaxies. An important systematic concern for these surveys is line confusion from foreground or background galaxies emitting in other lines that happen to lie at the same observed frequency as the “target” emission line of interest. We develop an approach to separate this “interloper” emission at the power spectrum level. If one adopts the redshift of the target emission line in mapping from observed frequency and angle on the sky to co-moving units, the interloper emission is mapped to the wrong co-moving coordinates. Because the mapping is different in the line of sight and transverse directions, the interloper contribution to the power spectrum becomes anisotropic, especially if the interloper and target emission are at widely separated redshifts. This distortion is analogous to the Alcock-Paczynski test, but here the warping arises from assuming the wrong redshift rather than an incorrect cosmological model. We apply this to the case of a hypothetical [C ii] emission survey at z˜ 7 and find that the distinctive interloper anisotropy can, in principle, be used to separate strong foreground CO emission fluctuations. In our models, however, a significantly more sensitive instrument than currently planned is required, although there are large uncertainties in forecasting the high-redshift [C ii] emission signal. With upcoming surveys, it may nevertheless be useful to apply this approach after first masking pixels suspected of containing strong interloper contamination.

  4. Unscreening Modified Gravity in the Matter Power Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lombriser, Lucas; Simpson, Fergus; Mead, Alexander

    2015-06-26

    Viable modifications of gravity that may produce cosmic acceleration need to be screened in high-density regions such as the Solar System, where general relativity is well tested. Screening mechanisms also prevent strong anomalies in the large-scale structure and limit the constraints that can be inferred on these gravity models from cosmology. We find that by suppressing the contribution of the screened high-density regions in the matter power spectrum, allowing a greater contribution of unscreened low densities, modified gravity models can be more readily discriminated from the concordance cosmology. Moreover, by variation of density thresholds, degeneracies with other effects may be dealt with more adequately. Specializing to chameleon gravity as a worked example for screening in modified gravity, employing N-body simulations of f(R) models and the halo model of chameleon theories, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. We find that a percent-level measurement of the clipped power at k<0.3h/Mpc can yield constraints on chameleon models that are more stringent than what is inferred from Solar System tests or distance indicators in unscreened dwarf galaxies. Finally, we verify that our method is also applicable to the Vainshtein mechanism. PMID:26197114

  5. Unscreening Modified Gravity in the Matter Power Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lombriser, Lucas; Simpson, Fergus; Mead, Alexander

    2015-06-26

    Viable modifications of gravity that may produce cosmic acceleration need to be screened in high-density regions such as the Solar System, where general relativity is well tested. Screening mechanisms also prevent strong anomalies in the large-scale structure and limit the constraints that can be inferred on these gravity models from cosmology. We find that by suppressing the contribution of the screened high-density regions in the matter power spectrum, allowing a greater contribution of unscreened low densities, modified gravity models can be more readily discriminated from the concordance cosmology. Moreover, by variation of density thresholds, degeneracies with other effects may be dealt with more adequately. Specializing to chameleon gravity as a worked example for screening in modified gravity, employing N-body simulations of f(R) models and the halo model of chameleon theories, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. We find that a percent-level measurement of the clipped power at k<0.3h/Mpc can yield constraints on chameleon models that are more stringent than what is inferred from Solar System tests or distance indicators in unscreened dwarf galaxies. Finally, we verify that our method is also applicable to the Vainshtein mechanism.

  6. Responsiveness of the Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chiang, Fu-Mei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Fu, Chung-Pei; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We investigated the responsiveness in terms of three types of scores (i.e., raw scores, developmental ages, and percentile ranks) of the subtests and composites of the PEP-3 and three…

  7. Melatonin in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Endogenous and Pharmacokinetic Profiles in Relation to Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Suzanne E.; Adkins, Karen W.; Calcutt, M. Wade; Carter, Melissa D.; Goodpaster, Robert L.; Wang, Lily; Shi, Yaping; Burgess, Helen J.; Hachey, David L.; Malow, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental melatonin has been used to treat sleep onset insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although the mechanism of action is uncertain. We assessed endogenous and supplemental melatonin profiles in relation to sleep in nine children with ASD. In endogenous samples, maximal melatonin concentration (C[subscript max]) and…

  8. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  9. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M.; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism…

  10. Biobehavioral Profiles of Arousal and Social Motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Swain, Deanna M.; Newsom, Cassandra; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Edgerton, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in social communication and interaction with peers, which may reflect diminished social motivation. Many children with ASD show enhanced stress when playing with other children. This study investigated social and stress profiles of children with ASD during play. Methods: We…

  11. H α profile variabilities in the spectrum of the star WW Vul in 2006-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medzhidova, S. O.; Mikailov, Kh. M.; Rustamov, B. N.

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of our studies of the H α line in the spectrum of a UX Ori star (WW Vul) based on our spectroscopic observations performed with the 2-m telescope at the Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory, the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, in 2006-2010. We have detected variability in all the measured parameters of the H α profile both during each observing season and from season to season. A comparative analysis of our data and published studies has led to the conclusion that the regime of outflow with a variable power in the star WW Vul, on the whole, is preserved for almost 40 years (1972-2010) and the accretion of gas from the circumstellar disk onto the stellar surface is occasionally observed. Changes in the regime of variability in the behavior of the H α emission line have been revealed in the 2006-2010 observing seasons. In four cases (for July 8, 2006, August 17, 2008, June 13, 2010, and August 2, 2010), we have detected a second emission component in the blue wing of the H α emission line.

  12. Tissue type characterization using photoacoustic power spectrum, a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Goldstein, Seth D.; Kang, Jin U.; Choti, Michaal; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    The development of technologies capable of non-invasive characterization of tissue has the potential to significantly improve diagnostic and therapeutic medical interventions. In this study we investigated the feasibility of a noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) approach for characterizing biological tissues. The measurement was performed in the transmission mode with a wideband hydrophone while a tunable Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used for illumination. The power spectrum of photoacoustic signal induced by a pulsed laser light from tissue was analyzed and features were extracted to study their correlation with tissue biomechanical properties. For a controlled study, tissue mimicking gelatin phantoms with different densities and equivalent optical absorptions were used as targets. The correlation between gelatin concentration of such phantoms and their mechanical properties were validated independently with a dynamic mechanical analyzer capable of calculating complex loss and storage moduli between two compression plates. It was shown that PA spectrums were shifted towards higher frequencies by increasing gelatin concentration. In order to quantify this effect, signal energy in two intervals of low and high frequency ranges were calculated. Gelatin concentration was correlated with PA energy in high frequency range with R2=0.94. Subsequently, PA signals generated from freshly resected human thyroid specimens were measured and analyzed in a similar fashion. We found that in aggregate, malignant thyroid tissue contains approximately 1.6 times lower energy in the high frequency range in comparison to normal thyroid tissue (p<0.01). This ratio increased with increasing illumination wavelength from 700 nm to 900nm. In summary, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using photoacoustic technique for characterizing tissue on the basis of viscoelastic properties of the tissue.

  13. Reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R A; Yu, Jennifer W; Wagner, Mary; Spiker, Donna

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the reading and math achievement profiles and longitudinal growth trajectories of a nationally representative sample of children ages 6 through 9 with an autism spectrum disorder. Four distinct achievement profiles were identified: higher-achieving (39%), hyperlexia (9%), hypercalculia (20%) and lower-achieving (32%). Children with hypercalculia and lower-achieving profiles were more likely to be from low socioeconomic families and had lower functional cognitive skills than the higher-achieving profile. All four profiles lost ground in passage comprehension over time. Slower improvement occurred for the higher-achieving group on letter-word identification, the hyperlexia group on conversation abilities and the hypercalculia group on calculation and functional cognitive skills relative to the lower-achieving group.

  14. Roundoff noise analysis for digital signal power processors using Welch's power spectrum estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, Chong-Yung; Long, David; Li, Fuk-Kwok

    1987-01-01

    The noise due to finite-word-length effects is analyzed for digital-signal power processors using Welch's power-spectrum estimation technique to measure the power of Gaussian random signals over a frequency band of interest. The input of the digital signal processor contains a finite-length time interval in which the true Gaussian signal is contaminated by Gaussian noise. The roundoff noise-to-signal ratio in the measurement of the signal power is derived, and computer simulations which validate the analytical results are presented. These results can be used in tradeoff studies of hardware design, such as the number of bits required at each processing stage. The results presented in this paper are currently being used in the design of a digital Doppler processor (Chi et al., 1986) for a radar scatterometer.

  15. Combining power spectrum and bispectrum measurements to detect oscillatory features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergusson, J. R.; Gruetjen, H. F.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Liguori, M.

    2015-01-01

    The simplest inflationary models present us with few observable parameters to discriminate between them. A detection of features in the spectra of primordial density perturbations could provide valuable insights and lead to stringent tests of models of the early Universe. So far, searches for oscillatory features have not produced statistically significant results. In this work we consider a combined search for features in the power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that possible dependencies between the estimates of feature model amplitudes based on the two- and three-point correlators are largely statistically independent under the assumption of the null hypothesis of a nearly Gaussian featureless cosmic microwave background. Building on this conclusion we propose an optimal amplitude estimator for a combined search and study the look-elsewhere effect in feature model surveys. In particular we construct analytic models for the distribution of amplitude estimates that allow for a reliable assessment of the significance of potential findings. We also propose a well-behaved integrated statistic that is designed to detect evidence for models exhibiting features at multiple frequencies.

  16. Matter density perturbation and power spectrum in running vacuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the matter density perturbation δm and power spectrum P(k) in the running vacuum model (RVM) with the cosmological constant being a function of the Hubble parameter, given by Λ = Λ0 + 6σHH0 + 3νH2, in which the linear and quadratic terms of H would originate from the QCD vacuum condensation and cosmological renormalization group, respectively. Taking the dark energy perturbation into consideration, we derive the evolution equation for δm and find a specific scale dcr = 2π/kcr, which divides the evolution of the universe into the sub and super-interaction regimes, corresponding to k ≪ kcr and k ≫ kcr, respectively. For the former, the evolution of δm has the same behavior as that in the ΛCDM model, while for the latter, the growth of δm is frozen (greatly enhanced) when ν + σ > ( < )0 due to the couplings between radiation, matter and dark energy. It is clear that the observational data rule out the cases with ν < 0 and ν + σ < 0, while the allowed window for the model parameters is extremely narrow with ν , |σ | ≲ {O}(10^{-7}).

  17. On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya E-mail: lverde@astro.princeton.edu

    2008-07-15

    The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters.

  18. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Primordial Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gallardo, Patricio; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Wollack, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k approx. = 0.2 Mp/c. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from CMB measurements (which probe the power spectrum in thc linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances and weak lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurement.s of the matter power spectrum.

  19. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: A MEASUREMENT OF THE PRIMORDIAL POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Das, Sudeep; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Duenner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; and others

    2012-04-10

    We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) in combination with measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and a prior on the Hubble constant. The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k {approx_equal} 0.2 Mpc{sup -1}. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from cosmic microwave background measurements (which probe the power spectrum in the linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances, and weak-lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurements of the matter power spectrum.

  20. Photo detection process and power spectrum estimation of optical radiation by the multichannel resonant spectrum analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskaletz, O. D.; Paraskun, A. S.; Vaganov, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of receiving of an energy spectrum estimation of optical radiations in the new analyzer of optical signals is considered. It is the parallel resonant optical spectrum analyzer (SPECTRUM ANALYZER). Its resolving system is a set of narrow-band optical resonators in the form of interference filters. Each optical resonator is equivalent to a system with lumped parameters. This allows us to consider only oscillations of an optical field in the form of a scalar functions and adopt as a model of analyzed signal harmonized scalar random process. The photodetector operation and average of photocurrent using an integrator and integrating circuit is considered too. On the basis of the application prolate entire spheroidal wave function theory energy spectrum estimation by the integral of photocurrent is obtained. This energy spectrum estimation is consistent and asymptotically unbiased.

  1. Spectrum of complicated migraine in children: A common profile in aid to clinical diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Surya N; Gupta, Vikash S; Fields, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    Complicated migraine encompasses several individual clinical syndromes of migraine. Such a syndrome in children frequently presents with various neurological symptoms in the Emergency Department. An acute presentation in the absence of headache presents a diagnostic challenge. A delay in diagnosis and treatment may have medicolegal implication. To date, there are no reports of a common clinical profile proposed in making a clinical diagnosis for the complicated migraine. In this clinical review, we propose and describe: (1) A common clinical profile in aid to clinical diagnosis for spectrum of complicated migraine; (2) How it can be used in differentiating complicated migraine from migraine without aura, migraine with aura, and seizure; (3) We discuss the status of complicated migraine in the International Headache Society classification 2013; and (4) In addition, a common treatment strategy for the spectrum of migraine has been described. To diagnose complicated migraine clinically, it is imperative to adhere with the proposed profile. This will optimize the use of investigation and will also avoid a legal implication of delay in their management. The proposed common clinical profile is incongruent with the International Headache Society 2013. Future classification should minimize the dissociation from clinically encountered syndromes and coin a single word to address collectively this subtype of migraine with an acute presentation of a common clinical profile. PMID:25664241

  2. Absorption line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10(exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  3. Absorption-line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass-losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10 (exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  4. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  5. The Knotted Sky I: Planck constraints on the primordial power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanyan, Grigor; Price, Layne C.; Easther, Richard; Abazajian, Kevork N. E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz E-mail: r.easther@auckland.ac.nz

    2014-08-01

    Using the temperature data from Planck we search for departures from a power-law primordial power spectrum, employing Bayesian model-selection and posterior probabilities. We parametrize the spectrum with n knots located at arbitrary values of logk, with both linear and cubic splines. This formulation recovers both slow modulations and sharp transitions in the primordial spectrum. The power spectrum is well-fit by a featureless, power-law at wavenumbers k>10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -1}. A modulated primordial spectrum yields a better fit relative to ΛCDM at large scales, but there is no strong evidence for a departure from a power-law spectrum. Moreover, using simulated maps we show that a local feature at k ∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -1} can mimic the suppression of large-scale power. With multi-knot spectra we see only small changes in the posterior distributions for the other free parameters in the standard ΛCDM universe. Lastly, we investigate whether the hemispherical power asymmetry is explained by independent features in the primordial power spectrum in each ecliptic hemisphere, but find no significant differences between them.

  6. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP)Observations: The Angular Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Verde, L.; Hill, R. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the angular power spectrum derived from the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps. We study a variety of power spectrum estimation methods and data combinations and demonstrate that the results are robust. The data are modestly contaminated by diffuse Galactic foreground emission, but we show that a simple Galactic template model is sufficient to remove the signal. Point sources produce a modest contamination in the low frequency data. After masking approximately 700 known bright sources from the maps, we estimate residual sources contribute approximately 3500 mu sq Kappa at 41 GHz, and approximately 130 mu sq Kappa at 94 GHz, to the power spectrum [iota(iota + 1)C(sub iota)/2pi] at iota = 1000. Systematic errors are negligible compared to the (modest) level of foreground emission. Our best estimate of the power spectrum is derived from 28 cross-power spectra of statistically independent channels. The final spectrum is essentially independent of the noise properties of an individual radiometer. The resulting spectrum provides a definitive measurement of the CMB power spectrum, with uncertainties limited by cosmic variance, up to iota approximately 350. The spectrum clearly exhibits a first acoustic peak at iota = 220 and a second acoustic peak at iota approximately 540, and it provides strong support for adiabatic initial conditions. Researchers have analyzed the CT(sup Epsilon) power spectrum, and present evidence for a relatively high optical depth, and an early period of cosmic reionization. Among other things, this implies that the temperature power spectrum has been suppressed by approximately 30% on degree angular scales, due to secondary scattering.

  7. PROBING THE INFLATON: SMALL-SCALE POWER SPECTRUM CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ENERGY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido

    2012-10-20

    In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates {mu}- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k {approx}< 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup -1}. Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of {mu} and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

  8. Angular power spectrum of the FastICA CMB component from BEAST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Simona

    We present the angular power spectrum of the CMB component extracted with FASTICA from the data of the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST), operating in Q two input channels FASTICA returns two possible independent components. We found that one of them has an unphysical spectral behaviour, due to the poor S/N ratio, while the other is a reasonable CMB component. After a detailed calibration procedure based on Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations we extracted the angular power spectrum for the identified CMB component and found a very good agreement with the already published BEAST CMB angular power spectrum

  9. Estimating the angular power spectrum of z > 2 BOSS QSOs using the MASTER method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Felipe; Huffenberger, Kevin; Rotti, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We implement the MASTER method for angular power spectrum estimation and apply it to z > 2 quasars selected by the SDSS-III BOSS survey. Quasars are filtered for completeness and bad spectra, and include ~100,000 QSOs in the CORE sample and ~75,000 in the non-uniform BONUS sample. We estimate the angular power spectrum in redshift shells to constrain the matter power spectrum and quasar properties. In the future, we will jointly analyze overlapping Cosmic Microwave Background lensing maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope to place further constraints.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): neurobehavioral profile, indications for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Di Lauro, Francesca; Marchitelli, René; Scalese, Bruna; Fiore, Marco; Maviglia, Marcello; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    It is now known that exposure to alcohol in utero produces a wide spectrum of morphological and behavioural outcomes in the offspring, commonly referred as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A large body of literature documents cognitive deficits and behavioural-emotional difficulties in children with FASD. Researchers have found that individuals with FASD often experience a range of adverse life outcomes, called secondary disabilities, which include disrupted school experience, troubles with the law, confinement, inappropriate sexual behaviours on repeated occasions, and alcohol/drug related problems. Additionally, despite considerable data published on cognitive and behavioural disabilities in children with FASD, relatively little information is available on behavioural or pharmacological interventions for alcohol affected children. This paper will provide a comprehensive review of the neuropsychological and behavioural effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, including a discussion of the emerging neurobehavioral profile. Finally, we will summarize published intervention studies of FASD focusing on their strengths and weaknesses.

  11. Wind tunnel study of the power output spectrum in a micro wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael F.; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Instrumented small-scale porous disk models are used to study the spectrum of a surrogate for the power output in a micro wind farm with 100 models of wind turbines. The power spectra of individual porous disk models in the first row of the wind farm show the expected -5/3 power law at higher frequencies. Downstream models measure an increased variance due to wake effects. Conversely, the power spectrum of the sum of the power over the entire wind farm shows a peak at the turbine-to-turbine travel frequency between the model turbines, and a near -5/3 power law region at a much wider range of lower frequencies, confirming previous LES results. Comparison with the spectrum that would result when assuming that the signals are uncorrelated, highlights the strong effects of correlations and anti-correlations in the fluctuations at various frequencies.

  12. Variability of Hell and hydrogen line profiles in the spectrum of HD 93521

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzaev, A. Kh.; Panchuk, V. E.

    2008-03-01

    We have studied the variability of the Hell λλ 4686 and 5411 Å H β, and H α lines in the spectrum of the pulsating star HD 93521. All these line profiles display the same variability pattern relative to the average profiles: a sinusoidal wave that moves systematically from the short-to the long-wavelength wing of the profile. This variability is due to non-radial pulsations. To study the pulsation movements and stratification of the radial velocity in the atmosphere of HD 93521, we analyzed the variability of the radial velocities measured individually for the blue and red halves of the absorption profile at the half-level of the line intensity. The periods and amplitudes of this radial-velocity variability are different for different lines and are well correlated with their central depths. In the transition from weak to strong lines (i.e., from lower to upper layers of the atmosphere), the period of the radial-velocity variations measured using both halves of the absorption profile increases, while its amplitude decreases. When the morphology and variability of photospheric and wind-driven lines are compared, it is clear that the variability of their absorption components is due to the same process—non-radial pulsations. In this way, the non-radial pulsations partly affect the variability of the stellar wind. The effect of the stellar wind on the profiles of strong lines is observed as a variable absorption feature that moves along the profiles synchronous with the axial rotation of the star.

  13. Ionospheric wave measurements with satellite-borne cross-power spectrum analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, K. J.; Crawford, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper studies the feasibility of using the cross-power spectrum analyzer on a satellite such as the Space Shuttle to measure the spectrum of potential and charged particle density fluctuations and macroscopic parameters in the ionosphere. The integration time required to make a measurement of a cross-power spectral density to a given accuracy, or its equivalent, the spatial resolution of a measurement to a given accuracy is examined.

  14. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism profile of Vineland-II age equivalent scores, but not standard scores, was found. Highest scores were in motor skills and lowest scores were in socialisation. The addition of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule calibrated severity score did not contribute significant variance to Vineland-II scores beyond that accounted for by age and nonverbal ability. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed.

  15. Estimating magnetic field power spectrum using CRRES magnetometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Elkington, S. R.

    2013-05-01

    Radial diffusion is one of the acceleration mechanisms responsible for populating and depleting the Van Allen radiation belts with high energy charged particles. We use the magnetometer data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to estimate the power spectral density in the compressional component of the geomagnetic field in the frequency range of 0.8mHz-16.3mHz. We see a clear dependence of power spectral density on radial distance L, measure of geomagnetic disturbance Kp, and magnetic local time. Comparing total integrated power, the noon sector contains more power with no significant difference between other sectors during periods of low activity. During high activity the dusk sector has significantly more power than dawn sector with the difference sometimes being an order of magnitude higher with power increasing slightly as we move radially outward to higher L-shells. We then recompute the power spectral density without local time dependence and compute the electromagnetic part of the radial diffusion coefficient. The electromagnetic diffusion coefficients are then compared with the electrostatic coefficients computed by Brautigam et al. (2005). The dependence of the diffusion coefficients is then studied on parameters of L, Kp, and the first invariant. For a fixed first invariant the diffusion coefficient can be up to two orders of magnitude higher as we move from the inner magnetosphere (L=3.5) to the outer magnetosphere (L=6.5). During high activity, radial diffusion is also significantly faster than at quiet times.

  16. Spectrum sensing and resource allocation for multicarrier cognitive radio systems under interference and power constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmese, Sener; Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Shaat, Musbah; Bader, Faouzi; Renfors, Markku

    2014-12-01

    Multicarrier waveforms have been commonly recognized as strong candidates for cognitive radio. In this paper, we study the dynamics of spectrum sensing and spectrum allocation functions in cognitive radio context using very practical signal models for the primary users (PUs), including the effects of power amplifier nonlinearities. We start by sensing the spectrum with energy detection-based wideband multichannel spectrum sensing algorithm and continue by investigating optimal resource allocation methods. Along the way, we examine the effects of spectral regrowth due to the inevitable power amplifier nonlinearities of the PU transmitters. The signal model includes frequency selective block-fading channel models for both secondary and primary transmissions. Filter bank-based wideband spectrum sensing techniques are applied for detecting spectral holes and filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is selected for transmission as an alternative multicarrier waveform to avoid the disadvantage of limited spectral containment of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based multicarrier systems. The optimization technique used for the resource allocation approach considered in this study utilizes the information obtained through spectrum sensing and knowledge of spectrum leakage effects of the underlying waveforms, including a practical power amplifier model for the PU transmitter. This study utilizes a computationally efficient algorithm to maximize the SU link capacity with power and interference constraints. It is seen that the SU transmission capacity depends critically on the spectral containment of the PU waveform, and these effects are quantified in a case study using an 802.11-g WLAN scenario.

  17. Contribution of strong discontinuities to the power spectrum of the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Borovsky, Joseph E

    2010-09-10

    Eight and a half years of magnetic field measurements (2(22) samples) from the ACE spacecraft in the solar wind at 1 A.U. are analyzed. Strong (large-rotation-angle) discontinuities in the solar wind are collected and measured. An artificial time series is created that preserves the timing and amplitudes of the discontinuities. The power spectral density of the discontinuity series is calculated and compared with the power spectral density of the solar-wind magnetic field. The strong discontinuities produce a power-law spectrum in the "inertial subrange" with a spectral index near the Kolmogorov -5/3 index. The discontinuity spectrum contains about half of the power of the full solar-wind magnetic field over this "inertial subrange." Warnings are issued about the significant contribution of discontinuities to the spectrum of the solar wind, complicating interpretation of spectral power and spectral indices.

  18. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-09-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  19. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-08-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  20. Power Versus Spectrum 2-D Sensing in Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Han, Weijia; Li, Di; Zhang, Ping; Cui, Shuguang

    2015-12-01

    Energy harvester based cognitive radio is a promising solution to address the shortage of both spectrum and energy. Since the spectrum access and power consumption patterns are interdependent, and the power value harvested from certain environmental sources are spatially correlated, the new power dimension could provide additional information to enhance the spectrum sensing accuracy. In this paper, the Markovian behavior of the primary users is considered, based on which we adopt a hidden input Markov model to specify the primary vs. secondary dynamics in the system. Accordingly, we propose a 2-D spectrum and power (harvested) sensing scheme to improve the primary user detection performance, which is also capable of estimating the primary transmit power level. Theoretical and simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, in term of the performance gain achieved by considering the new power dimension. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to jointly consider the spectrum and power dimensions for the cognitive primary user detection problem.

  1. Analytical model for CMB temperature angular power spectrum from cosmic (super-)strings

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Sasaki, Misao; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sendouda, Yuuiti

    2010-09-15

    We present a new analytical method to calculate the small angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature angular power spectrum due to cosmic (super-)string segments. In particular, using our method, we clarify the dependence on the intercommuting probability P. We find that the power spectrum is dominated by Poisson-distributed string segments. The power spectrum for a general value of P has a plateau on large angular scales and shows a power-law decrease on small angular scales. The resulting spectrum in the case of conventional cosmic strings is in very good agreement with the numerical result obtained by Fraisse et al.. Then we estimate the upper bound on the dimensionless tension of the string for various values of P by assuming that the fraction of the CMB power spectrum due to cosmic (super-)strings is less than ten percent at various angular scales up to l=2000. We find that the amplitude of the spectrum increases as the intercommuting probability. As a consequence, strings with smaller intercommuting probabilities are found to be more tightly constrained.

  2. Dyadic Power Profiles: Power-Contingent Strategies for Value Creation in Negotiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olekalns, Mara; Smith, Philip Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Using a simulated employment negotiation, we tested the conditional relationships among dyadic power profiles (symmetric high, symmetric low, and asymmetric), the choice and sequencing of strategies, and value creation. We showed that negotiators in symmetric high, symmetric low, and asymmetric power dyads took distinctly different paths to value…

  3. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

    2010-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions . The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

  4. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the 2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

  5. THE COYOTE UNIVERSE. II. COSMOLOGICAL MODELS AND PRECISION EMULATION OF THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmann, Katrin; Higdon, David; Williams, Brian J.; Lawrence, Earl; White, Martin; Habib, Salman; Wagner, Christian

    2009-11-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the 1% level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state, 'wCDM', cosmologies. In this paper, we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models-the 'Coyote Universe' suite-can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum to 1% over a prior parameter range set by current cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.

  6. The Coyote Universe II: Cosmological Models and Precision Emulation of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David; Williams, Brian J; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the one percent level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state 'wCDM' cosmologies. In this paper we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models -- the 'Coyote Universe' suite -- can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the required accuracy over a prior parameter range set by cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.

  7. The Coyote Universe. II. Cosmological Models and Precision Emulation of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitmann, Katrin; Higdon, David; White, Martin; Habib, Salman; Williams, Brian J.; Lawrence, Earl; Wagner, Christian

    2009-11-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the 1% level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state, "wCDM", cosmologies. In this paper, we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models—the "Coyote Universe" suite—can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum to 1% over a prior parameter range set by current cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.

  8. Power Spectrum Analysis and Missing Level Statistics of Microwave Graphs with Violated Time Reversal Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białous, Małgorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał; Dietz, Barbara; Sirko, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    We present experimental studies of the power spectrum and other fluctuation properties in the spectra of microwave networks simulating chaotic quantum graphs with violated time reversal invariance. On the basis of our data sets, we demonstrate that the power spectrum in combination with other long-range and also short-range spectral fluctuations provides a powerful tool for the identification of the symmetries and the determination of the fraction of missing levels. Such a procedure is indispensable for the evaluation of the fluctuation properties in the spectra of real physical systems like, e.g., nuclei or molecules, where one has to deal with the problem of missing levels.

  9. Primordial power spectrum: a complete analysis with the WMAP nine-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2013-07-01

    We have improved further the error sensitive Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm making it applicable directly on the un-binned measured angular power spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background observations to reconstruct the form of the primordial power spectrum. This improvement makes the application of the method significantly more straight forward by removing some intermediate stages of analysis allowing a reconstruction of the primordial spectrum with higher efficiency and precision and with lower computational expenses. Applying the modified algorithm we fit the WMAP 9 year data using the optimized reconstructed form of the primordial spectrum with more than 300 improvement in χ{sup 2}{sub eff} with respect to the best fit power-law. This is clearly beyond the reach of other alternative approaches and reflects the efficiency of the proposed method in the reconstruction process and allow us to look for any possible feature in the primordial spectrum projected in the CMB data. Though the proposed method allow us to look at various possibilities for the form of the primordial spectrum, all having good fit to the data, proper error-analysis is needed to test for consistency of theoretical models since, along with possible physical artefacts, most of the features in the reconstructed spectrum might be arising from fitting noises in the CMB data. Reconstructed error-band for the form of the primordial spectrum using many realizations of the data, all bootstrapped and based on WMAP 9 year data, shows proper consistency of power-law form of the primordial spectrum with the WMAP 9 data at all wave numbers. Including WMAP polarization data in to the analysis have not improved much our results due to its low quality but we expect Planck data will allow us to make a full analysis on CMB observations on both temperature and polarization separately and in combination.

  10. Generalized power-spectrum Larmor formula for an extended charged particle embedded in a harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Edwin A.; Khodja, Mohamed R.

    2006-09-01

    The nonrelativistic Larmor radiation formula, giving the power radiated by an accelerated charged point particle, is generalized for a spatially extended particle in the context of the classical charged harmonic oscillator. The particle is modeled as a spherically symmetric rigid charge distribution that possesses both translational and spinning degrees of freedom. The power spectrum obtained exhibits a structure that depends on the form factor of the particle, but reduces, in the limit of an infinitesimally small particle and for the charge distributions considered, to Larmor’s familiar result. It is found that for finite-duration small-enough accelerations as well as perpetual uniform accelerations the power spectrum of the spatially extended particle reduces to that of a point particle. It is also found that when the acceleration is violent or the size parameter of the particle is very large compared to the wavelength of the emitted radiation the power spectrum is highly suppressed. Possible applications are discussed.

  11. Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenni, Andrea; Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.

  12. Angular Power Spectrum in Modular Invariant Inflation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Mitsuo J.; Okame, Y.; Takagi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Hirai, S.; Takami, T.

    2008-05-29

    A scalar potential of inflation is proposed and the angular power spectra of the adiabatic density perturbations are computed. The potential consists of three scalar fields, S, Y and T, together with two free parameters. By fitting the parameters to cosmological data at the fixed point T = 1, we find that the potential behaves like the single-field potential of S, which slowly rolls down. We further show that the inflation predictions corresponding to this potential provide a good fit to the recent three-year WMAP data, e.g. the spectral index n{sub s} = 0.951.The TT and TE angular power spectra obtained from our model almost completely coincide with the corresponding results obtained from the {lambda}CDM model. We conclude that our model is considered to be an adequate theory of inflation that explains the present data.

  13. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using temperature and polarisation data from multiple experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Gavin; Contaldi, Carlo R. E-mail: c.contaldi@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-07-01

    We develop a method to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum, P(k), using both temperature and polarisation data from the joint analysis of a number of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. The method is an extension of the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, first applied in this context by Shafieloo and Souradeep [1]. We show how the inclusion of polarisation measurements can decrease the uncertainty in the reconstructed power spectrum. In particular, the polarisation data can constrain oscillations in the spectrum more effectively than total intensity only measurements. We apply the estimator to a compilation of current CMB results. The reconstructed spectrum is consistent with the best-fit power spectrum although we find evidence for a 'dip' in the power on scales k ≈ 0.002 Mpc{sup −1}. This feature appears to be associated with the WMAP power in the region 18 ≤ l ≤ 26 which is consistently below best-fit models. We also forecast the reconstruction for a simulated, Planck-like [2] survey including sample variance limited polarisation data.

  14. Calculated power distribution of a thermionic, beryllium oxide reflected, fast-spectrum reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, W.; Lantz, E.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure is developed and used to calculate the detailed power distribution in the fuel elements next to a beryllium oxide reflector of a fast-spectrum, thermionic reactor. The results of the calculations show that, although the average power density in these outer fuel elements is not far from the core average, the power density at the very edge of the fuel closest to the beryllium oxide is about 1.8 times the core avearge.

  15. Power spectrum of electrical discharges seen on earth and at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, J. W.

    1989-07-01

    A technique is described for deriving the radio spectrum of electrical discharges by using the properties of the time series of charges crossing the discharge gap. The method was applied to the spectrum of lightning and to the Saturn's electrical discharges (SEDs). It is shown that the occurrence and the power density of SEDs have subtle, but important, differences from these observables described in the last five years. The reasons for these differences are discussed.

  16. An Attempt to Observe Stellar Convection via Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Ramio, Hector; Roca Cortes, Teodoro; Regulo, Clara

    It is known that the convective motions at solar photosphere level are visible in the frequency domain through the so called ""solar noise"". Time-resolved differential CCD photometry time series form 2 to 4 days long obtained at the Observatorio del Teide Izaña (Tenerife) using the 1m telescope of the Optical Ground Station (OGS) have been taken of five different stellar fields containing late type stars (spectral types F G and K) using de-focusing technique. It is expected they present convective activity at stellar surface and hence its signature must appear in their power spectra. By analogy with the solar case information about time scales of the possible stellar convective structures may be inferred. One of the observed stellar fields contained Uranus which reflects the light coming from the Sun and may be used to calibrate the stellar power spectra of the surrounding stars in the field since solar one is known from space observations carried out by Variability of the solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) instrument.

  17. A Microthermal Device for Measuring the Spatial Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jonathan; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Williams, T.; Claver, C.; Krabbendam, V.; Wiecha, O.; Andrew, J.; Warner, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Measurement Astrophysics group at UNM designed and built a novel microthermal device for characterizing atmospheric optical turbulence at astronomical observatories. This instrument is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors. The device makes differential temperature measurements which are directly related to the index of refraction structure constant, Cn2, which quantifies the strength of optical turbulence. The device is designed to work in two modes. In horizontal mode temperature differentials are measured between adjacent sensors. Measurements are combined to recover the differences over all pairwise sensor baselines. These measurements result in a spatial spectrum of turbulence. Measured turbulent spectra are then fit to standard turbulence models which yield estimates of the outer scale of turbulence and the slope of the power spectra. In vertical mode the device operates with pairs of microthermal sensors distributed vertically, each pair being separated horizontally by approximately one meter. Sensor pairs are suspended at multiple heights above the ground allowing measurement of atmospheric turbulence power as a function of altitude. This device was used to monitor optical turbulence during a site testing campaign at the future LSST site on Cerro Pachón. We present preliminary results from operation in both vertical and horizontal modes from October 2008 to December 2009. The microthermal array remains in operation on Cerro Pachón, and continues to produce valuable atmospheric measurements. Our results support the conclusion that Cerro Pachón is an excellent observatory site. The vertical turbulence profile decreases monotonically with height as expected, and the surface layer does not contribute a significant amount to the overall seeing measured at the site. This work was supported by Air Force Grant No. FA9451-04-2-0355. Instrumentation and travel support was provided in part by

  18. Low profile, highly configurable, current sharing paralleled wide band gap power device power module

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Brice; Killeen, Peter D.; Lostetter, Alex; Shaw, Robert; Passmore, Brandon; Hornberger, Jared; Berry, Tony M

    2016-08-23

    A power module with multiple equalized parallel power paths supporting multiple parallel bare die power devices constructed with low inductance equalized current paths for even current sharing and clean switching events. Wide low profile power contacts provide low inductance, short current paths, and large conductor cross section area provides for massive current carrying. An internal gate & source kelvin interconnection substrate is provided with individual ballast resistors and simple bolted construction. Gate drive connectors are provided on either left or right size of the module. The module is configurable as half bridge, full bridge, common source, and common drain topologies.

  19. Sensitivity of neutrinos to the supernova turbulence power spectrum: Point source statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, James P.; Kabadi, Neel V.

    2015-07-16

    The neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star created in a core-collapse supernova must run through a significant amount of turbulence before exiting the star. Turbulence can modify the flavor evolution of the neutrinos imprinting itself upon the signal detected here at Earth. The turbulence effect upon individual neutrinos, and the correlation between pairs of neutrinos, might exhibit sensitivity to the power spectrum of the turbulence, and recent analysis of the turbulence in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a core-collapse supernova indicates the power spectrum may not be the Kolmogorov 5 /3 inverse power law as has been previously assumed. In this paper we study the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence power spectra upon neutrinos from a point source as a function of neutrino energy and turbulence amplitude at a fixed postbounce epoch. We find the two effects of turbulence upon the neutrinos—the distorted phase effect and the stimulated transitions—both possess strong and weak limits in which dependence upon the power spectrum is absent or evident, respectively. Furthermore, since neutrinos of a given energy will exhibit these two effects at different epochs of the supernova each with evolving strength, we find there is sensitivity to the power spectrum present in the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic supernova.

  20. Sensitivity of neutrinos to the supernova turbulence power spectrum: Point source statistics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kneller, James P.; Kabadi, Neel V.

    2015-07-16

    The neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star created in a core-collapse supernova must run through a significant amount of turbulence before exiting the star. Turbulence can modify the flavor evolution of the neutrinos imprinting itself upon the signal detected here at Earth. The turbulence effect upon individual neutrinos, and the correlation between pairs of neutrinos, might exhibit sensitivity to the power spectrum of the turbulence, and recent analysis of the turbulence in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a core-collapse supernova indicates the power spectrum may not be the Kolmogorov 5 /3 inverse power law as has been previously assumed. Inmore » this paper we study the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence power spectra upon neutrinos from a point source as a function of neutrino energy and turbulence amplitude at a fixed postbounce epoch. We find the two effects of turbulence upon the neutrinos—the distorted phase effect and the stimulated transitions—both possess strong and weak limits in which dependence upon the power spectrum is absent or evident, respectively. Furthermore, since neutrinos of a given energy will exhibit these two effects at different epochs of the supernova each with evolving strength, we find there is sensitivity to the power spectrum present in the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic supernova.« less

  1. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-12-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z~ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula.

  2. Calculation of power spectrums from digital time series with missing data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, C. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Two algorithms are developed for calculating power spectrums from the autocorrelation function when there are missing data points in the time series. Both methods use an average sampling interval to compute lagged products. One method, the correlation function power spectrum, takes the discrete Fourier transform of the lagged products directly to obtain the spectrum, while the other, the modified Blackman-Tukey power spectrum, takes the Fourier transform of the mean lagged products. Both techniques require fewer calculations than other procedures since only 50% to 80% of the maximum lags need be calculated. The algorithms are compared with the Fourier transform power spectrum and two least squares procedures (all for an arbitrary data spacing). Examples are given showing recovery of frequency components from simulated periodic data where portions of the time series are missing and random noise has been added to both the time points and to values of the function. In addition the methods are compared using real data. All procedures performed equally well in detecting periodicities in the data.

  3. Contamination of the Epoch of Reionization power spectrum in the presence of foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Peter H.; Lentati, Lindley; Alexander, Paul; Carilli, Chris L.

    2016-11-01

    We construct foreground simulations comprising spatially correlated extragalactic and diffuse Galactic emission components and calculate the `intrinsic' (instrument-free) two-dimensional spatial power spectrum and the cylindrically and spherically averaged three-dimensional k-space power spectra of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and our foreground simulations using a Bayesian power spectral estimation framework. This leads us to identify a model-dependent region of optimal signal estimation for our foreground and EoR models, within which the spatial power in the EoR signal relative to the foregrounds is maximized. We identify a target field-dependent region, in k-space, of intrinsic foreground power spectral contamination at low k⊥ and k∥ and a transition to a relatively foreground-free intrinsic EoR window in the complement to this region. The contaminated region of k-space demonstrates that simultaneous estimation of the EoR and foregrounds is important for obtaining statistically robust estimates of the EoR power spectrum; biased results will be obtained from methodologies that ignore their covariance. Using simulated observations with frequency-dependent uv-coverage and primary beam, with the former derived for the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array in 37-antenna and 331-antenna configuration, we recover instrumental power spectra consistent with their intrinsic counterparts. We discuss the implications of these results for optimal strategies for unbiased estimation of the EoR power spectrum.

  4. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical

  5. Model independent signatures of new physics in the inflationary power spectrum.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark G; Schalm, Koenraad

    2012-03-16

    We compute the universal generic corrections to the inflationary power spectrum due to unknown high-energy physics. We arrive at this result via a careful integrating out of massive fields in the "in-in" formalism yielding a consistent and predictive low-energy effective description in time-dependent backgrounds. We find that the power spectrum is universally modified at order H/M, where H is the scale of inflation. This is qualitatively different from the universal corrections in time-independent backgrounds, and it suggests that such effects may be present in upcoming cosmological observations.

  6. Noise power spectrum estimation and fast map making for CMB experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amblard, A.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.

    2004-04-01

    We present a method designed to estimate the noise power spectrum in the time domain for CMB experiments. The noise power spectrum is extracted from the time ordered data avoiding the contamination coming from sky signal and accounting the pixellisation of the signal and the projection of the noise when making intermediate sky projections. This method is simple to implement and relies on Monte-Carlo simulations, it runs on a simple desk computer. We also propose a trick for filtering data before making coadded maps in order to avoid ringing due to the presence of signal in the timelines. These algorithms were succesfully tested on Archeops data.

  7. Extracting information from the power spectrum of synaptic noise.

    PubMed

    Destexhe, Alain; Rudolph, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In cortical neurons, synaptic "noise" is caused by the nearly random release of thousands of synapses. Few methods are presently available to analyze synaptic noise and deduce properties of the underlying synaptic inputs. We focus here on the power spectral density (PSD) of several models of synaptic noise. We examine different classes of analytically solvable kinetic models for synaptic currents, such as the "delta kinetic models," which use Dirac delta functions to represent the activation of the ion channel. We first show that, for this class of kinetic models, one can obtain an analytic expression for the PSD of the total synaptic conductance and derive equivalent stochastic models with only a few variables. This yields a method for constraining models of synaptic currents by analyzing voltage-clamp recordings of synaptic noise. Second, we show that a similar approach can be followed for the PSD of the the membrane potential (Vm) through an effective-leak approximation. Third, we show that this approach is also valid for inputs distributed in dendrites. In this case, the frequency scaling of the Vm PSD is preserved, suggesting that this approach may be applied to intracellular recordings of real neurons. In conclusion, using simple mathematical tools, we show that Vm recordings can be used to constrain kinetic models of synaptic currents, as well as to estimate equivalent stochastic models. This approach, therefore, provides a direct link between intracellular recordings in vivo and the design of models consistent with the dynamics and spectral structure of synaptic noise. PMID:15483395

  8. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, Lauren; Skolnik, Edward G.; Marchionini, Brian; Fall, Ndeye K.

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  9. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: temperature and gravitational lensing power spectrum measurements from three seasons of data

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark; Battistelli, Elia S.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dünner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée; Hilton, Matt; and others

    2014-04-01

    We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance.

  10. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Temperature and Gravitational Lensing Power Spectrum Measurements from Three Seasons of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Nolta, Michael R.; Addison, Graeme E.; Battisetti, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gralla, Megan; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D; Kosowsky, Arthur; Wollack, Ed

    2014-01-01

    We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ?CDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6s detection significance.

  11. General requirements on matter power spectrum predictions for cosmology with weak lensing tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Ma, Zhaoming E-mail: zentner@pitt.edu

    2012-04-01

    Forthcoming projects such as DES, LSST, WFIRST, and Euclid aim to measure weak lensing shear correlations with unprecedented precision, constraining the dark energy equation of state at the percent level. Reliance on photometrically-determined redshifts constitutes a major source of uncertainty for these surveys. Additionally, interpreting the weak lensing signal requires a detailed understanding of the nonlinear physics of gravitational collapse. We present a new analysis of the stringent calibration requirements for weak lensing analyses of future imaging surveys that addresses both photo-z uncertainty and errors in the calibration of the matter power spectrum. We find that when photo-z uncertainty is taken into account the requirements on the level of precision in the prediction for the matter power spectrum are more stringent than previously thought. Including degree-scale galaxy clustering statistics in a joint analysis with weak lensing not only strengthens the survey's constraining power by ∼ 20%, but can also have a profound impact on the calibration demands, decreasing the degradation in dark energy constraints with matter power spectrum uncertainty by a factor of 2-5. Similarly, using galaxy clustering information significantly relaxes the demands on photo-z calibration. We compare these calibration requirements to the contemporary state-of-the-art in photometric redshift estimation and predictions of the power spectrum and suggest strategies to utilize forthcoming data optimally.

  12. ERD spectrum to depth profile conversion program for Windows®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiettekatte, F.; Ross, G. G.

    1997-02-01

    Alegria is a new PC-based program to convert ERD and some NRA spectra into depth profiles. The version 1.0 of the program is intended for one implant in one substrate, but will be improved for multi-element detection and multilayers. It is a user friendly Windows application that takes advantage of the Windows functionalities such as "drag and drop" for file managing, multitasking, full memory access, etc. The stopping power is evaluated trough fitting formulae. The iterative integration of the stopping power is made by the RUNGE-KUTTA adaptive step algorithm according to the atomic concentration found in the previous iteration. A demonstration, showing the progression of the solution with the iterations, and an application are presented.

  13. Ruling out the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A. E-mail: arman@apctp.org E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru

    2014-06-01

    Combining Planck CMB temperature [1] and BICEP2 B-mode polarization data [2,3] we show qualitatively that, assuming inflationary consistency relation, the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum is ruled out at more than 3σ CL. This is an important finding, since the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum is one of the main assumptions of concordance model of cosmology and also a direct prediction of many inflationary scenarios. We show that a break or step in the form of the primordial scalar perturbation spectrum, similar to what we studied recently analyzing Planck data [4], can address both Planck and BICEP2 results simultaneously. Our findings also indicate that the data may require more flexibilities than what running of scalar spectral index can provide. Finally we show that an inflaton potential, originally appeared in [5], can generate both the step and the break model of scalar primordial spectrum in two different limits. The discussed potential is found to be favored by Planck data but marginally disfavored by BICEP2 results as it produces slightly lower amplitude of tensor primordial spectrum. Hence, if the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) quoted by BICEP2 persists, it is of importance that we generate inflationary models with large r and at the same time provide suppression in scalar primordial spectrum at large scales.

  14. Power Spectrum of Sea Level Change and Implications for Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. G.

    2002-12-01

    It has been shown that relative sea level change has a 1/f{2} power spectrum over more than 8 decades of frequency, f, or period. The period range is 100 years to >10{8} years. Other parts of the spectrum, such as the part with periods between ~ 50 years and 1 year show a less red spectrum, but at higher frequencies still, the spectrum reddens considerably for a few more decades. Signals with a 1/f{2} spectrum are created by processes like a random walk. The variance of such signals of limited extent tends to increase with the length of the record, and so does not represent a stationary process. Such signals can therefore present strange behavior if they are lengthened. Thye can easily go into unsampled territory and so give the impression that new types of phenomena are being exhibited. If a record of some environmental indicator, such as sea level or temperature or proxy temperature, is studied and shows departure from ``normal" behavior when the record is lengthened, it does not mean that some new phenomenon such as anthropogenic global warming, is coming into play. It may just mean that the record is sampling more of the natural processes that have gone towards creating the first part of the signal. The sea level record and its power spectrum plus spectra of other climate change signals will be discussed to illustrate some of these phenomena. My question therefore is ``How do you recognize an athropogenic global change signal in such a record?"

  15. High power diode laser array development using completely indium free packaging technology with narrow spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dong; Wang, Jingwei; Gao, Lijun; Liang, Xuejie; Li, Xiaoning; Liu, Xingsheng

    2016-03-01

    The high power diode lasers have been widely used in many fields. In this work, a sophisticated high power and high performance horizontal array of diode laser stacks have been developed and fabricated with high duty cycle using hard solder bonding technology. CTE-matched submount and Gold Tin (AuSn) hard solder are used for bonding the diode laser bar to achieve the performances of anti-thermal fatigue, higher reliability and longer lifetime. This array consists of 30 bars with the expected optical output peak power of 6000W. By means of numerical simulation and analytical results, the diode laser bars are aligned on suitable positions along the water cooled cooler in order to achieve the uniform wavelength with narrow spectrum and accurate central wavelength. The performance of the horizontal array, such as output power, spectrum, thermal resistance, life time, etc., is characterized and analyzed.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZED FOREGROUNDS ON 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION POWER SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David F.; Aguirre, James E.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Jacobs, Daniel C.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments aimed at detecting highly-redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization (EoR) are plagued by the contamination of foreground emission. A potentially important source of contaminating foregrounds may be Faraday-rotated, polarized emission, which leaks into the estimate of the intrinsically unpolarized EoR signal. While these foregrounds' intrinsic polarization may not be problematic, the spectral structure introduced by the Faraday rotation could be. To better understand and characterize these effects, we present a simulation of the polarized sky between 120 and 180 MHz. We compute a single visibility, and estimate the three-dimensional power spectrum from that visibility using the delay spectrum approach presented in Parsons et al. Using the Donald C. Backer Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization as an example instrument, we show the expected leakage into the unpolarized power spectrum to be several orders of magnitude above the expected 21 cm EoR signal.

  17. Interference detection and correction applied to incoherent-scatter radar power spectrum measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ying, W. P.; Mathews, J. D.; Rastogi, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    A median filter based interference detection and correction technique is evaluated and the method applied to the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar D-region ionospheric power spectrum is discussed. The method can be extended to other kinds of data when the statistics involved in the process are still valid.

  18. Angular 21 cm power spectrum of a scaling distribution of cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, Oscar F.; Wang, Yi; Brandenberger, Robert; Fong, José E-mail: wangyi@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: jose.fong@ens-lyon.fr

    2011-08-01

    Cosmic string wakes lead to a large signal in 21 cm redshift maps at redshifts larger than that corresponding to reionization. Here, we compute the angular power spectrum of 21 cm radiation as predicted by a scaling distribution of cosmic strings whose wakes have undergone shock heating.

  19. Effect of features on the functional form of the scalar power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, D. J.; Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    We study how the scalar power spectrum of single-scalar inflation depends functionally on models with features which have been proposed to explain anomalies in the data. We exploit a new formalism based on evolving the norm-squared of the scalar mode functions, rather than the mode functions themselves.

  20. Utility of the Psychoeducational Profile-3 for Assessing Cognitive and Language Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Mandy L.; D'Entremont, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The Psychoeducational Profile-3's (PEP-3) ability to estimate cognitive and language skills of 136 children (20-75 months) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) across a range of functioning, and the association between the PEP-3 and ASD symptomatology was examined using retrospective data. PEP-3 cognitive and language measures were…

  1. Profile of the Linguistic and Metalinguistic Abilities of a Gifted Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the case of a gifted child (9;6 year) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had a particularly high verbal IQ (146) and a specific cognitive, linguistic, and metalinguistic profile. A description of some salient behavioral characteristics of the child is provided. A metalinguistic ability test assessing metagrammatical,…

  2. Developmental Profiles of Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders Identified Prospectively in a Community-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal, study charted the developmental profiles of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) identified through routine developmental surveillance. 109 children with Autistic Disorder (AD), "broader" ASD, and developmental and/or language delays (DD/LD) were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning…

  3. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8m/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.

  4. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator thatmore » interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.« less

  5. Full Spectrum of LPS Activation in Alveolar Macrophages of Healthy Volunteers by Whole Transcriptomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yutong; Zhao, Jing; Donahoe, Michael P.; Barge, Suchitra; Horne, William T.; Kolls, Jay K.; McVerry, Bryan J.; Birukova, Anastasiya; Tighe, Robert M.; Foster, W. Michael; Hollingsworth, John; Ray, Anuradha; Mallampalli, Rama; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding macrophage activation, little is known regarding how human alveolar macrophages in health calibrate its transcriptional response to canonical TLR4 activation. In this study, we examined the full spectrum of LPS activation and determined whether the transcriptomic profile of human alveolar macrophages is distinguished by a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dominant type I interferon signature. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages were obtained from healthy volunteers, stimulated in the presence or absence of ultrapure LPS in vitro, and whole transcriptomic profiling was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). LPS induced a robust type I interferon transcriptional response and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted interferon regulatory factor (IRF)7 as the top upstream regulator of 89 known gene targets. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP)-18, a negative regulator of interferon α/β responses, was among the top up-regulated genes in addition to IL10 and USP41, a novel gene with no known biological function but with high sequence homology to USP18. We determined whether IRF-7 and USP-18 can influence downstream macrophage effector cytokine production such as IL-10. We show that IRF-7 siRNA knockdown enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 production in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and USP-18 overexpression attenuated LPS-induced production of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of USP18, USP41, IL10, and IRF7. An independent cohort confirmed LPS induction of USP41 and IL10 genes. These results suggest that IRF-7 and predicted downstream target USP18, both elements of a type I interferon gene signature identified by RNA-Seq, may serve to fine-tune early cytokine response by calibrating IL-10 production in human alveolar macrophages. PMID:27434537

  6. The Trial Software version for DEMETER power spectrum files visualization and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozbin, Anatoliy; Inchin, Alexander; Shpadi, Maxim

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of Kazakhstan's Scientific Space System creation for earthquakes precursors research, the hardware and software of DEMETER satellite was investigated. The data processing Software of DEMETER is based on package SWAN under IDL Virtual machine and realizes many features, but we can't find an important tool for the spectrograms analysis - space-time visualization of power spectrum files from electromagnetic devices as ICE and IMSC. For elimination of this problem we have developed Software which is offered to use. The DeSS (DEMETER Spectrogram Software) - it is Software for visualization, analysis and a mapping of power spectrum data from electromagnetic devices ICE and IMSC. The Software primary goal is to give the researcher friendly tool for the analysis of electromagnetic data from DEMETER Satellite for earthquake precursors and other ionosphere events researches. The Input data for DeSS Software is a power spectrum files: - Power spectrum of 1 component of the electric field in the VLF range (APID 1132); - Power spectrum of 1 component of the electric field in the HF range (APID 1134); - Power spectrum of 1 component of the magnetic field in the VLF range (APID 1137). The main features and operations of the software is possible: - various time and frequency filtration; - visualization of time dependence of signal intensity on fixed frequency; - spectral density visualization for fixed frequency range; - spectrogram autosize and smooth spectrogram; - the information in each point of the spectrogram: time, frequency and intensity; - the spectrum information in the separate window, consisting of 4 blocks; - data mapping with 6 range scale. On the map we can browse next information: - satellite orbit; - conjugate point at the satellite altitude; - north conjugate point at the altitude 110 km; - south conjugate point at the altitude 110 km. This is only trial software version to help the researchers and we always ready collaborate with scientists for

  7. The Power Spectrum of Ionic Nanopore Currents: The Role of Ion Correlations.

    PubMed

    Zorkot, Mira; Golestanian, Ramin; Bonthuis, Douwe Jan

    2016-04-13

    We calculate the power spectrum of electric-field-driven ion transport through nanometer-scale membrane pores using both linearized mean-field theory and Langevin dynamics simulations. Remarkably, the linearized mean-field theory predicts a plateau in the power spectral density at low frequency ω, which is confirmed by the simulations at low ion concentration. At high ion concentration, however, the power spectral density follows a power law that is reminiscent of the 1/ω(α) dependence found experimentally at low frequency. On the basis of simulations with and without ion-ion interactions, we attribute the low-frequency power-law dependence to ion-ion correlations. We show that neither a static surface charge density, nor an increased pore length, nor an increased ion valency have a significant effect on the shape of the power spectral density at low frequency. PMID:26977905

  8. Evaluating Acupuncture Point and Nonacupuncture Point Stimulation with EEG: A High-Frequency Power Spectrum Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Seong Jin; Kang, Suk-Yun; Ahn, Seong Hun

    2016-01-01

    To identify physical and sensory responses to acupuncture point stimulation (APS), nonacupuncture point stimulation (NAPS) and no stimulation (NS), changes in the high-frequency power spectrum before and after stimulation were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 37 healthy subjects received APS at the LI4 point, NAPS, or NS with their eyes closed. Background brain waves were measured before, during, and after stimulation using 8 channels. Changes in the power spectra of gamma waves and high beta waves before, during, and after stimulation were comparatively analyzed. After NAPS, absolute high beta power (AHBP), relative high beta power (RHBP), absolute gamma power (AGP), and relative gamma power (RGP) tended to increase in all channels. But no consistent notable changes were found for APS and NS. NAPS is believed to cause temporary reactions to stress, tension, and sensory responses of the human body, while APS responds stably compared to stimulation of other parts of the body.

  9. Cosmology with anisotropic galaxy clustering from the combination of power spectrum and bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yong-Seon; Taruya, Atsushi; Oka, Akira E-mail: ataruya@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2015-08-01

    The apparent anisotropies of the galaxy clustering in observable redshift space provide a unique opportunity to simultaneously probe cosmic expansion and gravity on cosmological scales via the Alcock-Paczynski effect and redshift-space distortions. While the improved theoretical models have been proposed and developed to describe the apparent anisotropic clustering at weakly non-linear scales, the applicability of these models is still limited in the presence of the non-perturbative smearing effect caused by the randomness of the relative velocities. Although the cosmological constraint from the anisotropic clustering will be improved with a more elaborate theoretical model, here we consider an alternative approach using the statistical power of both the power spectrum and bispectrum at large scales. Based on the Fisher matrix analysis, we estimate the benefit of combining the power spectrum and bispectrum, finding that for the future spectroscopy survey DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopy Instrument), the constraints on the cosmic expansion and growth of structure will be improved by a factor of two. This approach compensates for the loss of constraining power, using the power spectrum alone, due to the randomness of the relative velocities.

  10. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich power spectrum with decaying cold dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Oguri, Masamune; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies of the structures of galaxies and clusters imply that dark matter might be unstable and may decay with lifetime Γ-1, about the age of the Universe. We study the effects of the decay of cold dark matter on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectrum. We analytically calculate the SZ power spectrum taking the finite lifetime of cold dark matter into account. We find the finite lifetime of dark matter decreases the power at large scale (l < 4000) and increases the power at small scale (l > 4000). This is in marked contrast with the dependence of other cosmological parameters such as the amplitude of mass fluctuations σ8 and the cosmological constant Ωλ (under the assumption of a flat Universe) which mainly change the normalization of the angular power spectrum. This difference allows one to determine the lifetime and other cosmological parameters separately. We also investigate the sensitivity of future SZ surveys to the cosmological parameters including the lifetime, assuming a fiducial model Γ-1 = 10 h-1 Gyr, σ8 = 1.0 and Ωλ = 0.7. We show that future SZ surveys such as ACT, AMIBA and BOLOCAM can determine the lifetime within a factor of 2 even if σ8 and Ωλ are marginalized.

  11. Higher order corrections to the large scale matter power spectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2008-10-15

    We present the first systematic derivation of the one-loop correction to the large scale matter power spectrum in a mixed cold + hot dark matter cosmology with subdominant massive neutrino hot dark matter. Starting with the equations of motion for the density and velocity fields, we derive perturbative solutions to these quantities and construct recursion relations for the interaction kernels, noting and justifying all approximations along the way. We find interaction kernels similar to those for a cold dark matter only universe, but with additional dependences on the neutrino energy density fraction f{sub {nu}} and the linear growth functions of the incoming wavevectors. Compared with the f{sub {nu}} = 0 case, the one-loop corrected matter power spectrum for a mixed dark matter cosmology exhibits a decrease in small scale power exceeding the canonical {approx}8f{sub {nu}} suppression predicted by linear theory, a feature also seen in multi-component N-body simulations.

  12. Distinctive Rorschach profiles of young adults with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Naoko; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Iida, Junzo; Ota, Toyosaku; Tanaka, Shohei; Kyo, Masanori; Kimoto, Sohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The differential diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) versus autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be clinically challenging because accumulating evidence suggests both clinical and biological overlaps between them. The aim of this study was to compare Rorschach profiles between young adults with SZ and those with ASD. Methods We evaluated quantitative tendencies on the Rorschach test among 20 patients diagnosed with SZ and 20 diagnosed with ASD. Both groups were matched for age, sex, and intelligence quotient. Results We found significant differences in six response variables on the Rorschach comprehensive system. Those with SZ had significantly higher scores on D score, adjusted D score (Adj D), developmental quality code reflecting ordinary response (DQo), and form quality minus (FQ −) than those with ASD. In contrast, those with SZ had significantly lower scores on the active and developmental quality code reflecting synthesized response (DQ+) subscales than those with ASD. Conclusion The present findings reveal that individuals with SZ might have more stress tolerance, stronger perception distortions, and simpler and poorer recognition than those with ASD. We suggest that the Rorschach test might be a useful tool for differentiating between SZ and ASD. PMID:27703357

  13. The ICM power spectrum: probing the gas physics of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Churazov, E.; Zhuravleva, I.; Lau, E.; Nagai, D.

    2014-07-01

    Exploring the power spectrum of fluctuations in the intracluster medium can deeply improve our knowledge of galaxy cluster physics, in analogy to what the cosmology field has experienced with CMB studies during the last decade. The normalization of the ICM spectrum (related to density, entropy, or pressure fluctuations) is linearly linked to the level of large-scale motions, which excite gravity and sound waves. The slope of the spectrum reflects instead the competition between the turbulence cascade and diffusive processes, which act to damp fluctuations and smooth the X-ray surface brightness images. Using high-resolution 3D plasma simulations in realistic galaxy clusters, we probe the behavior of the ICM power spectrum under different physics, such as turbulence and thermal conduction. We test our spectral modeling on deep X-ray observations of Coma cluster, retrieving mild subsonic turbulence and strongly suppressed conduction. Being able to probe the (astro)physics of the diffuse medium or, for instance, to easily retrieve the gas motions from the thermodynamic fluctuations, is a powerful tool with profound implications for the evolution of baryons in the universe, which can be exploited by the current (XMM-Newton, Chandra) and future (e.g. Astro-H, Athena+) generation of X-ray telescopes.

  14. Investigation of Pulser-transducer Matching Networks for Power Delivery Efficiency of Spread Spectrum Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kybartas, Darius; Rodriguez, Alberto; Svilainis, Linas; Chaziachmetovas, Andrius

    Replacement of a single ultrasonic pulse to the spread spectrum signals allows higher energy without losing the bandwidth and it also means higher requirements for energy delivery to test object. Pulser efficiency for single pulse is not essential comparing to high energy signals. Pulser stress is large if power delivery efficiency to transducer is low. In narrowband case the solution is to use the matching network, but matching circuit effect will be different in case of wideband excitation. Aim of the investigation was to evaluate the matching techniques for spread spectrum signals.

  15. JPL 2-to-the-20th-power channel 300 MHz bandwidth digital spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. A., Jr.; Wilck, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A million (two to the 20th power) channel, 300 MHz bandwidth, digital spectrum analyzer was considered. The design, fabrication, and maintenance philosophy of the modular, pipelined, fast fourier transform (FFT) hardware are described. The spectrum analyzer will be used to examine the region from 1.4 GHz to 26 GHz for radio frequency interference which may be harmful to present and future tracking missions of the Deep Space Network. The design has application to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence signals and radio science phenomena.

  16. What is the optimal way to measure the galaxy power spectrum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Marian, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the galaxy power spectrum contain a wealth of cosmological information. In Smith & Marian, we generalized the power spectrum methodology of Feldman et al. to take into account the key tenets of galaxy formation: galaxies form and reside exclusively in dark matter haloes; a given dark matter halo may host galaxies of various luminosities; galaxies inherit the large-scale bias of their host halo. In this paradigm, we derived the optimal weighting scheme for maximizing the signal-to-noise ({S}/{N}) on a given band power estimate. For a future all-sky flux-limited galaxy redshift survey of depth bJ > 22, we demonstrate that the optimal weighting scheme does indeed provide improved {S}/{N} at the level of ˜20 per cent when compared to Feldman et al. and ˜60 per cent relative to Percival et al., for scales of the order of k ˜ 0.5 h Mpc-1. Using a Fisher matrix approach, we show the cosmological information yield is also increased relative to these alternate methods - especially the primordial power spectrum amplitude and dark energy equation of state. Caveats: uncertainties in cluster masses, non-linear halo bias and redshift distortions may reduce information gains.

  17. Peaks in the CMBR Power Spectrum II: Physical Interpretation for any Cosmological Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, Martín

    2013-06-01

    In a previous paper (part I), the mathematical properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) power spectrum which presents oscillations were discussed. Here, we discuss the physical interpretation: a power spectrum with oscillations is a rather normal characteristic expected from any fluid with clouds of overdensities that emit/absorb radiation or interact gravitationally with the photons, and with a finite range of sizes and distances for those clouds. The standard cosmological interpretation of "acoustic" peaks is just a particular case; peaks in the power spectrum might be generated in scenarios within some alternative cosmological model that have nothing to do with oscillations due to gravitational compression in a fluid. We also calculate the angular correlation function of the anisotropies from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)-7 yr and ACT data, in an attempt to derive the minimum number of parameters a polynomial function should have to fit it: a set of polynomial functions with a total of ≈ 6 free parameters, apart from the amplitude, is enough to reproduce the first two peaks. However, the standard model with six tunable free parameters also reproduces higher-order peaks, giving the standard model a higher confidence. At present, while no simple function with six free parameters is found to give a fit as good as the one given by the standard cosmological model, we may consider the predictive power of the standard model beyond an instrumentalist approach (such as the Ptolemaic astronomy model of the orbits of the planets).

  18. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun

    2010-09-01

    We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2% , and the growth-rate parameter by ˜5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.

  19. Effective field theory during inflation. II. Stochastic dynamics and power spectrum suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyanovsky, D.

    2016-02-01

    We obtain the nonequilibrium effective action of an inflatonlike scalar field—the system—by tracing over sub-Hubble degrees of freedom of "environmental" light scalar fields. The effective action is stochastic leading to effective Langevin equations of motion for the fluctuations of the inflatonlike field, with self-energy corrections and stochastic noise correlators that obey a de Sitter space-time analog of a fluctuation dissipation relation. We solve the Langevin equation implementing a dynamical renormalization group resummation of the leading secular terms and obtain the corrections to the power spectrum of super-Hubble fluctuations of the inflaton field, P (k ;η )=P0(k )e-γ (k ;η ) where P0(k ) is the nearly scale invariant power spectrum in absence of coupling. γ (k ;η )>0 describes the suppression of the power spectrum; it features Sudakov-type double logarithms and entails violations of scale invariance. We also obtain the effective action for the case of a heavy scalar field of mass M ≫H ; this case yields a local "Fermi" limit with a very weak self-interaction of the inflatonlike field and dissipative terms that are suppressed by powers of H /M . We conjecture on the possibility that the large scale anomalies in the cosmic microwave background may originate in dissipative processes from inflaton coupling to sub-Hubble degrees of freedom.

  20. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun

    2010-09-15

    We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2%, and the growth-rate parameter by {approx}5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.

  1. CROSS-POWER SPECTRUM AND ITS APPLICATION ON WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2011-09-10

    The cross-power spectrum is a quadratic estimator between two maps that can provide unbiased estimate of the underlying power spectrum of the correlated signals, which is therefore used for extracting the power spectrum in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. In this paper, we discuss the limit of the cross-power spectrum and derive the residual from the uncorrelated signal, which is the source of error in power spectrum extraction. We employ the estimator to extract window functions by crossing pairs of extragalactic point sources. We demonstrate its usefulness in WMAP difference assembly maps where the window functions are measured via Jupiter and then extract the window functions of the five WMAP frequency band maps.

  2. First limits on the 21 cm power spectrum during the Epoch of X-ray heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Hewitt, J. N.; Loeb, A.; Mesinger, A.; Neben, A. R.; Offringa, A. R.; Tegmark, M.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-08-01

    We present first results from radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array seeking to constrain the power spectrum of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations between the redshifts of 11.6 and 17.9 (113 and 75 MHz). 3 h of observations were conducted over two nights with significantly different levels of ionospheric activity. We use these data to assess the impact of systematic errors at low frequency, including the ionosphere and radio-frequency interference, on a power spectrum measurement. We find that after the 1-3 h of integration presented here, our measurements at the Murchison Radio Observatory are not limited by RFI, even within the FM band, and that the ionosphere does not appear to affect the level of power in the modes that we expect to be sensitive to cosmology. Power spectrum detections, inconsistent with noise, due to fine spectral structure imprinted on the foregrounds by reflections in the signal-chain, occupy the spatial Fourier modes where we would otherwise be most sensitive to the cosmological signal. We are able to reduce this contamination using calibration solutions derived from autocorrelations so that we achieve an sensitivity of 104 mK on comoving scales k ≲ 0.5 h Mpc-1. This represents the first upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum fluctuations at redshifts 12 ≲ z ≲ 18 but is still limited by calibration systematics. While calibration improvements may allow us to further remove this contamination, our results emphasize that future experiments should consider carefully the existence of and their ability to calibrate out any spectral structure within the EoR window.

  3. Sound power spectrum and wave drag of a propeller in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    Theory is presented for the sound power and sound power spectrum of a single rotation propeller in forward flight. Calculations are based on the linear wave equation with sources distributed over helicoidal surfaces to represent effects of blade thickness and steady loading. Sound power is distributed continuously over frequecy, as would be expected from Doppler effects, rather than in discrete harmonics. The theory is applied to study effects of sweep and Mach number in propfans. An acoustic efficiency is defined as the ratio of radiated sound power to shaft input power. This value is the linear estimate of the effect of wave drag due to the supersonic blade section speeds. It is shown that the acoustic efficiency is somewhat less than 1 percent for a well designed propfan.

  4. Fiber laser strain sensor based in the measurement of a Sagnac interferometer optical power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Sánchez, M.; Álvarez Tamayo, R. I.; Pottiez, O.; Kuzin, E. A.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Barcelata Pinzón, A.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a linear cavity Erbium doped fiber (EDF) laser based in a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a fiber optical loop mirror with a high birefringence fiber in the loop (Hi-Bi FOLM) is used as a strain sensor. The Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by the FBG and the Hi-Bi FOLM, used as a measurement system of strain variations produced on the FBG, used as a strain sensor device. Usually, fiber laser sensor experimental setups determine the measured variable magnitude by using of an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Hi-Bi FOLM transmission spectrum wavelength displacement by fiber loop temperature variations measurement can be an attractive application exploiting the characteristics of FOLM transmission spectrum behavior due to Hi-Bi fiber loop temperature variations to determine the FBG strain applied through the maximal optical power monitoring by simple use of a photodetector and a temperature meter.

  5. Specific Medical Conditions Are Associated with Unique Behavioral Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ben-Itzchak, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders which occurs with numerous medical conditions. In previous research, subtyping in ASD has been based mostly on cognitive ability and ASD symptom severity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether specific medical conditions in ASD are associated with unique behavioral profiles. The medical conditions included in the study were macrocephaly, microcephaly, developmental regression, food selectivity, and sleep problems. The behavioral profile was composed of cognitive ability, adaptive skills, and autism severity, and was examined in each of the aforementioned medical conditions. The study population included 1224 participants, 1043 males and 181 females (M:F ratio = 5.8:1) with a mean age of 49.9 m (SD = 29.4) diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests. Groups with and without the specific medical conditions were compared on the behavioral measures. Developmental regression was present in 19% of the population and showed a more severe clinical presentation, with lower cognitive abilities, more severe ASD symptoms, and more impaired adaptive functioning. Microcephaly was observed in 6.3% of the population and was characterized by a lower cognitive ability and more impaired adaptive functioning in comparison to the normative head circumference (HC) group. Severe food selectivity was found in 9.8% and severe sleep problems in 5.1% of the ASD population. The food selectivity and sleep problem subgroups, both showed more severe autism symptoms only as described by the parents, but not per the professional assessment, and more impaired adaptive skills. Macrocephaly was observed in 7.9% of the ASD population and did not differ from the normative HC group in any of the examined behavioral measures. Based on these findings, two unique medical-behavioral subtypes in ASD that affect inherited traits of cognition and/or autism severity were suggested. The microcephaly phenotype occurred with

  6. High power beam profile monitor with optical transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Denard, J.C.; Piot, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1997-06-01

    A simple monitor has been built to measure the profile of the high power beam (800 kW) delivered by the CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab. The monitor uses the optical part of the forward transition radiation emitted from a thin carbon foil. The small beam size to be measured, about 100 {mu}m, is challenging not only for the power density involved but also for the resolution the instrument must achieve. An important part of the beam instrumentation community believes the radiation being emitted into a cone of characteristic angle 1/{gamma} is originated from a region of transverse dimension roughly {lambda}{gamma}; thus the apparent size of the source of transition radiation would become very large for highly relativistic particles. This monitor measures 100 {mu}m beam sizes that are much smaller than the 3.2 mm {lambda}{gamma} limit; it confirms the statement of Rule and Fiorito that optical transition radiation can be used to image small beams at high energy. The present paper describes the instrument and its performance. The authors tested the foil in, up to 180 {mu}A of CW beam without causing noticeable beam loss, even at 800 MeV, the lowest CEBAF energy.

  7. Gene and miRNA expression profiles in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani Seno, Mohammad M; Hu, Pingzhao; Gwadry, Fuad G; Pinto, Dalila; Marshall, Christian R; Casallo, Guillermo; Scherer, Stephen W

    2011-03-22

    Accumulating data indicate that there is significant genetic heterogeneity underlying the etiology in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some rare and highly-penetrant gene variants and copy number variation (CNV) regions including NLGN3, NLGN4, NRXN1, SHANK2, SHANK3, PTCHD1, 1q21.1, maternally-inherited duplication of 15q11-q13, 16p11.2, amongst others, have been identified to be involved in ASD. Genome-wide association studies have identified other apparently low risk loci and in some other cases, ASD arises as a co-morbid phenotype with other medical genetic conditions (e.g. fragile X). The progress studying the genetics of ASD has largely been accomplished using genomic analyses of germline-derived DNA. Here, we used gene and miRNA expression profiling using cell-line derived total RNA to evaluate possible transcripts and networks of molecules involved in ASD. Our analysis identified several novel dysregulated genes and miRNAs in ASD compared with controls, including HEY1, SOX9, miR-486 and miR-181b. All of these are involved in nervous system development and function and some others, for example, are involved in NOTCH signaling networks (e.g. HEY1). Further, we found significant enrichment in molecules associated with neurological disorders such as Rett syndrome and those associated with nervous system development and function including long-term potentiation. Our data will provide a valuable resource for discovery purposes and for comparison to other gene expression-based, genome-wide DNA studies and other functional data. PMID:20868653

  8. Analyses of DNA Base Sequences for Eukaryotes in Terms of Power Spectrum Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isohata, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Masaki

    2005-02-01

    By adopting a power spectrum method we have analyzed long-range correlations in the gene base sequences, exons and introns for five or six eukaryote species. As a measure of the long-range correlations, we have used an exponent α in 1/fα, which is an approximation of a power spectrum in a low-frequency region. We have analyzed frequency distributions of α and the dependence of its average values <α> on the sequence length for the five or six species, paying particular attention to the species dependence. We have shown that long-range correlations have been formed mainly due to the intron's elongation as well as by the sequence structures of introns acquired over the course of evolution.

  9. Imprint of inhomogeneous and anisotropic primordial power spectrum on CMB polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Rahul; Ghosh, Shamik; Rath, Pranati K.; Kashyap, Gopal; Jain, Pankaj

    2016-08-01

    We consider an inhomogeneous model and independently an anisotropic model of primordial power spectrum in order to describe the observed hemispherical anisotropy in cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This anisotropy can be parametrized in terms of the dipole modulation model of the temperature field. Both the models lead to correlations between spherical harmonic coefficients corresponding to multipoles, l and l ± 1. We obtain the model parameters by making a fit to TT correlations in CMBR data. Using these parameters we predict the signature of our models for correlations among different multipoles for the case of the TE and EE modes. These predictions can be used to test whether the observed hemispherical anisotropy can be correctly described in terms of a primordial power spectrum. Furthermore these may also allow us to distinguish between an inhomogeneous and an anisotropic model.

  10. Reconstruction of a nonminimal coupling theory with scale-invariant power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Taotao

    2012-06-01

    A nonminimal coupling single scalar field theory, when transformed from Jordan frame to Einstein frame, can act like a minimal coupling one. Making use of this property, we investigate how a nonminimal coupling theory with scale-invariant power spectrum could be reconstructed from its minimal coupling counterpart, which can be applied in the early universe. Thanks to the coupling to gravity, the equation of state of our universe for a scale-invariant power spectrum can be relaxed, and the relation between the parameters in the action can be obtained. This approach also provides a means to address the Big-Bang puzzles and anisotropy problem in the nonminimal coupling model within Jordan frame. Due to the equivalence between the two frames, one may be able to find models that are free of the horizon, flatness, singularity as well as anisotropy problems.

  11. The Coyote Universe. I. Precision Determination of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David

    2010-05-01

    Near-future cosmological observations targeted at investigations of dark energy pose stringent requirements on the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the nonlinear clustering of matter. Currently, N-body simulations comprise the only viable approach to this problem. In this paper, we study various sources of computational error and methods to control them. By applying our methodology to a large suite of cosmological simulations we show that results for the (gravity-only) nonlinear matter power spectrum can be obtained at 1% accuracy out to k ~ 1 h Mpc-1. The key components of these high accuracy simulations are precise initial conditions, very large simulation volumes, sufficient mass resolution, and accurate time stepping. This paper is the first in a series of three; the final aim is a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum that improves current fitting formulae by an order of magnitude.

  12. CosmicEmu: Cosmic Emulator for the Dark Matter Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Earl; Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Higdon, David; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Williams, Brian

    2010-10-01

    Many of the most exciting questions in astrophysics and cosmology, including the majority of observational probes of dark energy, rely on an understanding of the nonlinear regime of structure formation. In order to fully exploit the information available from this regime and to extract cosmological constraints, accurate theoretical predictions are needed. Currently such predictions can only be obtained from costly, precision numerical simulations. The "Coyote Universe'' simulation suite comprises nearly 1,000 N-body simulations at different force and mass resolutions, spanning 38 wCDM cosmologies. This large simulation suite enabled construct of a prediction scheme, or emulator, for the nonlinear matter power spectrum accurate at the percent level out to k~1 h/Mpc. This is the first cosmic emulator for the dark matter power spectrum.

  13. THE COYOTE UNIVERSE. I. PRECISION DETERMINATION OF THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David

    2010-05-20

    Near-future cosmological observations targeted at investigations of dark energy pose stringent requirements on the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the nonlinear clustering of matter. Currently, N-body simulations comprise the only viable approach to this problem. In this paper, we study various sources of computational error and methods to control them. By applying our methodology to a large suite of cosmological simulations we show that results for the (gravity-only) nonlinear matter power spectrum can be obtained at 1% accuracy out to k {approx} 1 h Mpc{sup -1}. The key components of these high accuracy simulations are precise initial conditions, very large simulation volumes, sufficient mass resolution, and accurate time stepping. This paper is the first in a series of three; the final aim is a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum that improves current fitting formulae by an order of magnitude.

  14. Revisiting a pre-inflationary radiation era and its effect on the CMB power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Suratna; Goswami, Gaurav; Rangarajan, Raghavan; Prasad, Jayanti E-mail: gaugo@prl.res.in E-mail: raghavan@prl.res.in

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the scenario where inflation is preceded by a radiation era by considering that the inflaton too could have been in thermal equilibrium early in the radiation era. Hence we take into account not only the effect of a pre-inflationary era on the inflaton mode functions but also that of a frozen thermal distribution of inflaton quanta. We initially discuss in detail the issues relevant to our scenario of a pre-inflationary radiation dominated era and then obtain the scalar power spectrum for this scenario. We find that the power spectrum is free from infrared divergences. We then use the WMAP and Planck data to determine the constraints on the inflaton comoving 'temperature' and on the duration of inflation. We find that the best fit value of the duration of inflation is less than 1 e-folding more than what is required to solve cosmological problems, while only an upper bound on the inflaton temperature can be obtained.

  15. EFFECTS OF THE NEUTRINO MASS SPLITTING ON THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2012-06-20

    We have performed cosmological N-body simulations which include the effect of the masses of the individual neutrino species. The simulations were aimed at studying the effect of different neutrino hierarchies on the matter power spectrum. Compared to the linear theory predictions, we find that nonlinearities enhance the effect of hierarchy on the matter power spectrum at mildly nonlinear scales. The maximum difference between the different hierarchies is about 0.5% for a sum of neutrino masses of 0.1 eV. Albeit this is a small effect, it is potentially measurable from upcoming surveys. In combination with neutrinoless double-{beta} decay experiments, this opens up the possibility of using the sky to determine if neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions.

  16. Power-Law Entanglement Spectrum in Many-Body Localized Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbyn, Maksym; Michailidis, Alexios A.; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Papić, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The entanglement spectrum of the reduced density matrix contains information beyond the von Neumann entropy and provides unique insights into exotic orders or critical behavior of quantum systems. Here, we show that strongly disordered systems in the many-body localized phase have power-law entanglement spectra, arising from the presence of extensively many local integrals of motion. The power-law entanglement spectrum distinguishes many-body localized systems from ergodic systems, as well as from ground states of gapped integrable models or free systems in the vicinity of scale-invariant critical points. We confirm our results using large-scale exact diagonalization. In addition, we develop a matrix-product state algorithm which allows us to access the eigenstates of large systems close to the localization transition, and discuss general implications of our results for variational studies of highly excited eigenstates in many-body localized systems.

  17. Comparison of Two Methods of Noise Power Spectrum Determinations of Medical Radiography Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan; Ahmed Darwish, Zeki

    2011-03-30

    Noise in medical images is recognized as an important factor that determines the image quality. Image noise is characterized by noise power spectrum (NPS). We compared two methods of NPS determination namely the methods of Wagner and Dobbins on Lanex Regular TMG screen-film system and Hologic Lorad Selenia full field digital mammography system, with the aim of choosing the better method to use. The methods differ in terms of various parametric choices and algorithm implementations. These parameters include the low pass filtering, low frequency filtering, windowing, smoothing, aperture correction, overlapping of region of interest (ROI), length of fast Fourier transform, ROI size, method of ROI normalization, and slice selection of the NPS. Overall, the two methods agreed to the practical value of noise power spectrum between 10{sup -3}-10{sup -6} mm{sup 2} over spatial frequency range 0-10 mm{sup -1}.

  18. Spacecraft radio scattering observations of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2-215 solar radii and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances of about 20 solar radii the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrum is well modeled by a single power law in the frequency range 0.0001-0.05 Hz. The flattening of the density spectrum within 20 solar radii is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind.

  19. Nonlinear relativistic single-electron Thomson scattering power spectrum for incoming laser of arbitrary intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Estrada, R. F.; Pastor, I.; Guasp, J.; Castejon, F.

    2012-06-15

    The classical nonlinear incoherent Thomson scattering power spectrum from a single relativistic electron with incoming laser radiation of any intensity, investigated numerically by the present authors in a previous publication, displayed both an approximate quadratic behavior in frequency and a redshift of the power spectrum for high intensity incoming radiation. The present work is devoted to justify, in a more general setup, those numerical findings. Those justifications are reinforced by extending suitably analytical approaches, as developed by other authors. Moreover, our analytical treatment exhibits differences between the Doppler-like frequencies for linear and circular polarization of the incoming radiation. Those differences depend nonlinearly on the laser intensity and on the electron initial velocity and do not appear to have been displayed by previous authors. Those Doppler-like frequencies and their differences are validated by new Monte Carlo computations beyond our previuos ones and reported here.

  20. Detection of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background lensing by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudeep; Sherwin, Blake D; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lupton, Robert H; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed

    2011-07-01

    We report the first detection of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background through a measurement of the four-point correlation function in the temperature maps made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. We verify our detection by calculating the levels of potential contaminants and performing a number of null tests. The resulting convergence power spectrum at 2° angular scales measures the amplitude of matter density fluctuations on comoving length scales of around 100 Mpc at redshifts around 0.5 to 3. The measured amplitude of the signal agrees with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology predictions. Since the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum scales as the square of the amplitude of the density fluctuations, the 4σ detection of the lensing signal measures the amplitude of density fluctuations to 12%.

  1. A perturbative approach to the redshift space power spectrum: beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    We develop a code to produce the power spectrum in redshift space based on standard perturbation theory (SPT) at 1-loop order. The code can be applied to a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models using a recently proposed numerical method by A.Taruya to find the SPT kernels. This includes Horndeski's theory with a general potential, which accommodates both chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms and provides a non-linear extension of the effective theory of dark energy up to the third order. Focus is on a recent non-linear model of the redshift space power spectrum which has been shown to model the anisotropy very well at relevant scales for the SPT framework, as well as capturing relevant non-linear effects typical of modified gravity theories. We provide consistency checks of the code against established results and elucidate its application within the light of upcoming high precision RSD data.

  2. Nonlinear modification of the laser noise power spectrum induced by frequency-shifted optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacot, Eric; Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Girardeau, Vadim; Hugon, Olivier; Jacquin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study the nonlinear coupling between the stationary (i.e., the beating modulation signal) and transient (i.e., the laser quantum noise) dynamics of a laser subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback. We show how the noise power spectrum and more specifically the relaxation oscillation frequency of the laser are modified under different optical feedback conditions. Specifically we study the influence of (i) the amount of light returning to the laser cavity and (ii) the initial detuning between the frequency shift and intrinsic relaxation frequency. The present work shows how the relaxation frequency is related to the strength of the beating signal, and the shape of the noise power spectrum gives an image of the transfer modulation function (i.e., of the amplification gain) of the nonlinear-laser dynamics. The theoretical predictions, confirmed by numerical resolutions, are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Neutrino mass limits: Robust information from the power spectrum of galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Antonio J.; Niro, Viviana; Verde, Licia

    2016-09-01

    We present cosmological upper limits on the sum of active neutrino masses using large-scale power spectrum data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) sample of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG). Combining measurements on the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarisation anisotropies by the Planck satellite together with WiggleZ power spectrum results in a neutrino mass bound of 0.37 eV at 95% C.L., while replacing WiggleZ by the SDSS-DR7 LRG power spectrum, the 95% C.L. bound on the sum of neutrino masses is 0.38 eV. Adding Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) distance scale measurements, the neutrino mass upper limits greatly improve, since BAO data break degeneracies in parameter space. Within a ΛCDM model, we find an upper limit of 0.13 eV (0.14 eV) at 95% C.L., when using SDSS-DR7 LRG (WiggleZ) together with BAO and Planck. The addition of BAO data makes the neutrino mass upper limit robust, showing only a weak dependence on the power spectrum used. We also quantify the dependence of neutrino mass limit reported here on the CMB lensing information. The tighter upper limit (0.13 eV) obtained with SDSS-DR7 LRG is very close to that recently obtained using Lyman-alpha clustering data, yet uses a completely different probe and redshift range, further supporting the robustness of the constraint. This constraint puts under some pressure the inverted mass hierarchy and favours the normal hierarchy.

  4. Noise-induced synchronization in a system with a 1 / f power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    A spatially distributed system with 1/ f fluctuations at coupled nonequilibrium phase transitions have been simulated by two nonlinear stochastic equations. It is shown numerically that at sufficiently high intensity of white noise in the system there arises noise-induced synchronization, which is a nonequilibrium phase transition. To the critical point of the nonequilibrium phase transition corresponds the 1/ f power spectrum and the maximum of informational entropy.

  5. Nonlinearities in modified gravity cosmology: Signatures of modified gravity in the nonlinear matter power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu

    2010-05-15

    A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter {zeta}, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution ({zeta}=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by {approx}30% for 10% deviation from GR (|{zeta}-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.

  6. Psychotropic drug profiles: comparisons by topographic maps of absolute power.

    PubMed

    Coppola, R; Herrmann, W M

    1987-01-01

    In a double-blind fourfold crossover design, 11 subjects were randomly assigned to placebo, 10 mg diazepam, 75 mg amitriptyline, and 75 mg chlorpromazine. During a simple vigilance task, 12 midline and left hemisphere leads were recorded before and 3 h after drug administration. The EEG was quantified by spectrum analysis, the topographic structure displayed by brain mapping techniques, and the results compared with earlier studies which used the same design and drugs. Diazepam showed the expected increase in beta; however, fast beta was increased as much as slow beta. Amitriptyline showed an increase of slow wave power and a reduction of alpha. In contrast to earlier studies, a decrease of fast beta was found. In addition, the spatial pattern of alpha changed from an occipital to a parietal maximum. Chlorpromazine showed an increase in the theta band. In occipital regions, there was a small decrease of fast beta; however, centrally there was an increase of both slow and fast beta. These results were confirmed by a multivariate analysis of variance.

  7. The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect power spectrum in light of Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, I. G.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Schaye, J.; Holder, G. P.

    2014-06-01

    The amplitude of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (tSZ) power spectrum is extremely sensitive to the abundance of the most massive dark matter haloes (galaxy clusters) and therefore to fundamental cosmological parameters that control their growth, such as σ8 and Ωm. Here we explore the sensitivity of the tSZ power spectrum to important non-gravitational (`subgrid') physics by employing the cosmo-OWLS suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, run in both the Planck and 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) best-fitting cosmologies. On intermediate and small angular scales (ℓ ≳ 1000, or θ≲10 arcmin), accessible with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), the predicted tSZ power spectrum is highly model dependent, with gas ejection due to active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback having a particularly large effect. However, at large scales, observable with the Planck telescope, the effects of subgrid physics are minor. Comparing the simulated tSZ power spectra with observations, we find a significant amplitude offset on all measured angular scales (including large scales), if the Planck best-fitting cosmology is assumed by the simulations. This is shown to be a generic result for all current models of the tSZ power spectrum. By contrast, if the WMAP7 cosmology is adopted, there is full consistency with the Planck tSZ power spectrum measurements on large scales and agreement at the 2σ level with the SPT and ACT measurements at intermediate scales for our fiducial AGN model, which Le Brun et al. have shown reproduces the `resolved' properties of the Local Group and cluster population remarkably well. These findings strongly suggest that there are significantly fewer massive galaxy clusters than expected for the Planck best-fitting cosmology, which is consistent with recent measurements of the tSZ number counts. Our findings therefore pose a significant challenge to the cosmological

  8. No evidence for the blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Sai E-mail: wangsai@itp.ac.cn

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we constrain the tilt of the power spectrum of relic gravitational waves by combining the data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck (BKP) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory (LIGO). Supposing the linearly uniform priors for both the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the tensor tilt n{sub t}, we find n{sub t}=0.66{sup +1.83}{sub −1.44} at the 68% confidence level from the data of BKP B-modes. By further adding the LIGO upper limit on the intensity of stochastic gravitational-wave background, the constraint becomes n{sub t}=−0.76{sup +1.37}{sub −0.52} at the 68% confidence level by assuming that the tensor amplitude has the similar order of the upper bounds from current CMB experiments. We find that there is no evidence for a blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves and either sign of the index of tensor power spectrum is compatible with the current data.

  9. The Coyote Universe. III. Simulation Suite and Precision Emulator for the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Earl; Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Higdon, David; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Williams, Brian

    2010-04-01

    Many of the most exciting questions in astrophysics and cosmology, including the majority of observational probes of dark energy, rely on an understanding of the nonlinear regime of structure formation. In order to fully exploit the information available from this regime and to extract cosmological constraints, accurate theoretical predictions are needed. Currently, such predictions can only be obtained from costly, precision numerical simulations. This paper is the third in a series aimed at constructing an accurate calibration of the nonlinear mass power spectrum on Mpc scales for a wide range of currently viable cosmological models, including dark energy models with w ≠ -1. The first two papers addressed the numerical challenges and the scheme by which an interpolator was built from a carefully chosen set of cosmological models. In this paper, we introduce the "Coyote Universe" simulation suite which comprises nearly 1000 N-body simulations at different force and mass resolutions, spanning 38 w CDM cosmologies. This large simulation suite enables us to construct a prediction scheme, or emulator, for the nonlinear matter power spectrum accurate at the percent level out to k ~= 1 h Mpc-1. We describe the construction of the emulator, explain the tests performed to ensure its accuracy, and discuss how the central ideas may be extended to a wider range of cosmological models and applications. A power spectrum emulator code is released publicly as part of this paper.

  10. The coyote universe III: simulation suite and precision emulator for the nonlinear matter power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Higdon, David; Wagner, Christian; Lawrence, Earl; Habib, Salman; Williams, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing and future large scale structure surveys targeted at the investigation of dark energy will enter the nonlinear regime of structure formation. In order to fully exploit the newly available information from this regime and to extract cosmological constraints. very accurate theoretical predictions are needed. Such predictions can currently only be obtained from costly precision N-body simulations. We have recently shown that it is possible to obtain predictions for the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the level of one-percent accuracy and that we can build a precise prediction scheme for the nonlinear power spectrum from a small set of cosmological models. In this paper we introduce the 'Coyote Universe' simulation suite which comprises more than 800 N-body simulations at different force and mass resolutions, spanning 38 wCDM cosmologies. This large simulation suite enables us to construct a prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum accurate at the 1% level out to k {approx_equal} 1 hMpc{sup -1}.

  11. Constraining high-redshift X-ray sources with next generation 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Mesinger, Andrei; Dillon, Joshua S.; Liu, Adrian; Pober, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We use the Fisher matrix formalism and seminumerical simulations to derive quantitative predictions of the constraints that power spectrum measurements on next-generation interferometers, such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will place on the characteristics of the X-ray sources that heated the high-redshift intergalactic medium. Incorporating observations between z = 5 and 25, we find that the proposed 331 element HERA and SKA phase 1 will be capable of placing ≲ 10 per cent constraints on the spectral properties of these first X-ray sources, even if one is unable to perform measurements within the foreground contaminated `wedge' or the FM band. When accounting for the enhancement in power spectrum amplitude from spin temperature fluctuations, we find that the observable signatures of reionization extend well beyond the peak in the power spectrum usually associated with it. We also find that lower redshift degeneracies between the signatures of heating and reionization physics lead to errors on reionization parameters that are significantly greater than previously predicted. Observations over the heating epoch are able to break these degeneracies and improve our constraints considerably. For these two reasons, 21-cm observations during the heating epoch significantly enhance our understanding of reionization as well.

  12. Spherical collapse, formation hysteresis and the deeply non-linear cosmological power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    I examine differences in non-linear structure formation between cosmological models that share a z = 0 linear power spectrum in both shape and amplitude, but that differ via their growth history. N-body simulations of these models display an approximately identical large-scale-structure skeleton, but reveal deeply non-linear differences in the demographics and properties of haloes. I investigate to what extent the spherical-collapse model can help in understanding these differences, in both real and redshift space. I discuss how this is difficult to do if one attempts to identify haloes directly, because in that case one is subject to the vagaries of halo finding algorithms. However, I demonstrate that the halo model of structure formation provides an accurate non-linear response in the power spectrum, but only if results from spherical collapse that include formation hysteresis are properly incorporated. I comment on how this fact can be used to provide per cent level accurate matter power spectrum predictions for dark energy models for k ≤ 5 hMpc-1 by using the halo model as a correction to accurate ΛCDM simulations. In the appendix I provide some fitting functions for the linear-collapse threshold (δc) and virialized overdensity (Δv) that are valid for a wide range of dark energy models. I also make my spherical-collapse code available at https://github.com/alexander-mead/collapse.

  13. Nonlinear evolution of the matter power spectrum in modified theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi

    2009-06-15

    We present a formalism to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum in modified gravity models that explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe without dark energy. Any successful modified gravity models should contain a mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales in order to avoid the stringent constrains on deviations from GR at solar system scales. Based on our formalism, the quasi-nonlinear power spectrum in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti braneworld models and f(R) gravity models are derived by taking into account the mechanism to recover GR properly. We also extrapolate our predictions to fully nonlinear scales using the parametrized post-Friedmann framework. In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti and f(R) gravity models, the predicted nonlinear power spectrum is shown to reproduce N-body results. We find that the mechanism to recover GR suppresses the difference between the modified gravity models and dark energy models with the same expansion history, but the difference remains large at the weakly nonlinear regime in these models. Our formalism is applicable to a wide variety of modified gravity models and it is ready to use once consistent models for modified gravity are developed.

  14. Power spectrum sensitivity of raster-scanned CMB experiments in the presence of 1/f noise

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Tom

    2007-09-15

    We investigate the effects of 1/f noise on the ability of a particular class of cosmic microwave background experiments to measure the angular power spectrum of temperature anisotropy. We concentrate on experiments that operate primarily in raster-scan mode and develop formalism that allows us to calculate analytically the effect of 1/f noise on power-spectrum sensitivity for this class of experiments and determine the benefits of raster-scanning at different angles relative to the sky field versus scanning at only a single angle (cross-linking versus not cross-linking). We find that the sensitivity of such experiments in the presence of 1/f noise is not significantly degraded at moderate spatial scales (l{approx}100) for reasonable values of scan speed and 1/f knee. We further find that the difference between cross-linked and non-cross-linked experiments is small in all cases and that the non-cross-linked experiments are preferred from a raw sensitivity standpoint in the noise-dominated regime - i.e., in experiments in which the instrument noise is greater than the sample variance of the target power spectrum at the scales of interest. This analysis does not take into account systematic effects.

  15. Violation of statistical isotropy and homogeneity in the 21-cm power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Muñoz, Julian B.; Kamionkowski, Marc; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-05-01

    Most inflationary models predict primordial perturbations to be statistically isotropic and homogeneous. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations, however, indicate a possible departure from statistical isotropy in the form of a dipolar power modulation at large angular scales. Alternative models of inflation, beyond the simplest single-field slow-roll models, can generate a small power asymmetry, consistent with these observations. Observations of clustering of quasars show, however, agreement with statistical isotropy at much smaller angular scales. Here, we propose to use off-diagonal components of the angular power spectrum of the 21-cm fluctuations during the dark ages to test this power asymmetry. We forecast results for the planned SKA radio array, a future radio array, and the cosmic-variance-limited case as a theoretical proof of principle. Our results show that the 21-cm line power spectrum will enable access to information at very small scales and at different redshift slices, thus improving upon the current CMB constraints by ˜2 orders of magnitude for a dipolar asymmetry and by ˜1 - 3 orders of magnitude for a quadrupolar asymmetry case.

  16. Double Power Laws in the Event-integrated Solar Energetic Particle Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lulu; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2016-04-01

    A double power law or a power law with exponential rollover at a few to tens of MeV nucleon-1 of the event-integrated differential spectra has been reported in many solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The rollover energies per nucleon of different elements correlate with a particle's charge-to-mass ratio (Q/A). The probable causes are suggested as residing in shock finite lifetimes, shock finite sizes, shock geometry, and an adiabatic cooling effect. In this work, we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate a particle's transport process in the inner heliosphere. We solve the focused transport equation using a time-backward Markov stochastic approach. The convection, magnetic focusing, adiabatic cooling effect, and pitch-angle scattering are included. The effects that the interplanetary turbulence imposes on the shape of the resulting SEP spectra are examined. By assuming a pure power-law differential spectrum at the Sun, a perfect double-power-law feature with a break energy ranging from 10 to 120 MeV nucleon-1 is obtained at 1 au. We found that the double power law of the differential energy spectrum is a robust result of SEP interplanetary propagation. It works for many assumptions of interplanetary turbulence spectra that give various forms of momentum dependence of a particle's mean free path. The different spectral shapes in low-energy and high-energy ends are not just a transition from the convection-dominated propagation to diffusion-dominated propagation.

  17. Modified power law equations for vertical wind profiles. [in investigation of windpower plant siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.; Richards, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    In an investigation of windpower plant siting, equations are presented and evaluated for a wind profile model which incorporates both roughness and wind speed effects, while retaining the basic simplicity of the Hellman power law. These equations recognize the statistical nature of wind profiles and are compatible with existing analytical models and recent wind profile data. Predictions of energy output based on the proposed profile equations are 10% to 20% higher than those made with the 1/7 power law. In addition, correlation between calculated and observed blade loads is significantly better at higher wind speeds when the proposed wind profile model is used than when a constant power model is used.

  18. Adhesion of nanoscale asperities with power-law profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grierson, David S.; Liu, Jingjing; Carpick, Robert W.; Turner, Kevin T.

    2013-02-01

    The behavior of single-asperity micro- and nanoscale contacts in which adhesion is present is important for the performance of many small-scale mechanical systems and processes, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). When analyzing such problems, the bodies in contact are often assumed to have paraboloidal shapes, thus allowing the application of the familiar Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR), Derjaguin-Müller-Toporov (DMT), or Maugis-Dugdale (M-D) adhesive contact models. However, in many situations the asperities do not have paraboloidal shapes and, instead, have geometries that may be better described by a power-law function. An M-D-n analytical model has recently been developed to extend the M-D model to asperities with power-law profiles. We use a combination of M-D-n analytical modeling, finite element (FE) analysis, and experimental measurements to investigate the behavior of nanoscale adhesive contacts with non-paraboloidal geometries. Specifically, we examine the relationship between pull-off force, work of adhesion, and range of adhesion for asperities with power-law-shaped geometries. FE analysis is used to validate the M-D-n model and examine the effect of the shape of the adhesive interaction potential on the pull-off force. In the experiments, the extended M-D model is applied to analyze pull-off force measurements made on nanoscale tips that are engineered via gradual wear to have power-law shapes. The experimental and modeling results demonstrate that the range of the adhesive interaction is a crucial parameter when quantifying the adhesion of non-paraboloidal tips, quite different than the familiar paraboloidal case. The application of the M-D-n model to the experimental results yields an unusually large adhesion range of 4-5 nm, a finding we attribute to either the presence of long-range van der Waals forces or deviations from continuum theory due to atomic-scale roughness of the tips. Finally, an adhesion map to aid in analysis of pull-off force

  19. Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Scintillation for the Deep Space Network Goldstone Ka-Band Downlink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C.; Wheelon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic signal fluctuations due to atmospheric scintillations may impair the Ka-band (around 32-GHz) link sensitivities for a low-margin Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving system. The ranges of frequency and power of the fast fluctuating signals (time scale less than 1 min) are theoretically investigated using the spatial covariance and turbulence theory. Scintillation power spectrum solutions are derived for both a point receiver and a finite-aperture receiver. The aperture-smoothing frequency ((omega(sub s)), corner frequency ((omega(sub c)), and damping rate are introduced to define the shape of the spectrum for a finite-aperture antenna. The emphasis is put on quantitatively describing the aperture-smoothing effects and graphically estimating the corner frequency for a large aperture receiver. Power spectral shapes are analyzed parametrically in detail through both low- and high-frequency approximations. It is found that aperture-averaging effects become significant when the transverse correlation length of the scintillation is smaller than the antenna radius. The upper frequency or corner frequency for a finite-aperture receiver is controlled by both the Fresnel frequency and aperture-smoothing frequency. Above the aperture-smoothing frequency, the spectrum rolls off at a much faster rate of exp (-omega(sup 2)/omega(sup 2, sub s), rather than omega(sup -8/3), which is customary for a point receiver. However, a relatively higher receiver noise level can mask the fast falling-off shape and make it hard to be identified. We also predict that when the effective antenna radius a(sub r) less than or = 6 m, the corner frequency of its power spectrum becomes the same as that for a point receiver. The aperture-smoothing effects are not obvious. We have applied these solutions to the scenario of a DSN Goldstone 34-m-diameter antenna and predicted the power spectrum shape for the receiving station. The maximum corner frequency for the receiver (with omega(sub s) = 0

  20. Delineating the Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Nelson, Lisa; Richards, Caroline; Hall, Scott

    2013-01-01

    An atypical presentation of autism spectrum disorder is noted in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X syndromes, but there are few detailed empirical descriptions. Participants in this study were individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (n = 130, M age = 17.19), Fragile X syndrome (n = 182, M age = 16.94), and autism spectrum disorder (n = 142, M…

  1. Quantitative Estimation of the Amount of Fibrosis in the Rat Liver Using Fractal Dimension of the Shape of Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Higuchi, Toshiyuki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes the quantitative measurement of the amount of fibrosis in the rat liver using the fractal dimension of the shape of power spectrum. The shape of the power spectrum of the scattered echo from biotissues is strongly affected by its internal structure. The fractal dimension, which is one of the important parameters of the fractal theory, is useful to express the complexity of shape of figures such as the power spectrum. From in vitro experiments using rat liver, it was found that this method can be used to quantitatively measure the amount of fibrosis in the liver, and has the possibility for use in the diagnosis of human liver cirrhosis.

  2. The 2-loop matter power spectrum and the IR-safe integrand

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Foreman, Simon; Green, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo E-mail: sfore@stanford.edu E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu

    2014-07-01

    Large scale structure surveys are likely the next leading probe of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to reliably predict their observables. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a manifestly convergent perturbation theory for the weakly non-linear regime, where dark matter correlation functions are computed in an expansion of the wavenumber k over the wavenumber associated to the non-linear scale k{sub NL}. To push the predictions to higher wavenumbers, it is necessary to compute the 2-loop matter power spectrum. For equal-time correlators, exactly as with standard perturturbation theory, there are IR divergences present in each diagram that cancel completely in the final result. We develop a method by which all 2-loop diagrams are computed as one integral, with an integrand that is manifestly free of any IR divergences. This allows us to compute the 2-loop power spectra in a reliable way that is much less numerically challenging than standard techniques. We apply our method to scaling universes where the linear power spectrum is a single power law of k, and where IR divergences can particularly easily interfere with accurate evaluation of loop corrections if not handled carefully. We show that our results are independent of IR cutoff and, after renormalization, of the UV cutoff, and comment how the method presented here naturally generalizes to higher loops.

  3. The Knotted Sky II: does BICEP2 require a nontrivial primordial power spectrum?

    SciTech Connect

    Abazajian, Kevork N.; Aslanyan, Grigor; Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C. E-mail: g.aslanyan@auckland.ac.nz E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz

    2014-08-01

    An inflationary gravitational wave background consistent with BICEP2 is difficult to reconcile with a simple power-law spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations. Tensor modes contribute to the temperature anisotropies at multipoles with l∼< 100, and this effect — together with a prior on the form of the scalar perturbations — was the source of previous bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We compute Bayesian evidence for combined fits to BICEP2 and Planck for three nontrivial primordial spectra: a) a running spectral index, b) a cutoff at fixed wavenumber, and c) a spectrum described by a linear spline with a single internal knot. We find no evidence for a cutoff, weak evidence for a running index, and significant evidence for a ''broken'' spectrum. Taken at face-value, the BICEP2 results require two new inflationary parameters in order to describe both the broken scale invariance in the perturbation spectrum and the observed tensor-to-scalar ratio. Alternatively, this tension may be resolved by additional data and more detailed analyses.

  4. So You Think the Crab is Described by a Power-Law Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Crab Nebula and its pulsar have played a prominent role in the history of X-ray astronomy. Discoveries range from the detection of the X-ray Nebula and pulsar and the measurement of the Nebula-averaged X-ray polarization, to the observation of complex X-ray morphology, including jets emanating from the pulsar and the ring defining the shocked pulsar wind. The synchrotron origin of much of the radiation has been deduced by detailed studies across the electromagnetic spectrum, yet has fooled many X-ray astronomers into believing that the integrated spectrum from this system ought to be a power law. In many cases, this assumption has led observers to adjust the experiment response function(s) to guarantee such a result. We shall discuss why one should not observe a power-law spectrum, and present simulations using the latest available response matrices showing what should have been observed for a number of representative cases including the ROSAT IPC, XMM-Newton, and RXTE. We then discuss the implications, if any, for current calibrations.

  5. Perturbation theory, effective field theory, and oscillations in the power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš; Yat Chu, Man; Feng, Yu

    2016-03-01

    We explore the relationship between the nonlinear matter power spectrum and the various Lagrangian and Standard Perturbation Theories (LPT and SPT). We first look at it in the context of one dimensional (1-d) dynamics, where 1LPT is exact at the perturbative level and one can exactly resum the SPT series into the 1LPT power spectrum. Shell crossings lead to non-perturbative effects, and the PT ignorance can be quantified in terms of their ratio, which is also the transfer function squared in the absence of stochasticity. At the order of PT we work, this parametrization is equivalent to the results of effective field theory (EFT), and can thus be expanded in terms of the same parameters. We find that its radius of convergence is larger than the SPT loop expansion. The same EFT parametrization applies to all SPT loop terms and if stochasticity can be ignored, to all N-point correlators. In 3-d, the LPT structure is considerably more complicated, and we find that LPT models with parametrization motivated by the EFT exhibit running with k and that SPT is generally a better choice. Since these transfer function expansions contain free parameters that change with cosmological model their usefulness for broadband power is unclear. For this reason we test the predictions of these models on baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and other primordial oscillations, including string monodromy models, for which we ran a series of simulations with and without oscillations. Most models are successful in predicting oscillations beyond their corresponding PT versions, confirming the basic validity of the model. We show that if primordial oscillations are localized to a scale q, the wiggles in power spectrum are approximately suppressed as exp[-k2Σ2(q)/2], where Σ(q) is rms displacement of particles separated by q, which saturates on large scales, and decreases as q is reduced. No oscillatory features survive past k ~ 0.5h/Mpc at z = 0.

  6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from the 2008 Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkley, J.; Hlozek, R.; Sievers, J.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; Burger, B.; Chervenak, J.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Bertrand Doriese, W.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Hajian, A.; Moseley, H.; Wollack, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg(exp 2) with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500 < l < 10,000. We fit a model for the lensed CMB, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ), and foreground contribution to the 148 GHz and 218 GHz power spectra, including thermal and kinetic SZ, Poisson power from radio and infrared point sources, and clustered power from infrared point sources. At l = 3000, about half the power at 148 GHz comes from primary CMB after masking bright radio sources. The power from thermal and kinetic SZ is estimated to be Beta(sub 3000) is identical to 6.8 +/- 2.9 mu K (exp 2), where Beta (sub l) is identical to l(l + 1) C(sub l)/2pi. The IR Poisson power at 148 GHz is Bewta(sub 3000) 7.8 +/- 0.7 muK(exp 2) (C(sub l) = 5.5 +/- 0.5 nK(exp 2)), and a clustered IR component is required with Beta (sub 3000) = 4.6 +/- 0.9 muK(exp 2), assuming an analytic model for its power spectrum shape. At 218 GHz only about 15% of the power, approximately 27 mu K(exp 2), is CMB anisotropy at l = 3000. The remaining 85% is attributed to IR sources (approximately 50% Poisson and 35% clustered), with spectral index alpha = 3.69 +/- 0.14 for flux scaling as S(nu) varies as nu(sup alpha). We estimate primary cosmological parameters from the less contaminated 148 GHz spectrum, marginalizing over SZ and source power. The ACDM cosmological model is a good fit to the data (chi square/dof = 29/46), and ACDM parameters estimated from ACT+Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) are consistent with the seven-year WMAP limits, with scale invariant n(sub s) = 1 excluded at 99.7% confidence level (CL) (3 sigma). A model with no CMB lensing is disfavored at 2.8 sigma. By measuring the third to seventh acoustic peaks, and probing the Silk damping regime, the ACT data improve limits on cosmological

  7. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FROM THE 2008 POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkley, J.; Hlozek, R.; Sievers, J.; Bond, J. R.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Barrientos, L. F.; Duenner, R.; Amiri, M.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Appel, J. W.; Das, S.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Brown, B.; Chervenak, J.; Doriese, W. Bertrand

    2011-09-20

    We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg{sup 2} with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500 < l < 10, 000. We fit a model for the lensed CMB, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ), and foreground contribution to the 148 GHz and 218 GHz power spectra, including thermal and kinetic SZ, Poisson power from radio and infrared point sources, and clustered power from infrared point sources. At l = 3000, about half the power at 148 GHz comes from primary CMB after masking bright radio sources. The power from thermal and kinetic SZ is estimated to be B{sub 3000} = 6.8 {+-} 2.9 {mu}K{sup 2}, where B{sub l}{identical_to}l(l + 1)C{sub l}/2{pi}. The IR Poisson power at 148 GHz is B{sub 3000} = 7.8 {+-} 0.7 {mu}K{sup 2} (C{sub l} = 5.5 {+-} 0.5 nK{sup 2}), and a clustered IR component is required with B{sub 3000} = 4.6 {+-} 0.9 {mu}K{sup 2}, assuming an analytic model for its power spectrum shape. At 218 GHz only about 15% of the power, approximately 27 {mu}K{sup 2}, is CMB anisotropy at l = 3000. The remaining 85% is attributed to IR sources (approximately 50% Poisson and 35% clustered), with spectral index {alpha} = 3.69 {+-} 0.14 for flux scaling as S({nu}){proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}. We estimate primary cosmological parameters from the less contaminated 148 GHz spectrum, marginalizing over SZ and source power. The {Lambda}CDM cosmological model is a good fit to the data ({chi}{sup 2}/dof = 29/46), and {Lambda}CDM parameters estimated from ACT+Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) are consistent with the seven-year WMAP limits, with scale invariant n{sub s} = 1 excluded at 99.7% confidence level (CL) (3{sigma}). A model with no CMB lensing is disfavored at 2.8{sigma}. By measuring the third to seventh acoustic peaks, and probing the Silk damping regime, the ACT data improve limits on

  8. The power spectrum of the solar wind speed for periods greater than 10 days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenimore, E. E.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of the more than 11 years of solar wind speed data obtained by Vela 2-6 and Imp 6-8 to study the power spectrum of speed variations in the range near the solar rotational frequency is discussed. The broad bands of power near periods of 27 days (corresponding to the rotational period of the sun), 13.5 days, and higher harmonics are characterized, and it is suggested that the described individual peaks in both the solar wind and the geomagnetic spectra are probably not due to differential rotation. The alternate explanation is that the multipeak nature of the power spectra are explained by a wave packet concept in which recurring highspeed streams are described as a series of pulses (separated by a constant period) that last for a varying number of solar rotations.

  9. Low-Power Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Modem Architecture for Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, C; Elgorriaga, I; McConaghy, C

    2001-07-03

    Emerging CMOS and MEMS technologies enable the implementation of a large number of wireless distributed microsensors that can be easily and rapidly deployed to form highly redundant, self-configuring, and ad hoc sensor networks. To facilitate ease of deployment, these sensors should operate on battery for extended periods of time. A particular challenge in maintaining extended battery lifetime lies in achieving communications with low power. This paper presents a direct-sequence spread-spectrum modem architecture that provides robust communications for wireless sensor networks while dissipating very low power. The modem architecture has been verified in an FPGA implementation that dissipates only 33 mW for both transmission and reception. The implementation can be easily mapped to an ASIC technology, with an estimated power performance of less than 1 mW.

  10. Bayesian Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The sky, when viewed in the microwave, is very uniform, with a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum at 2.7 degrees. Very small amplitude brightness fluctuations (to one part in a million!!) trace small density perturbations in the early universe (roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang), which later grow through gravitational instability to the large-scale structure seen in redshift surveys... In this talk, I will discuss a Bayesian formulation of this problem; discuss a Gibbs sampling approach to numerically sampling from the Bayesian posterior, and the application of this approach to the first-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. I will also comment on recent algorithmic developments for this approach to be tractable for the even more massive data set to be returned from the Planck satellite.

  11. THE TURBULENCE VELOCITY POWER SPECTRUM OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Chepurnov, A.; Lazarian, A.; Stanimirovic, S.; Burkhart, B.

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of the Velocity Coordinate Spectrum (VCS) technique to calculate the velocity power spectrum of turbulence in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) in 21 cm emission. We present an updated version of the VCS technique that takes into account regular motions, which is an important factor in our SMC VCS analysis. We have obtained a velocity spectral index of −3.85, a cold phase sonic Mach number of 5.6, and an injection scale of 2.3 kpc. The spectral index is steeper than the Kolmogorov index, which is expected for shock-dominated turbulence. The injection scale of 2.3 kpc suggests that HI supershells or tidal interactions with the Large Magellanic Cloud are the dominant drivers of turbulence in this dwarf galaxy. This implies that turbulence may be driven by multiple mechanisms in galaxies and that galaxy–galaxy interactions may play an important role in addition to supernova feedback.

  12. Galaxy power spectrum in redshift space: Combining perturbation theory with the halo model

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Teppei; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uros; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent

    2015-11-19

    Theoretical modeling of the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies is crucially important to correctly extract cosmological information from galaxy redshift surveys. The task is complicated by the nonlinear biasing and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects, which change with halo mass, and by the wide distribution of halo masses and their occupations by galaxies. One of the main modeling challenges is the existence of satellite galaxies that have both radial distribution inside the halos and large virial velocities inside halos, a phenomenon known as the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect. We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in which we decompose a given galaxy sample into central and satellite galaxies and relate different contributions to the power spectrum to 1-halo and 2-halo terms in a halo model. Our primary goal is to ensure that any parameters that we introduce have physically meaningful values, and are not just fitting parameters. For the lowest order 2-halo terms we use the previously developed RSD modeling of halos in the context of distribution function and perturbation theory approach. This term needs to be multiplied by the effect of radial distances and velocities of satellites inside the halo. To this one needs to add the 1-halo terms, which are nonperturbative. We show that the real space 1-halo terms can be modeled as almost constant, with the finite extent of the satellites inside the halo inducing a small k2R2 term over the range of scales of interest, where R is related to the size of the halo given by its halo mass. Furthermore, we adopt a similar model for FoG in redshift space, ensuring that FoG velocity dispersion is related to the halo mass. For FoG k2 type expansions do not work over the range of scales of interest and FoG resummation must be used instead. We test several simple damping functions to model the velocity dispersion FoG effect. Applying the formalism to mock

  13. Galaxy power spectrum in redshift space: Combining perturbation theory with the halo model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Okumura, Teppei; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uros; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent

    2015-11-19

    Theoretical modeling of the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies is crucially important to correctly extract cosmological information from galaxy redshift surveys. The task is complicated by the nonlinear biasing and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects, which change with halo mass, and by the wide distribution of halo masses and their occupations by galaxies. One of the main modeling challenges is the existence of satellite galaxies that have both radial distribution inside the halos and large virial velocities inside halos, a phenomenon known as the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect. We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in whichmore » we decompose a given galaxy sample into central and satellite galaxies and relate different contributions to the power spectrum to 1-halo and 2-halo terms in a halo model. Our primary goal is to ensure that any parameters that we introduce have physically meaningful values, and are not just fitting parameters. For the lowest order 2-halo terms we use the previously developed RSD modeling of halos in the context of distribution function and perturbation theory approach. This term needs to be multiplied by the effect of radial distances and velocities of satellites inside the halo. To this one needs to add the 1-halo terms, which are nonperturbative. We show that the real space 1-halo terms can be modeled as almost constant, with the finite extent of the satellites inside the halo inducing a small k2R2 term over the range of scales of interest, where R is related to the size of the halo given by its halo mass. Furthermore, we adopt a similar model for FoG in redshift space, ensuring that FoG velocity dispersion is related to the halo mass. For FoG k2 type expansions do not work over the range of scales of interest and FoG resummation must be used instead. We test several simple damping functions to model the velocity dispersion FoG effect. Applying the formalism to mock galaxies modeled after the

  14. Galaxy power spectrum in redshift space: Combining perturbation theory with the halo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Teppei; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical modeling of the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies is crucially important to correctly extract cosmological information from galaxy redshift surveys. The task is complicated by the nonlinear biasing and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects, which change with halo mass, and by the wide distribution of halo masses and their occupations by galaxies. One of the main modeling challenges is the existence of satellite galaxies that have both radial distribution inside the halos and large virial velocities inside halos, a phenomenon known as the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect. We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in which we decompose a given galaxy sample into central and satellite galaxies and relate different contributions to the power spectrum to 1-halo and 2-halo terms in a halo model. Our primary goal is to ensure that any parameters that we introduce have physically meaningful values, and are not just fitting parameters. For the lowest order 2-halo terms we use the previously developed RSD modeling of halos in the context of distribution function and perturbation theory approach. This term needs to be multiplied by the effect of radial distances and velocities of satellites inside the halo. To this one needs to add the 1-halo terms, which are nonperturbative. We show that the real space 1-halo terms can be modeled as almost constant, with the finite extent of the satellites inside the halo inducing a small k2R2 term over the range of scales of interest, where R is related to the size of the halo given by its halo mass. We adopt a similar model for FoG in redshift space, ensuring that FoG velocity dispersion is related to the halo mass. For FoG k2 type expansions do not work over the range of scales of interest and FoG resummation must be used instead. We test several simple damping functions to model the velocity dispersion FoG effect. Applying the formalism to mock galaxies modeled after the "CMASS" sample of the

  15. Characteristics of the Velocity Power Spectrum as a Function of Taylor Reynolds Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puga, Alejandro J.

    An understanding of the wide range of scales present in a turbulent flow as well as the turbulence kinetic energy associated with those scales can provide significant insight into the modeling of such flows. Since turbulence is a stochastic process, statistical quantities such as mean, root mean square, correlations and spectra are used to identify and understand the evolution of turbulent flows. Time-resolved velocity measurements presented herein are obtained using hot-wire anemometry in nearly homogeneous, isotropic and moderately high Taylor Reynolds number, Rlambda , flow downstream of an active grid. Velocity power spectra presented herein are show that the slope, n, of the inertial subrange, where the inertial subrange is defined as the wavenumber range where the power spectrum scales as kappa--n, varies with R lambda as n = 1.69 -- 5.86 Rlambda--0.645. This variation in the slope of the inertial subrange is consistent with measurements presented by Mydlarski and Warhaft (1996) in an active grid flow and Saddoughi and Veeravalli (1994) in a turbulent boundary layer. The effectiveness of velocity power spectrum normalizations proposed by Kolmogorov (1963), Von Karman and Howarth (1938), and George (1992) are compared qualitatively and quantitatively. The effectiveness of these normalizations suggests how the turbulent scales make specific portions of the velocity spectrum self-similar. It is found that the relation between the large and small scales is also shown by the normalized dissipation rate, which is defined as the dissipation rate normalized by the ratio of the turbulence kinetic energy to the time scale of the large scale structure is shown to be a constant with respect to R lambda for Rlambda ≥ 450. A modified model of the one-dimensional velocity power spectrum is proposed that is based on a model proposed by Pope (2000), which has been demonstrated to model power spectra at high value of Rlambda where the slope of the inertial subrange is very

  16. A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netterfield, C. B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Bernardis, P. de; Farese, P.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V. V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Lange, A. E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Montroy, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background from l = 75 to l = 1025 (10' to 5 degrees) from a combined analysis of four 150 GHz channels in the BOOMERANG experiment. The spectrum contains multiple peaks and minima, as predicted by standard adiabatic-inflationary models in which the primordial plasma undergoes acoustic oscillations.

  17. Tore Supra LH transmitter upgrade, a new RF driver for the power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger-By, G.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Bouquey, F.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Lombard, G.; Magne, R.; Mollard, P.; Pagano, M.; Prou, M.; Samaille, F.; Volpe, D.; Volpe, R.

    2011-12-01

    New real time tools have been developed for testing new 700kW/3.7GHz/CW klystrons and for the operations on very long plasma shots. After the commissioning of the 18 series tubes on the high power test bed facility, the installation of the first 8 klystrons in the Tore Supra transmitter and the adjustment tests on load, this upgrade work has been materialized during the last 2010 campaign by a successful operation on the Full Active Multijunction (FAM) C3 antenna, with new performances: 3.5MW/40s on plasma. The RF output power control in amplitude and phase has been improved for a better control of the wave spectrum launched into the plasma. The new klystrons have no modulating anode and the high cathode voltage must be adjusted with the RF input power in order to optimize the RF output power with a minimization of the thermal power losses in the collector. A new phase correction, depending on the 3 RF output power ranges used, has been introduced. The improvements made in 2009 and 2010 on the generic phase loop and the procedures used during the real time tests of the RF transfer functions in amplitude and phase are detailed below. All RF measurements systems, RF safety systems and the RF calibration procedures have been revised in order to have the best consistency, reproducibility and with a measurement error against the calorimetry measurement lower than 10%.

  18. Distributed joint power and access control algorithm for secondary spectrum sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Chen, Enqing; Fu, Hongliang

    2010-08-01

    Based on interference temperature model, the problem of efficient secondary spectrum sharing is formulated as a power optimization problem with some constraints at physical layer. These constraints and optimization objective limit a feasible power vector set which leads to the need of access control besides power control. In this paper, we consider the decentralized cognitive radio network scenario where short-term data service is required, and the problem of distributed joint power and access control is studied to maximize the total secondary system throughput, subject to Quality of Service (QoS) constraints from individual secondary users and interference temperature limit (ITL) from primary system. Firstly, a pricing-based game model was used to solve distributed power allocation optimization problem in both high and low signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) scenarios. Secondly, when not all the secondary links can be supported with their QoS requirement and ITL, a distributed joint power and access control algorithm was introduced to find the allowable links which results in maximum network throughput with all the constraints satisfied, and the convergence performance is tested by simulations.

  19. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPIES IN THE WMAP DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2012-05-20

    The angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies is one of the most important characteristics in cosmology that can shed light on the properties of the universe such as its geometry and total density. Using flat sky approximation and Fourier analysis, we estimate the angular power spectrum from an ensemble of the least foreground-contaminated square patches from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe W and V frequency band map. This method circumvents the issue of foreground cleaning and that of breaking orthogonality in spherical harmonic analysis because we are able to mask out the bright Galactic plane region, thereby rendering a direct measurement of the angular power spectrum. We test and confirm the Gaussian statistical characteristic of the selected patches, from which the first and second acoustic peaks of the power spectrum are reproduced, and the third peak is clearly visible, albeit with some noise residual at the tail.

  20. Temporal power spectrum of irradiance fluctuations for a Gaussian-beam wave propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liying; Zhai, Chao; Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Jing; Lu, Gaoyuan

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, both the increasing experimental evidence and some results of theoretical investigation on non-Kolmogorov turbulence have been reported. This has prompted the study of optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, based on the thin phase screen model and a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum which owns a generalized power law instead of standard Kolmogorov power law value 11/3 and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033, the temporal power spectrum of irradiance fluctuations for a Gaussian-beam wave is derived in the weak fluctuation regime for a horizontal path. The analytic expressions are obtained and then used to analyze the influence of spectral power law variations on the temporal power spectrum of irradiance fluctuations.

  1. CMB anisotropy due to filamentary gas: power spectrum and cosmological parameter bias

    SciTech Connect

    Shimon, Meir; Sadeh, Sharon; Rephaeli, Yoel E-mail: shrs@post.tau.ac.il

    2012-10-01

    Hot gas in filamentary structures induces CMB aniostropy through the SZ effect. Guided by results from N-body simulations, we model the morphology and gas properties of filamentary gas and determine the power spectrum of the anisotropy. Our treatment suggests that power levels can be an appreciable fraction of the cluster contribution at multipoles l∼<1500. Its spatially irregular morphology and larger characteristic angular scales can help to distinguish this SZ signature from that of clusters. In addition to intrinsic interest in this most extended SZ signal as a probe of filaments, its impact on cosmological parameter estimation should also be assessed. We find that filament 'noise' can potentially bias determination of A{sub s}, n{sub s}, and w (the normalization of the primordial power spectrum, the scalar index, and the dark energy equation of state parameter, respectively) by more than the nominal statistical uncertainty in Planck SZ survey data. More generally, when inferred from future optimal cosmic-variance-limited CMB experiments, we find that virtually all parameters will be biased by more than the nominal statistical uncertainty estimated for these next generation CMB experiments.

  2. Scintillation noise power spectrum and its impact on high-redshift 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2016-05-01

    Visibility scintillation resulting from wave propagation through the turbulent ionosphere can be an important source of noise at low radio frequencies (ν ≲ 200 MHz). Many low-frequency experiments are underway to detect the power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations of the neutral-hydrogen 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR: 12 ≳ z ≳ 7, 100 ≲ ν ≲ 175 MHz). In this paper, we derive scintillation noise power spectra in such experiments while taking into account the effects of typical data processing operations such as self-calibration and Fourier synthesis. We find that for minimally redundant arrays such as LOFAR and MWA, scintillation noise is of the same order of magnitude as thermal noise, has a spectral coherence dictated by stretching of the snapshot uv-coverage with frequency, and thus is confined to the well-known wedge-like structure in the cylindrical (two-dimensional) power spectrum space. Compact, fully redundant (dcore ≲ rF ≈ 300 m at 150 MHz) arrays such as HERA and SKA-LOW (core) will be scintillation noise dominated at all baselines, but the spatial and frequency coherence of this noise will allow it to be removed along with spectrally smooth foregrounds.

  3. Analysis of the phase control of the ITER ICRH antenna array. Influence on the load resilience and radiated power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messiaen, A.; Swain, D.; Ongena, J.; Vervier, M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper analyses how the phasing of the ITER ICRH 24 strap array evolves from the power sources up to the strap currents of the antenna. The study of the phasing control and coherence through the feeding circuits with prematching and automatic matching and decoupling network is made by modeling starting from the TOPICA matrix of the antenna array for a low coupling plasma profile and for current drive phasing (worst case for mutual coupling effects). The main results of the analysis are: (i) the strap current amplitude is well controlled by the antinode Vmax amplitude of the feeding lines, (ii) the best toroidal phasing control is done by the adjustment of the mean phase of Vmax of each poloidal straps column, (iii) with well adjusted system the largest strap current phasing error is ±20°, (iv) the effect on load resilience remains well below the maximum affordable VSWR of the generators, (v) the effect on the radiated power spectrum versus k// computed by means of the coupling code ANTITER II remains small for the considered cases.

  4. Analysis of the phase control of the ITER ICRH antenna array. Influence on the load resilience and radiated power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Messiaen, A. Ongena, J.; Vervier, M.; Swain, D.

    2015-12-10

    The paper analyses how the phasing of the ITER ICRH 24 strap array evolves from the power sources up to the strap currents of the antenna. The study of the phasing control and coherence through the feeding circuits with prematching and automatic matching and decoupling network is made by modeling starting from the TOPICA matrix of the antenna array for a low coupling plasma profile and for current drive phasing (worst case for mutual coupling effects). The main results of the analysis are: (i) the strap current amplitude is well controlled by the antinode V{sub max} amplitude of the feeding lines, (ii) the best toroidal phasing control is done by the adjustment of the mean phase of V{sub max} of each poloidal straps column, (iii) with well adjusted system the largest strap current phasing error is ±20°, (iv) the effect on load resilience remains well below the maximum affordable VSWR of the generators, (v) the effect on the radiated power spectrum versus k{sub //} computed by means of the coupling code ANTITER II remains small for the considered cases.

  5. Analysis of the phase control of the ITER ICRH antenna array. Influence on the load resilience and radiated power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Messiaen, Andre; Swain, David W; Ongena, Jef; Vervier, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses how the phasing of the ITER ICRH 24 strap array evolves from the power sources up to the strap currents of the antenna. The study of the phasing control and coherence through the feeding circuits with prematching and automatic matching and decoupling network is made by modeling starting from the TOPICA matrix of the antenna array for a low coupling plasma profile and for current drive phasing (worst case for mutual coupling effects). The main results of the analysis are: (i) the strap current amplitude is well controlled by the antinode V-max amplitude of the feeding lines, (ii) the best toroidal phasing control is done by the adjustment of the mean phase of V-max of each poloidal straps column, (iii) with well adjusted system the largest strap current phasing error is +/- 20 degrees, (iv) the effect on load resilience remains well below the maximum affordable VSWR of the generators, (v) the effect on the radiated power spectrum versus k//computed by means of the coupling code ANTITER II remains small for the considered cases. [GRAPHICS] .

  6. Updating constraints on inflationary features in the primordial power spectrum with the Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Micol

    2013-10-01

    We present new constraints on possible features in the primordial inflationary density perturbation power spectrum in light of the recent cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements from the Planck satellite. We found that the Planck data hints for the presence of features in two different ranges of angular scales, corresponding to multipoles 10<ℓ<60 and 150<ℓ<300, with a decrease in the best-fit χ2 value with respect to the featureless “vanilla” ΛCDM model of Δχ2≃9 in both cases.

  7. Computation of the power spectrum in chaotic ¼λφ{sup 4} inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Clara; Villalba, Víctor M. E-mail: Victor.Villalba@monash.edu

    2012-01-01

    The phase-integral approximation devised by Fröman and Fröman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the quartic chaotic inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar power spectrum are explicitly obtained up to fifth order of the phase-integral approximation. As in previous reports (Rojas 2007b, 2007c and 2009), we point out that the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation compares favorably with the numerical results and those obtained using the slow-roll and uniform approximation methods.

  8. Is it possible to estimate the Higgs mass from the CMB power spectrum?

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuzov, A. B. Barbashov, B. M.; Borowiec, A.; Pervushin, V. N.; Shuvalov, S. A.; Zakharov, A. F.

    2009-05-15

    General Relativity and Standard Model are considered as a theory of dynamical scale symmetry with definite initial data compatible with the accepted Higgs mechanism. In this theory the Early Universe behaves like a factory of electroweak bosons and Higgs scalars, and it gives a possibility to identify three peaks in the Cosmic Microwave Background power spectrum with the contributions of photonic decays and annihilation processes of primordial Higgs, W and Z bosons in agreement with the QED coupling constant, Weinberg's angle, and Higgs' particle mass of about 118 GeV.

  9. Semi-blind Bayesian inference of CMB map and power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansyngel, Flavien; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Cardoso, Jean-François; Benabed, Karim

    2016-04-01

    We present a new blind formulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) inference problem. The approach relies on a phenomenological model of the multifrequency microwave sky without the need for physical models of the individual components. For all-sky and high resolution data, it unifies parts of the analysis that had previously been treated separately such as component separation and power spectrum inference. We describe an efficient sampling scheme that fully explores the component separation uncertainties on the inferred CMB products such as maps and/or power spectra. External information about individual components can be incorporated as a prior giving a flexible way to progressively and continuously introduce physical component separation from a maximally blind approach. We connect our Bayesian formalism to existing approaches such as Commander, spectral mismatch independent component analysis (SMICA), and internal linear combination (ILC), and discuss possible future extensions.

  10. Precise measurement of the matter power spectrum amplitude and the background radiation amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Tridivesh

    2004-09-01

    We investigate the one dimensional flux power spectrum of the Lymanα forest and compare it with Lymanα forest simulations using state of the art hydrodynamical simulations. We investigate how properties of the forest, such as the mean flux , b parameter distribution (specifically, the mode of the b parameter distribution, bmode) and flux power amplitude [P], depend on cosmological and astrophysical parameters such as σ8, the background UV radiation amplitude J, and the Helium reheating rate Jhe. We present our results of scaling relationships between the cosmological and astrophysical variables, J, σ8, Jhe, and observable astrophysical values, , [P], bmode. These scaling relations are used to determine the best fit values of the cosmological parameters; J = 1.1, σ8 = 0.93 and Jhe = 2.6. These values are remarkably close to the best fit values found by using WMAP data.

  11. SECOND SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRUM AT 95 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, D.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Newburgh, L. B.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Reeves, R.; Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Wehus, I. K.; Bronfman, L.; Church, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Gaier, T.; Collaboration: QUIET Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx}1000 deg{sup 2} with an effective angular resolution of 12.'8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C {sub l} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  12. Second Season QUIET Observations: Measurements of the CMB Polarization Power Spectrum at 95 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R.N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; ss, S.K.N\\ae; Newburgh, L.B.; /Columbia U., CBA /Princeton U. /Caltech

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95GHz. The 43-GHz results have been published in QUIET Collaboration et al. (2011), and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95-GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hours of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx} 1000 square degrees with an effective angular resolution of 12'.8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high-signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C{ell} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB and BB power spectra between {ell} = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = {sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  13. Second Season QUIET Observations: Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Power Spectrum at 95 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    QUIET Collaboration; Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; Næss, S. K.; Newburgh, L. B.; Reeves, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Bronfman, L.; Bustos, R.; Church, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Eriksen, H. K.; Gaier, T.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Jones, M. E.; Kangaslahti, P.; Kapner, D. J.; Kubik, D.; Lawrence, C. R.; Limon, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Miller, A. D.; Nagai, M.; Nguyen, H.; Nixon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Piccirillo, L.; Radford, S. J. E.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Samtleben, D.; Seiffert, M.; Shepherd, M. C.; Smith, K. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Tajima, O.; Thompson, K. L.; Vanderlinde, K.; Williamson, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 μK\\sqrt{s}. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of ~1000 deg2 with an effective angular resolution of 12farcm8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C l (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with ΛCDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1+0.9 - 0.8 (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2+0.9 - 0.8 (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  14. Modeling the cross power spectrum of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurier, G.; Aghanim, N.; Douspis, M.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and X-ray emission from galaxy clusters have been used extensively to constrain cosmological parameters. These constraints are highly sensitive to the relations between cluster masses and observables (tSZ and X-ray fluxes). The cross-correlation of tSZ and X-ray data is thus a powerful tool, in addition of tSZ and X-ray based analysis, for testing our modeling of both tSZ and X-ray emission from galaxy clusters. We chose to explore this cross-correlation because both emissions trace the hot gas in galaxy clusters and thus constitute one of the easiest correlations that can be studied. We present a complete modeling of the cross-correlation between tSZ effect and X-ray emission from galaxy clusters and focus on the dependencies with cluster scaling laws and cosmological parameters. We show that current knowledge of cosmological parameters and scaling-law parameters leads to uncertainties of 48% on the overall normalization of the tSZ-X cross-correlation power spectrum. We present the expected signal-to-noise ratio for the tSZ-X cross-correlation angular power spectrum and consider the sensitivity of actual tSZ and X-ray surveys from Planck-like data and ROSAT. We demonstrate that this signal-to-noise can reach 31.5 in a realistic situation, leading to a constraint on the amplitude of tSZ-X cross-correlation up to 3.2%, which is ten times better than actual modeling limitations. Consequently, using it in addition to other probes of cosmological parameters and scaling relations, we show that the tSZ-X is a powerful probe that constrains the cosmological parameters of scaling relations.

  15. Elementary Theoretical Forms for the Spatial Power Spectrum of Earth's Crustal Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, C.

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic field produced by magnetization in Earth's crust and lithosphere can be distinguished from the field produced by electric currents in Earth's core because the spatial magnetic power spectrum of the crustal field differs from that of the core field. Theoretical forms for the spectrum of the crustal field are derived by treating each magnetic domain in the crust as the point source of a dipole field. The geologic null-hypothesis that such moments are uncorrelated is used to obtain the magnetic spectrum expected from a randomly magnetized, or unstructured, spherical crust of negligible thickness. This simplest spectral form is modified to allow for uniform crustal thickness, ellipsoidality, and the polarization of domains by an periodically reversing, geocentric axial dipole field from Earth's core. Such spectra are intended to describe the background crustal field. Magnetic anomalies due to correlated magnetization within coherent geologic structures may well be superimposed upon this background; yet representing each such anomaly with a single point dipole may lead to similar spectral forms. Results from attempts to fit these forms to observational spectra, determined via spherical harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data, are summarized in terms of amplitude, source depth, and misfit. Each theoretical spectrum reduces to a source factor multiplied by the usual exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n due to geometric attenuation with attitude above the source layer. The source factors always vary with n and are approximately proportional to n(exp 3) for degrees 12 through 120. The theoretical spectra are therefore not directly proportional to an exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n. There is no radius at which these spectra are flat, level, or otherwise independent of n.

  16. The CMBR ISW and HI 21 cm cross-correlation angular power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha; Datta, Kanan K.; Bharadwaj, Somnath E-mail: kanan@cts.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2009-08-01

    The late-time growth of large scale structures is imprinted in the CMBR anisotropy through the Integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect. This is perceived to be a very important observational probe of dark energy. Future observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution hold the potential of probing the large scale structure over a large redshift range. We have investigated the possibility of detecting the ISW through cross-correlations between the CMBR anisotropies and redshifted 21-cm observations. Assuming that the HI traces the dark matter, we find that the ISW-HI cross-correlation angular power spectrum at an angular multipole l is proportional to the dark matter power spectrum evaluated at the comoving wave number l/r, where r is the comoving distance to the redshift from which the HI signal originated. The amplitude of the cross-correlation signal depends on parameters related to the HI distribution and the growth of cosmological perturbations. However, the cross-correlation is extremely weak as compared to the CMBR anisotropies and the predicted HI signal. Even in an ideal situation, the cross-correlation signal is smaller than the cosmic variance and a statistically significant detection is not very likely.

  17. Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(Φ)F² mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo

    2013-01-04

    A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F² gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ~5 e-folds (~50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis, for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local fNL~3(~30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.

  18. Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(Φ)F² mechanism

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo

    2013-01-04

    A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F² gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ~5 e-folds (~50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis,more » for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local fNL~3(~30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.« less

  19. More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Katırcı, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve

    2014-06-11

    We consider the single field chaotic m{sup 2}ϕ{sup 2} inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field χ in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the χ modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the <ζζ> correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ζ modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how χ loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two χ fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more χ fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.

  20. More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Katirci, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve E-mail: ali.kaya@boun.edu.tr

    2014-06-01

    We consider the single field chaotic m{sup 2}φ{sup 2} inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field χ in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the χ modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the (ζζ) correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ζ modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how χ loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two χ fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more χ fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.

  1. Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(ϕ)F2 mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ˜5 e-folds (˜50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis, for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local fNL˜3(˜30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.

  2. Power Spectrum Analysis of Polarized Emission from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W.; Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.

    2014-05-01

    Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg2. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from l ≈ 60 to l ≈ 104 and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.

  3. Power spectrum analysis of polarized emission from the Canadian galactic plane survey

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W.; Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.

    2014-05-20

    Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg{sup 2}. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from ℓ ≈ 60 to ℓ ≈ 10{sup 4} and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.

  4. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  5. Developmental Profiles in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Referred for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Hedvall, Asa; Norrelgen, Fritiof; Eriksson, Mats; Hoglund-Carlsson, Lotta; Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Svensson, Liselotte; Holm, Annette; Westerlund, Joakim; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to characterize the panorama of developmental disorders in 208 preschool children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), referred to a specialized centre, the Autism Centre for Young Children (ACYC), for intervention. At the centre, a research team examined all children according to structured protocols and…

  6. Evidence for Distinct Cognitive Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Grayndler, Luke; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2014-01-01

    Findings that a subgroup of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have linguistic capabilities that resemble specific language impairment (SLI) have led some authors to hypothesise that ASD and SLI have a shared aetiology. While considerable research has explored overlap in the language phenotypes of the two conditions, little research…

  7. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Psychiatric Hospitals in Ontario: Clinical Profile and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Gracey, Carolyn; Bradley, Elspeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) represent a small, but challenging sub-group of patients within Ontario's mental health care system. However, few studies have documented the clinical characteristics of this population and examined how such individuals differ from other psychiatric patients, with or without intellectual…

  8. A Comprehensive Profile of Decoding and Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sabine V.; Mann, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined intake data from 384 participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a comparison group of 100 participants with dyslexia on nine standardized measures of decoding and comprehension. Although diagnostic groups were based on parental reports and could not be verified independently, we were able to observe…

  9. New approach for precise computation of Lyman-α forest power spectrum with hydrodynamical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Arnaud; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Rossi, Graziano; Yèche, Christophe; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, Jim; Bolton, James S. E-mail: nathalie.palanque-delabrouille@cea.fr E-mail: matteoviel@gmail.com E-mail: christophe.yeche@cea.fr E-mail: james.rich@cea.fr

    2014-07-01

    Current experiments are providing measurements of the flux power spectrum from the Lyman-α forests observed in quasar spectra with unprecedented accuracy. Their interpretation in terms of cosmological constraints requires specific simulations of at least equivalent precision. In this paper, we present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations with cold dark matter and baryons, specifically aiming at modeling the low-density regions of the inter-galactic medium as probed by the Lyman-α forests at high redshift. The simulations were run using the GADGET-3 code and were designed to match the requirements imposed by the quality of the current SDSS-III/BOSS or forthcoming SDSS-IV/eBOSS data. They are made using either 2 × 768{sup 3} ≅ 1 billion or 2 × 192{sup 3} ≅ 14 million particles, spanning volumes ranging from (25 Mpc h{sup −1}){sup 3} for high-resolution simulations to (100 Mpc h{sup −1}){sup 3} for large-volume ones. Using a splicing technique, the resolution is further enhanced to reach the equivalent of simulations with 2 × 3072{sup 3} ≅ 58 billion particles in a (100 Mpc h{sup −1}){sup 3} box size, i.e. a mean mass per gas particle of 1.2 × 10{sup 5}M{sub ⊙} h{sup −1}. We show that the resulting power spectrum is accurate at the 2% level over the full range from a few Mpc to several tens of Mpc. We explore the effect on the one-dimensional transmitted-flux power spectrum of four cosmological parameters (n{sub s}, σ{sub 8}, Ω{sub m} and H{sub 0}) and two astrophysical parameters (T{sub 0} and γ) that are related to the heating rate of the intergalactic medium. By varying the input parameters around a central model chosen to be in agreement with the latest Planck results, we built a grid of simulations that allows the study of the impact on the flux power spectrum of these six relevant parameters. We improve upon previous studies by not only measuring the effect of each parameter individually, but also probing the impact of the

  10. Separating Fractal and Oscillatory Components in the Power Spectrum of Neurophysiological Signal.

    PubMed

    Wen, Haiguang; Liu, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Neurophysiological field-potential signals consist of both arrhythmic and rhythmic patterns indicative of the fractal and oscillatory dynamics arising from likely distinct mechanisms. Here, we present a new method, namely the irregular-resampling auto-spectral analysis (IRASA), to separate fractal and oscillatory components in the power spectrum of neurophysiological signal according to their distinct temporal and spectral characteristics. In this method, we irregularly resampled the neural signal by a set of non-integer factors, and statistically summarized the auto-power spectra of the resampled signals to separate the fractal component from the oscillatory component in the frequency domain. We tested this method on simulated data and demonstrated that IRASA could robustly separate the fractal component from the oscillatory component. In addition, applications of IRASA to macaque electrocorticography and human magnetoencephalography data revealed a greater power-law exponent of fractal dynamics during sleep compared to wakefulness. The temporal fluctuation in the broadband power of the fractal component revealed characteristic dynamics within and across the eyes-closed, eyes-open and sleep states. These results demonstrate the efficacy and potential applications of this method in analyzing electrophysiological signatures of large-scale neural circuit activity. We expect that the proposed method or its future variations would potentially allow for more specific characterization of the differential contributions of oscillatory and fractal dynamics to distributed neural processes underlying various brain functions.

  11. Planck 2013 results. XXI. Power spectrum and high-order statistics of the Planck all-sky Compton parameter map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales (ℓ < 60), the major foreground contaminant is the diffuse thermal dust emission. At small angular scales (ℓ > 500) the clustered cosmic infrared background and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We thus measure the tSZ power spectrum over angular scales 0.17° ≲ θ ≲ 3.0° that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with clear evidence of additional signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. Marginalized band-powers of the Planck tSZ power spectrum and the best-fit model are given. The non-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. The measured tSZ power spectrum and high order statistics are used to place constraints on σ8.

  12. THE POWER SPECTRUM OF THE MILKY WAY: VELOCITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE GALACTIC DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Bird, Jonathan C.; Pérez, Ana E. García; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-02-20

    We investigate the kinematics of stars in the mid-plane of the Milky Way (MW) on scales between 25 pc and 10 kpc with data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS). Using red-clump (RC) stars in APOGEE, we determine the large-scale line-of-sight velocity field out to 5 kpc from the Sun in (0.75 kpc){sup 2} bins. The solar motion V{sub ☉} {sub –} {sub c} with respect to the circular velocity V{sub c} is the largest contribution to the power on large scales after subtracting an axisymmetric rotation field; we determine the solar motion by minimizing the large-scale power to be V{sub ☉} {sub –} {sub c} = 24 ± 1 (ran.) ± 2 (syst. [V{sub c} ]) ± 5 (syst.[large-scale]) km s{sup –1}, where the systematic uncertainty is due to (1) a conservative 20 km s{sup –1} uncertainty in V{sub c} and (2) the estimated power on unobserved larger scales. Combining the APOGEE peculiar-velocity field with RC stars in RAVE out to 2 kpc from the Sun and with local GCS stars, we determine the power spectrum of residual velocity fluctuations in the MW's disk on scales between 0.2 kpc{sup –1} ≤ k ≤ 40 kpc{sup –1}. Most of the power is contained in a broad peak between 0.2 kpc{sup –1} < k < 0.9 kpc{sup –1}. We investigate the expected power spectrum for various non-axisymmetric perturbations and demonstrate that the central bar with commonly used parameters but of relatively high mass can explain the bulk of velocity fluctuations in the plane of the Galactic disk near the Sun. Streaming motions ≈10 km s{sup –1} on ≳ 3 kpc scales in the MW are in good agreement with observations of external galaxies and directly explain why local determinations of the solar motion are inconsistent with global measurements.

  13. OPTIMAL CAPTURE OF NON-GAUSSIANITY IN WEAK-LENSING SURVEYS: POWER SPECTRUM, BISPECTRUM, AND HALO COUNTS

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, Joel; Refregier, Alexandre

    2010-04-01

    We compare the efficiency of weak-lensing-selected galaxy cluster counts and of the weak-lensing bispectrum at capturing non-Gaussian features in the dark matter distribution. We use the halo model to compute the weak-lensing power spectrum, the bispectrum, and the expected number of detected clusters, and derive constraints on cosmological parameters for a large, low systematic weak-lensing survey, by focusing on the OMEGA{sub m}-sigma{sub 8} plane and on the dark energy equation of state. We separate the power spectrum into the resolved and the unresolved parts of the data, the resolved part being defined as detected clusters, and the unresolved part as the rest of the field. We consider four kinds of clusters counts, taking into account different amount of information: signal-to-noise ratio peak counts, counts as a function of clusters' mass, counts as a function of clusters' redshift, and counts as a function of clusters' mass and redshift. We show that when combined with the power spectrum, those four kinds of counts provide similar constraints, thus allowing one to perform the most direct counts, signal-to-noise peak counts, and get percent level constraints on cosmological parameters. We show that the weak-lensing bispectrum gives constraints comparable to those given by the power spectrum and captures non-Gaussian features as well as cluster counts, its combination with the power spectrum giving errors on cosmological parameters that are similar to, if not marginally smaller than, those obtained when combining the power spectrum with cluster counts. We finally note that in order to reach its potential, the weak-lensing bispectrum must be computed using all triangle configurations, as equilateral triangles alone do not provide useful information. The appendices summarize the halo model, and the way the power spectrum and bispectrum are computed in this framework.

  14. Association between power law coefficients of the anatomical noise power spectrum and lesion detectability in breast imaging modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Abbey, Craig K.; Boone, John M.

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a parameter extracted from a power function fit to the anatomical noise power spectrum, β, may be predictive of breast mass lesion detectability in x-ray based medical images of the breast. In this investigation, the value of β was compared with a number of other more widely used parameters, in order to determine the relationship between β and these other parameters. This study made use of breast CT data sets, acquired on two breast CT systems developed in our laboratory. A total of 185 breast data sets in 183 women were used, and only the unaffected breast was used (where no lesion was suspected). The anatomical noise power spectrum computed from two-dimensional region of interests (ROIs), was fit to a power function (NPS(f) = α f-β), and the exponent parameter (β) was determined using log/log linear regression. Breast density for each of the volume data sets was characterized in previous work. The breast CT data sets analyzed in this study were part of a previous study which evaluated the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance using simulated spherical lesions and a pre-whitened matched filter computer observer. This ROC information was used to compute the detectability index as well as the sensitivity at 95% specificity. The fractal dimension was computed from the same ROIs which were used for the assessment of β. The value of β was compared to breast density, detectability index, sensitivity, and fractal dimension, and the slope of these relationships was investigated to assess statistical significance from zero slope. A statistically significant non-zero slope was considered to be a positive association in this investigation. All comparisons between β and breast density, detectability index, sensitivity at 95% specificity, and fractal dimension demonstrated statistically significant association with p < 0.001 in all cases. The value of β was also found to be associated with patient age and

  15. The Power Card Strategy: Strength-Based Intervention to Increase Direction Following of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Abbi; Tincani, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The Power Card strategy is a strength-based intervention to promote social skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by capitalizing on their special interests. Although preliminary studies have shown that the Power Card strategy is a promising approach to teach social skills, additional research is needed. The purpose of this study…

  16. SIMULATIONS OF THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH POWER SPECTRUM WITH ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, N.; Bond, J. R.; Pfrommer, C.; Sievers, J. L.; Sijacki, D.

    2010-12-10

    We explore how radiative cooling, supernova feedback, cosmic rays, and a new model of the energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) affect the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectra. To do this, we use a suite of hydrodynamical TreePM-SPH simulations of the cosmic web in large periodic boxes and tailored higher resolution simulations of individual galaxy clusters. Our AGN feedback simulations match the recent universal pressure profile and cluster mass scaling relations of the REXCESS X-ray cluster sample better than previous analytical or numerical approaches. For multipoles l {approx}< 2000, our power spectra with and without enhanced feedback are similar, suggesting that theoretical uncertainties over that range are relatively small, although current analytic and semi-analytic approaches overestimate this SZ power. We find the power at high 2000-10, 000 multipoles in which the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and South Pole Telescope (SPT) probe is sensitive to the feedback prescription, and hence can constrain the theory of intracluster gas, in particular for the highly uncertain redshifts >0.8. The apparent tension between {sigma}{sub 8} from primary cosmic microwave background power and from analytic SZ spectra inferred using ACT and SPT data is lessened with our AGN feedback spectra.

  17. The power spectrum of galaxies in the 2dF 100k redshift survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Xu, Yongzhong

    2002-10-01

    We compute the real-space power spectrum and the redshift-space distortions of galaxies in the 2dF 100k galaxy redshift survey using pseudo-Karhunen-Loève eigenmodes and the stochastic bias formalism. Our results agree well with those published by the 2dFGRS team, and have the added advantage of producing easy-to-interpret uncorrelated minimum-variance measurements of the galaxy-galaxy, galaxy-velocity and velocity-velocity power spectra in 27 k-bands, with narrow and well-behaved window functions in the range 0.01 h Mpc-1 < k < 0.8 h Mpc-1. We find no significant detection of baryonic wiggles, although our results are consistent with a standard flat ΩΛ= 0.7`concordance' model and previous tantalizing hints of baryonic oscillations. We measure the galaxy-matter correlation coefficient r > 0.4 and the redshift-distortion parameter β= 0.49 +/- 0.16 for r= 1 (β= 0.47 +/- 0.16 without finger-of-god compression). Since this is an apparent-magnitude limited sample, luminosity-dependent bias may cause a slight red-tilt in the power spectrum. A battery of systematic error tests indicate that the survey is not only impressive in size, but also unusually clean, free of systematic errors at the level to which our tests are sensitive. Our measurements and window functions are available at http://www.hep.upenn.edu/~max/2df.html together with the survey mask, radial selection function and uniform subsample of the survey that we have constructed.

  18. PARAMETRIC TENSION BETWEEN EVEN AND ODD MULTIPOLE DATA OF THE WMAP POWER SPECTRUM: UNACCOUNTED CONTAMINATION OR MISSING PARAMETERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-12-01

    There exists power contrast in even and odd multipoles of the WMAP power spectrum at low and intermediate multipole ranges. This anomaly is explicitly associated with the angular power spectrum, which is heavily used for cosmological model fitting. Having noted this, we have investigated whether even (odd) multipole data set is individually consistent with the WMAP concordance model. Our investigation shows that the WMAP concordance model does not make a good fit for even (odd) multipole data set, which indicates parametric tension between even and odd multipole data set. Noting that tension is highest in primordial power spectrum parameters, we have additionally considered a running spectral index, but found that tension increases to even a higher level. We believe these parametric tensions may be indications of unaccounted contamination or imperfection of the model.

  19. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's Cp method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, other ground-based small angular scale CMB experiments, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The reconstructed spectrum (assuming the standard ΛCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at klesssim5 × 10-4 Mpc-1 (due to the anomalously low CMB quadrupole) and several features with ~ 2σ significance at k/Mpc-1 ~ 0.0013-0.0025, 0.0362-0.0402 and 0.051-0.056, reflecting the `WMAP glitches'. To test whether these are indeed real will require more accurate data, such as from the Planck satellite and new ground-based experiments.

  20. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir E-mail: s.sarkar@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism ('inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that 'Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's C{sub p} method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, other ground-based small angular scale CMB experiments, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The reconstructed spectrum (assuming the standard ΛCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at k∼<5 × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −1} (due to the anomalously low CMB quadrupole) and several features with ∼ 2σ significance at k/Mpc{sup −1} ∼ 0.0013–0.0025, 0.0362–0.0402 and 0.051–0.056, reflecting the 'WMAP glitches'. To test whether these are indeed real will require more accurate data, such as from the Planck satellite and new ground-based experiments.

  1. Angular power spectrum of sterile neutrino decay lines: the role of eROSITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandanel, Fabio; Weniger, Christoph; Ando, Shin’ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We study the potential of the angular auto and cross-correlation power spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in identifying sterile neutrino dark matter taking as reference the performances of the soon-to-be-launched eROSITA satellite. The main astrophysical background sources in this case are active galactic nuclei, galaxies powered by X-ray binaries, and clusters of galaxies. We show that while sterile neutrino decays are always subdominant in the autocorrelation power spectra, they can be efficiently enhanced when cross-correlating with tracers of the dark matter distribution. We estimate that the four-years eROSITA all-sky survey will potentially provide very stringent constraints on the sterile neutrino decay lifetime by cross-correlating the cosmic X-ray background with the 2MASS galaxy catalogue. This will allow to firmly test the recently claimed 3.56-keV X-ray line found towards several clusters and galaxies and its decaying dark matter interpretation. We finally stress that the main limitation of this approach is due to the shot noise of the galaxy catalogues used as tracers for the dark matter distribution, a limitation that we need to overcome to fully exploit the potential of the eROSITA satellite in this context.

  2. The Three-dimensional Power Spectrum from Angular Clustering of Galaxies in Early Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Narayanan, Vijay K.; Tegmark, Max; Scranton, Ryan; Budavári, Tamas; Connolly, Andrew; Csabai, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Hui, Lam; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert C.; O'Connell, Liam; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Stebbins, Albert; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, István; Vogeley, Michael S.; Zehavi, Idit; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkman, Jon; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Hennessy, Greg; Ivezić, Željko; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kunszt, Peter; Lamb, Don Q.; Lee, Brian C.; Lupton, Robert H.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Peoples, John; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Rockosi, Constance; Schlegel, David; Stoughton, Christopher; Tucker, Douglas L.; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.

    2002-06-01

    Early photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) contain angular positions for 1.5 million galaxies. In companion papers, the angular correlation function w(θ) and two-dimensional power spectrum Cl of these galaxies are presented. Here we invert Limber's equation to extract the three-dimensional power spectrum from the angular results. We accomplish this using an estimate of dn/dz, the redshift distribution of galaxies in four different magnitude slices in the SDSS photometric catalog. The resulting three-dimensional power spectrum estimates from w(θ) and Cl agree with each other and with previous estimates over a range in wavenumbers 0.03power spectrum agrees with that of Szalay et al., who go directly from the raw data to a parametric estimate of the power spectrum. The strongest constraints on the shape parameter Γ come from the faintest galaxies (in the magnitude bin 21

  3. Cosmology constraints from the weak lensing peak counts and the power spectrum in CFHTLenS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltán; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.; May, Morgan

    2015-03-01

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w , and replicating the Galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤5 %, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w ) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error "banana" in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈2 , compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27 )0.63=0.85-0.03+0.03 .

  4. Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, James T. III; Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Chen Ying

    2006-05-15

    Second in a two-part series comparing measurement techniques for the assessment of basic image quality metrics in digital radiography, in this paper we focus on the measurement of the image noise power spectrum (NPS). Three methods were considered: (1) a method published by Dobbins et al. [Med. Phys. 22, 1581-1593 (1995)] (2) a method published by Samei et al. [Med. Phys. 30, 608-622 (2003)], and (3) a new method sanctioned by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1, 2003), developed as part of an international standard for the measurement of detective quantum efficiency. In addition to an overall comparison of the estimated NPS between the three techniques, the following factors were also evaluated for their effect on the measured NPS: horizontal versus vertical directional dependence, the use of beam-limiting apertures, beam spectrum, and computational methods of NPS analysis, including the region-of-interest (ROI) size and the method of ROI normalization. Of these factors, none was found to demonstrate a substantial impact on the amplitude of the NPS estimates ({<=}3.1% relative difference in NPS averaged over frequency, for each factor considered separately). Overall, the three methods agreed to within 1.6%{+-}0.8% when averaged over frequencies >0.15 mm{sup -1}.

  5. Evolution of the energy-loss-spectrum profile with the projectile mass in impulsive ion-molecule collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Ichimura, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Systematic analysis is made for illuminating the mechanism of rotational and vibrational excitations in an impulsive ion-molecule collision from the viewpoint of its sudden nature. Variation of the energy-loss spectrum with the projectile mass is examined in the collision system of an alkali-metal ion with a nitrogen molecule at a hyperthermal energy of 27 eV using a common interaction potential. The spectra are obtained by the classical trajectory calculation and compared with two sudden-limit models—the hard-shell model for rigid-rotor molecules and the hard-potential model for vibrating-rotor molecules [A. Ichimura and M. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022716 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.022716]. For a projectile much lighter than the target, the vibrational and rotational excitation occurs in such a way that the hard-potential model predicts, producing a spectral profile with double peaks. As the projectile mass increases, the vibrational suddenness is degraded so that the vibrational excitation becomes quenched, while the spectral profile still shows a double-peak structure explainable with the hard-shell model. Subsequently, as the projectile mass further increases, the rotational suddenness is also degraded so that the spectrum indicates a profile departing far from the prediction of the hard-shell model; the deeply inelastic peak is suppressed and the nearly elastic peak is enhanced. Such spectral deformation actually occurs in an experimental result reported for Na+-N2 collisions [M. Nakamura, S. Kita, and T. Hasegawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3161 (1987), 10.1143/JPSJ.56.3161]. Eventually, the deeply inelastic peak disappears due to temporary excitation during a collision.

  6. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Power Spectrum from the BEAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer, Ian J.; Bersanelli, Marco; Childers, Jeffrey; Figueiredo, Newton; Halevi, Doron; Huey, Greg; Lubin, Philip M.; Maino, Davide; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Marvil, Joshua; Meinhold, Peter R.; Mejía, Jorge; Natoli, Paolo; O'Neill, Hugh; Pina, Agenor; Seiffert, Michael D.; Stebor, Nathan C.; Tello, Camilo; Villela, Thyrso; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Williams, Brian; Wuensche, Carlos Alexandre

    2005-05-01

    The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) is a 2.2 m off-axis telescope with an eight-element mixed Q-band (38-45 GHz) and Ka-band (26-36 GHz) focal plane, designed for balloon-borne and ground-based studies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Here we present the CMB angular power spectrum calculated from 682 hr of data observed with the BEAST instrument. We use a binned pseudo-Cl estimator (the MASTER method). We find results that are consistent with other determinations of the CMB anisotropy for angular wavenumbers l between 100 and 600. We also perform cosmological parameter estimation. The BEAST data alone produce a good constraint on Ωk≡1-Ωtot=-0.074+/-0.070, consistent with a flat universe. A joint parameter estimation analysis with a number of previous CMB experiments produces results consistent with previous determinations.

  7. Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in effective field theory motivated monodromy inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Layne C.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

  8. Oscillatory features in the curvature power spectrum after a sudden turn of the inflationary trajectory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xian; Langlois, David; Mizuno, Shuntaro E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2013-10-01

    In the context of two-field inflation characterized by a light direction and a heavy direction, we revisit the question of the impact of the massive modes on the power spectrum produced after a turn in the inflationary trajectory. We consider in particular the resonant effect due to the background oscillations following a sharp turn. Working in the mass basis, i.e. in the basis spanned by the eigenvectors of the effective mass matrix for the perturbations, we provide an analytical estimate of the resonant effect, using the in-in formalism. In comparison with earlier estimates, we find the same the spectral dependence but a smaller amplitude. We also compute, again via the in-in formalism, the effect of the direct coupling between the light and heavy modes at the instant of the turn and confirm our previous results obtained via a different method.

  9. Constraining halo occupation distribution and cosmic growth rate using multipole power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikage, Chiaki

    2014-06-01

    We propose a new method of measuring halo occupation distribution (HOD) together with cosmic growth rate using multipole components of galaxy power spectrum Pl(k). The non-linear redshift-space distortion due to the random motion of satellite galaxies, i.e. Fingers-of-God, generates high-l multipole anisotropy in galaxy clustering, such as the hexadecapole (l = 4) and tetra-hexadecapole (l = 6), which are sensitive to the fraction and the velocity dispersion of satellite galaxies. Using simulated samples following the HOD of luminous red galaxies, we find that the input HOD parameters are successfully reproduced from Pl(k), and that high-l multipole information help to break the degeneracy among HOD parameters. We also show that the measurements of the cosmic growth rate as well as the satellite fraction and velocity dispersions are significantly improved by adding the small-scale information of high-l multipoles.

  10. Effect of Void Distribution Parameter and Axial Power Profile on Boiling Water Reactor Bifurcation Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Bragt, D.D.B. van; Rizwan-uddin; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2000-02-15

    Bifurcation analyses of the impact of the void distribution parameter C{sub 0} and the axial power profile on the stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs) are reported. Bifurcation characteristics of heated channels (without nuclear feedback) appear to be very sensitive to the axial power profile. A turning point bifurcation was detected for a (symmetrically) peaked axial power profile. This kind of bifurcation does not occur for a uniformly heated channel.Both supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcations were encountered in a (nuclear-coupled) reactor system, depending on the strength of the void reactivity feedback. Subcritical bifurcations become less likely to occur as C{sub 0} is significantly larger than unity. In BWRs with a strong nuclear feedback, the oscillation amplitude of limit cycles caused by a supercritical bifurcation is very sensitive to both C{sub 0} and the axial power profile.

  11. Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.

    2015-11-01

    We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.

  12. Disentangling redshift-space distortions and non-linear bias using the 2D power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Warren, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    We present the 2D redshift-space galaxy power spectrum, P(k, μ), measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using catalogues constructed with halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual μ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of non-linear growth and redshift-space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the μ < 0.2 simulation data, which is not impacted by RSD, we can successfully measure the non-linear bias to ˜5 per cent at k < 0.6 h Mpc-1. Using the low μ simulation data to constrain the non-linear bias, and μ ≥ 0.2 to constrain the growth rate, we show that f can be constrained to ˜26(22) per cent to a kmax < 0.4(0.6) h Mpc-1 from clustering alone using a dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual μ bins reveals interesting physical effects which arise from different methods of populating haloes with galaxies. We find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater than the non-linear growth, which differs for each galaxy model. The idea of separating non-linear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.

  13. The power spectrum and bispectrum of SDSS DR11 BOSS galaxies - II. Cosmological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Verde, Licia; Noreña, Jorge; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Samushia, Lado; Percival, Will J.; Wagner, Christian; Manera, Marc; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-09-01

    We examine the cosmological implications of the measurements of the linear growth rate of cosmological structure obtained in a companion paper from the power spectrum and bispectrum monopoles of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 11, CMASS galaxies. This measurement was of f 0.43σ8, where σ8 is the amplitude of dark matter density fluctuations, and f is the linear growth rate, at the effective redshift of the survey, zeff = 0.57. In conjunction with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, interesting constraints can be placed on models with non-standard neutrino properties and models where gravity deviates from General Relativity on cosmological scales. In particular, the sum of the masses of the three species of the neutrinos is constrained to mν < 0.49 eV (at 95 per cent confidence level) when the f 0.43σ8 measurement is combined with state-of-the-art CMB measurements. Allowing the effective number of neutrinos to vary as a free parameter does not significantly change these results. When we combine the measurement of f 0.43σ8 with the complementary measurement of fσ8 from the monopole and quadrupole of the two-point correlation function, we are able to obtain an independent measurements of f and σ8. We obtain f = 0.63 ± 0.16 and σ8 = 0.710 ± 0.086 (68 per cent confidence level). This is the first time when these parameters have been able to be measured independently using the redshift-space power spectrum and bispectrum measurements from galaxy clustering data only.

  14. Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-08-07

    We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show is not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.

  15. Maximum entropy and stability of a random process with a 1/f power spectrum under deterministic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.

    2012-12-01

    The principle of maximum entropy has been used to analyze the stability of the resulting process observed during the interaction of a random process with a 1/f spectrum and a deterministic action in lumped and distributed systems of nonlinear stochastic differential equations describing the coupled nonequilibrium phase transitions. Under the action of a harmonic force the stable resulting process is divided into two branches depending on the amplitude of the harmonic force. Under the action of exponential relaxation in a lumped system with an increase in the dumping coefficient the power spectrum of the resulting process becomes a spectrum of the Lorentz type.

  16. Profile and predictors of service needs for families of children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing demand for autism services is straining service systems. Tailoring services to best meet families’ needs could improve their quality of life and decrease burden on the system. We explored overall, best, and worst met service needs, and predictors of those needs, for families of children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Parents of 143 children with autism spectrum disorders (2–18 years) completed a survey including demographic and descriptive information, the Family Needs Survey–Revised, and an open-ended question about service needs. Descriptive statistics characterize the sample and determine the degree to which items were identified and met as needs. Predictors of total and unmet needs were modeled with regression or generalized linear model. Qualitative responses were thematically analyzed. Results: The most frequently identified overall and unmet service needs were information on services, family support, and respite care. The funding and quality of professional support available were viewed positively. Decreased child’s age and income and being an older mother predicted more total needs. Having an older child or mother, lower income, and disruptive behaviors predicted more total unmet needs, yet only disruptive behaviors predicted proportional unmet need. Child’s language or intellectual abilities did not predict needs. Conclusion: Findings can help professionals, funders, and policy-makers tailor services to best meet families’ needs. PMID:25073749

  17. Resonance Raman spectrum and excitation profile of mass-selected zirconium trimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouari, Hanae; Wang, Huaiming; Craig, Robert; Lombardi, John R.; Lindsay, D. M.

    1995-12-01

    We present the resonance Raman and Raman excitation profile of mass-selected zirconium trimers in argon matrices. In the Raman spectra, two fundamentals and one overtone are observed. Average Raman shifts, along with standard deviations (in parentheses) are 176.7 (13) cm-1 (ν2), 258.0 (12) cm-1 (ν1), and 516.1 (8) cm-1 (2ν1). The ratio of the frequencies of the two lowest lines (ν1/ν2) is 1.46, which is very close to √2. This is indicative of a symmetrical equilateral geometry (D3h). In such a case we expect two normal frequencies, one for a totally symmetric stretch of symmetry a'1 (ν1) and a doubly degenerate bend of symmetry e'(ν2). The Raman excitation profiles of the ν1(a'1) line shows two broad maxima: one near 491 nm and the other near 614 nm. The ν2 (e') profile shows a broad region of intensity only near 614 nm. With the aid of theory we assign the 614 nm band to be 1A'1-1E' (x,y polarized) while the 491 nm band must be 1A'1-1A″2 (z polarized).

  18. An experimental investigation of the power spectrum of phase modulation induced on a satellite radio signal by the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The power spectrum of phase modulation imposed upon satellite radio signals by the inhomogeneous F-region of the ionosphere (100 - 500 km) was studied. Tapes of the S-66 Beacon B Satellite recorded during the period 1964 - 1966 were processed to yield or record the frequency of modulation induced on the signals by ionospheric dispersion. This modulation is produced from the sweeping across the receiving station as the satellite transits of the two dimensional spatial phase pattern are produced on the ground. From this a power spectrum of structure sizes comprising the diffracting mechanism was determined using digital techniques. Fresnel oscillations were observed and analyzed along with some comments on the statistical stationarity of the shape of the power spectrum observed.

  19. EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM ACROSS WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA RELEASES: A NONPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Aghamousa, Amir; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: mihir@ncra.tifr.res.in

    2012-02-01

    Using a nonparametric function estimation methodology, we present a comparative analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year data releases for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum with respect to the following key questions. (1) How well is the power spectrum determined by the data alone? (2) How well is the {Lambda}CDM model supported by a model-independent, data-driven analysis? (3) What are the realistic uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights? Our results show that the height of the power spectrum is well determined by data alone for multipole l approximately less than 546 (1-year), 667 (3-year), 804 (5-year), and 842 (7-year data). We show that parametric fits based on the {Lambda}CDM model are remarkably close to our nonparametric fits in l-regions where data are sufficiently precise. In contrast, the power spectrum for an H{Lambda}CDM model is progressively pushed away from our nonparametric fit as data quality improves with successive data realizations, suggesting incompatibility of this particular cosmological model with respect to the WMAP data sets. We present uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% (2{sigma}) level of confidence and show how these uncertainties translate into hyperbolic 'bands' on the acoustic scale (l{sub A} ) and peak shift ({phi}{sub m}) parameters. Based on the confidence set for the 7-year data, we argue that the low-l upturn in the CMB power spectrum cannot be ruled out at any confidence level in excess of about 10% ( Almost-Equal-To 0.12{sigma}). Additional outcomes of this work are a numerical formulation for minimization of a noise-weighted risk function subject to monotonicity constraints, a prescription for obtaining nonparametric fits that are closer to cosmological expectations on smoothness, and a method for sampling cosmologically meaningful power spectrum variations from the confidence set of a nonparametric fit.

  20. Inflammatory profiles in the BTBR mouse: How relevant are they to autism spectrum disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Careaga, Milo; Schwartzer, Jared; Ashwood, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of disorders characterized by core behavioral features including stereotyped interests, repetitive behaviors and impairments in communication and social interaction. In addition, widespread changes in the immune systems of individuals with ASD have been identified, in particular increased evidence of inflammation in the periphery and central nervous system. While the etiology of these disorders remains unclear, it appears that multiple gene and environmental factors are involved. The need for animal models paralleling the behavioral and immunological features of ASD is paramount to better understand the link between immune system dysregulation and behavioral deficits observed in these disorders. As such, the asocial BTBR mouse strain displays both ASD relevant behaviors and persistent immune dysregulation, providing a model system that has and continues to be instructive in understanding the complex nature of ASD. PMID:24937468

  1. Power Spectrum Analysis of Heart Rate Fluctuation: A Quantitative Probe of Beat-To-Beat Cardiovascular Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, Solange; Gordon, David; Ubel, F. Andrew; Shannon, Daniel C.; Barger, A. Clifford; Cohen, Richard J.

    1981-07-01

    Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations provides a quantitative noninvasive means of assessing the functioning of the short-term cardiovascular control systems. We show that sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity make frequency-specific contributions to the heart rate power spectrum, and that renin-angiotensin system activity strongly modulates the amplitude of the spectral peak located at 0.04 hertz. Our data therefore provide evidence that the reninangiotensin system plays a significant role in short-term cardiovascular control on the time scale of seconds to minutes.

  2. A power line data communication interface using spread spectrum technology in home automation

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Khan, A.Z.

    1996-07-01

    Building automation technology is rapidly developing towards more reliable communication systems, devices that control electronic equipments. These equipment if controlled leads to efficient energy management, and savings on the monthly electricity bill. Power Line communication (PLC) has been one of the dreams of the electronics industry for decades, especially for building automation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate communication methods among electronic control devices through an AC power line carrier within the buildings for more efficient energy control. The paper outlines methods of communication over a powerline, namely the X-10 and CE bus. It also introduces the spread spectrum technology as to increase speed to 100--150 times faster than the X-10 system. The powerline carrier has tremendous applications in the field of building automation. The paper presents an attempt to realize a smart house concept, so called, in which all home electronic devices from a coffee maker to a water heater microwave to chaos robots will be utilized by an intelligent network whenever one wishes to do so. The designed system may be applied very profitably to help in energy management for both customer and utility.

  3. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Palmer, Todd A.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  4. Some regularities in the variation of the Balmer line profiles in the P CYG spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N. St.

    1986-06-01

    Using the Coude focus of the 2 m RCC telescope at the National Astronomical Observatory of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, 47 spectrograms covering the range from 3500 to 4900 A (about 1400 A) with a reciprocal dispersion of 9 a/mm and a spectral resolution of 0.18 A were obtained. The photometric and position behavior of Balmer lines were investigated over a long time-scale, i.e., March 1981 to August 1982. The hydrogen line profiles were rectified in the way described by de Grot (1969). It is found that the absorption consists of three and sometimes four components. Their position behavior may be explained by the existence of two kinds of shells, pulsating and steadily expanding, and it is quite possible that shells of the first type may become shells of the second type in the outer parts of the P Cyg envelope. The total emission and absorption equivalent widths of the H11, H9, and H-delta lines change with conspicuous minima and maxima. The amplitude of these variations increases with decrease in the upper quantum number. For example, the total absorption equivalent widths change by about 38 percent for H-delta and 22 percent for H9. The data suggest a periodic change in the radial velocities, intensity of each separate absorption component, total equivalent widths and profiles.

  5. Primary cosmic ray spectrum in the 10 to the 12th power - 10 to the 16th power eV energy range from the NUSEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, E.; Bloise, C.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiarella, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cundy, D.

    1985-01-01

    A primary cosmic ray spectrum was derived which fits both experimental multiple muon rates and the all-nucleon flux derived from the single muon intensities underground. In the frame of the interaction model developed by Gaisser, Elbert and Stanev, it is possible to reproduce NUSEX muon data with a primary composition in which the iron spectrum is only slightly flatter than the proton one. This result rules out the popular idea that the primary composition varies drastically with increasing energy, leading to the dominance of heavier nuclei at energies 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV.

  6. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Job Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Job Profiles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  7. Fourier Power Spectrum Characteristics of Face Photographs: Attractiveness Perception Depends on Low-Level Image Properties

    PubMed Central

    Langner, Oliver; Wiese, Holger; Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low-level processed image properties that are shared by natural scenes and artworks – but not veridical face photographs – affect the perception of facial attractiveness and age. Specifically, we considered the slope of the radially averaged Fourier power spectrum in a log-log plot. This slope is a measure of the distribution of special frequency power in an image. Images of natural scenes and artworks possess – compared to face images – a relatively shallow slope (i.e., increased high spatial frequency power). Since aesthetic perception might be based on the efficient processing of images with natural scene statistics, we assumed that the perception of facial attractiveness might also be affected by these properties. We calculated Fourier slope and other beauty-associated measurements in face images and correlated them with ratings of attractiveness and age of the depicted persons (Study 1). We found that Fourier slope – in contrast to the other tested image properties – did not predict attractiveness ratings when we controlled for age. In Study 2A, we overlaid face images with random-phase patterns with different statistics. Patterns with a slope similar to those in natural scenes and artworks resulted in lower attractiveness and higher age ratings. In Studies 2B and 2C, we directly manipulated the Fourier slope of face images and found that images with shallower slopes were rated as more attractive. Additionally, attractiveness of unaltered faces was affected by the Fourier slope of a random-phase background (Study 3). Faces in front of backgrounds with statistics similar to natural scenes and faces were rated as more attractive. We conclude that facial attractiveness ratings are affected by specific image properties. An explanation might be the efficient coding hypothesis. PMID:25835539

  8. The Higher Power of Patron: Profile of Newbery Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleck, Joan

    2007-01-01

    One lousy starred review. That was all, initially, that Susan Patron had to show for the 10 years she spent writing "The Higher Power of Lucky," her funny, tender story of a little girl struggling to gain control over her life. One star, from "Kirkus Reviews," for the heart and soul Patron poured into her second novel. Positive notices had…

  9. Generic inference of inflation models by non-Gaussianity and primordial power spectrum reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A.; Ramirez, Erandy; Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2014-06-01

    We present a generic inference method for inflation models from observational data by the usage of higher-order statistics of the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces. This method is based on the calculation of the posterior for the primordial non-Gaussianity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL}, which in general depend on specific parameters of inflation and reheating models, and enables to discriminate among the still viable inflation models. To keep analyticity as far as possible to dispense with numerically expensive sampling techniques a saddle-point approximation is introduced, whose precision is validated for a numerical toy example. The mathematical formulation is done in a generic way so that the approach remains applicable to cosmic microwave background data as well as to large scale structure data. Additionally, we review a few currently interesting inflation models and present numerical toy examples thereof in two and three dimensions to demonstrate the efficiency of the higher-order statistics method. A second quantity of interest is the primordial power spectrum. Here, we present two Bayesian methods to infer it from observational data, the so called critical filter and an extension thereof with smoothness prior, both allowing for a non-parametric spectrum reconstruction. These methods are able to reconstruct the spectra of the observed perturbations and the primordial ones of curvature perturbation even in case of non-Gaussianity and partial sky coverage. We argue that observables like T- and B-modes permit to measure both spectra. This also allows to infer the level of non-Gaussianity generated since inflation.

  10. Design of a Low Power, Fast-Spectrum, Liquid-Metal Cooled Surface Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Marcille, T. F.; Poston, D. I.; Kapernick, R. J.; Dixon, D. D.; Fischer, G. A.; Doherty, S. P.

    2006-01-20

    In the current 2005 US budget environment, competition for fiscal resources make funding for comprehensive space reactor development programs difficult to justify and accommodate. Simultaneously, the need to develop these systems to provide planetary and deep space-enabling power systems is increasing. Given that environment, designs intended to satisfy reasonable near-term surface missions, using affordable technology-ready materials and processes warrant serious consideration. An initial lunar application design incorporating a stainless structure, 880 K pumped NaK coolant system and a stainless/UO2 fuel system can be designed, fabricated and tested for a fraction of the cost of recent high-profile reactor programs (JIMO, SP-100). Along with the cost reductions associated with the use of qualified materials and processes, this design offers a low-risk, high-reliability implementation associated with mission specific low temperature, low burnup, five year operating lifetime requirements.

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Gammel, George M.; Kugel, Henry W.

    1992-10-06

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  12. Experimental Study of the Power Profile Airfoil Equipped with Plasma Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Libin; Jacob, Jamey

    2013-11-01

    This presentation discusses results from an experimental study of the power profile airfoil at low Reynolds number. The power profile airfoil was developed by AMO Smith and consists of a blunt trailing edge shape with two wall jets near the trailing edge. The replacement of streamlining with properly designed blowing is used to prevent flow separation and additionally offers potential applications as a powered high-lift system, propulsive system, or low inertia control device. The 2D wind-tunnel model consists of the 22.5% thick power profile airfoil equipped with a movable trailing edge plug to direct flow along the trailing edge streamline. Compressed air was passed into the model via a plenum with flow conditioning devices to create pressure backdrop to allow uniform blowing at the trailing edge. The effects of varying jet momentum coefficient and trailing edge positioning on the aerodynamic characteristics are observed with both wake surveys and PIV. The impact of plasma synthetic jet actuators (PSJA) placed along the trailing edge of the power profile airfoil is also discussed. PSJA operation is compared to the baseline power profile airfoil both alone and working with the blowing to provide additional control authority.

  13. Ion temperature and plasma rotation profile effects in the neutron emission spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Henriksson, H.; Källne, J.

    2004-03-01

    The instrumental factors and measuring conditions affecting neutron emission spectrometry measurements of tokamak plasmas are described and analyzed. The measured energy broadening and shift of the neutron emission is used to deduce ion temperature (Ti) and toroidal plasma rotation velocity (Vt) representing average (effective) values for the nonuniform plasma volume viewed. Analytical expressions are derived for the relationship between the line-volume integrated effective temperature (Teff) and the radial profile Ti(r) for the case of thermal plasmas with isotropic neutron emission; effects on Teff due to spectral broadening from the radial dependence Vt(r) were also considered. The analysis method presented here is applied to high quality data obtained with the magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer installed at Joint European Torus for measurements of deuterium-tritium plasmas. Similarly, cases of anisotropic neutron emission were quantitatively assessed.

  14. Discrepancy between WISC-III and WISC-IV Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum: What Does It Reveal about Autistic Cognition?

    PubMed

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Jelenic, Patricia; Soulières, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive profile and measured intellectual level vary according to assessment tools in children on the autism spectrum, much more so than in typically developing children. The recent inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorders leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some tests and subtests seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Our first aim was to examine the cognitive profile on the current version of the most widely used test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), for a homogenous subgroup of children on the autism spectrum, i.e. corresponding to DSM-IV diagnosis of "autism". The second aim was to compare cognitive profiles obtained on the third edition versus 4th edition of WISC, in order to verify whether the WISC-IV yields a more distinctive cognitive profile in autistic children. The third aim was to examine the impact of the WISC-IV on the cognitive profile of another subgroup, children with Asperger's Syndrome. 51 autistic, 15 Asperger and 42 typically developing children completed the WISC-IV and were individually matched to children who completed the WISC-III. Divergent WISC-IV profiles were observed despite no significant intelligence quotient difference between groups. Autistic children scored significantly higher on the Perceptual Reasoning Index than on the Verbal Comprehension Index, a discrepancy that nearly tripled in comparison to WISC-III results. Asperger children scored higher on the VCI than on other indexes, with the lowest score found on the Processing Speed Index. WISC-IV cognitive profiles were consistent with, but more pronounced than WISC-III profiles. Cognitive profiles are a valuable diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, keeping in mind that children on the autism spectrum might be more sensitive to the choice of subtests used to assess intelligence. PMID:26673881

  15. Discrepancy between WISC-III and WISC-IV Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum: What Does It Reveal about Autistic Cognition?

    PubMed

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Jelenic, Patricia; Soulières, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive profile and measured intellectual level vary according to assessment tools in children on the autism spectrum, much more so than in typically developing children. The recent inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorders leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some tests and subtests seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Our first aim was to examine the cognitive profile on the current version of the most widely used test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), for a homogenous subgroup of children on the autism spectrum, i.e. corresponding to DSM-IV diagnosis of "autism". The second aim was to compare cognitive profiles obtained on the third edition versus 4th edition of WISC, in order to verify whether the WISC-IV yields a more distinctive cognitive profile in autistic children. The third aim was to examine the impact of the WISC-IV on the cognitive profile of another subgroup, children with Asperger's Syndrome. 51 autistic, 15 Asperger and 42 typically developing children completed the WISC-IV and were individually matched to children who completed the WISC-III. Divergent WISC-IV profiles were observed despite no significant intelligence quotient difference between groups. Autistic children scored significantly higher on the Perceptual Reasoning Index than on the Verbal Comprehension Index, a discrepancy that nearly tripled in comparison to WISC-III results. Asperger children scored higher on the VCI than on other indexes, with the lowest score found on the Processing Speed Index. WISC-IV cognitive profiles were consistent with, but more pronounced than WISC-III profiles. Cognitive profiles are a valuable diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, keeping in mind that children on the autism spectrum might be more sensitive to the choice of subtests used to assess intelligence.

  16. Discrepancy between WISC-III and WISC-IV Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum: What Does It Reveal about Autistic Cognition?

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Jelenic, Patricia; Soulières, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive profile and measured intellectual level vary according to assessment tools in children on the autism spectrum, much more so than in typically developing children. The recent inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorders leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some tests and subtests seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Our first aim was to examine the cognitive profile on the current version of the most widely used test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), for a homogenous subgroup of children on the autism spectrum, i.e. corresponding to DSM-IV diagnosis of “autism”. The second aim was to compare cognitive profiles obtained on the third edition versus 4th edition of WISC, in order to verify whether the WISC-IV yields a more distinctive cognitive profile in autistic children. The third aim was to examine the impact of the WISC-IV on the cognitive profile of another subgroup, children with Asperger’s Syndrome. 51 autistic, 15 Asperger and 42 typically developing children completed the WISC-IV and were individually matched to children who completed the WISC-III. Divergent WISC-IV profiles were observed despite no significant intelligence quotient difference between groups. Autistic children scored significantly higher on the Perceptual Reasoning Index than on the Verbal Comprehension Index, a discrepancy that nearly tripled in comparison to WISC-III results. Asperger children scored higher on the VCI than on other indexes, with the lowest score found on the Processing Speed Index. WISC-IV cognitive profiles were consistent with, but more pronounced than WISC-III profiles. Cognitive profiles are a valuable diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, keeping in mind that children on the autism spectrum might be more sensitive to the choice of subtests used to assess intelligence. PMID:26673881

  17. Representative surface profile power spectra from capsules used in NOVA and Omega implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C; McEachern, R L; Stephens, R

    1998-10-20

    Typical surface profile power spectra of capsules used in Nova and Omega implosion experiments are presented. All Nova capsules are essentially identical in size and composition; their differences reflect small shell-to-shell variations. Differences among the Omega capsule power spectra can be attributed to changes in material properties with doping and (very importantly) differences in processing experience. These capsule power spectra accurately reflect past and current production, but are only a starting point for future capabilities.

  18. LOFAR insights into the epoch of reionization from the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm emission and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, R. P. C.; Ciardi, B.; Thomas, R. M.; Harker, G. J. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Martinez, O.; Mellema, G.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.

    2013-07-01

    Using a combination of N-body simulations, semi-analytic models and radiative transfer calculations, we have estimated the theoretical cross-power spectrum between galaxies and the 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization. In accordance with previous studies, we find that the 21 cm emission is initially correlated with haloes on large scales (≳30 Mpc), anticorrelated on intermediate (˜5 Mpc) and uncorrelated on small (≲3 Mpc) scales. This picture quickly changes as reionization proceeds and the two fields become anticorrelated on large scales. The normalization of the cross-power spectrum can be used to set constraints on the average neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium and its shape can be a powerful tool to study the topology of reionization. When we apply a drop-out technique to select galaxies and add to the 21 cm signal the noise expected from the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) telescope, we find that while the normalization of the cross-power spectrum remains a useful tool for probing reionization, its shape becomes too noisy to be informative. On the other hand, for an Lyα Emitter (LAE) survey both the normalization and the shape of the cross-power spectrum are suitable probes of reionization. A closer look at a specific planned LAE observing program using Subaru Hyper-Suprime Cam reveals concerns about the strength of the 21 cm signal at the planned redshifts. If the ionized fraction at z ˜ 7 is lower than the one estimated here, then using the cross-power spectrum may be a useful exercise given that at higher redshifts and neutral fractions it is able to distinguish between two toy models with different topologies.

  19. Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-08-07

    We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show ismore » not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.« less

  20. Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,i of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,i-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,i-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,i ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,i are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,i. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  1. The scale invariant power spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbations from the coupled scalar tachyon bounce cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E. E-mail: cheung@nju.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in a bounce cosmos modeled by a scalar field coupled to the string tachyon field (CSTB cosmos). By explicit computation of its primordial spectral index we show the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, generated during the tachyon matter dominated contraction phase, to be nearly scale invariant. We propose a unified parameter space for a systematic study of inflationary and bounce cosmologies. The CSTB cosmos is dual-in Wands's sense-to slow-roll inflation as can be visualized with the aid of this parameter space. Guaranteed by the dynamical attractor behavior of the CSTB Cosmos, the scale invariance of its power spectrum is free of the fine-tuning problem, in contrast to the slow-roll inflation model.

  2. Repetitive behavior profiles: Consistency across autism spectrum disorder cohorts and divergence from Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cindi G; Valcante, Gregory; Guter, Steve; Zaytoun, Annette; Wray, Emily; Bell, Lindsay; Jacob, Suma; Lewis, Mark H; Driscoll, Daniel J; Cook, Edwin H; Kim, Soo-Jeong

    2011-12-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is a group of heterogeneous maladaptive behaviors. RRB is one of the key diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and also commonly observed in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In this study, we assessed RRB using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in two ASD samples (University of Illinois at Chicago [UIC] and University of Florida [UF]) and one PWS sample. We compared the RBS-R item endorsements across three ASD cohorts (UIC, UF and an ASD sample from Lam, The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation and the effect of subject variables, PhD thesis, 2004), and a PWS sample. We also compared the mean RBS-R subscale/sum scores across the UIC, UF and PWS samples; across the combined ASD (UIC + UF), PWS-deletion and PWS-disomy groups; and across the combined ASD sample, PWS subgroup with a Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) score ≥15, and PWS subgroup with a SCQ score <15. Despite the highly heterogeneous nature, the three ASD samples (UIC, UF and Lam's) showed a similar pattern of the RBS-R endorsements, and the mean RBS-R scores were not different between the UIC and UF samples. However, higher RRB was noted in the ASD sample compared with the PWS sample, as well as in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ≥15 compared with the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score <15. Study limitations include a small sample size, a wide age range of our participants, and not controlling for potential covariates. A future replication study using a larger sample and further investigation into the genetic bases of overlapping ASD and RRB phenomenology are needed, given the higher RRB in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ≥15. PMID:21881965

  3. Angular power spectrum of the FASTICA cosmic microwave background component from Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, S.; Maino, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Childers, J.; Figueiredo, N.; Lubin, P. M.; Meinhold, P. R.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Seiffert, M. D.; Villela, T.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2006-06-01

    We present the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) component extracted with FASTICA from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) data. BEAST is a 2.2-m off-axis telescope with a focal plane comprising eight elements at Q (38-45 GHz) and Ka (26-36 GHz) bands. It operates from the UC (University of California) White Mountain Research Station at an altitude of 3800 m. The BEAST CMB angular power spectrum has already been calculated by O'Dwyer et al. using only the Q-band data. With two input channels, FASTICA returns two possible independent components. We found that one of these two has an unphysical spectral behaviour, while the other is a reasonable CMB component. After a detailed calibration procedure based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we extracted the angular power spectrum for the identified CMB component and found a very good agreement with the already published BEAST CMB angular power spectrum and with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data.

  4. The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

  5. Spectrum of seronegative spondarthritides (SSA) with special reference to HLA profiles.

    PubMed

    Chopra, A; Raghunath, D; Singh, A

    1990-05-01

    The present study describes the profile of seronegative spondarthritides (SSA) in young servicemen. SSA was diagnosed in 63 patients from a prospective study on spondyloarthropathy. The SSA group consisted of ankylosing spondylitis (AS, 40 patients), Reiter's syndrome (RS, 6) and SSA undifferentiated (SSA-U, 17). The chief clinical and radiological features of the group were due to sacro-iliitis/spondylitis, peripheral arthritis and enthesopathy. Except for RS, extra-articular features were sparse. Mucosal lesions were not evident. Radiologically, sacro-iliitis varied from 24% in SSA-U to 100% in AS, and was disproportionately less when compared to its clinical extent. Dominant lower limb arthritis (poly and oligo) was seen in AS (40%), SSA-U (88.2%) and RS (100%). HLA A and B were typed in patients and controls. HLA AI had a significant negative association (p less than 0.05) with AS and the SSA group, and its relative risk (R) was consistently low (0.2-0.3). HLA B27 was present in 65.7%, 73%, 67%, 41% and 9% of the SSA group, AS, RS, SSA-U and controls respectively (p less than 0.05). Significant R values of A and B loci antigens in disease groups are presented. When compared with available Indian literature, this study highlights the variability and overlap in the disease. Disease markers currently available have limitations in defining the various subsets of SSA.

  6. CONSTRAINTS ON THE HIGH-l POWER SPECTRUM OF MILLIMETER-WAVE ANISOTROPIES FROM APEX-SZ

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, C. L.; Zahn, O.; Ferrusca, D.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Johnson, B. R.; Lee, A. T.; Lueker, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Lanting, T.; Basu, K.; Chon, G.; Kneissl, R.; Bender, A. N.; Halverson, N. W.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Dobbs, M.; Kennedy, J.; Horellou, C.; Johansson, D.

    2009-08-20

    We present measurements of the angular power spectrum of millimeter wave anisotropies with the APEX-SZ instrument. APEX-SZ has mapped 0.8 deg{sup 2} of sky at a frequency of 150 GHz with an angular resolution of 1'. These new measurements significantly improve the constraints on anisotropy power at 150 GHz over the range of angular multipoles 3000 < l < 10, 000, limiting the total astronomical signal in a flat band power to be less than 105 {mu}K{sup 2} at 95% CL. We expect both submillimeter-bright, dusty galaxies and to a lesser extent secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies from the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) to significantly contribute to the observed power. Subtracting the SZE power spectrum expected for {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.8 and masking bright sources, the best-fit value for the remaining power is C {sub l} = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} x 10{sup -5} {mu}K{sup 2} (1.7{sup +1.4} {sub -1.3} Jy{sup 2} sr{sup -1}). This agrees well with model predictions for power due to submillimeter-bright, dusty galaxies. Comparing this power to the power detected by BLAST at 600 GHz, we find the frequency dependence of the source fluxes to be S{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 2.6+0.4}{sub -0.2}} if both experiments measure the same population of sources. Simultaneously fitting for the amplitude of the SZE power spectrum and a Poisson-distributed point source population, we place an upper limit on the matter fluctuation amplitude of {sigma}{sub 8} < 1.18 at 95% confidence.

  7. Possible link between the power spectrum of interstellar filaments and the origin of the prestellar core mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A.; André, Ph.; Arzoumanian, D.; Peretto, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Könyves, V.; Schneider, N.; Benedettini, M.; Di Francesco, J.; Elia, D.; Hill, T.; Ladjelate, B.; Louvet, F.; Motte, F.; Pezzuto, S.; Schisano, E.; Shimajiri, Y.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G.

    2015-12-01

    A complete understanding of the origin of the prestellar core mass function (CMF) is crucial. Two major features of the prestellar CMF are 1) a broad peak below 1 M⊙, presumably corresponding to a mean gravitational fragmentation scale, and 2) a characteristic power-law slope, very similar to the Salpeter slope of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) at the high-mass end. While recent Herschel observations have shown that the peak of the prestellar CMF is close to the thermal Jeans mass in marginally supercritical filaments, the origin of the power-law tail of the CMF/IMF at the high-mass end is less clear. In 2001, Inutsuka proposed a theoretical scenario in which the origin of the power-law tail can be understood as resulting from the growth of an initial spectrum of density perturbations seeded along the long axis of star-forming filaments by interstellar turbulence. Here, we report the statistical properties of the line-mass fluctuations of filaments in the Pipe, Taurus, and IC 5146 molecular clouds observed with Herschel for a sample of subcritical or marginally supercritical filaments using a 1D power spectrum analysis. The observed filament power spectra were fitted by a power-law function (Ptrue(s) ∝ sα) after removing the effect of beam convolution at small scales. A Gaussian-like distribution of power-spectrum slopes was found, centered at α̅corr = -1.6 ± 0.3. The characteristic index of the observed power spectra is close to that of the 1D velocity power spectrum generated by subsonic Kolomogorov turbulence (-1.67). Given the errors, the measured power-spectrum slope is also marginally consistent with the power spectrum index of -2 expected for supersonic compressible turbulence. With such a power spectrum of initial line-mass fluctuations, Inutsuka's model would yield a mass function of collapsed objects along filaments approaching dN/dM ∝ M- 2.3 ± 0.1 at the high-mass end (very close to the Salpeter power law) after a few free-fall times

  8. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  9. Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model

    PubMed Central

    Rallapalli, Varsha H.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV) from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N) is assumed to: (a) reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S) and (b) introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.

  10. Non-linear matter power spectrum covariance matrix errors and cosmological parameter uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blot, L.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Amendola, L.; Kitching, T. D.

    2016-06-01

    The covariance of the matter power spectrum is a key element of the analysis of galaxy clustering data. Independent realizations of observational measurements can be used to sample the covariance, nevertheless statistical sampling errors will propagate into the cosmological parameter inference potentially limiting the capabilities of the upcoming generation of galaxy surveys. The impact of these errors as function of the number of realizations has been previously evaluated for Gaussian distributed data. However, non-linearities in the late-time clustering of matter cause departures from Gaussian statistics. Here, we address the impact of non-Gaussian errors on the sample covariance and precision matrix errors using a large ensemble of N-body simulations. In the range of modes where finite volume effects are negligible (0.1 ≲ k [h Mpc-1] ≲ 1.2), we find deviations of the variance of the sample covariance with respect to Gaussian predictions above ˜10 per cent at k > 0.3 h Mpc-1. Over the entire range these reduce to about ˜5 per cent for the precision matrix. Finally, we perform a Fisher analysis to estimate the effect of covariance errors on the cosmological parameter constraints. In particular, assuming Euclid-like survey characteristics we find that a number of independent realizations larger than 5000 is necessary to reduce the contribution of sampling errors to the cosmological parameter uncertainties at subpercent level. We also show that restricting the analysis to large scales k ≲ 0.2 h Mpc-1 results in a considerable loss in constraining power, while using the linear covariance to include smaller scales leads to an underestimation of the errors on the cosmological parameters.

  11. The Angular Power Spectrum of BATSE 3B Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the angular power spectrum C(sub l) from the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 gamma-ray bursts and find no evidence for clustering on any scale. These constraints bridge the entire range from small scales (which probe source clustering and burst repetition) to the largest scales (which constrain possible anisotropics from the Galactic halo or from nearby cosmological large-scale structures). We develop an analysis technique that takes the angular position errors into account. For specific clustering or repetition models, strong upper limits can be obtained down to scales l approx. equal to 30, corresponding to a couple of degrees on the sky. The minimum-variance burst weighting that we employ is visualized graphically as an all-sky map in which each burst is smeared out by an amount corresponding to its position uncertainty. We also present separate bandpass-filtered sky maps for the quadrupole term and for the multipole ranges l = 3-10 and l = 11-30, so that the fluctuations on different angular scales can be inspected separately for visual features such as localized 'hot spots' or structures aligned with the Galactic plane. These filtered maps reveal no apparent deviations from isotropy.

  12. A new probe of the magnetic field power spectrum in cosmic web filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2015-08-01

    Establishing the properties of magnetic fields on scales larger than galaxy clusters is critical for resolving the unknown origin and evolution of galactic and cluster magnetism. More generally, observations of magnetic fields on cosmic scales are needed for assessing the impacts of magnetism on cosmology, particle physics, and structure formation over the full history of the Universe. However, firm observational evidence for magnetic fields in large scale structure remains elusive. In an effort to address this problem, we have developed a novel statistical method to infer the magnetic field power spectrum in cosmic web filaments using observation of the two-point correlation of Faraday rotation measures from a dense grid of extragalactic radio sources. Here we describe our approach, which embeds and extends the pioneering work of Kolatt (1998) within the context of Information Field Theory (a statistical theory for Bayesian inference on spatially distributed signals; Enfllin et al., 2009). We describe prospects for observation, for example with forthcoming data from the ultra-deep JVLA CHILES Con Pol survey and future surveys with the SKA.

  13. Power spectrum tomography of dark matter annihilation with local galaxy distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shin'ichiro

    2014-10-01

    Cross-correlating the gamma-ray background with local galaxy catalogs potentially gives stringent constraints on dark matter annihilation. We provide updated theoretical estimates of sensitivities to the annihilation cross section from gamma-ray data with Fermi telescope and 2MASS galaxy catalogs, by elaborating the galaxy power spectrum and astrophysical backgrounds, and adopting the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we show that taking tomographic approach by dividing the galaxy catalogs into more than one redshift slice will improve the sensitivity by a factor of a few to several. If dark matter halos contain lots of bright substructures, yielding a large annihilation boost (e.g., a factor of ∼100 for galaxy-size halos), then one may be able to probe the canonical annihilation cross section for thermal production mechanism up to masses of ∼700 GeV. Even with modest substructure boost (e.g., a factor of ∼10 for galaxy-size halos), on the other hand, the sensitivities could still reach a factor of three larger than the canonical cross section for dark matter masses of tens to a few hundreds of GeV.

  14. Power spectrum constraints from spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Wayne; Scott, Douglas; Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Using recent experimental limits on chemical potential distortions from Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Far Infrared Astronomy Satellite (FIRAS), and the large lever-arm spanning the damping of sub-Jeans scale fluctuations to the COBE DMR fluctuations, we set a constraint on the slope of the primordial power spectrum n. It is possible to analytically calculate the contribution over the full range of scales and redshifts, correctly taking into account fluctuation growth and damping as well as thermalization processes. Assuming conservatively that mu is less than 1.76 x 10(exp -4), we find that the 95% upper limit on n is only weakly dependent on other cosmological parameters, e.g., n is less than 1.60 (h=0.5) and n is less than 1.63 (h=1.0) for Omega(sub 0) = 1, with marginally weaker constraints for Omega(sub 0) is less than 1 in a flat model with a cosmological constant.

  15. Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-10-15

    The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M{sub +} at z{approx_equal}100, compared to a fraction of {approx}10{sup -10} in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

  16. Forecasting sensitivity on tilt of power spectrum of primordial gravitational waves after Planck satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Sai; Zhao, Wen

    2015-10-01

    By taking into account the contamination of foreground radiations, we employ the Fisher matrix to forecast the future sensitivity on the tilt of power spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations for several ground-based (AdvACT, CLASS, Keck/BICEP3, Simons Array, SPT-3G), balloon-borne (EBEX, Spider) and satellite (CMBPol, COrE, LiteBIRD) experiments of B-mode polarizations. For the fiducial model nt=0, our results show that the satellite experiments give good sensitivity on the tensor tilt nt to the level σntlesssim0.1 for rgtrsim2×10-3, while the ground-based and balloon-borne experiments give worse sensitivity. By considering the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck (BKP) constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, we see that it is impossible for these experiments to test the consistency relation nt=-r/8 in the canonical single-field slow-roll inflation models.

  17. Forecasting sensitivity on tilt of power spectrum of primordial gravitational waves after Planck satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Sai; Zhao, Wen E-mail: wangsai@itp.ac.cn

    2015-10-01

    By taking into account the contamination of foreground radiations, we employ the Fisher matrix to forecast the future sensitivity on the tilt of power spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations for several ground-based (AdvACT, CLASS, Keck/BICEP3, Simons Array, SPT-3G), balloon-borne (EBEX, Spider) and satellite (CMBPol, COrE, LiteBIRD) experiments of B-mode polarizations. For the fiducial model n{sub t}=0, our results show that the satellite experiments give good sensitivity on the tensor tilt n{sub t} to the level σ{sub n{sub t}}∼<0.1 for r∼>2×10{sup −3}, while the ground-based and balloon-borne experiments give worse sensitivity. By considering the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck (BKP) constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, we see that it is impossible for these experiments to test the consistency relation n{sub t}=−r/8 in the canonical single-field slow-roll inflation models.

  18. Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data

    SciTech Connect

    Dossett, Jason; Parkinson, David; Hu, Bin E-mail: hu@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-03-01

    In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ''dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B{sub 0}, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B{sub 0} by an order of magnitude, giving log{sub 10}(B{sub 0}) < −4.07 at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude A{sub Lens} and the sum of the neutrino mass ∑m{sub ν} is able to reconcile current tensions present in these parameters, but find f(R) gravity an inadequate explanation.

  19. Diesel engine noise source identification based on EEMD, coherent power spectrum analysis and improved AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Jian; Lin, Jiewei; Bi, Fengrong; Guo, Qian; Chen, Kongwu; Ma, Liang

    2015-09-01

    As the essential foundation of noise reduction, many noise source identification methods have been developed and applied to engineering practice. To identify the noise source in the board-band frequency of different engine parts at various typical speeds, this paper presents an integrated noise source identification method based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the coherent power spectrum analysis, and the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The measured noise is decomposed into several IMFs with physical meaning, which ensures the coherence analysis of the IMFs and the vibration signals are meaningful. An improved AHP is developed by introducing an objective weighting function to replace the traditional subjective evaluation, which makes the results no longer dependent on the subject performances and provides a better consistency in the meantime. The proposed noise identification model is applied to identifying a diesel engine surface radiated noise. As a result, the frequency-dependent contributions of different engine parts to different test points at different speeds are obtained, and an overall weight order is obtained as oil pan  >  left body  >  valve chamber cover  >  gear chamber casing  >  right body  >  flywheel housing, which provides an effectual guidance for the noise reduction.

  20. Matter power spectrum for the generalized Chaplygin gas model: The Newtonian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, J. C.; Goncalves, S. V. B.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2008-11-15

    We model the cosmic medium as the mixture of a generalized Chaplygin gas and a pressureless matter component. Within a neo-Newtonian approach (in which, different from standard Newtonian cosmology, the pressure enters the homogeneous and isotropic background dynamics) we compute the matter power spectrum. The 2dFGRS data are used to discriminate between unified models of the dark sector (a purely baryonic matter component of roughly 5% of the total energy content and roughly 95% generalized Chaplygin gas) and different models, for which there is separate dark matter, in addition to that accounted for by the generalized Chaplygin gas. Leaving the corresponding density parameters free, we find that the unified models are strongly disfavored. On the other hand, using unified model priors, the observational data are also well described, in particular, for small and large values of the generalized Chaplygin gas parameter {alpha}. The latter result is in agreement with a recent, more qualitative but fully relativistic, perturbation analysis in [V. Gorini, A. Y. Kamenshchik, U. Moschella, O. F. Piatella, and A. A. Starobinsky, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2008) 016.].

  1. Unveiling acoustic physics of the CMB using nonparametric estimation of the temperature angular power spectrum for Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Aghamousa, Amir; Shafieloo, Arman; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2015-02-01

    Estimation of the angular power spectrum is one of the important steps in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data analysis. Here, we present a nonparametric estimate of the temperature angular power spectrum for the Planck 2013 CMB data. The method implemented in this work is model-independent, and allows the data, rather than the model, to dictate the fit. Since one of the main targets of our analysis is to test the consistency of the ΛCDM model with Planck 2013 data, we use the nuisance parameters associated with the best-fit ΛCDM angular power spectrum to remove foreground contributions from the data at multipoles ℓ ≥50. We thus obtain a combined angular power spectrum data set together with the full covariance matrix, appropriately weighted over frequency channels. Our subsequent nonparametric analysis resolves six peaks (and five dips) up to ℓ ∼1850 in the temperature angular power spectrum. We present uncertainties in the peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% confidence level. We further show how these reflect the harmonicity of acoustic peaks, and can be used for acoustic scale estimation. Based on this nonparametric formalism, we found the best-fit ΛCDM model to be at 36% confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set—this is considerably larger than the confidence distance (9%) derived earlier from a similar analysis of the WMAP 7-year data. Another interesting result of our analysis is that at low multipoles, the Planck data do not suggest any upturn, contrary to the expectation based on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution in the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology.

  2. Unique acyl-carnitine profiles are potential biomarkers for acquired mitochondrial disease in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frye, R E; Melnyk, S; MacFabe, D F

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with mitochondrial disease (MD). Interestingly, most individuals with ASD and MD do not have a specific genetic mutation to explain the MD, raising the possibility of that MD may be acquired, at least in a subgroup of children with ASD. Acquired MD has been demonstrated in a rodent ASD model in which propionic acid (PPA), an enteric bacterial fermentation product of ASD-associated gut bacteria, is infused intracerebroventricularly. This animal model shows validity as it demonstrates many behavioral, metabolic, neuropathologic and neurophysiologic abnormalities associated with ASD. This animal model also demonstrates a unique pattern of elevations in short-chain and long-chain acyl-carnitines suggesting abnormalities in fatty-acid metabolism. To determine if the same pattern of biomarkers of abnormal fatty-acid metabolism are present in children with ASD, the laboratory results from a large cohort of children with ASD (n=213) who underwent screening for metabolic disorders, including mitochondrial and fatty-acid oxidation disorders, in a medically based autism clinic were reviewed. Acyl-carnitine panels were determined to be abnormal if three or more individual acyl-carnitine species were abnormal in the panel and these abnormalities were verified by repeated testing. Overall, 17% of individuals with ASD demonstrated consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Next, it was determined if specific acyl-carnitine species were consistently elevated across the individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Significant elevations in short-chain and long-chain, but not medium-chain, acyl-carnitines were found in the ASD individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels—a pattern consistent with the PPA rodent ASD model. Examination of electron transport chain function in muscle and fibroblast culture, histological and electron microscopy examination of muscle and other biomarkers of

  3. Unique acyl-carnitine profiles are potential biomarkers for acquired mitochondrial disease in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Frye, R E; Melnyk, S; Macfabe, D F

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with mitochondrial disease (MD). Interestingly, most individuals with ASD and MD do not have a specific genetic mutation to explain the MD, raising the possibility of that MD may be acquired, at least in a subgroup of children with ASD. Acquired MD has been demonstrated in a rodent ASD model in which propionic acid (PPA), an enteric bacterial fermentation product of ASD-associated gut bacteria, is infused intracerebroventricularly. This animal model shows validity as it demonstrates many behavioral, metabolic, neuropathologic and neurophysiologic abnormalities associated with ASD. This animal model also demonstrates a unique pattern of elevations in short-chain and long-chain acyl-carnitines suggesting abnormalities in fatty-acid metabolism. To determine if the same pattern of biomarkers of abnormal fatty-acid metabolism are present in children with ASD, the laboratory results from a large cohort of children with ASD (n=213) who underwent screening for metabolic disorders, including mitochondrial and fatty-acid oxidation disorders, in a medically based autism clinic were reviewed. Acyl-carnitine panels were determined to be abnormal if three or more individual acyl-carnitine species were abnormal in the panel and these abnormalities were verified by repeated testing. Overall, 17% of individuals with ASD demonstrated consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Next, it was determined if specific acyl-carnitine species were consistently elevated across the individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Significant elevations in short-chain and long-chain, but not medium-chain, acyl-carnitines were found in the ASD individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels-a pattern consistent with the PPA rodent ASD model. Examination of electron transport chain function in muscle and fibroblast culture, histological and electron microscopy examination of muscle and other biomarkers of mitochondrial

  4. Unique acyl-carnitine profiles are potential biomarkers for acquired mitochondrial disease in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Frye, R E; Melnyk, S; Macfabe, D F

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with mitochondrial disease (MD). Interestingly, most individuals with ASD and MD do not have a specific genetic mutation to explain the MD, raising the possibility of that MD may be acquired, at least in a subgroup of children with ASD. Acquired MD has been demonstrated in a rodent ASD model in which propionic acid (PPA), an enteric bacterial fermentation product of ASD-associated gut bacteria, is infused intracerebroventricularly. This animal model shows validity as it demonstrates many behavioral, metabolic, neuropathologic and neurophysiologic abnormalities associated with ASD. This animal model also demonstrates a unique pattern of elevations in short-chain and long-chain acyl-carnitines suggesting abnormalities in fatty-acid metabolism. To determine if the same pattern of biomarkers of abnormal fatty-acid metabolism are present in children with ASD, the laboratory results from a large cohort of children with ASD (n=213) who underwent screening for metabolic disorders, including mitochondrial and fatty-acid oxidation disorders, in a medically based autism clinic were reviewed. Acyl-carnitine panels were determined to be abnormal if three or more individual acyl-carnitine species were abnormal in the panel and these abnormalities were verified by repeated testing. Overall, 17% of individuals with ASD demonstrated consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Next, it was determined if specific acyl-carnitine species were consistently elevated across the individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Significant elevations in short-chain and long-chain, but not medium-chain, acyl-carnitines were found in the ASD individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels-a pattern consistent with the PPA rodent ASD model. Examination of electron transport chain function in muscle and fibroblast culture, histological and electron microscopy examination of muscle and other biomarkers of mitochondrial

  5. Low-profile solar power plant with high land density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.; Laing, John N.

    2004-01-01

    A novel solar power plant utilizes concentrator modules that track the sun by elevation-tracking modules on azimuth-tracking frames floating in shallow water. The entire floating circular platform is flat and only knee-high. The circles can be closely packed to cover 83% of the land, unlike the low percentages of conventional wind-loaded tracking mirrors. Each elevation-tracking module has multiple TIR lenses, each of which focuses sunlight onto one end of a glass rod that has the solar cell glued to its other end. These rods kaleidoscopically homogenize the focused hotspot uniformly over the square cell. The cells are cooled by conduction to the water, and operate only 10°C above the water temperature. The cell voltage is near that of the hydrolysis of water, enabling fuel cells to produce electricity at night.

  6. Neutrino mass constraint from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey power spectrum of luminous red galaxies and perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shun; Takada, Masahiro; Taruya, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    We compare the model power spectrum, computed based on perturbation theory, with the power spectrum of luminous red galaxies (LRG) measured from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 catalog, assuming a flat, cold dark matter-dominated cosmology. The model includes the effects of massive neutrinos, nonlinear matter clustering and nonlinear, scale-dependent galaxy bias in a self-consistent manner. We first test the accuracy of the perturbation theory model by comparing the model predictions with the halo power spectrum in real- and redshift-space, measured from 70 simulation realizations for a cold dark matter model without massive neutrinos. We show that the perturbation theory model with bias parameters being properly adjusted can fairly well reproduce the simulation results. As a result, the best-fit parameters obtained from the hypothetical parameter fitting recover, within statistical uncertainties, the input cosmological parameters in simulations, including an upper bound on neutrino mass, if the power spectrum information up to k≃0.15hMpc-1 is used. However, for the redshift-space power spectrum, the best-fit cosmological parameters show a sizable bias from the input values if using the information up to k≃0.2hMpc-1, probably due to nonlinear redshift distortion effect. Given these tests, we decided, as a conservative choice, to use the LRG power spectrum up to k=0.1hMpc-1 in order to minimize possible unknown nonlinearity effects. In combination with the recent results from Wilkinson Microwave Background Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), we derive a robust upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses, given as ∑mν≤0.81eV (95% C.L.), marginalized over other parameters including nonlinear bias parameters and dark energy equation of state parameter. The upper bound is only slightly improved to ∑mν≤0.80eV if including the LRG spectrum up to k=0.2hMpc-1, due to severe parameter degeneracies, although the constraint may be biased as discussed above. The

  7. Tapered cladding diameter profile design for high-power tandem-pumped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhihua; Tang, Xuan; Lin, Honghuan; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-05-01

    The thermal effect has become the biggest limiting factor regarding the further power scaling of single mode fiber lasers, and it can lead to coating failure and transverse mode instability. A tapered cladding diameter profile design is proposed for the tandem-pumped fiber laser in this work, as it can smooth the temperature profile and reduce the maximum temperature rise within the fiber tremendously. The improvement in performance of the fiber design is verified by analytical and numerical results.

  8. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier at 668 nm.

    PubMed

    Chi, Mingjun; Erbert, G; Sumpf, B; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2010-05-15

    A 668 nm tunable high-power narrow-spectrum diode laser system based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier in external cavity is demonstrated. The laser system is tunable from 659to675 nm. As high as 1.38 W output power is obtained at 668.35 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than 0.07 nm throughout the tuning range, and the beam quality factor M(2) is 2.0 with the output power of 1.27 W. PMID:20479803

  9. Design of one-dimensional power spectrum using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for discrimination of paper-based kraft tapes.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes. PMID:26461031

  10. Design of one-dimensional power spectrum using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for discrimination of paper-based kraft tapes.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes.

  11. WISC-IV Profile in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Impaired Processing Speed Is Associated with Increased Autism Communication Symptoms and Decreased Adaptive Communication Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveras-Rentas, Rafael E.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Roberson, Richard B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV (WISC-IV) may affect the IQ profile characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Moreover, the association of particular component cognitive abilities (unlike overall IQ) with symptomatology and adaptive functioning in ASD remains unclear. This archival study characterizes the…

  12. Differences in the Prevalence, Severity and Symptom Profiles of Depression in Boys and Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Normally Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, severity and symptom profiles for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in samples of boys and adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Self-reports were obtained on the Depression subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptoms Inventory (CASI-D) with 70 ASD and 50 non-ASD male participants between the…

  13. A Comparison of Social Cognitive Profiles in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Matter of Quantitative but Not Qualitative Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Davis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare social cognitive profiles of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ADHD. Participants diagnosed with an ASD (n = 137) were compared to participants with ADHD (n = 436) on tests of facial and vocal affect recognition, social judgment and problem-solving, and parent- and teacher-report…

  14. Statistics of the epoch of reionization 21-cm signal - I. Power spectrum error-covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Rajesh; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Majumdar, Suman

    2016-02-01

    The non-Gaussian nature of the epoch of reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal has a significant impact on the error variance of its power spectrum P(k). We have used a large ensemble of seminumerical simulations and an analytical model to estimate the effect of this non-Gaussianity on the entire error-covariance matrix {C}ij. Our analytical model shows that {C}ij has contributions from two sources. One is the usual variance for a Gaussian random field which scales inversely of the number of modes that goes into the estimation of P(k). The other is the trispectrum of the signal. Using the simulated 21-cm Signal Ensemble, an ensemble of the Randomized Signal and Ensembles of Gaussian Random Ensembles we have quantified the effect of the trispectrum on the error variance {C}ii. We find that its relative contribution is comparable to or larger than that of the Gaussian term for the k range 0.3 ≤ k ≤ 1.0 Mpc-1, and can be even ˜200 times larger at k ˜ 5 Mpc-1. We also establish that the off-diagonal terms of {C}ij have statistically significant non-zero values which arise purely from the trispectrum. This further signifies that the error in different k modes are not independent. We find a strong correlation between the errors at large k values (≥0.5 Mpc-1), and a weak correlation between the smallest and largest k values. There is also a small anticorrelation between the errors in the smallest and intermediate k values. These results are relevant for the k range that will be probed by the current and upcoming EoR 21-cm experiments.

  15. The coyote universe extended: Precision emulation of the matter power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmann, Katrin; Kwan, Juliana; Habib, Salman; Lawrence, Earl; Higdon, David

    2014-01-01

    Modern sky surveys are returning precision measurements of cosmological statistics such as weak lensing shear correlations, the distribution of galaxies, and cluster abundance. To fully exploit these observations, theorists must provide predictions that are at least as accurate as the measurements, as well as robust estimates of systematic errors that are inherent to the modeling process. In the nonlinear regime of structure formation, this challenge can only be overcome by developing a large-scale, multi-physics simulation capability covering a range of cosmological models and astrophysical processes. As a first step to achieving this goal, we have recently developed a prediction scheme for the matter power spectrum (a so-called emulator), accurate at the 1% level out to k ∼ 1 Mpc{sup –1} and z = 1 for wCDM cosmologies based on a set of high-accuracy N-body simulations. It is highly desirable to increase the range in both redshift and wavenumber and to extend the reach in cosmological parameter space. To make progress in this direction, while minimizing computational cost, we present a strategy that maximally reuses the original simulations. We demonstrate improvement over the original spatial dynamic range by an order of magnitude, reaching k ∼ 10 h Mpc{sup –1}, a four-fold increase in redshift coverage, to z = 4, and now include the Hubble parameter as a new independent variable. To further the range in k and z, a new set of nested simulations run at modest cost is added to the original set. The extension in h is performed by including perturbation theory results within a multi-scale procedure for building the emulator. This economical methodology still gives excellent error control, ∼5% near the edges of the domain of applicability of the emulator. A public domain code for the new emulator is released as part of the work presented in this paper.

  16. The Coyote Universe Extended: Precision Emulation of the Matter Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitmann, Katrin; Lawrence, Earl; Kwan, Juliana; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David

    2014-01-01

    Modern sky surveys are returning precision measurements of cosmological statistics such as weak lensing shear correlations, the distribution of galaxies, and cluster abundance. To fully exploit these observations, theorists must provide predictions that are at least as accurate as the measurements, as well as robust estimates of systematic errors that are inherent to the modeling process. In the nonlinear regime of structure formation, this challenge can only be overcome by developing a large-scale, multi-physics simulation capability covering a range of cosmological models and astrophysical processes. As a first step to achieving this goal, we have recently developed a prediction scheme for the matter power spectrum (a so-called emulator), accurate at the 1% level out to k ~ 1 Mpc-1 and z = 1 for wCDM cosmologies based on a set of high-accuracy N-body simulations. It is highly desirable to increase the range in both redshift and wavenumber and to extend the reach in cosmological parameter space. To make progress in this direction, while minimizing computational cost, we present a strategy that maximally reuses the original simulations. We demonstrate improvement over the original spatial dynamic range by an order of magnitude, reaching k ~ 10 h Mpc-1, a four-fold increase in redshift coverage, to z = 4, and now include the Hubble parameter as a new independent variable. To further the range in k and z, a new set of nested simulations run at modest cost is added to the original set. The extension in h is performed by including perturbation theory results within a multi-scale procedure for building the emulator. This economical methodology still gives excellent error control, ~5% near the edges of the domain of applicability of the emulator. A public domain code for the new emulator is released as part of the work presented in this paper.

  17. Constraints on CDM cosmology from galaxy power spectrum, CMB and SNIa evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferramacho, L. D.; Blanchard, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: We examine the constraints that can be obtained on standard cold dark matter models from the most currently used data set: CMB anisotropies, type Ia supernovae and the SDSS luminous red galaxies. We also examine how these constraints are widened when the equation of state parameter w and the curvature parameter Ωk are left as free parameters. Finally, we investigate the impact on these constraints of a possible form of evolution in SNIa intrinsic luminosity. Methods: We obtained our results from MCMC analysis using the full likelihood of each data set. Results: For the ΛCDM model, our “vanilla” model, cosmological parameters are tightly constrained and consistent with current estimates from various methods. When the dark energy parameter w is free we find that the constraints remain mostly unchanged, i.e. changes are smaller than the 1 sigma uncertainties. Similarly, relaxing the assumption of a flat universe leads to nearly identical constraints on the dark energy density parameter of the universe Ω_Λ , baryon density of the universe Ω_b, the optical depth τ, the index of the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations n_S, with most one sigma uncertainties better than 5%. More significant changes appear on other parameters: while preferred values are almost unchanged, uncertainties for the physical dark matter density Ω_ch^2, Hubble constant H0 and σ8 are typically twice as large. The constraint on the age of the Universe, which is very accurate for the vanilla model, is the most degraded. We found that different methodological approaches on large scale structure estimates lead to appreciable differences in preferred values and uncertainty widths. We found that possible evolution in SNIa intrinsic luminosity does not alter these constraints by much, except for w, for which the uncertainty is twice as large. At the same time, this possible evolution is severely constrained. Conclusions: We conclude that systematic uncertainties for some estimated

  18. Effects of p-wave annihilation on the angular power spectrum of extragalactic gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sheldon; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2011-10-01

    We present a formalism for estimating the angular power spectrum of extragalactic gamma-rays produced by dark matter annihilating with any general velocity-dependent cross section. The relevant density and velocity distribution of dark matter is modeled as an ensemble of smooth, universal, rigid, disjoint, spherical halos with distribution and universal properties constrained by simulation data. We apply this formalism to theories of dark matter with p-wave annihilation, for which the relative-velocity-weighted annihilation cross section is {sigma}v=a+bv{sup 2}. We determine that this significantly increases the gamma-ray power if b/a > or approx. 10{sup 6}. The effect of p-wave annihilation on the angular power spectrum is very similar for the sample of particle physics models we explored, suggesting that the important effect for a given b/a is largely determined by the cosmic dark matter distribution. If the dark matter relic from strong p-wave theories is thermally produced, the intensities of annihilation gamma-rays are strongly p-wave suppressed, making them difficult to observe. If an angular power spectrum consistent with a strong p wave were to be observed, it would likely indicate nonthermal production of dark matter in the early Universe.

  19. Enhancing photovoltaic output power by 3-band spectrum-splitting and concentration using a diffractive micro-optic.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-10-20

    We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output power density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. The potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.

  20. Enhancing photovoltaic output power by 3-band spectrum-splitting and concentration using a diffractive micro-optic

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-09-17

    We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output power density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. As a result, the potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.

  1. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: A MEASUREMENT OF THE 600 < l < 8000 COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM AT 148 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J. W.; Appel, J. W.; Das, S.; Dunkley, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Barrientos, L. F.; Duenner, R.; Amiri, M.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; Chervenak, J.; Doriese, W. B.

    2010-10-20

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz. The measurement uses maps with 1.'4 angular resolution made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The observations cover 228 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky, in a 4.{sup 0}2 wide strip centered on declination 53{sup 0} south. The CMB at arcminute angular scales is particularly sensitive to the Silk damping scale, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio sources and dusty galaxies. After masking the 108 brightest point sources in our maps, we estimate the power spectrum between 600 < l < 8000 using the adaptive multi-taper method to minimize spectral leakage and maximize use of the full data set. Our absolute calibration is based on observations of Uranus. To verify the calibration and test the fidelity of our map at large angular scales, we cross-correlate the ACT map to the WMAP map and recover the WMAP power spectrum from 250 < l < 1150. The power beyond the Silk damping tail of the CMB (l {approx} 5000) is consistent with models of the emission from point sources. We quantify the contribution of SZ clusters to the power spectrum by fitting to a model normalized to {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.8. We constrain the model's amplitude A{sub SZ} < 1.63 (95% CL). If interpreted as a measurement of {sigma}{sub 8}, this implies {sigma}{sup SZ}{sub 8} < 0.86 (95% CL) given our SZ model. A fit of ACT and WMAP five-year data jointly to a six-parameter {Lambda}CDM model plus point sources and the SZ effect is consistent with these results.

  2. Virulence Profiles of Bacteremic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli: Association with Epidemiological and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Mingorance, Jesús; Fernández-Romero, Natalia; Serrano, Lara; López-Cerero, Lorena; Pascual, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    There is scarce data about the importance of phylogroups and virulence factors (VF) in bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC). A prospective multicenter Spanish cohort including 191 cases of BSI due to ESBLEC was studied. Phylogroups and 25 VF genes were investigated by PCR. ESBLEC were classified into clusters according to their virulence profiles. The association of phylogropus, VF, and clusters with epidemiological features were studied using multivariate analysis. Overall, 57.6%, 26.7%, and 15.7% of isolates belonged to A/B1, D and B2 phylogroups, respectively. By multivariate analysis (adjusted OR [95% CI]), virulence cluster C2 was independently associated with urinary tract source (5.05 [0.96–25.48]); cluster C4 with sources other than urinary of biliary tract (2.89 [1.05–7.93]), and cluster C5 with BSI in non-predisposed patients (2.80 [0.99–7.93]). Isolates producing CTX-M-9 group ESBLs and from phylogroup D predominated among cluster C2 and C5, while CTX-M-1 group of ESBL and phylogroup B2 predominantes among C4 isolates. These results suggest that host factors and previous antimicrobial use were more important than phylogroup or specific VF in the occurrence of BSI due to ESBLEC. However, some associations between virulence clusters and some specific epidemiological features were found. PMID:22970186

  3. From Broad-Spectrum Biocides to Quorum Sensing Disruptors and Mussel Repellents: Antifouling Profile of Alkyl Triphenylphosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J.; Babarro, Jose M. F.; Lahoz, Fernando; Sansón, Marta; Martín, Víctor S.; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Onium’ compounds, including ammonium and phosphonium salts, have been employed as antiseptics and disinfectants. These cationic biocides have been incorporated into multiple materials, principally to avoid bacterial attachment. In this work, we selected 20 alkyl-triphenylphosphonium salts, differing mainly in the length and functionalization of their alkyl chains, in fulfilment of two main objectives: 1) to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the antifouling profile of these molecules with relevant marine fouling organisms; and 2) to shed new light on their potential applications, beyond their classic use as broad-spectrum biocides. In this regard, we demonstrate for the first time that these compounds are also able to act as non-toxic quorum sensing disruptors in two different bacterial models (Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio harveyi) as well as repellents in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In addition, their inhibitory activity on a fouling-relevant enzymatic model (tyrosinase) is characterized. An analysis of the structure-activity relationships of these compounds for antifouling purposes is provided, which may result useful in the design of targeted antifouling solutions with these molecules. Altogether, the findings reported herein provide a different perspective on the biological activities of phosphonium compounds that is particularly focused on, but, as the reader will realize, is not limited to their use as antifouling agents. PMID:25897858

  4. Clustering and Light Profiles of Galaxies in the Environment of 20 Ultra-Steep-Spectrum Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornancini, Carlos G.; Martínez, Héctor J.; Lambas, Diego G.; de Vries, Wim; van Breugel, Wil; De Breuck, Carlos; Minniti, Dante

    2004-02-01

    We have analyzed galaxy properties in the neighborhood of 20 ultra-steep-spectrum (USS) radio sources taken from the Westerbork in the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) catalog of De Breuck and coworkers. Galaxies in these USS fields were identified in deep observations that were carried out in the K' band using the OSIRIS imager at the CTIO 4 m telescope. We find a statistically significant signal of clustering around our sample of USS sources. The angular extension of the detected USS source-galaxy clustering is θc~20'', corresponding to a spatial scale of ~120 h-1 kpc, assuming the sources are at z~1 in an Ωm=0.3, ΩΛ=0.7 model universe. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Best for radio galaxy-galaxy correlation, and Best and coworkers for radio-loud AGN-galaxy correlation. We have also analyzed the light distribution of the galaxies by fitting Sérsic's law profiles. Our results show no significant dependence of the galaxy shape parameters on the projected distance to the USS source. Based on observations obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  5. Understanding GPU Power. A Survey of Profiling, Modeling, and Simulation Methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bridges, Robert A.; Imam, Neena; Mintz, Tiffany M.

    2016-09-01

    Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) have complex architectures that admit exceptional performance and energy efficiency for high throughput applications.Though GPUs consume large amounts of power, their use for high throughput applications facilitate state-of-the-art energy efficiency and performance. Consequently, continued development relies on understanding their power consumption. Our work is a survey of GPU power modeling and profiling methods with increased detail on noteworthy efforts. Moreover, as direct measurement of GPU power is necessary for model evaluation and parameter initiation, internal and external power sensors are discussed. Hardware counters, which are low-level tallies of hardware events, share strong correlation to powermore » use and performance. Statistical correlation between power and performance counters has yielded worthwhile GPU power models, yet the complexity inherent to GPU architectures presents new hurdles for power modeling. Developments and challenges of counter-based GPU power modeling is discussed. Often building on the counter-based models, research efforts for GPU power simulation, which make power predictions from input code and hardware knowledge, provide opportunities for optimization in programming or architectural design. Noteworthy strides in power simulations for GPUs are included along with their performance or functional simulator counterparts when appropriate. Lastly, possible directions for future research are discussed.« less

  6. Quantification of the power changes in BOLD signals using Welch spectrum method during different single-hand motor imageries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Yuan, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Yang, Qin; Chen, Huafu

    2014-12-01

    Motor imagery is an experimental paradigm implemented in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology. To investigate the asymmetry of the strength of cortical functional activity due to different single-hand motor imageries, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from right handed normal subjects were recorded and analyzed during both left-hand and right-hand motor imagery processes. Then the average power of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in temporal domain was calculated using the developed tool that combines Welch power spectrum and the integral of power spectrum approach of BOLD signal changes during motor imagery. Power change analysis results indicated that cortical activity exhibited a stronger power in the precentral gyrus and medial frontal gyrus with left-hand motor imagery tasks compared with that from right-hand motor imagery tasks. These observations suggest that right handed normal subjects mobilize more cortical nerve cells for left-hand motor imagery. Our findings also suggest that the approach based on power differences of BOLD signals is a suitable quantitative analysis tool for quantification of asymmetry of brain activity intensity during motor imagery tasks.

  7. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability. PMID:26528987

  8. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  9. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability. PMID:26528987

  10. Total Quality Education: Profiles of Schools That Demonstrate the Power of Deming's Management Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Michael J.; Wilson, Richard B.

    This book presents profiles of schools that have demonstrated the power of Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) principles. It describes schools that have successfully applied those strategies for change. The book explores what public education needs most--a compelling but flexible action plan for improvement. Chapter 1 offers a rationale for…

  11. Measurement of a peak in the cosmic microwave background power spectrum from the North American test flight of Boomerang

    SciTech Connect

    Mauskopf, P.D.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B.P.; de Bernardis, P.; DeGasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P.L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scannapieco, E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Stompor, R.; Vittorio, N.

    1999-11-01

    We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotrophies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.2 deg to approx. 10 deg. from the test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotrophies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of approx. 1 deg. with an amplitude of approx. 70-muKcmb.

  12. A computer program for estimating the power-density spectrum of advanced continuous simulation language generated time histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program for performing frequency analysis of time history data is presented. The program uses circular convolution and the fast Fourier transform to calculate power density spectrum (PDS) of time history data. The program interfaces with the advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL) so that a frequency analysis may be performed on ACSL generated simulation variables. An example of the calculation of the PDS of a Van de Pol oscillator is presented.

  13. What next-generation 21 cm power spectrum measurements can teach us about the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Morales, Miguel F.; Liu, Adrian; McQuinn, Matthew; Parsons, Aaron R.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tegmark, Max; Aguirre, James E.; Bowman, Judd D.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Werthimer, Dan J.

    2014-02-20

    A number of experiments are currently working toward a measurement of the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization (EoR). Whether or not these experiments deliver a detection of cosmological emission, their limited sensitivity will prevent them from providing detailed information about the astrophysics of reionization. In this work, we consider what types of measurements will be enabled by the next generation of larger 21 cm EoR telescopes. To calculate the type of constraints that will be possible with such arrays, we use simple models for the instrument, foreground emission, and the reionization history. We focus primarily on an instrument modeled after the ∼0.1 km{sup 2} collecting area Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array concept design and parameterize the uncertainties with regard to foreground emission by considering different limits to the recently described 'wedge' footprint in k space. Uncertainties in the reionization history are accounted for using a series of simulations that vary the ionizing efficiency and minimum virial temperature of the galaxies responsible for reionization, as well as the mean free path of ionizing photons through the intergalactic medium. Given various combinations of models, we consider the significance of the possible power spectrum detections, the ability to trace the power spectrum evolution versus redshift, the detectability of salient power spectrum features, and the achievable level of quantitative constraints on astrophysical parameters. Ultimately, we find that 0.1 km{sup 2} of collecting area is enough to ensure a very high significance (≳ 30σ) detection of the reionization power spectrum in even the most pessimistic scenarios. This sensitivity should allow for meaningful constraints on the reionization history and astrophysical parameters, especially if foreground subtraction techniques can be improved and successfully implemented.

  14. A method for evaluating the expectation value of a power spectrum using the probability density function of phases

    SciTech Connect

    Caliandro, G.A.; Torres, D.F.; Rea, N. E-mail: dtorres@aliga.ieec.uab.es

    2013-07-01

    Here, we present a new method to evaluate the expectation value of the power spectrum of a time series. A statistical approach is adopted to define the method. After its demonstration, it is validated showing that it leads to the known properties of the power spectrum when the time series contains a periodic signal. The approach is also validated in general with numerical simulations. The method puts into evidence the importance that is played by the probability density function of the phases associated to each time stamp for a given frequency, and how this distribution can be perturbed by the uncertainties of the parameters in the pulsar ephemeris. We applied this method to solve the power spectrum in the case the first derivative of the pulsar frequency is unknown and not negligible. We also undertook the study of the most general case of a blind search, in which both the frequency and its first derivative are uncertain. We found the analytical solutions of the above cases invoking the sum of Fresnel's integrals squared.

  15. Enhancing photovoltaic output power by 3-band spectrum-splitting and concentration using a diffractive micro-optic

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-09-17

    We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output powermore » density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. As a result, the potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.« less

  16. Using radar wind profilers and RASS data to calculate power plant plume rise and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Y.J.; Gaynor, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    As the number of 915-MHz radar wind profilers and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS) increases, their number of uses also increases. These systems have demonstrated particular utility in air quality studies and, more specifically, in complex terrain. One data set from the radar profilers that has not, to date, been utilized to any large extent is represented by the temperature profiles derived from the RASS. Normally, these profiles represent a 5-min average every hour with a height resolution of about 60 m, a minimum range of about 100 m, and a maximum range of about 1.5 km, although this varies substantially with meterological conditions. Such profiles have several potential applications. Among them are determinations of mixing height and stability. In this work, we use the stability, along with the hour-averaged wind profiles, to estimate plume rise heights at a power plant site in Laughlin, Nevada, about 200 km south of Lake Mead. The profiles are first stratified according to season and synoptic categories so that the calculated plume rise heights could be separated by background transport conditions. The data were taken during Project Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects (MOHAVE), which took place in 1992. This project is briefly discussed in the next section, along with the instrumentation and data used in this study.

  17. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum at 148 AND 218 GHz from the 2008 Southern Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sudeep; Marriage, Tobias A.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia A.; Bond, J. Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Doriese, W. Bertrand; Dunkley, Joanna; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Wollack, Ed

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. Our results dearly show the second through the seventh acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum. The measurements of these higher-order peaks provide an additional test of the ACDM cosmological model. At l > 3000, we detect power in excess of the primary anisotropy spectrum of the CMB. At lower multipoles 500 < l < 3000, we find evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB in the power spectrum at the 2.8(sigma) level. We also detect a low level of Galactic dust in our maps, which demonstrates that we can recover known faint, diffuse signals.

  18. The voltage profile improvement using static var compensator (SVC) in power system transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdan, G. M.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasbullah

    2016-04-01

    In transmission system named ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ there are the voltage drop which relatively high and the voltage profile at the receiving ends below 0.95 p.u. Therefore, this research proposed a method to improve the voltage profile in the transmission system using one of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) technology which is Static Var Compensator (SVC) and ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung’ as the object. This research aims to get the voltage profile in ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ before and after connected to SVC and to set optimal location and rating of SVC to maintain the voltage profile at the system that has desire range (0.95 p.u - 1.05 p.u). To get the result in accordance with these objects, Newton -Raphson power flow solution is applied to the system. The result of Newton- Raphson power flow solution of the system shows the voltage profile before connecting to SVC are averagely 140.95 kV or 0.94 p.u while after connecting to SVC are 145.28 kV or 0.97 p.u. The SVC installation is connected to ‘Bandung Utara I’ as the weakest bus, and the SVC rating is -250 Mvar to 300 Mvar.

  19. Power Dependence of the Electron Mobility Profile in a Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard H.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-01-01

    The electron mobility profile is estimated in a 4.5 kW commercial Hall thruster as a function of discharge power. Internal measurements of plasma potential and electron temperature are made in the thruster channel with a high-speed translating probe. These measurements are presented for a range of throttling conditions from 150 - 400 V and 0.6 - 4.5 kW. The fluid-based solver, Hall2De, is used in conjunction with these internal plasma parameters to estimate the anomalous collision frequency profile at fixed voltage, 300 V, and three power levels. It is found that the anomalous collision frequency profile does not change significantly upstream of the location of the magnetic field peak but that the extent and magnitude of the anomalous collision frequency downstream of the magnetic peak does change with thruster power. These results are discussed in the context of developing phenomenological models for how the collision frequency profile depends on thruster operating conditions.

  20. Developing a Predictive Gene Classifier for Autism Spectrum Disorders Based upon Differential Gene Expression Profiles of Phenotypic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Valerie W.; Lai, Yinglei

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which are currently diagnosed solely on the basis of abnormal stereotyped behavior as well as observable deficits in communication and social functioning. Although a variety of candidate genes have been identified on the basis of genetic analyses and up to 20% of ASD cases can be collectively associated with a genetic abnormality, no single gene or genetic variant is applicable to more than 1–2 percent of the general ASD population. In this report, we apply class prediction algorithms to gene expression profiles of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from several phenotypic subgroups of idiopathic autism defined by cluster analyses of behavioral severity scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised diagnostic instrument for ASD. We further demonstrate that individuals from these ASD subgroups can be distinguished from nonautistic controls on the basis of limited sets of differentially expressed genes with a predicted classification accuracy of up to 94% and sensitivities and specificities of ~90% or better, based on support vector machine analyses with leave-one-out validation. Validation of a subset of the “classifier” genes by high-throughput quantitative nuclease protection assays with a new set of LCL samples derived from individuals in one of the phenotypic subgroups and from a new set of controls resulted in an overall class prediction accuracy of ~82%, with ~90% sensitivity and 75% specificity. Although additional validation with a larger cohort is needed, and effective clinical translation must include confirmation of the differentially expressed genes in primary cells from cases earlier in development, we suggest that such panels of genes, based on expression analyses of phenotypically more homogeneous subgroups of individuals with ASD, may be useful biomarkers for diagnosis of subtypes of idiopathic autism. PMID:24363828

  1. Detailed axial power profiles in a MOX fuel experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen two options to dispose of surplus weapons-grade (WG) plutonium (WGPu). One option is to burn the WGPu in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors. An average power test (<10 kW/ft) of WG-MOX fuel was inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in February 1998. A high power test (<15 kW/ft) of WG-MOX fuel in ATR will follow the average-power test. The ability to accurately predict fuel power is essential in the high-power WG-MOX fuel capsule design for the test in ATR. Detailed fission power and temperature profiles may influence gallium migration in WG-MOX fuel pins. Most of the fission heat generated in the MOX fuel capsules will transfer radially to the water coolant. However, because of the short length (15.24 cm) of the MOX fuel pellet stacks, some of the fission heat will transfer through the end pellets axially. Compounded with peak fission power local-to-average ratios (LTAR) at the ends of MOX fuel stacks, the hot spot created may exceed the design limit. Therefore, the prediction of the axial fission power profiles over the MOX fuel stacks at the beginning of life (BOL) and end of life (EOL) are important for MOX fuel performance analysis and capsule design for testing in ATR. Continuous-energy MCNP linked with ORIGEN2 can generate the burnup-dependent cross sections and fission power distribution for fuel burnup analysis while accurately including the effects of self-shielding. This approach is very important for the prediction of plutonium content and LTAR in MOX fuel pellet stacks with HfO{sub 2} ends. MCWO can accurately determine fuel pin power distributions in the ATR experiment when the MOX fuel and HfO{sub 2} are depleted simultaneously. This is significant because the authors quickly provided the customer with the required detailed power distributions within the MOX pins using the new approach. The MOX fuel pin with HfO{sub 2} can flatten the axial power profiles from BOL to EOL and meet the MOX

  2. High-z objects and cold dark matter cosmogonies - Constraints on the primordial power spectrum on small scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    Modified cold dark matter (CDM) models were recently suggested to account for large-scale optical data, which fix the power spectrum on large scales, and the COBE results, which would then fix the bias parameter, b. We point out that all such models have deficit of small-scale power where density fluctuations are presently nonlinear, and should then lead to late epochs of collapse of scales M between 10 exp 9 - 10 exp 10 solar masses and (1-5) x 10 exp 14 solar masses. We compute the probabilities and comoving space densities of various scale objects at high redshifts according to the CDM models and compare these with observations of high-z QSOs, high-z galaxies and the protocluster-size object found recently by Uson et al. (1992) at z = 3.4. We show that the modified CDM models are inconsistent with the observational data on these objects. We thus suggest that in order to account for the high-z objects, as well as the large-scale and COBE data, one needs a power spectrum with more power on small scales than CDM models allow and an open universe.

  3. An approach to estimate EEG power spectrum as an index of heat stress using backpropagation artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    A method has been presented for an effective application of backpropagation artificial neural network (ANN) in establishment of electro-encephalogram (EEG) power spectra as an index of stress in hot environment. The power spectrum data for slow wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and awake (AWA) states in three groups of rats (acute heat stress, chronic heat stress and the normal) were tested by an ANN, containing 60 nodes in input layer, weighted from power spectrum data from 0 to 30 Hz, 18 nodes in hidden layer and an output node. The target output values for this network were determined with another five-layered neural network (with the structure of 3-12-1-12-3). The input and output of this network was assigned with the three well-established heat stress indices (body temperature, body weight and plasma corticosterone). The most important feature for acute stress, chronic stress and normal conditions were extracted from the third layer single neuron and used for the target value for the three-layered neural network. The ANN was found effective in recognising the EEG power spectra with an average of 96.67% for acute heat stress, 97.17% for chronic heat stress and 98.5% for normal subjects.

  4. Scattering of energetic particles by anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a goldreich-sridhar power spectrum

    PubMed

    Chandran

    2000-11-27

    Scattering rates for a Goldreich-Sridhar (GS) spectrum of anisotropic, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are calculated in the quasilinear approximation. Because the small-scale fluctuations are constrained to have wave vectors nearly perpendicular to the background magnetic field, scattering is too weak to provide either the mean-free paths commonly used in Galactic cosmic-ray propagation models or the mean-free paths required for acceleration of cosmic rays at quasiparallel shocks. Where strong pitch-angle scattering occurs, it is due to fluctuations not described by the GS spectrum, such as fluctuations generated by streaming cosmic rays. PMID:11082620

  5. A MEASUREMENT OF THE DAMPING TAIL OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM WITH THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Keisler, R.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Hoover, S.; Reichardt, C. L.; George, E. M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D.; Cho, H. M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J.; Holder, G. P.; Halverson, N. W.; Hou, Z.; and others

    2011-12-10

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The data consist of 790 deg{sup 2} of sky observed at 150 GHz during 2008 and 2009. Here we present the power spectrum over the multipole range 650 < l < 3000, where it is dominated by primary CMB anisotropy. We combine this power spectrum with the power spectra from the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data release to constrain cosmological models. We find that the SPT and WMAP data are consistent with each other and, when combined, are well fit by a spatially flat, {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. The SPT+WMAP constraint on the spectral index of scalar fluctuations is n{sub s} = 0.9663 {+-} 0.0112. We detect, at {approx}5{sigma} significance, the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB power spectrum, and find its amplitude to be consistent with the {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. We explore a number of extensions beyond the {Lambda}CDM model. Each extension is tested independently, although there are degeneracies between some of the extension parameters. We constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to be r < 0.21 (95% CL) and constrain the running of the scalar spectral index to be dn{sub s} /dln k = -0.024 {+-} 0.013. We strongly detect the effects of primordial helium and neutrinos on the CMB; a model without helium is rejected at 7.7{sigma}, while a model without neutrinos is rejected at 7.5{sigma}. The primordial helium abundance is measured to be Y{sub p} = 0.296 {+-} 0.030, and the effective number of relativistic species is measured to be N{sub eff} = 3.85 {+-} 0.62. The constraints on these models are strengthened when the CMB data are combined with measurements of the Hubble constant and the baryon acoustic oscillation feature. Notable improvements include n{sub s} = 0.9668 {+-} 0.0093, r < 0.17 (95% CL), and N{sub eff} = 3.86 {+-} 0.42. The SPT+WMAP data show a mild preference for low power

  6. Advanced Condenser Boosts Geothermal Power Plant Output (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    When power production at The Geysers geothermal power complex began to falter, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) stepped in, developing advanced condensing technology that dramatically boosted production efficiency - and making a major contribution to the effective use of geothermal power. NREL developed advanced direct-contact condenser (ADCC) technology to condense spent steam more effectively, improving power production efficiency in Unit 11 by 5%.

  7. Sensitivity of Cosmic-Ray Proton Spectra to the Low-wavenumber Behavior of the 2D Turbulence Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel ab initio cosmic ray (CR) modulation code that solves a set of stochastic transport equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation, and that uses output from a turbulence transport code as input for the diffusion tensor, is introduced. This code is benchmarked with a previous approach to ab initio modulation. The sensitivity of computed galactic CR proton spectra at Earth to assumptions made as to the low-wavenumber behavior of the two-dimensional (2D) turbulence power spectrum is investigated using perpendicular mean free path expressions derived from two different scattering theories. Constraints on the low-wavenumber behavior of the 2D power spectrum are inferred from the qualitative comparison of computed CR spectra with spacecraft observations at Earth. Another key difference from previous studies is that observed and inferred CR intensity spectra at 73 AU are used as boundary spectra instead of the usual local interstellar spectrum. Furthermore, the results presented here provide a tentative explanation as to the reason behind the unusually high galactic proton intensity spectra observed in 2009 during the recent unusual solar minimum.

  8. SENSITIVITY OF COSMIC-RAY PROTON SPECTRA TO THE LOW-WAVENUMBER BEHAVIOR OF THE 2D TURBULENCE POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel ab initio cosmic ray (CR) modulation code that solves a set of stochastic transport equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation, and that uses output from a turbulence transport code as input for the diffusion tensor, is introduced. This code is benchmarked with a previous approach to ab initio modulation. The sensitivity of computed galactic CR proton spectra at Earth to assumptions made as to the low-wavenumber behavior of the two-dimensional (2D) turbulence power spectrum is investigated using perpendicular mean free path expressions derived from two different scattering theories. Constraints on the low-wavenumber behavior of the 2D power spectrum are inferred from the qualitative comparison of computed CR spectra with spacecraft observations at Earth. Another key difference from previous studies is that observed and inferred CR intensity spectra at 73 AU are used as boundary spectra instead of the usual local interstellar spectrum. Furthermore, the results presented here provide a tentative explanation as to the reason behind the unusually high galactic proton intensity spectra observed in 2009 during the recent unusual solar minimum.

  9. Probing reionization with the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm and near-infrared radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xiao-Chun

    2014-08-01

    The cross-correlation between the 21 cm emission from the high-redshift intergalactic medium and the near-infrared (NIR) background light from high-redshift galaxies promises to be a powerful probe of cosmic reionization. In this paper, we investigate the cross-power spectrum during the epoch of reionization. We employ an improved halo approach to derive the distribution of the density field and consider two stellar populations in the star formation model: metal-free stars and metal-poor stars. The reionization history is further generated to be consistent with the electron-scattering optical depth from cosmic microwave background measurements. Then, the intensity of the NIR background is estimated by collecting emission from stars in first-light galaxies. On large scales, we find that the 21 cm and NIR radiation backgrounds are positively correlated during the very early stages of reionization. However, these two radiation backgrounds quickly become anti-correlated as reionization proceeds. The maximum absolute value of the cross-power spectrum is |Δ{sub 21,NIR}{sup 2}|∼10{sup −4} mK nW m{sup –2} sr{sup –1}, reached at ℓ ∼ 1000 when the mean fraction of ionized hydrogen is x-bar{sub i}∼0.9. We find that Square Kilometer Array can measure the 21 cm-NIR cross-power spectrum in conjunction with mild extensions to the existing CIBER survey, provided that the integration time independently adds up to 1000 and 1 hr for 21 cm and NIR observations, and that the sky coverage fraction of the CIBER survey is extended from 4 × 10{sup –4} to 0.1. Measuring the cross-correlation signal as a function of redshift provides valuable information on reionization and helps confirm the origin of the 'missing' NIR background.

  10. The Power of Positivity: Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that…

  11. Harnessing the Power of Play: Opportunities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Play is a complex phenomenon that occurs naturally for most children; they move through the various stages of play development and are able to add complexity, imagination, and creativity to their thought processes and actions. However, for many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the various stages of play never truly develop, or occur…

  12. Radial Power Profile of MOX and LEU Fuel Pellet Versus Burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Gray S.; Pedersen, Robert C.

    2002-07-01

    One of challenge to burn the WG-Pu in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWR) is to demonstrate that the differences between WG-MOX, RG-MOX, and LWR LEU fuel are minimal, and therefore, the commercial MOX and LEU fuel experience base is applicable. The MCWO-calculated Radial Power Profile of LEU, Weapons Grade-MOX and Reactor Grade-MOX fuel pellets at various burnups are similar toward the end of life (50 GWd/t). Therefore, the LEU fuel performance evaluation code - FRAPCON-3 with modifications, such as, the detailed fission power profiles versus burnup, can be used in the MOX fuel pellet performance analysis. MCWO also calculated the {sup 240}Pu/Pu ratio in WG-MOX versus burnup, which reaches an average of 31.25% at discharged burnup of 50 GWd/t. It meets the spent fuel standard for WG-Pu disposition in LWR. (authors)

  13. A power ramped pulsed mode laser piercing technique for improved CO 2 laser profile cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirumala Rao, B.; Ittoop, M. O.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2009-11-01

    Laser piercing is one of the inevitable requirements of laser profile cutting process and it has a direct bearing on the quality of the laser cut profiles. We have developed a novel power ramped pulsed mode (PRPM) laser piercing technique to produce much finer pierced holes and to achieve a better control on the process parameters compared to the existing methodology based on normal pulsed mode (NPM). Experiments were carried out with both PRPM and NPM laser piercing on 1.5-mm-thick mild steel using an in-house developed high-power transverse flow continuous wave (CW)-CO 2 laser. Significant improvements in the spatter, circularity of the pierced hole and reproducibility were achieved through the PRPM technique. We studied, in detail, the dynamics of processes involved in PRPM laser piercing and compared that with those of the NPM piercing.

  14. Voltage profile program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center voltage profile program computes voltages at all busses greater than 1 Kv in the network under various conditions of load. The computation is based upon power flow principles and utilizes a Newton-Raphson iterative load flow algorithm. Power flow conditions throughout the network are also provided. The computer program is designed for both steady state and transient operation. In the steady state mode, automatic tap changing of primary distribution transformers is incorporated. Under transient conditions, such as motor starts etc., it is assumed that tap changing is not accomplished so that transformer secondary voltage is allowed to sag.

  15. Featuring the primordial power spectrum: New constraints on interrupted slow-roll from CMB and LRG data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Micol; Pandolfi, Stefania; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Using the most recent data from the WMAP, ACT and SPT experiments, we update the constraints on models with oscillatory features in the primordial power spectrum of scalar perturbations. This kind of features can appear in models of inflation where slow-roll is interrupted, like multifield models. We also derive constraints for the case in which, in addition to cosmic microwave observations, we also consider the data on the spectrum of luminous red galaxies from the 7th SDSS catalog, and the SNIa Union Compilation 2 data. We have found that: (i) considering a model with features in the primordial power spectrum increases the agreement with data compared to the featureless “vanilla” ΛCDM model by Δχ2=6.7, representing an improvement with respect to the expected value Δχ2=3 for an equivalent model with three additional parameters; (ii) the uncertainty on the determination of the standard parameters is not degraded when features are included; (iii) the best fit for the features model locates the step in the primordial spectrum at a scale k≃0.005Mpc-1, corresponding to the scale where the outliers in the WMAP7 data at ℓ=22 and ℓ=40 are located.; (iv) a distinct, albeit less statistically significant peak is present in the likelihood at smaller scales, whose presence might be related to the WMAP7 preference for a negative value of the running of the scalar spectral index parameter; (v) the inclusion of the LRG-7 data does not change significantly the best fit model, but allows to better constrain the amplitude of the oscillations.

  16. A SENSITIVITY AND ARRAY-CONFIGURATION STUDY FOR MEASURING THE POWER SPECTRUM OF 21 cm EMISSION FROM REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Aaron; Pober, Jonathan; McQuinn, Matthew; Jacobs, Daniel; Aguirre, James

    2012-07-01

    Telescopes aiming to measure 21 cm emission from the Epoch of Reionization must toe a careful line, balancing the need for raw sensitivity against the stringent calibration requirements for removing bright foregrounds. It is unclear what the optimal design is for achieving both of these goals. Via a pedagogical derivation of an interferometer's response to the power spectrum of 21 cm reionization fluctuations, we show that even under optimistic scenarios first-generation arrays will yield low-signal-to-noise detections, and that different compact array configurations can substantially alter sensitivity. We explore the sensitivity gains of array configurations that yield high redundancy in the uv-plane-configurations that have been largely ignored since the advent of self-calibration for high-dynamic-range imaging. We first introduce a mathematical framework to generate optimal minimum-redundancy configurations for imaging. We contrast the sensitivity of such configurations with high-redundancy configurations, finding that high-redundancy configurations can improve power-spectrum sensitivity by more than an order of magnitude. We explore how high-redundancy array configurations can be tuned to various angular scales, enabling array sensitivity to be directed away from regions of the uv-plane (such as the origin) where foregrounds are brighter and instrumental systematics are more problematic. We demonstrate that a 132 antenna deployment of the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization observing for 120 days in a high-redundancy configuration will, under ideal conditions, have the requisite sensitivity to detect the power spectrum of the 21 cm signal from reionization at a 3{sigma} level at k < 0.25 h Mpc{sup -1} in a bin of {Delta}ln k = 1. We discuss the tradeoffs of low- versus high-redundancy configurations.

  17. Inferring the IGM thermal history during reionisation with the Lyman-α forest power spectrum at redshift z ≃ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Fahad; Bolton, James S.; Becker, George D.

    2016-08-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to assess the feasibility of constraining the thermal history of the intergalactic medium during reionisation with the Ly{α } forest at z ≃ 5 . The integrated thermal history has a measureable impact on the transmitted flux power spectrum that can be isolated from Doppler broadening at this redshift. We parameterise this using the cumulative energy per proton, u0, deposited into a gas parcel at the mean background density, a quantity that is tightly linked with the gas density power spectrum in the simulations. We construct mock observations of the line of sight Ly{α } forest power spectrum and use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to recover u0 at redshifts 5 ⪉ z ⪉ 12. A statistical uncertainty of ˜20 per cent is expected (at 68 per cent confidence) at z ≃ 5 using high resolution spectra with a total redshift path length of Δz = 4 and a typical signal-to-noise ratio of S/N=15 per pixel. Estimates for the expected systematic uncertainties are comparable, such that existing data should enable a measurement of u0 to within ˜30 per cent. This translates to distinguishing between reionisation scenarios with similar instantaneous temperatures at z ≃ 5, but with an energy deposited per proton that differs by 2-3 eV over the redshift interval 5⪉ z ⪉ 12. For an initial temperature of T˜ 104 K following reionisation, this corresponds to the difference between early (zre = 12) and late (zre = 7) reionisation in our models.

  18. Shear viscous effects on the primordial power spectrum from warm inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    We compute the primordial curvature spectrum generated during warm inflation, including shear viscous effects. The primordial spectrum is dominated by the thermal fluctuations of the radiation bath, sourced by the dissipative term of the inflaton field. The dissipative coefficient Υ, computed from first principles in the close-to-equilibrium approximation, depends in general on the temperature T, and this dependence renders the system of the linear fluctuations coupled. Whenever the dissipative coefficient is larger than the Hubble expansion rate H, there is a growing mode in the fluctuations before horizon crossing. However, dissipation intrinsically means departures from equilibrium, and therefore the presence of a shear viscous pressure in the radiation fluid. This in turn acts as an extra friction term for the radiation fluctuations that tends to damp the growth of the perturbations. Independently of the T functional dependence of the dissipation and the shear viscosity, we find that when the shear viscous coefficient ζ{sub s} is larger than 3ρ{sub r}/H at horizon crossing, ρ{sub r} being the radiation energy density, the shear damping effect wins and there is no growing mode in the spectrum.

  19. Compton scattering and the gamma-ray power-law spectrum in Markarian 421

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Krolik, Julian H.

    1993-01-01

    The nearest BL Lac object, Mrk 421, has a gamma-ray spectrum which is approximately flat in EF-sub E from E less than about 50 MeV to E greater than about 1 TeV. Inverse Compton scattering can explain this smooth spectrum, despite the structure in the Klein-Nishina cross section, if the injected electron distribution function is proportional to gamma exp -2, where gamma is the electron Lorentz factor. When this is the case, the structure imprinted on the steady state electron distribution function by the structure in the Klein-Nishina cross section is almost exactly compensated in the radiated spectrum. Because particle acceleration in strong shocks injects particles with this distribution function, this shape injection function is in fact quite plausible. Other blazars may be explained by the same model if the cutoff below TeV energies observed in other objects is due to pair production on the cosmological IR background, as suggested by Stecker et al. (1992).

  20. Murder on the mind: tyranical power and other points along the perverse spectrum.

    PubMed

    Tuch, Richard

    2010-02-01

    This paper illustrates the breadth and depth of the spectrum of perversion and perversity as currently represented in the psychoanalytic literature, raises questions about recent tendencies to include a host of diverse-seeming phenomena under the same conceptual umbrella, and strives to demonstrate what these phenomena have in common that justifies lumping them together under the same rubric. One end of this spectrum is represented by the employment of simple fetishes introduced into a sexual scene in order to promote sexual arousal. Moving along the continuum, one encounters increasing complex behavioral patterns including the enactment of scripts that actualize one's perverse fantasies, including the assumption of complementary roles (e.g. sadomasochism) that equally serve the needs, and represent the desires, of both parties involved. A unique clinical entity, 'perverse modes of relatedness,' lies on the extreme end of the spectrum, representing the reification of the relationship as it becomes little more than a vehicle to take possession and control one's object for the gratification of one's sole needs and desires. What each of these phenomena share in common is both the insertion of a thing or condition - ranging from a simple fetishistic object to an elaborate style of relating that reduces the other into pawn played upon the pervert's chessboard, between the two 'relating' objects as well as a less than honest relationship with reality. PMID:20433479

  1. Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.; Tasman, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism. PMID:26834615

  2. Perturbation Theory Reloaded : Toward The Precise Modeling Of The Galaxy Power Spectrum In The High-z Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, E.

    2007-12-01

    We shall show that there exist quasi-nonlinear regions in the k-space, where one can actually model the effect of nonlinearities on the galaxy power spectrum by comparing the large number of N-body simulations with the nonlinear perturbation theory. Especially, we shall show that in the high redshift universe, the nonlinear matter evolution, and nonlinear halo bias are now perfectly modeled within a suffcient range in k-space, by the perturbation theory. And the nonlinear redshift space distortion is also well understood, except for the highly nonlinear Finger of God effect. D. J. acknowledges support from the Texas Advanced Research Program.

  3. Imprints of dark energy on cosmic structure formation - I. Realistic quintessence models and the non-linear matter power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimi, J.-M.; Füzfa, A.; Boucher, V.; Rasera, Y.; Courtin, J.; Corasaniti, P.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Quintessence has been proposed to account for dark energy (DE) in the Universe. This component causes a typical modification of the background cosmic expansion, which, in addition to its clustering properties, can leave a potentially distinctive signature on large-scale structures. Many previous studies have investigated this topic, particularly in relation to the non-linear regime of structure formation. However, no careful pre-selection of viable quintessence models with high precision cosmological data was performed. Here we show that this has led to a misinterpretation (and underestimation) of the imprint of quintessence on the distribution of large-scale structures. To this purpose, we perform a likelihood analysis of the combined Supernova Ia UNION data set and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-yr data to identify realistic quintessence models. These are specified by different model parameter values, but still statistically indistinguishable from the vanilla Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). Differences are especially manifest in the predicted amplitude and shape of the linear matter power spectrum though these remain within the uncertainties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. We use these models as a benchmark for studying the clustering properties of dark matter haloes by performing a series of high-resolution N-body simulations. In this first paper, we specifically focus on the non-linear matter power spectrum. We find that realistic quintessence models allow for relevant differences of the dark matter distribution with respect to the ΛCDM scenario well into the non-linear regime, with deviations of up to 40 per cent in the non-linear power spectrum. Such differences are shown to depend on the nature of DE, as well as the scale and epoch considered. At small scales (k ~ 1-5hMpc-1, depending on the redshift), the structure formation process is about 20 per cent more efficient than in ΛCDM. We show that these imprints are a specific record of the cosmic

  4. WISC-IV Profile in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Impaired Processing Speed is Associated with Increased Autism Communication Symptoms and Decreased Adaptive Communication Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-Rentas, Rafael E.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Roberson, Richard B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV (WISC-IV) may affect the IQ profile characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Moreover, the association of particular component cognitive abilities (unlike overall IQ) with symptomatology and adaptive functioning in ASD remains unclear. This archival study characterizes the WISC-IV IQ profile among 51 high-functioning (IQ>70) children with ASD and correlates WISC-IV performance with ASD and ADHD symptomatology and adaptive functioning. The ASD WISC-IV profile included strengths on Matrix Reasoning and Similarities, weaknesses on Comprehension (which correlated negatively with social symptoms) and the subtests comprising the Processing Speed Index (Coding, Symbol Search). Processing speed task performance correlated negatively with communication symptoms and positively with communication abilities, indicating its importance to functional outcomes in ASD. PMID:21638108

  5. Calculation of the optical power profile for a solar bowl with an iris

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.M.; Obeyesekere, M.

    1987-05-15

    This report develops analytical techniques for studying shallow spherical segment bowls that have an attached tracking iris. The report extends previous analytical models that were developed as part of the Crosbyton Solar Power Project for the case of spherical segment bowls. Three types of calculations are considered. First, effective apperture formulas are derived for a spherical segment bowl with an iris, and results are compared with the bowl without an iris. Secondly, analytical formulas are derived to determine spillage losses for shallow bowls. Finally, the powerful Ratio of Solid Angles (ROSA) computer code is extended to include solar profiles for a spherical segment bowl with iris. The report includes several plots comparing optical power concentration ratios for solar bowls with and without an iris. A complete listing of the extended code, ROSAIRIS, is given in the appendix. 29 figs.

  6. A MODEL FOR THE NON-UNIVERSAL POWER LAW OF THE SOLAR WIND SUB-ION-SCALE MAGNETIC SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. E-mail: sulem@oca.eu

    2015-10-20

    A phenomenological turbulence model for kinetic Alfvén waves in a magnetized collisionless plasma that is able to reproduce the non-universal power-law spectra observed at the sub-ion scales in the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosphere is presented. The process of temperature homogenization along distorted magnetic field lines, induced by Landau damping, affects the turbulence transfer time and results in a steepening of the sub-ion power-law spectrum of critically balanced turbulence, whose exponent is sensitive to the ratio between the Alfvén wave period and the nonlinear timescale. Transition from large-scale weak turbulence to smaller scale strong turbulence is captured and nonlocal interactions, relevant in the case of steep spectra, are accounted for.

  7. New indices for quantification of the power spectrum of heart rate variability time series without the need of any frequency band definition.

    PubMed

    García-González, M A; Fernández-Chimeno, M; Ferrer, J; Escorihuela, R M; Parrado, E; Capdevila, L; Benítez, A; Angulo, R; Rodríguez, F A; Iglesias, X; Bescós, R; Marina, M; Padullés, J M; Ramos-Castro, J

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a new family of indices for the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability time series that do not need any frequency band definition. After proper detrending of the time series, a cumulated power spectrum is obtained and frequencies that contain a certain percentage of the power below them are identified, so median frequency, bandwidth and a measure of the power spectrum asymmetry are proposed to complement or improve the classical spectral indices as the ratio of the powers of LF and HF bands (LF/HF). In normal conditions the median frequency provides similar information as the classical indices, while the bandwidth and asymmetry can be complementary measures of the physiological state of the tested subject. The proposed indices seem to be a good choice for tracking changes in the power spectrum in exercise stress, and they can guide in the determination of frequency band limits in other animal species.

  8. Characterizing the peak in the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum

    PubMed

    Knox; Page

    2000-08-14

    A peak has been unambiguously detected in the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum. Here we characterize its properties with fits to phenomenological models. We find that the TOCO and BOOM/NA data determine the peak location to be in the range 175-243 and 151-259, respectively (at 95% confidence) and determine the peak amplitude to be between approximately 70 and 90 &mgr;K. The peak shape is consistent with inflation-inspired flat, cold dark matter plus cosmological constant models of structure formation with adiabatic, nearly scale invariant initial conditions. It is inconsistent with open models and presents a great challenge to defect models.

  9. The Power of Positivity: Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ekas, Naomi V; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that parent's positive strengths predicted better personal relationship satisfaction. Moreover, parents' benefit finding, use of emotional support, and perceived social support from their partner also predicted their partner's relationship satisfaction. The results of this study highlight the importance of focusing on positive factors that can enhance relationship quality. Implications for the development of parent-focused interventions are discussed.

  10. Components Makeover Gives Concentrating Solar Power a Boost (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    Parabolic trough technology is the most mature of the various concentrating solar power (CSP) options. But scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) continue to make advances on trough systems through innovative research on various components in industrial partnerships with Acciona Solar Power, SkyFuel, Schott Solar, and others. The results are leading to improved system efficiencies and lower costs for CSP plants.

  11. Tapering the sky response for angular power spectrum estimation from low-frequency radio-interferometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Roy, Nirupam; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk. Saiyad

    2016-06-01

    It is important to correctly subtract point sources from radio-interferometric data in order to measure the power spectrum of diffuse radiation like the Galactic synchrotron or the Epoch of Reionization 21-cm signal. It is computationally very expensive and challenging to image a very large area and accurately subtract all the point sources from the image. The problem is particularly severe at the sidelobes and the outer parts of the main lobe where the antenna response is highly frequency dependent and the calibration also differs from that of the phase centre. Here, we show that it is possible to overcome this problem by tapering the sky response. Using simulated 150 MHz observations, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the contribution due to point sources from the outer parts by using the Tapered Gridded Estimator to measure the angular power spectrum Cℓ of the sky signal. We also show from the simulation that this method can self-consistently compute the noise bias and accurately subtract it to provide an unbiased estimation of Cℓ.

  12. Non-Gaussian covariance of the matter power spectrum in the effective field theory of large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Schutz, Katelin; Solon, Mikhail P.; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-06-01

    We compute the non-Gaussian contribution to the covariance of the matter power spectrum at one-loop order in standard perturbation theory (SPT), using the framework of the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structure (LSS). The complete one-loop contributions are evaluated for the first time, including the leading EFT corrections that involve seven independent operators, of which four appear in the power spectrum and bispectrum. We compare the non-Gaussian part of the one-loop covariance computed with both SPT and EFT of LSS to two separate simulations. In one simulation, we find that the one-loop prediction from SPT reproduces the simulation well to ki+kj˜0.25 h /Mpc , while in the other simulation we find a substantial improvement of EFT of LSS (with one free parameter) over SPT, more than doubling the range of k where the theory accurately reproduces the simulation. The disagreement between these two simulations points to unaccounted for systematics, highlighting the need for improved numerical and analytic understanding of the covariance.

  13. Demographic profile of families and children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): Case-control study of autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fallin, Daniele M.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Schieve, Laura A.; Thomas, Kathleen C.; Windham, Gayle C.; Goss, Cynthia W.; Soke, Gnakub N.; Currie, Dustin W.; Singer, Alison B.; Lee, Li-Ching; Bernal, Pilar; Croen, Lisa A.; Miller, Lisa A.; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A.; Young, Lisa M.; Schendel, Diana E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is designed to enhance knowledge of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and etiologies. Objective This paper describes the demographic profile of enrolled families and examines sociodemographic differences between children with autism spectrum disorder and children with other developmental problems or who are typically developing. Methods This multi-site case-control study used health, education, and birth certificate records to identify and enroll children aged 2–5 years into one of three groups: 1) cases (children with autism spectrum disorder), 2) developmental delay or disorder controls, or 3) general population controls. Study group classification was based on sampling source, prior diagnoses, and study screening tests and developmental evaluations. The child's primary caregiver provided demographic characteristics through a telephone (or occasionally face-to-face) interview. Groups were compared using ANOVA, chi-squared test, or multinomial logistic regression as appropriate. Results Of 2768 study children, sizeable proportions were born to mothers of non-White race (31.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (11.4%), and foreign birth (17.6%); 33.0% of households had incomes below the US median. The autism spectrum disorder and population control groups differed significantly on nearly all sociodemographic parameters. In contrast, the autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay or disorder groups had generally similar sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions SEED enrolled a sociodemographically diverse sample, which will allow further, in-depth exploration of sociodemographic differences between study groups and provide novel opportunities to explore sociodemographic influences on etiologic risk factor associations with autism spectrum disorder and phenotypic subtypes. PMID:26917104

  14. Depth Estimation from the Scaling Power Spectral Density of Nonstationary Gravity Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, A. R.; Dimri, V. P.

    A technique to estimate the depth to anomalous sources from the scaling power spectra of long nonstationary gravity profiles is presented. The nonstationary profile is divided into piecewise stationary segments based on the criterion of optimum gate length in which the time-varying and time-invariant autocorrelation functions are similar. The division of a nonstationary into piecewise stationary allows identification of the portion of the crust with different geological histories, and using the stationary portion of the gravity profiles, more consistent depths to the anomalous sources have been obtained. The technique is tested with the synthetic gravity profile and applied along the Jaipur-Raipur geotransect in western and central India. The geotransect has been divided into four stationary parts: Vindhyan low, Bundelkhand low, Narmada rift and Chhattisgarh basin; each section corresponding to a different geological formation. Forward modeling of gravity data using results of each stationary section is carried out to propose the subsurface structure along the Jaipur-Raipur transect.

  15. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization power spectrum at sub-degree scales with POLARBEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C.; Borrill, J.; Errard, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Fabbian, G.; Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ℓ < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.12±0.61(stat){sub −0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)±0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.

  16. A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background B-mode Polarization Power Spectrum at Sub-degree Scales with POLARBEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Polarbear Collaboration: P. A. R. Ade; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A. E.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Linder, E.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Orlando, A.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Schanning, I.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Shimizu, A.; Shimmin, C.; Shimon, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Takakura, S.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.

    2014-10-01

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < l < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 \\deg ^2 with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter ABB to the measured band powers, ABB = 1.12 +/- 0.61 (stat) +0.04-0.12(sys) +/- 0.07 (multi), where ABB = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, "stat" refers to the statistical uncertainty, "sys" to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and "multi" to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude ABB .

  17. Detection of cerebral ischemia using the power spectrum of the pulse wave measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Akira; Tanaka, Yuichi; Konno, Takehiko; Kawasaki, Shingo; Fujiwara, Michiyuki; Watanabe, Eiju

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis and medical treatment of cerebral ischemia are becoming more important due to the increase in the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease. However, conventional methods of evaluating cerebral perfusion have several drawbacks: they are invasive, require physical restraint, and the equipment is not portable, which makes repeated measurements at the bedside difficult. An alternative method is developed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS signals are measured at 44 positions (22 on each side) on the fronto-temporal areas in 20 patients with cerebral ischemia. In order to extract the pulse-wave component, the raw total hemoglobin data recorded from each position are band-pass filtered (0.8 to 2.0 Hz) and subjected to a fast Fourier transform to obtain the power spectrum of the pulse wave. The ischemic region is determined by single-photon emission computed tomography. The pulse-wave power in the ischemic region is compared with that in the symmetrical region on the contralateral side. In 17 cases (85%), the pulse-wave power on the ischemic side is significantly lower than that on the contralateral side, which indicates that the transmission of the pulse wave is attenuated in the region with reduced blood flow. Pulse-wave power might be useful as a noninvasive marker of cerebral ischemia.

  18. Axicons for power conversion efficiency enhancement in solar cells for the visible spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlipnov, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.; Khonina, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of using diffractive microaxicons with different periods for power conversion efficiency enhancement in solar cells. The microaxicons were manufactured by using electron beam lithography. The parameters of the manufactured microaxicons were measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For imitation of solar light, we utilised a tunable laser (the used wavelength range is from 400 nm to 800 nm). Experimentally measured dependence of solar cell efficiency for the case of a combination of a solar cell and microaxicons of various types demonstrates a power conversion efficiency enhancement in the case of using such structures.

  19. Application of the Hartmann method in the investigation of the profile of wavefronts of high-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    L`vov, L.V.; Merkulov, S.G.; Ozerov, M.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hartmann method was used in an investigation of the wavefront profile of the infrared radiation emitted by high-power pulsed lasers. The wavefront profiles were studied for the iodine lasers used in the ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 facilities. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  20. EAS spectrum in the primary energy region above 10 to the 15th power eV by the Akeno and Yakutsk array data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.

  1. A TWO-COMPONENT POWER LAW COVERING NEARLY FOUR ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE IN THE POWER SPECTRUM OF SPITZER FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-07-20

    Power spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) emission at 24, 70, and 160 {mu}m observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope have a two-component power-law structure with a shallow slope of -1.6 at low wavenumber, k, and a steep slope of -2.9 at high k. The break occurs at k {sup -1} {approx} 100-200 pc, which is interpreted as the line-of-sight thickness of the LMC disk. The slopes are slightly steeper for longer wavelengths, suggesting the cooler dust emission is smoother than the hot emission. The power spectrum (PS) covers {approx}3.5 orders of magnitude, and the break in the slope is in the middle of this range on a logarithmic scale. Large-scale driving from galactic and extragalactic processes, including disk self-gravity, spiral waves, and bars, presumably causes the low-k structure in what is effectively a two-dimensional geometry. Small-scale driving from stellar processes and shocks causes the high-k structure in a three-dimensional geometry. This transition in dimensionality corresponds to the observed change in PS slope. A companion paper models the observed power law with a self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulation of a galaxy like the LMC.

  2. Dust and gas power spectrum in M 33 (HERM33ES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.; Boquien, M.; Kramer, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Bertoldi, F.; Braine, J.; Buchbender, C.; Calzetti, D.; Gratier, P.; Israel, F.; Koribalski, B.; Lord, S.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Relaño, M.; Röllig, M.; Stacey, G.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van der Tak, F.; van der Werf, P.; Verley, S.

    2012-03-01

    Power spectra of deprojected images of late-type galaxies in gas or dust emission are very useful diagnostics of the dynamics and stability of their interstellar medium. Previous studies have shown that the power spectra can be approximated as two power laws, a shallow one on large scales (larger than 500 pc) and a steeper one on small scales, with the break between the two corresponding to the line-of-sight thickness of the galaxy disk. The break separates the 3D behavior of the interstellar medium on small scales, controlled by star formation and feedback, from the 2D behavior on large scales, driven by density waves in the disk. The break between these two regimes depends on the thickness of the plane, which is determined by the natural self-gravitating scale of the interstellar medium. We present a thorough analysis of the power spectra of the dust and gas emission at several wavelengths in the nearby galaxy M 33. In particular, we use the recently obtained images at five wavelengths by PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel. The wide dynamical range (2-3 dex in scale) of most images allows us to clearly determine the change in slopes from -1.5 to -4, with some variations with wavelength. The break scale increases with wavelength from 100 pc at 24 and 100 μm to 350 pc at 500 μm, suggesting that the cool dust lies in a thicker disk than the warm dust, perhaps because of star formation that is more confined to the plane. The slope on small scales tends to be steeper at longer wavelength, meaning that the warmer dust is more concentrated in clumps. Numerical simulations of an isolated late-type galaxy, rich in gas and with no bulge, such as M 33, are carried out to better interpret these observed results. Varying the star formation and feedback parameters, it is possible to obtain a range of power spectra, with two power-law slopes and breaks, that nicelybracket the data. The small-scale power-law does indeed reflect the 3D behavior of the gas layer, steepening

  3. Particle and power profile calculations for the ATA beam dump and emittance box

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D.R.

    1982-08-19

    Electron-photon transport calculations have been carried out for the 50 MeV electron beam generated by ATA when it is incident on a carbon beam dump. Energy spectra are calculated at various points within the dump for the purpose of determining the power density profile. In addition, energy spectra of scattered electrons transported through small holes in the dump are calculated for the purpose of determining the extent to which they would interfere with a beam-emittance and beam-energy diagnostic based on the extraction of small beamlets through penetrations in the dump.

  4. Language Impairment and Early Social Competence in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of DSM-5 Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, T. A.; Szatmari, P.; Georgiades, K.; Hanna, S.; Janus, M.; Georgiades, S.; Duku, E.; Bryson, S.; Fombonne, E.; Smith, I. M.; Mirenda, P.; Volden, J.; Waddell, C.; Roberts, W.; Vaillancourt, T.; Zwaigenbaum, L.; Elsabbagh, M.; Thompson, A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and structural language impairment (LI) may be at risk of more adverse social-developmental outcomes. We examined trajectories of early social competence (using the Vineland-II) in 330 children aged 2-4 years recently diagnosed with ASD, and compared 3 subgroups classified by: language impairment…

  5. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  6. Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Profiles across Domains and Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happe, Francesca; Booth, Rhonda; Charlton, Rebecca; Hughes, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in "executive function" (EF) are characteristic of several clinical disorders, most notably Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this study, age-and IQ-matched groups with ASD, ADHD, or typical development (TD) were compared on a battery of EF tasks tapping three core domains: response…

  7. High-power fiber-coupled 100W visible spectrum diode lasers for display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Andreas; Küster, Matthias; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2013-02-01

    Diode lasers in the blue and red spectral range are the most promising light sources for upcoming high-brightness digital projectors in cinemas and large venue displays. They combine improved efficiency, longer lifetime and a greatly improved color space compared to traditional xenon light sources. In this paper we report on high-power visible diode laser sources to serve the demands of this emerging market. A unique electro-optical platform enables scalable fiber coupled sources at 638 nm with an output power of up to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber. For the blue diode laser we demonstrate scalable sources from 5 W to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber.

  8. Warm dark matter signatures on the 21cm power spectrum: intensity mapping forecasts for SKA

    SciTech Connect

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Lapi, Andrea E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it E-mail: lapi@sissa.it

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the impact that warm dark matter (WDM) has in terms of 21 cm intensity mapping in the post-reionization Universe at z=3−5. We perform hydrodynamic simulations for 5 different models: cold dark matter and WDM with 1,2,3,4 keV (thermal relic) mass and assign the neutral hydrogen a-posteriori using two different methods that both reproduce observations in terms of column density distribution function of neutral hydrogen systems. Contrary to naive expectations, the suppression of power present in the linear and non-linear matter power spectra, results in an increase of power in terms of neutral hydrogen and 21 cm power spectra. This is due to the fact that there is a lack of small mass halos in WDM models with respect to cold dark matter: in order to distribute a total amount of neutral hydrogen within the two cosmological models, a larger quantity has to be placed in the most massive halos, that are more biased compared to the cold dark matter cosmology. We quantify this effect and address significance for the telescope SKA1-LOW, including a realistic noise modeling. The results indicate that we will be able to rule out a 4 keV WDM model with 5000 hours of observations at z>3, with a statistical significance of >3 σ, while a smaller mass of 3 keV, comparable to present day constraints, can be ruled out at more than 2 σ confidence level with 1000 hours of observations at z>5.

  9. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.

  10. Variability in the power spectrum of solar five-minute oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, F.; Toomre, J.; November, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that two-dimensional power spectra of solar five-minute oscillations exhibit prominent ridge structures in (k, omega) space, k being the horizontal wavenumber and omega the temporal frequency. The positions of these ridges in k and omega can be used in probing temperature and velocity structures in the subphotosphere. The progress made in a program to establish whether power spectra taken on separate days show shifts in ridge locations is surveyed, noting that these may arise from different velocity and temperature patterns having been brought into the sampling region by solar rotation. Power spectra are obtained for six days of observations of Doppler velocities using the Mg I 5173 A and Fe I 5434 A spectral lines. Each data set encompasses 8 to 11 hr in time and samples a region 256 x 1024 arcsec in spatial extent, with a spatial resolution of 2 arcsec and temporal sampling of 65 s. Statistically significant shifts are detected in ridge locations between certain data sets. When analyzed in terms of eastward and westward propagating waves, the character of these displacements is seen as implying that changes have occurred in both temperature and horizontal velocity fields underlying the observing window. The velocity changes are estimated to be of the order of 100 m/s.

  11. The power of the positive: revisiting weak coherence in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Happé, Francesca G E; Booth, Rhonda D L

    2008-01-01

    This paper reexamines Frith's original concept of weak coherence, its historical origins, recent reformulations, and alternative accounts. We suggest that the key notion of reduced global integration of information, which Frith proposed to underlie the assets in local processing, has been neglected in recent accounts of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In fact, most paradigms used to test weak coherence conflate global and local processing, often placing them in direct trade-off, so that it is not possible to tell whether patterns of performance in ASD reflect reduced global processing, increased local processing, or both. We review the literature from typical development and ASD that may be pertinent to this distinction and examine some data from our own studies. Only once tasks are devised that measure separately the effects of reduced global processing and increased local processing will it be possible to test the on-line and developmental relations between these two aspects of "weak coherence". Some preliminary ideas about these relationships are discussed, and suggestions are made for why disentangling two possibly independent dimensions of weak coherence may be timely and productive.

  12. The Impact of Nonlinear Structure Formation on the Power Spectrum of Transverse Momentum Fluctuations and the Kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunbae; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shapiro, Paul R.; Koda, Jun; Mao, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Cosmological transverse momentum fields, whose directions are perpendicular to Fourier wave vectors, induce temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background via the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (kSZ) effect. The transverse momentum power spectrum contains the four-point function of density and velocity fields, < δ δ {vv}> . In the post-reionization epoch, nonlinear effects dominate in the power spectrum. We use perturbation theory and cosmological N-body simulations to calculate this nonlinearity. We derive the next-to-leading order expression for the power spectrum with a particular emphasis on the connected term that has been ignored in the literature. While the contribution from the connected term on small scales (k\\gt 0.1 h {{{Mpc}}}-1) is subdominant relative to the unconnected term, we find that its contribution to the kSZ power spectrum at {\\ell }=3000 at z\\lt 6 can be as large as ten percent of the unconnected term, which would reduce the allowed contribution from the reionization epoch (z\\gt 6) by twenty percent. The power spectrum of transverse momentum on large scales is expected to scale as k2 as a consequence of momentum conservation. We show that both the leading and the next-to-leading order terms satisfy this scaling. In particular, we find that both of the unconnected and connected terms are necessary to reproduce k2.

  13. Position-dependent power spectrum of the large-scale structure: a novel method to measure the squeezed-limit bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wagner, Christian; Schmidt, Fabian; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: cwagner@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2014-05-01

    The influence of large-scale density fluctuations on structure formation on small scales is described by the three-point correlation function (bispectrum) in the so-called ''squeezed configurations,'' in which one wavenumber, say k{sub 3}, is much smaller than the other two, i.e., k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}. This bispectrum is generated by non-linear gravitational evolution and possibly also by inflationary physics. In this paper, we use this fact to show that the bispectrum in the squeezed configurations can be measured without employing three-point function estimators. Specifically, we use the ''position-dependent power spectrum,'' i.e., the power spectrum measured in smaller subvolumes of the survey (or simulation box), and correlate it with the mean overdensity of the corresponding subvolume. This correlation directly measures an integral of the bispectrum dominated by the squeezed configurations. Measuring this correlation is only slightly more complex than measuring the power spectrum itself, and sidesteps the considerable complexity of the full bispectrum estimation. We use cosmological N-body simulations of collisionless particles with Gaussian initial conditions to show that the measured correlation between the position-dependent power spectrum and the long-wavelength overdensity agrees with the theoretical expectation. The position-dependent power spectrum thus provides a new, efficient, and promising way to measure the squeezed-limit bispectrum from large-scale structure observations such as galaxy redshift surveys.

  14. Microheater-integrated silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities for low-power thermo-optic switching over a wide spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    We design, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and antibonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2mW, a therm-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8μsec and a fall time of 18.5μsec. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1dB.

  15. A nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for measuring the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane.

    PubMed

    Yu, Aifang; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-02-01

    A nanogenerator (NG) is a device that converts vibration energy into electricity. Here, a flexible, small size and lightweight NG is successfully demonstrated as an active sensor for detecting the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane without the use of an external power source. The output current/voltage signal of the NG is a direct measure of the strain of the local vibrating drum membrane that contains rich informational content, such as, notably, the vibration frequency, vibration speed and vibration amplitude. In comparison to the laser vibrometer, which is excessively complex and expensive, this kind of small and low cost sensor based on an NG is also capable of detecting the local vibration frequency of a drum membrane accurately. A spatial arrangement of the NGs on the membrane can provide position-dependent vibration information on the surface. The measured frequency spectrum can be understood on the basis of the theoretically calculated vibration modes. This work expands the application of NGs and reveals the potential for developing sound wave detection, environmental/infrastructure monitoring and many more applications.

  16. The influence of non-logarithmic wind speed profiles on potential power output at Danish offshore sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Vølund, P.

    2005-04-01

    Detailed knowledge of mean wind speed profiles is essential for properly assessing the power output of a potential wind farm. Since atmospheric stratification plays a crucial role in affecting wind speed profiles, obtaining a detailed picture of the climatology of stability conditions at a given site is very important. In the present study, long time series from offshore measurement sites around Denmark are analysed, with the aim of quantifying the role of atmospheric stability in wind speed profiles and in our ability to model them. A simple method for evaluating stability is applied, and the resulting statistics of the atmospheric stratification is thoroughly studied. A significant improvement in the mean wind speed profile prediction is obtained by applying a stability correction to the logarithmic profiles suitable for neutral conditions. These results are finally used to estimate power densities at different heights. Copyright

  17. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network.

  18. Self-consistent determination of the spike-train power spectrum in a neural network with sparse connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network. PMID:25278869

  19. Entropy information of heart rate variability and its power spectrum during day and night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Li; Jun, Wang

    2013-07-01

    Physiologic systems generate complex fluctuations in their output signals that reflect the underlying dynamics. We employed the base-scale entropy method and the power spectral analysis to study the 24 hours heart rate variability (HRV) signals. The results show that such profound circadian-, age- and pathologic-dependent changes are accompanied by changes in base-scale entropy and power spectral distribution. Moreover, the base-scale entropy changes reflect the corresponding changes in the autonomic nerve outflow. With the suppression of the vagal tone and dominance of the sympathetic tone in congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects, there is more variability in the date fluctuation mode. So the higher base-scale entropy belongs to CHF subjects. With the decrease of the sympathetic tone and the respiratory frequency (RSA) becoming more pronounced with slower breathing during sleeping, the base-scale entropy drops in CHF subjects. The HRV series of the two healthy groups have the same diurnal/nocturnal trend as the CHF series. The fluctuation dynamics trend of data in the three groups can be described as “HF effect”.

  20. Direction dependence of the power spectrum and its effect on the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Pranati K.; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Jain, Pankaj; Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta E-mail: mtanmay@iitk.ac.in E-mail: aluri@iiserb.ac.in

    2013-04-01

    We study several anisotropic inflationary models and their implications for the observed violation of statistical isotropy in the CMBR data. In two of these models the anisotropy decays very quickly during the inflationary phase of expansion. We explicitly show that these models lead to violation of isotropy only for low l CMBR modes. Our primary aim is to fit the observed alignment of l = 2,3 multipoles to the theoretical models. We use two measures, based on the power tensor, which contains information about the alignment of each multipole, to quantify the anisotropy in data. One of the measures uses the dispersion in eigenvalues of the power tensor. We also define another measure which tests the overall correlation between two different multipoles. We perturbatively compute these measures of anisotropy and fix the theoretical parameters by making a best fit to l = 2,3 multipoles. We show that some of the models studied are able to consistently explain the observed violation of statistical isotropy.

  1. Genetic algorithm based optimization of pulse profile for MOPA based high power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Tang, Ming; Shi, Jun; Fu, Songnian; Li, Lihua; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Xueping; Liu, Jian; Shum, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Although the Master Oscillator Power-Amplifier (MOPA) based fiber laser has received much attention for laser marking process due to its large tunabilty of pulse duration (from 10ns to 1ms), repetition rate (100Hz to 500kHz), high peak power and extraordinary heat dissipating capability, the output pulse deformation due to the saturation effect of fiber amplifier is detrimental for many applications. We proposed and demonstrated that, by utilizing Genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique, the input pulse profile from the master oscillator (current-driven laser diode) could be conveniently optimized to achieve targeted output pulse shape according to real parameters' constraints. In this work, an Yb-doped high power fiber amplifier is considered and a 200ns square shaped pulse profile is the optimization target. Since the input pulse with longer leading edge and shorter trailing edge can compensate the saturation effect, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial functions are used to describe the input pulse with limited number of unknowns(<5). Coefficients of the polynomial functions are the optimization objects. With reasonable cost and hardware limitations, the cubic input pulse with 4 coefficients is found to be the best as the output amplified pulse can achieve excellent flatness within the square shape. Considering the bandwidth constraint of practical electronics, we examined high-frequency component cut-off effect of input pulses and found that the optimized cubic input pulses with 300MHz bandwidth is still quite acceptable to satisfy the requirement for the amplified output pulse and it is feasible to establish such a pulse generator in real applications.

  2. Concepts of EEG processing: from power spectrum to bispectrum, fractals, entropies and all that.

    PubMed

    Schwilden, Helmut

    2006-03-01

    Over the past two decades, methods of processing the EEG for monitoring anaesthesia have greatly expanded. Whereas power spectral analysis was once the most important tool for extracting EEG monitoring variables, higher-order spectra, wavelet decomposition and especially methods used in the analysis of complex dynamical systems such as non-linear dissipative systems are nowadays attracting much attention. This chapter reviews some of these methods in brief. However, a comparison of some of the newer approaches with the more traditional ones with respect to clinical end-points by association measures and to the signal-to-noise ratio raises some doubt over whether the newer EEG-processing techniques really do better than the more traditional ones.

  3. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin S; Wong, Yvonne Y Y E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: ywong@mppmu.mpg.de

    2008-09-15

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter {epsilon} ({approx}>0.001), a positive detection of trans-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10{sup -4}. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound, a scale of new physics as high as {approx}0.2 M{sub P} could lead to observable signatures.

  4. Power Spectrum of Uplink Array Signals with Random Phase and Delay Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Link Array signals emanating from different antennas must be compensated for Doppler and delay in order to achieve the N(sup 2) array gain predicted by theory. However compensation is never perfect, leaving residual errors that cause losses in array gain and degradation in signal quality. Here we develop a mathematical model for Uplink Array signals in the presence of phase and delay errors, similar to well-known multipath analyses but with features unique to this problem. The resulting losses and distortions are described, and the power spectral density of the array signal derived first conditioned on a given error vector, then averaged over distributions deemed suitable for Uplink Array applications. The impact of phase and delay errors on array gain and signal distortion are addressed, and the maximum data throughput is quantified in terms of the assumed error statistics.

  5. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, T. Schaltz, E.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometries—no shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in the vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications.

  6. A Cutoff in the X-Ray Fluctuation Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Rick; Nandra, Kirpal

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 March-July, RXTE observed the bright, strongly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 once every approx. 12.8 hr for 4.5 months and nearly continuously (with interruptions due to SAA passage but not Earth occultation) for a 4.2 day period in the middle. These were followed by ongoing monitoring once every approx. 4.3 days. These data are used to construct the first well-determined X-ray fluctuation power density spectrum (PDS) of an active galaxy to span more than 4 decades of usable temporal frequency. The PDS shows no signs of any strict or quasi-periodicity, but does show a progressive flattening of the power-low slope from -1.74 at short time scales to -0.73 at longer time scales. This is the clearest observation to date of the long-predicted cutoff in the PDS. The characteristic variability time scale corresponding to this cutoff temporal frequency is approx. 1 month. Although it is unclear how this time scale may be interpreted in terms of a physical size or process, there are several promising candidate models. The PDS appears similar to those seen for Galactic black hole candidates such as Cyg X-1, suggesting that these two classes of objects with very different luminosities and putative black hole masses (differing by more than a factor of 10(exp 5)) may have similar X-ray generation processes and structures.

  7. PAPER-64 Constraints on Reionization: The 21 cm Power Spectrum at z = 8.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zaki S.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Zheng, Haoxuan; Pober, Jonathan C.; Liu, Adrian; Aguirre, James E.; Bradley, Richard F.; Bernardi, Gianni; Carilli, Chris L.; Cheng, Carina; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Pat; MacMahon, David H. E.; Maree, Matthys; Moore, David F.; Razavi, Nima; Stefan, Irina I.; Walbrugh, William P.; Walker, Andre

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report new limits on 21 cm emission from cosmic reionization based on a 135 day observing campaign with a 64-element deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization in South Africa. This work extends the work presented in Parsons et al. with more collecting area, a longer observing period, improved redundancy-based calibration, improved fringe-rate filtering, and updated power-spectral analysis using optimal quadratic estimators. The result is a new 2σ upper limit on Δ2(k) of (22.4 mK)2 in the range 0.15\\lt k\\lt 0.5h {{Mpc}}-1 at z = 8.4. This represents a three-fold improvement over the previous best upper limit. As we discuss in more depth in a forthcoming paper, this upper limit supports and extends previous evidence against extremely cold reionization scenarios. We conclude with a discussion of implications for future 21 cm reionization experiments, including the newly funded Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array.

  8. Application of Bayesian model averaging to measurements of the primordial power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, David; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2010-11-15

    Cosmological parameter uncertainties are often stated assuming a particular model, neglecting the model uncertainty, even when Bayesian model selection is unable to identify a conclusive best model. Bayesian model averaging is a method for assessing parameter uncertainties in situations where there is also uncertainty in the underlying model. We apply model averaging to the estimation of the parameters associated with the primordial power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations. We use CosmoNest and MultiNest to compute the model evidences and posteriors, using cosmic microwave data from WMAP, ACBAR, BOOMERanG, and CBI, plus large-scale structure data from the SDSS DR7. We find that the model-averaged 95% credible interval for the spectral index using all of the data is 0.940

  9. Bilayer Polymer Solar Cells with Improved Power Conversion Efficiency and Enhanced Spectrum Coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Kekuda, Dhananjaya; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2011-10-20

    We demonstrate the construction of an efficient bilayer polymer solar cell comprising of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as a p-type semiconductor and asymmetric fullerene (C{sub 70}) as n-type counterparts. The bilayer configuration was very efficient compared to the individual layer performance and it behaved like a regular p-n junction device. The photovoltaic characteristic of the bilayers were studied under AM 1.5 solar radiation and the optimized device parameters are the following: Voc = 0.5V, Jsc = 10.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.60 and power conversion efficiency of 3.6 %. A high fill factor of {approx}0.6 was achieved, which is only slightly reduced at very intense illumination. Balanced mobility between p-and n-layers is achieved which is essential for achieving high device performance. Correlation between the crystallinity, morphology and the transport properties of the active layers is established. The External quantum efficiency (EQE) spectral distribution of the bilayer devices with different processing solvents correlates well with the trends of short circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) measured under illumination. Efficiency of the bilayer devices with rough P3HT layer was found to be about 3 times higher than those with a planar P3HT surface. Hence it is desirable to have a larger grains with a rough surface of P3HT layer for providing larger interfacial area for the exciton dissociation.

  10. Power spectrum and Allan variance methods for calibrating single-molecule video-tracking instruments

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp, Bob M.; Saleh, Omar A.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation instruments, such as optical traps and magnetic tweezers, frequently use video tracking to measure the position of a force-generating probe. The instruments are calibrated by comparing the measured probe motion to a model of Brownian motion in a harmonic potential well; the results of calibration are estimates of the probe drag, α, and spring constant, κ. Here, we present both time- and frequency-domain methods to accurately and precisely extract α and κ from the probe trajectory. In the frequency domain, we discuss methods to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) from data (including windowing and blocking), and we derive an analytical formula for the PSD which accounts both for aliasing and the filtering intrinsic to video tracking. In the time domain, we focus on the Allan variance (AV): we present a theoretical equation for the AV relevant to typical single-molecule setups and discuss the optimal manner for computing the AV from experimental data using octave-sampled overlapping bins. We show that, when using maximum-likelihood methods to fit to the data, both the PSD and AV approaches can extract α and κ in an unbiased and low-error manner, though the AV approach is simpler and more robust. PMID:22380133

  11. The structure of the Uranian atmosphere - Constraints from the geometric albedo spectrum and H2 and CH4 line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, K. H.; Bergstralh, J. T.

    1986-03-01

    Recent high quality spectral observations have allowed the derivation of constraints on the atmospheric structure of Uranus. The present analysis, which is based on the detailed modeling of a broadband geometric albedo spectrum and high resolution observations of the H2 4-0 quadrupole and 6818.9-A CH4 features, yields (1) a family of models which parameterize an upper tropospheric haze layer, (2) a lower, optically infinite cloud at a given pressure level, (3) the cloud-level methane molar fraction, and (4) the mean ortho/para ratio in the visible atmosphere. The single scattering albedo of atmospheric aerosols exhibits a steep darkening between 5890 and 6040 A.

  12. Power spectrum weighted edge analysis for straight edge detection in images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvir, Hrishikesh V.; Skipper, Julie A.

    2007-04-01

    Most man-made objects provide characteristic straight line edges and, therefore, edge extraction is a commonly used target detection tool. However, noisy images often yield broken edges that lead to missed detections, and extraneous edges that may contribute to false target detections. We present a sliding-block approach for target detection using weighted power spectral analysis. In general, straight line edges appearing at a given frequency are represented as a peak in the Fourier domain at a radius corresponding to that frequency, and a direction corresponding to the orientation of the edges in the spatial domain. Knowing the edge width and spacing between the edges, a band-pass filter is designed to extract the Fourier peaks corresponding to the target edges and suppress image noise. These peaks are then detected by amplitude thresholding. The frequency band width and the subsequent spatial filter mask size are variable parameters to facilitate detection of target objects of different sizes under known imaging geometries. Many military objects, such as trucks, tanks and missile launchers, produce definite signatures with parallel lines and the algorithm proves to be ideal for detecting such objects. Moreover, shadow-casting objects generally provide sharp edges and are readily detected. The block operation procedure offers advantages of significant reduction in noise influence, improved edge detection, faster processing speed and versatility to detect diverse objects of different sizes in the image. With Scud missile launcher replicas as target objects, the method has been successfully tested on terrain board test images under different backgrounds, illumination and imaging geometries with cameras of differing spatial resolution and bit-depth.

  13. Sensory Subtypes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latent Profile Transition Analysis using a National Survey of Sensory Features

    PubMed Central

    Ausderau, Karla K.; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M.; Watson, Linda R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Methods Sensory subtypes and their stability over one year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N=1294; Time 2 N=884). Results Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over one year. Conclusions Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. PMID:25039572

  14. Impact of the non-Gaussian covariance of the weak lensing power spectrum and bispectrum on cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masanori; Nishimichi, Takahiro

    2013-06-01

    We study how well the Gaussian approximation is valid for computing the covariance matrices of the convergence power and bispectrum in weak gravitational lensing analyses. We focus on its impact on the cosmological parameter estimations by comparing the results with and without non-Gaussian error contribution in the covariance matrix. We numerically derive the covariance matrix as well as the cosmology dependence of the spectra from a large set of N-body simulations performed for various cosmologies and carry out Fisher matrix forecasts for tomographic weak lensing surveys with three source redshifts. After showing the consistency of the power and bispectra measured from our simulations with the state-of-the-art fitting formulas, we investigate the covariance matrix assuming a typical ongoing survey across 1500deg2 with the mean source number density of 30arcmin-2 at the mean redshift zs=1.0. Although the shape noise contributes a significant fraction to the total error budget and it mitigates the impact of the non-Gaussian error for this source number density, we find that the non-Gaussian error degrades the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio up to the maximum multipole of 2000 by a factor of about 2 (3) in the power (bi-) spectrum analysis. Its impact on the final cosmological parameter forecast with 6 parameters can be as large as 15% in the size of the one-dimensional statistical error. This can be a problem in future wide and deep weak lensing surveys for precision cosmology. We also show how much the dark energy figure of merit is affected by the non-Gaussian error contribution and demonstrate an optimal survey design with a fixed observational time.

  15. Effects of Industrial Processes on Antioxidant Power and Polyphenols Profile in Cherry Tomato Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Iodice, Carmine; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Spagnuolo, Annalisa; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic profile of fresh and processed cherry tomatoes were analyzed with the aim of investigating the effect of industrial processes on the nutritional qualities of fruits. The results exhibited a decrease of antioxidant activity mainly in the lipophilic fraction of processed tomatoes compared with fresh products. No great difference in the antioxidant capacity was detected in the hydrophilic and methanolic extracts of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato juices. Moreover, a decrease of polyphenolic content, estimated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu method, was observed in all tomato juices. The overall polyphenolic profile of both fresh and processed tomatoes did not change significantly and, among all juices, a higher polyphenolic content was detected in juice containing peels and seeds in comparison to those without. From our data on antioxidant power and the bioactive metabolite content, tomato juice could be used as a valid and easily available source of antioxidants in everyday diet to preserve human health.

  16. Effects of Industrial Processes on Antioxidant Power and Polyphenols Profile in Cherry Tomato Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Iodice, Carmine; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Spagnuolo, Annalisa; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic profile of fresh and processed cherry tomatoes were analyzed with the aim of investigating the effect of industrial processes on the nutritional qualities of fruits. The results exhibited a decrease of antioxidant activity mainly in the lipophilic fraction of processed tomatoes compared with fresh products. No great difference in the antioxidant capacity was detected in the hydrophilic and methanolic extracts of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato juices. Moreover, a decrease of polyphenolic content, estimated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu method, was observed in all tomato juices. The overall polyphenolic profile of both fresh and processed tomatoes did not change significantly and, among all juices, a higher polyphenolic content was detected in juice containing peels and seeds in comparison to those without. From our data on antioxidant power and the bioactive metabolite content, tomato juice could be used as a valid and easily available source of antioxidants in everyday diet to preserve human health. PMID:25785644

  17. Fast estimation of defect profiles from the magnetic flux leakage signal based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenhua; Shen, Xiaohui; Xu, Jun; Wang, Ping; Tian, Guiyun; Wu, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection is one of the most important and sensitive nondestructive testing approaches. For online MFL inspection of a long-range railway track or oil pipeline, a fast and effective defect profile estimating method based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm (MAPA) is proposed, where the depth of a sampling point is related with not only the MFL signals before it, but also the ones after it, and all of the sampling points related to one point appear as serials or multi-power. Defect profile estimation has two steps: regulating a weight vector in an MAPA filter and estimating a defect profile with the MAPA filter. Both simulation and experimental data are used to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high speed while maintaining the estimated profiles clearly close to the desired ones in a noisy environment, thereby meeting the demand of accurate online inspection. PMID:25192314

  18. Fast Neutron Spectrum Potassium Worth for Space Power Reactor Design Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, John D.; Marshall, Margaret A.; Briggs, J. Blair; Tsiboulia, Anatoli; Rozhikhin, Yevgeniy; Mihalczo, John T.

    2015-03-01

    A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal (oralloy ) during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, one was performed that consisted of uranium metal annuli surrounding a potassium-filled, stainless steel can. The outer diameter of the annuli was approximately 13 inches (33.02 cm) with an inner diameter of 7 inches (17.78 cm). The diameter of the stainless steel can was 7 inches (17.78 cm). The critical height of the configurations was approximately 5.6 inches (14.224 cm). The uranium annulus consisted of multiple stacked rings, each with radial thicknesses of 1 inch (2.54 cm) and varying heights. A companion measurement was performed using empty stainless steel cans; the primary purpose of these experiments was to test the fast neutron cross sections of potassium as it was a candidate for coolant in some early space power reactor designs.The experimental measurements were performed on July 11, 1963, by J. T. Mihalczo and M. S. Wyatt (Ref. 1) with additional information in its corresponding logbook. Unreflected and unmoderated experiments with the same set of highly enriched uranium metal parts were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in the 1960s and are evaluated in the International Handbook for Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook) with the identifier HEU MET FAST 051. Thin

  19. Compact, Low-Profile Power Converters: Highly-Laminated, High-Saturation-Flux-Density, Magnetic Cores for On-Chip Inductors in Power Converter Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Georgia Tech is creating compact, low-profile power adapters and power bricks using materials and tools adapted from other industries and from grid-scale power applications. Adapters and bricks convert electrical energy into useable power for many types of electronic devices, including laptop computers and mobile phones. These converters are often called wall warts because they are big, bulky, and sometimes cover up an adjacent wall socket that could be used to power another electronic device. The magnetic components traditionally used to make adapters and bricks have reached their limits; they can't be made any smaller without sacrificing performance. Georgia Tech is taking a cue from grid-scale power converters that use iron alloys as magnetic cores. These low-cost alloys can handle more power than other materials, but the iron must be stacked in insulated plates to maximize energy efficiency. In order to create compact, low-profile power adapters and bricks, these stacked iron plates must be extremely thin-only hundreds of nanometers in thickness, in fact. To make plates this thin, Georgia Tech is using manufacturing tools used in microelectromechanics and other small-scale industries.

  20. Effects of age and mode of exercise on power output profiles during repeated sprints.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Sébastien; Williams, Craig A; Oliver, Jonathan; Armstrong, Neil

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare power output profiles during repeated cycling and running sprints in children and adults. On two separate visits, 12 boys [11.7 (0.5) years] and 13 men [22.1 (2.9) years] performed ten consecutive 10-s sprints interspersed with 15-s recovery intervals on a non-motorised treadmill and cycle ergometer. Peak (PPO) and mean (MPO) power outputs were measured during each sprint. Capillary fingertip blood samples were drawn at rest and 3 min after the final sprint to measure lactate accumulation (Delta[La]). PPO and MPO decreased significantly more in adults compared to children over the ten sprints irrespective of the mode of exercise (P<0.001). PPO decreased by a similar amount during running and cycling in children (-17.7 versus -14.3%, P>0.05, respectively) and adults (-43.3 versus -40.0%, P>0.05, respectively). In contrast, MPO decreased significantly more during running compared to cycling both in children (-28.9 versus -18.7%, P<0.05) and adults (-47.0 versus -36.7%, P<0.05). The greater decrease in MPO during running compared to cycling was accompanied in children by significantly higher Delta[La] values (7.7 versus 4.1 mmol l(-1), P<0.001). In adults, blood lactate accumulation tended to be higher during running than cycling (12.7 versus 10.8 mmol l(-1), P=0.06). To conclude, adults displayed a greater decrement in power output compared to children over the ten repeated running and cycling sprints. Furthermore, children and adults experienced greater fatigue during running compared to cycling. This last result may be attributed to additional muscle recruitment during sprint running. PMID:15045504

  1. Symptom Profile of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Youth with High-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparative Study in Psychiatrically Referred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gagan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Wozniak, Janet; Tarko, Laura; Fried, Ronna; Galdo, Maribel; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical presentation of ADHD between youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD and a sample of youth with ADHD only. Method A psychiatrically referred sample of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) youth with ADHD attending a specialized ambulatory program for ASD (n = 107) and a sample of youth with ADHD attending a general child psychiatry ambulatory clinic (n = 74) were compared. Results Seventy-six percent of youth with ASD met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. The clinical presentation of ADHD in youth with ASD was predominantly similar to its typical presentation including age at onset (3.5 ± 1.7 vs. 4.0 ± 1.9; p = .12), distribution of diagnostic subtypes, the qualitative and quantitative symptom profile, and symptom severity. Combined subtype was the most frequent presentation of ADHD in ASD youth. Conclusion Despite the robust presentation of ADHD, a significant majority of ASD youth with ADHD failed to receive appropriate ADHD treatment (41% vs. 24%; p = .02). A high rate of comorbidity with ADHD was observed in psychiatrically referred youth with ASD, with a clinical presentation typical of the disorder. PMID:25085653

  2. FOREGROUND PREDICTIONS FOR THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM FROM MEASUREMENTS OF FAINT INVERTED RADIO SOURCES AT 5 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Michael D.; Becker, Robert H.; De Vries, Willem; White, Richard L.

    2012-05-10

    We present measurements of a population of matched radio sources at 1.4 and 5 GHz down to a flux limit of 1.5 mJy in 7 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Field South. We find a significant fraction of sources with inverted spectral indices that all have 1.4 GHz fluxes less than 10 mJy and are therefore too faint to have been detected and included in previous radio source count models that are matched at multiple frequencies. Combined with the matched source population at 1.4 and 5 GHz in 1 deg{sup -2} in the ATESP survey, we update models for the 5 GHz differential number counts and distributions of spectral indices in 5 GHz flux bins that can be used to estimate the unresolved point source contribution to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. We find a shallower logarithmic slope in the 5 GHz differential counts than in previously published models for fluxes {approx}< 100 mJy as well as larger fractions of inverted spectral indices at these fluxes. Because the Planck flux limit for resolved sources is larger than 100 mJy in all channels, our modified number counts yield at most a 10% change in the predicted Poisson contribution to the Planck temperature power spectrum. For a flux cut of 5 mJy with the South Pole Telescope and a flux cut of 20 mJy with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, we predict a {approx}30% and {approx}10% increase, respectively, in the radio source Poisson power in the lowest frequency channels of each experiment relative to that predicted by previous models.

  3. A novel power spectrum calculation method using phase-compensation and weighted averaging for the estimation of ultrasound attenuation.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seo Weon; Kim, Hyungsuk

    2010-05-01

    An estimation of ultrasound attenuation in soft tissues is critical in the quantitative ultrasound analysis since it is not only related to the estimations of other ultrasound parameters, such as speed of sound, integrated scatterers, or scatterer size, but also provides pathological information of the scanned tissue. However, estimation performances of ultrasound attenuation are intimately tied to the accurate extraction of spectral information from the backscattered radiofrequency (RF) signals. In this paper, we propose two novel techniques for calculating a block power spectrum from the backscattered ultrasound signals. These are based on the phase-compensation of each RF segment using the normalized cross-correlation to minimize estimation errors due to phase variations, and the weighted averaging technique to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The simulation results with uniform numerical phantoms demonstrate that the proposed method estimates local attenuation coefficients within 1.57% of the actual values while the conventional methods estimate those within 2.96%. The proposed method is especially effective when we deal with the signal reflected from the deeper depth where the SNR level is lower or when the gated window contains a small number of signal samples. Experimental results, performed at 5MHz, were obtained with a one-dimensional 128 elements array, using the tissue-mimicking phantoms also show that the proposed method provides better estimation results (within 3.04% of the actual value) with smaller estimation variances compared to the conventional methods (within 5.93%) for all cases considered.

  4. On the modeling and nonlinear dynamics of autonomous Silva-Young type chaotic oscillators with flat power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kengne, Jacques; Kenmogne, Fabien

    2014-12-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of fourth-order Silva-Young type chaotic oscillators with flat power spectrum recently introduced by Tamaseviciute and collaborators is considered. In this type of oscillators, a pair of semiconductor diodes in an anti-parallel connection acts as the nonlinear component necessary for generating chaotic oscillations. Based on the Shockley diode equation and an appropriate selection of the state variables, a smooth mathematical model (involving hyperbolic sine and cosine functions) is derived for a better description of both the regular and chaotic dynamics of the system. The complex behavior of the oscillator is characterized in terms of its parameters by using time series, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents' plots, Poincaré sections, and frequency spectra. It is shown that the onset of chaos is achieved via the classical period-doubling and symmetry restoring crisis scenarios. Some PSPICE simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the oscillator are presented in order to confirm the ability of the proposed mathematical model to accurately describe/predict both the regular and chaotic behaviors of the oscillator.

  5. Multigroup calculation of criticality and power distribution in a two-pass fast spectrum cermet-fueled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Anghaie, S.; Feller, G.J. ); Peery, S.D.; Parsley, R.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The advanced propulsion group at Pratt Whitney has developed a nuclear thermal rocket concept, the XNR2000, for use on lunear, Mars, and deep-space planetary missions. The XNR2000 engine is powered by a fast spectrum cermet-fueled nuclear reactor that heats up hydrogen propellant to a maximum of 2850 K. An expander cycle is used to deliver 12 kg/s hydrogen to the core, producing 25,000 lb[sub f] thrust at 944 s of specific impulse. The reactor comprises a beryllium-reflected outer annulus core and an inner core with the hydrogen propellant entering from the bottom of the outer core and exiting from the bottom part of the inner core to the thrust chamber. Both the outer and inner cores are loaded with prismatic cermet fuel elements. The baseline XNR2000 reactor core consists of 90 fuel elements in the outer core and 61 in the inner core, arranged in the pattern. This paper focuses on the neutronic analysis of the baseline XNR2000 reactor.

  6. Description and interpretation of the bracts epidermis of Gramineae (Poaceae) with rotated image with maximum average power spectrum (RIMAPS) technique.

    PubMed

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O; Molina, Ana M; Setten, Lorena M

    2008-10-01

    During the last few years, RIMAPS technique has been used to characterize the micro-relief of metallic surfaces and recently also applied to biological surfaces. RIMAPS is an image analysis technique which uses the rotation of an image and calculates its average power spectrum. Here, it is presented as a tool for describing the morphology of the trichodium net found in some grasses, which is developed on the epidermal cells of the lemma. Three different species of grasses (herbarium samples) are analyzed: Podagrostis aequivalvis (Trin.) Scribn. & Merr., Bromidium hygrometricum (Nees) Nees & Meyen and Bromidium ramboi (Parodi) Rúgolo. Simple schemes representing the real microstructure of the lemma are proposed and studied. RIMAPS spectra of both the schemes and the real microstructures are compared. These results allow inferring how similar the proposed geometrical schemes are to the real microstructures. Each geometrical pattern could be used as a reference for classifying other species. Finally, this kind of analysis is used to determine the morphology of the trichodium net of Agrostis breviculmis Hitchc. As the dried sample had shrunk and the microstructure was not clear, two kinds of morphology are proposed for the trichodium net of Agrostis L., one elliptical and the other rectilinear, the former being the most suitable.

  7. Calibration requirements for detecting the 21 cm epoch of reionization power spectrum and implications for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, N.; Hazelton, B.; Sullivan, I.; Morales, M. F.; Pober, J. C.

    2016-09-01

    21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) observations promise to transform our understanding of galaxy formation, but these observations are impossible without unprecedented levels of instrument calibration. We present end-to-end simulations of a full EoR power spectrum (PS) analysis including all of the major components of a real data processing pipeline: models of astrophysical foregrounds and EoR signal, frequency-dependent instrument effects, sky-based antenna calibration, and the full PS analysis. This study reveals that traditional sky-based per-frequency antenna calibration can only be implemented in EoR measurement analyses if the calibration model is unrealistically accurate. For reasonable levels of catalogue completeness, the calibration introduces contamination in otherwise foreground-free PS modes, precluding a PS measurement. We explore the origin of this contamination and potential mitigation techniques. We show that there is a strong joint constraint on the precision of the calibration catalogue and the inherent spectral smoothness of antennas, and that this has significant implications for the instrumental design of the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and other future EoR observatories.

  8. On the modeling and nonlinear dynamics of autonomous Silva-Young type chaotic oscillators with flat power spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kengne, Jacques; Kenmogne, Fabien

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of fourth-order Silva-Young type chaotic oscillators with flat power spectrum recently introduced by Tamaseviciute and collaborators is considered. In this type of oscillators, a pair of semiconductor diodes in an anti-parallel connection acts as the nonlinear component necessary for generating chaotic oscillations. Based on the Shockley diode equation and an appropriate selection of the state variables, a smooth mathematical model (involving hyperbolic sine and cosine functions) is derived for a better description of both the regular and chaotic dynamics of the system. The complex behavior of the oscillator is characterized in terms of its parameters by using time series, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents' plots, Poincaré sections, and frequency spectra. It is shown that the onset of chaos is achieved via the classical period-doubling and symmetry restoring crisis scenarios. Some PSPICE simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the oscillator are presented in order to confirm the ability of the proposed mathematical model to accurately describe/predict both the regular and chaotic behaviors of the oscillator.

  9. Anomalous parity asymmetry of WMAP 7-year power spectrum data at low multipoles: Is it cosmological or systematics?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-09-15

    It is natural to assume a parity-neutral Universe and accordingly no particular parity preference in the cosmic microwave background sky. However, our investigation based on the WMAP 7-year power spectrum shows there exists a large-scale odd-parity preference with high statistical significance. We also find that the odd-parity preference in WMAP7 data is slightly higher than earlier releases. We have investigated possible origins, and ruled out various noncosmological origins. We also find that the primordial origin requires |Re[{Phi}(k)]|<<|Im[{Phi}(k)]| for k < or approx. 22/{eta}{sub 0}, where {eta}{sub 0} is the present conformal time. In other words, it requires translational invariance in the primordial Universe to be violated on scales larger than 4 Gpc. The Planck surveyor, which possesses wide frequency coverage and systematics distinct from the WMAP, may allow us to resolve the mystery of the anomalous odd-parity preference. Furthermore, polarization maps of large-sky coverage will reduce degeneracy in cosmological origins.

  10. Description and interpretation of the bracts epidermis of Gramineae (Poaceae) with rotated image with maximum average power spectrum (RIMAPS) technique.

    PubMed

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O; Molina, Ana M; Setten, Lorena M

    2008-10-01

    During the last few years, RIMAPS technique has been used to characterize the micro-relief of metallic surfaces and recently also applied to biological surfaces. RIMAPS is an image analysis technique which uses the rotation of an image and calculates its average power spectrum. Here, it is presented as a tool for describing the morphology of the trichodium net found in some grasses, which is developed on the epidermal cells of the lemma. Three different species of grasses (herbarium samples) are analyzed: Podagrostis aequivalvis (Trin.) Scribn. & Merr., Bromidium hygrometricum (Nees) Nees & Meyen and Bromidium ramboi (Parodi) Rúgolo. Simple schemes representing the real microstructure of the lemma are proposed and studied. RIMAPS spectra of both the schemes and the real microstructures are compared. These results allow inferring how similar the proposed geometrical schemes are to the real microstructures. Each geometrical pattern could be used as a reference for classifying other species. Finally, this kind of analysis is used to determine the morphology of the trichodium net of Agrostis breviculmis Hitchc. As the dried sample had shrunk and the microstructure was not clear, two kinds of morphology are proposed for the trichodium net of Agrostis L., one elliptical and the other rectilinear, the former being the most suitable. PMID:18042391

  11. A noise power spectrum study of a new model-based iterative reconstruction system: Veo 3.0.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xinming; Dodge, Cristina T; Jensen, Corey T; Rong, X John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the third generation of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) system, Veo 3.0, based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis with various clinical presets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. A CatPhan 600 surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape was scanned 10 times at each of six dose levels on a GE HD 750 scanner. NPS analysis was performed on images reconstructed with various Veo 3.0 preset combinations for comparisons of those images reconstructed using Veo 2.0, filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruc-tion (ASiR). The new Target Thickness setting resulted in higher noise in thicker axial images. The new Texture Enhancement function achieved a more isotropic noise behavior with less image artifacts. Veo 3.0 provides additional reconstruction options designed to allow the user choice of balance between spatial resolution and image noise, relative to Veo 2.0. Veo 3.0 provides more user selectable options and in general improved isotropic noise behavior in comparison to Veo 2.0. The overall noise reduction performance of both versions of MBIR was improved in comparison to FBP and ASiR, especially at low-dose levels. PMID:27685118

  12. CMB power spectrum contribution from cosmic strings using field-evolution simulations of the Abelian Higgs model

    SciTech Connect

    Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon

    2007-03-15

    We present the first field-theoretic calculations of the contribution made by cosmic strings to the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Unlike previous work, in which strings were modeled as idealized one-dimensional objects, we evolve the simplest example of an underlying field theory containing local U(1) strings, the Abelian Higgs model. Limitations imposed by finite computational volumes are overcome using the scaling property of string networks and a further extrapolation related to the lessening of the string width in comoving coordinates. The strings and their decay products, which are automatically included in the field theory approach, source metric perturbations via their energy-momentum tensor, the unequal-time correlation functions of which are used as input into the CMB calculation phase. These calculations involve the use of a modified version of CMBEASY, with results provided over the full range of relevant scales. We find that the string tension {mu} required to normalize to the WMAP 3-year data at multipole l=10 is G{mu}=[2.04{+-}0.06(stat.){+-}0.12(sys.)]x10{sup -6}, where we have quoted statistical and systematic errors separately, and G is Newton's constant. This is a factor 2-3 higher than values in current circulation.

  13. Multiple Peaks in the Angular Power Spectrum of the CosmicMicrowave Background: Significance and Consequences for Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Contaldi, C.R.; Crill, B.P.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason, P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta,G.; Pongetti, F.; Prunet, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.

    2001-05-17

    Three peaks and two dips have been detected in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background from the BOOMERANG experiment, at {ell} {approx} 210, 540, 840 and {ell} {approx} 420, 750, respectively. Using model-independent analyses, we find that all five features are statistically significant and we measure their location and amplitude. These are consistent with the adiabatic inflationary model. We also calculate the mean and variance of the peak and dip locations and amplitudes in a large 7-dimensional parameter space of such models, which gives good agreement with the model-independent estimates, and forecast where the next few peaks and dips should be found if the basic paradigm is correct. We test the robustness of our results by comparing Bayesian marginalization techniques on this space with likelihood maximization techniques applied to a second 7-dimensional cosmological parameter space, using an independent computational pipeline, and find excellent agreement: {Omega}{sub tot} = 1.02{sub -0.05}{sup +0.06} vs. 1.04 {+-} 0.05, {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2} = 0.022{sub -0.003}{sup +0.004} vs. 0.019{sub -0.004}{sup +0.005}, and n{sub s} = 0.96{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10} vs. 0.90 {+-} 0.08. The deviation in primordial spectral index n{sub s} is a consequence of the strong correlation with the optical depth.

  14. On the modeling and nonlinear dynamics of autonomous Silva-Young type chaotic oscillators with flat power spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kengne, Jacques; Kenmogne, Fabien

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of fourth-order Silva-Young type chaotic oscillators with flat power spectrum recently introduced by Tamaseviciute and collaborators is considered. In this type of oscillators, a pair of semiconductor diodes in an anti-parallel connection acts as the nonlinear component necessary for generating chaotic oscillations. Based on the Shockley diode equation and an appropriate selection of the state variables, a smooth mathematical model (involving hyperbolic sine and cosine functions) is derived for a better description of both the regular and chaotic dynamics of the system. The complex behavior of the oscillator is characterized in terms of its parameters by using time series, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents' plots, Poincaré sections, and frequency spectra. It is shown that the onset of chaos is achieved via the classical period-doubling and symmetry restoring crisis scenarios. Some PSPICE simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the oscillator are presented in order to confirm the ability of the proposed mathematical model to accurately describe/predict both the regular and chaotic behaviors of the oscillator. PMID:25554054

  15. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results show sex-related differences in the cognitive profile of ASD individuals, which were diagnosed late in life exclusively. Higher verbal abilities were found in males (n = 69) as opposed to higher processing speed and better executive functions in females with ASD (n = 38). Since both sexes remained unidentified during childhood and adolescence, these results are suggestive for sex-distinctive cognitive strategies as an alternative to typically-developed reciprocal social behavior and social mimicry in high functioning ASD.

  16. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Shapiro, Charles; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Berkeley

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  17. Europium-152 depth profile of a stone bridge pillar exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb: 152Eu activities for analysis of the neutron spectrum.

    PubMed

    Hasai, H; Iwatani, K; Shizuma, K; Hoshi, M; Yokoro, K; Sawada, S; Kosako, T; Morishima, H

    1987-09-01

    The 152Eu activity depth profile of a granite pillar of the Motoyasu bridge located 132 m from the Hiroshima atomic bomb hypocenter was assessed. The pillars each measured 82 cm in depth, 82 cm in width and 193 cm in height. One of the pillars was bored and 6.8-cm-diameter core samples were removed and cut into 2-cm-thick disks. Two gamma rays of 152Eu, 122 keV and 344 keV, in each disk were measured using a low background, gamma-ray spectrometer, and the activity distribution was determined as a function of depth in the granite. A concentration of stable Eu in the granite was determined by activation analysis. The specific radioactivity of 152Eu and 154Eu at the pillar surface was determined to have been 117 and 24 Bq per mg Eu, respectively, at the time of detonation. The value of 152Eu agrees within 20% of that calculated by Loewe. The depth profile of 152Eu in granite demonstrates a distinct difference from the estimates made only by thermal neutrons. Present data provide valuable information for the analysis of the neutron spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb and its intensity.

  18. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Westwood, H; Stahl, D; Mandy, W; Tchanturia, K

    2016-07-01

    Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy controls (HCs) and to statistically compare performance on the WCST between ASD and AN. In all, 24 studies on ASD and 22 studies on AN were identified. In ASD, there were significant differences between the clinical group and HCs, with the ASD group making significantly more perseverative errors, indicating greater difficulty in set-shifting [pooled effect size of d = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.81, p ⩽ 0.001]. This effect was consistent across the age span. For AN studies, there was a significant difference between adults with AN and HCs (d = 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.68, p ⩽ 0.001) but a non-significant effect in child studies (d = 0.25, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.55, z = 1.66, p = 0.096). Meta-regression indicated no effect of diagnosis (AN or ASD) on performance in adult studies but there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.053) towards children with ASD performing worse than children with AN. While difficulties with set-shifting appear to be stable in ASD, there may be differences between children and adults with AN, which warrant further investigation.

  19. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Westwood, H; Stahl, D; Mandy, W; Tchanturia, K

    2016-07-01

    Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy controls (HCs) and to statistically compare performance on the WCST between ASD and AN. In all, 24 studies on ASD and 22 studies on AN were identified. In ASD, there were significant differences between the clinical group and HCs, with the ASD group making significantly more perseverative errors, indicating greater difficulty in set-shifting [pooled effect size of d = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.81, p ⩽ 0.001]. This effect was consistent across the age span. For AN studies, there was a significant difference between adults with AN and HCs (d = 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.68, p ⩽ 0.001) but a non-significant effect in child studies (d = 0.25, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.55, z = 1.66, p = 0.096). Meta-regression indicated no effect of diagnosis (AN or ASD) on performance in adult studies but there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.053) towards children with ASD performing worse than children with AN. While difficulties with set-shifting appear to be stable in ASD, there may be differences between children and adults with AN, which warrant further investigation. PMID:27109830

  20. Estimation of Scatterer Diameter by Normalized Power Spectrum of High-Frequency Ultrasonic RF Echo for Assessment of Red Blood Cell Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Taku; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, as one of the determinants of blood viscosity, plays an important role in blood rheology, including the condition of blood. RBC aggregation is induced by the adhesion of RBCs when the electrostatic repulsion between RBCs weakens owing to increases in protein and saturated fatty acid levels in blood, excessive RBC aggregation leads to various circulatory diseases. This study was conducted to establish a noninvasive quantitative method for assessment of RBC aggregation. The power spectrum of ultrasonic RF echoes from nonaggregating RBCs, which shows the frequency property of scattering, exhibits Rayleigh behavior. On the other hand, ultrasonic RF echoes from aggregating RBCs contain the components of reflection, which have no frequency dependence. By dividing the measured power spectrum of echoes from RBCs in the lumen by that of echoes from a posterior wall of the vein in the dorsum manus, the attenuation property of the propagating medium and the frequency responses of transmitting and receiving transducers are removed from the former spectrum. RBC aggregation was assessed by the diameter of a scatterer, which was estimated by minimizing the square difference between the measured normalized power spectrum and the theoretical power spectrum. In this study, spherical scatterers with diameters of 5, 11, 15, and 30 µm were measured in basic experiments. The estimated scatterer diameters were close to the actual diameters. Furthermore, the transient change of the scatterer diameters were measured in an in vivo experiment with respect to a 24-year-old healthy male during the avascularization using a cuff. The estimated diameters (12-22 µm) of RBCs during avascularization were larger than the diameters (4-8 µm) at rest and after recirculation. These results show the possibility of the use of the proposed method for noninvasive assessment of RBC aggregation.

  1. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  2. The XMM-Newton spectrum of a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole: An elusive inverted P-Cygni profile

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Hickox, R.; Comastri, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Costantini, E.; Elvis, M.; Fruscione, A.; Mainieri, V.; Jahnke, K.; Komossa, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Vignali, C.; Brusa, M.

    2013-11-20

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of new XMM-Newton data of the source CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, detected in the COSMOS survey at z = 0.359. Previous works suggested that CID-42 is a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) showing also an inverted P-Cygni profile in the X-ray spectra at ∼6 keV (rest) with an iron emission line plus a redshifted absorption line (detected at 3σ in previous XMM-Newton and Chandra observations). Detailed analysis of the absorption line suggested the presence of ionized material flowing into the black hole at high velocity. In the new long XMM-Newton observation, while the overall spectral shape remains constant, the continuum 2-10 keV flux decrease of ∼20% with respect to previous observation and the absorption line is undetected. The upper limit on the intensity of the absorption line is EW < 162 eV. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations show that the nondetection of the line is solely due to variation in the properties of the inflowing material, in agreement with the transient nature of these features, and that the intensity of the line is lower than the previously measured with a probability of 98.8%. In the scenario of CID-42 as a recoiling SMBH, the absorption line can be interpreted as being due to an inflow of gas with variable density that is located in the proximity of the SMBH and recoiling with it. New monitoring observations will be requested to further characterize this line.

  3. Simplified Digital Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    Spectrum analyzer computes approximate cross-correlations between noisy input signal and reference signal of known frequency, yielding measure of amplitude of sinusoidal component of input. Complexity and power consumed less than other digital spectrum analyzers. Performs no multiplications, and because processes data on each frequency independently, focuses on narrow spectral range without processing data on rest of spectrum.

  4. Sample-to-sample fluctuations of power spectrum of a random motion in a periodic Sinai model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David S.; Iorio, Antonio; Marinari, Enzo; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    The Sinai model of a tracer diffusing in a quenched Brownian potential is a much-studied problem exhibiting a logarithmically slow anomalous diffusion due to the growth of energy barriers with the system size. However, if the potential is random but periodic, the regime of anomalous diffusion crosses over to one of normal diffusion once a tracer has diffused over a few periods of the system. Here we consider a system in which the potential is given by a Brownian bridge on a finite interval (0 ,L ) and then periodically repeated over the whole real line and study the power spectrum S (f ) of the diffusive process x (t ) in such a potential. We show that for most of realizations of x (t ) in a given realization of the potential, the low-frequency behavior is S (f ) ˜A /f2 , i.e., the same as for standard Brownian motion, and the amplitude A is a disorder-dependent random variable with a finite support. Focusing on the statistical properties of this random variable, we determine the moments of A of arbitrary, negative, or positive order k and demonstrate that they exhibit a multifractal dependence on k and a rather unusual dependence on the temperature and on the periodicity L , which are supported by atypical realizations of the periodic disorder. We finally show that the distribution of A has a log-normal left tail and exhibits an essential singularity close to the right edge of the support, which is related to the Lifshitz singularity. Our findings are based both on analytic results and on extensive numerical simulations of the process x (t ) .

  5. Higher Fusion Power Gain with Current and Pressure Profile Control in Strongly Shaped DIII-D Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Navratil, G.A.; Greenfield, C.M.; Strait, E.J.; Austin, M.E.; Burrell, K.H.; Casper, T.A.; Baker, D.R.; DeBoo, J.C.; Doyle, E.J.; Durst, R.; Ferron, J.R.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hong, R.; Houlberg, W.A.; Howald, A.W.; Hsieh, C.; Hyatt, A.W.; Jackson, G.L.; Kim, J.; Lao, L.L.; Lasnier, C.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Lohr, J.; La Haye, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Miller, R.L.; Murakami, M.; Osborne, T.H.; Perkins, L.J.; Petty, C.C.; Rettig, C.L.; Rhodes, T.L.; Rice, B.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schissel, D.P.; Scoville, J.T.; Snider, R.T.; Staebler, G.M.; Stallard, B.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; St. John, H.E.; Stockdale, R.E.; Taylor, P.L.; Thomas, D.M.; Turnbull, A.D.; Wade, M.R.; Wood, R.; Whyte, D.

    1996-09-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D by tailoring the pressure profile to avoid the kink instability in {ital H}-mode plasmas. The resulting plasmas are found to have neoclassical ion confinement. This reduction in transport losses in beam-heated plasmas with negative central shear is correlated with a dramatic reduction in density fluctuations. Improved magnetohydrodynamic stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. In deuterium plasmas the highest gain {ital Q} (the ratio of fusion power to input power), was 0.0015, corresponding to an equivalent {ital Q} of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. SU-C-304-05: Use of Local Noise Power Spectrum and Wavelets in Comprehensive EPID Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Gopal, A; Yan, G; Bassett, P; Park, C; Samant, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: As EPIDs are increasingly used for IMRT QA and real-time treatment verification, comprehensive quality assurance (QA) of EPIDs becomes critical. Current QA with phantoms such as the Las Vegas and PIPSpro™ can fail in the early detection of EPID artifacts. Beyond image quality assessment, we propose a quantitative methodology using local noise power spectrum (NPS) to characterize image noise and wavelet transform to identify bad pixels and inter-subpanel flat-fielding artifacts. Methods: A total of 93 image sets including bar-pattern images and open exposure images were collected from four iViewGT a-Si EPID systems over three years. Quantitative metrics such as modulation transform function (MTF), NPS and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were computed for each image set. Local 2D NPS was calculated for each subpanel. A 1D NPS was obtained by radial averaging the 2D NPS and fitted to a power-law function. R-square and slope of the linear regression analysis were used for panel performance assessment. Haar wavelet transformation was employed to identify pixel defects and non-uniform gain correction across subpanels. Results: Overall image quality was assessed with DQE based on empirically derived area under curve (AUC) thresholds. Using linear regression analysis of 1D NPS, panels with acceptable flat fielding were indicated by r-square between 0.8 and 1, and slopes of −0.4 to −0.7. However, for panels requiring flat fielding recalibration, r-square values less than 0.8 and slopes from +0.2 to −0.4 were observed. The wavelet transform successfully identified pixel defects and inter-subpanel flat fielding artifacts. Standard QA with the Las Vegas and PIPSpro phantoms failed to detect these artifacts. Conclusion: The proposed QA methodology is promising for the early detection of imaging and dosimetric artifacts of EPIDs. Local NPS can accurately characterize the noise level within each subpanel, while the wavelet transforms can detect bad pixels and

  7. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the 600 less than l less than 8000 Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum at 148 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, J. W.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Bassistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; Burger, B.; Chervenak, J.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Dunkley, J.; Duenner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Hajian, A.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Moseley, H.; Wollack, Ed

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz. The measurement uses maps with 1.4' angular resolution made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The observations cover 228 deg(sup 2) of the southern sky, in a 4 deg. 2-wide strip centered on declination 53 deg. South. The CMB at arc minute angular scales is particularly sensitive to the Silk damping scale, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy dusters, and to emission by radio sources and dusty galaxies. After masking the 108 brightest point sources in our maps, we estimate the power spectrum between 600 less than l less than 8000 using the adaptive multi-taper method to minimize spectral leakage and maximize use of the full data set. Our absolute calibration is based on observations of Uranus. To verify the calibration and test the fidelity of our map at large angular scales, we cross-correlate the ACT map to the WMAP map and recover the WMAP power spectrum from 250 less than l less than 1150. The power beyond the Silk damping tail of the CMB (l approximately 5000) is consistent with models of the emission from point sources. We quantify the contribution of SZ clusters to the power spectrum by fitting to a model normalized to sigma 8 = 0.8. We constrain the model's amplitude A(sub sz) less than 1.63 (95% CL). If interpreted as a measurement of as, this implies sigma (sup SZ) (sub 8) less than 0.86 (95% CL) given our SZ model. A fit of ACT and WMAP five-year data jointly to a 6-parameter ACDM model plus point sources and the SZ effect is consistent with these results.

  8. Physiological effects of two different postactivation potentiation training loads on power profiles generated during high intensity cycle ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Parry, Sian; Hancock, Stuart; Shiells, Matthew; Passfield, Louis; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether postactivation potentiation (PAP) would have any effect on high intensity cycle ergometer performance. Two different squatting exercises of different loads were presented in a random fashion prior to ergometric exercise. Seven male rugby players volunteered to participate in the study. There were no significant differences observed between peak power output (PPO) measurements for all three testing conditions (P > 0.05). There were also no differences recorded between mean power outputs (MPOs) and end power outputs (EPOs) (P > 0.05). The decrease in power output (FI %) also was found to be nonsignificant for all conditions (P > 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that performance of repeated heavy squats prior to a 30-second maximal cycle ergometer exercise did not improve the power profiles recorded and did not induce PAP at the time of testing.

  9. Experimental detailed power distribution in a fast spectrum thermionic reactor fuel element at the core/BeO reflector interface region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, P. G.; Lantz, E.

    1973-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the prupose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-7-cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power conversion system. The critical assembly was modified to simulate a fast spectrum advanced thermionics reactor by: (1) using BeO as a reflector in place of some of the existing molybdenum, (2) substituting Nb-1Zr tubing for some of the existing Ta tubing, and (3) inserting four full-scale mockups of thermionic type fuel elements near the core and BeO reflector boundary. These mockups were surrounded with a buffer zone having the equivalent thermionic core composition. In addition to measuring the critical mass of this thermionic configuration, a detailed power distribution in one of the thermionic element stages in the mixed spectrum region was measured. A power peak to average ratio of two was observed for this fuel stage at the midplane of the core and adjacent to the reflector. Also, the power on the outer surface adjacent to the BeO was slightly more than a factor of two larger than the power on the inside surface of a 5.08 cm (2.0 in.) high annular fuel segment with a 2.52 cm (0.993 in. ) o.d. and a 1.86 cm (0.731 in.) i.d.

  10. Ionospheric wave spectrum measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, K. J.; Ilic, D. B.; Crawford, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The local spectrum S(k, omega) of either potential or electron-density fluctuations can be used to determine macroscopic-plasma characteristics such as the local density and temperature, transport coefficients, and drift current. This local spectrum can be determined by measuring the cross-power spectrum. The paper examines the practicality of using the cross-power spectrum analyzer on the Space Shuttle to measure ionospheric parameters. Particular attention is given to investigating the integration time required to measure the cross-power spectral density to a desired accuracy.

  11. MODELING THE NONLINEAR CLUSTERING IN MODIFIED GRAVITY MODELS. I. A FITTING FORMULA FOR THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM OF f(R) GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Based on a suite of N-body simulations of the Hu-Sawicki model of f(R) gravity with different sets of model and cosmological parameters, we develop a new fitting formula with a numeric code, MGHalofit, to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum P(k) for the Hu-Sawicki model. We compare the MGHalofit predictions at various redshifts (z ≤ 1) to the f(R) simulations and find that the relative error of the MGHalofit fitting formula of P(k) is no larger than 6% at k ≤ 1 h Mpc{sup –1} and 12% at k in (1, 10] h Mpc{sup –1}, respectively. Based on a sensitivity study of an ongoing and a future spectroscopic survey, we estimate the detectability of a signal of modified gravity described by the Hu-Sawicki model using the power spectrum up to quasi-nonlinear scales.

  12. A simple method of calculating power-law velocity profile exponents from experimental data. [for boundary layer shape factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the effects of compressibility and heat transfer on laminar and turbulent shape factors H have been developed. Solving the turbulent equation for the power law velocity profile exponent N has resulted in a simple technique by which the N values of experimental turbulent profiles can be calculated directly from the integral parameters. Thus the data plotting, curve fitting, and slope measuring, which is the normal technique of obtaining experimental N values, is eliminated. The N values obtained by this method should be within the accuracy with which they could be measured.

  13. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training. PMID:26907336

  14. A Revised Method of Presenting Wavenumber-Frequency Power Spectrum Diagrams That Reveals the Asymmetric Nature of Tropical Large-scale Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiouhua

    2007-01-01

    The popular method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams for studying tropical large-scale waves in the literature is shown to give an incomplete presentation of these waves. The so-called "convectively-coupled Kelvin (mixed Rossby-gravity) waves" are presented as existing only in the symmetric (antisymmetric) component of the diagrams. This is obviously not consistent with the published composite/regression studies of "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves," which illustrate the asymmetric nature of these waves. The cause of this inconsistency is revealed in this note and a revised method of presenting the power spectrum diagrams is proposed. When this revised method is used, "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves" do show anti-symmetric components, and "convectively-coupled mixed Rossby-gravity waves (also known as Yanai waves)" do show a hint of symmetric components. These results bolster a published proposal that these waves be called "chimeric Kelvin waves," "chimeric mixed Rossby-gravity waves," etc. This revised method of presenting power spectrum diagrams offers a more rigorous means of comparing the General Circulation Models (GCM) output with observations by calling attention to the capability of GCMs in correctly simulating the asymmetric characteristics of the equatorial waves.

  15. Karhunen-Loeve Estimation of the Power Spectrum Parameters from the Angular Distribution of Galaxies in Early Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalay, Alexander S.; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Matsubara, Takahiko; Scranton, Ryan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Connolly, Andrew; Dodelson, Scott; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.

    2003-01-01

    We present measurements of parameters of the three-dimensional power spectrum of galaxy clustering from 222 square degrees of early imaging data in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The projected galaxy distribution on the sky is expanded over a set of Karhunen-Loeve (KL) eigenfunctions, which optimize the signal-to-noise ratio in our analysis. A maximum likelihood analysis is used to estimate parameters that set the shape and amplitude of the three-dimensional power spectrum of galaxies in the SDSS magnitude-limited sample with r* less than 21. Our best estimates are gamma = 0.188 +/- 0.04 and sigma(sub 8L) = 0.915 +/- 0.06 (statistical errors only), for a flat universe with a cosmological constant. We demonstrate that our measurements contain signal from scales at or beyond the peak of the three-dimensional power spectrum. We discuss how the results scale with systematic uncertainties, like the radial selection function. We find that the central values satisfy the analytically estimated scaling relation. We have also explored the effects of evolutionary corrections, various truncations of the KL basis, seeing, sample size, and limiting magnitude. We find that the impact of most of these uncertainties stay within the 2 sigma uncertainties of our fiducial result.

  16. New calorimetric all-particle energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    Both the maximum size N sub m and the sea level muon size N sub mu have been used separately to find the all-particle energy spectrum in the air shower domain. However the conversion required, whether from N sub m to E or from N sub mu to E, has customarily been carried out by means of calculations based on an assumed cascase model. It is shown here that by combining present data on N sub m and N sub mu spectra with data on: (1); the energy spectrum of air shower muons and (2) the average width of the electron profile, one can obtain empirical values of the N sub m to E and N sub mu to E conversion factors, and an empirical calorimetric all-particle spectrum, in the energy range 2 x 10 to the 6th power E 2 x 10 to the 9th power GeV.

  17. Ft. McHenry tunnel study: Source profiles and mercury emissions from diesel and gasoline powered vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Matthew S.; Lewis, Charles W.; Stevens, Robert K.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Tremblay, Raphael T.

    During the fall of 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection sponsored a 7-day study at the Ft. McHenry tunnel in Baltimore, MD with the objective of obtaining PM 2.5 vehicle source profiles for use in atmospheric mercury source apportionment studies. PM 2.5 emission profiles from gasoline and diesel powered vehicles were developed from analysis of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and condensed aliphatic hydrocarbons. PM 2.5 samples were collected using commercially available sampling systems and were extracted and analyzed using conventional well-established methods. Both inorganic and organic profiles were sufficiently unique to mathematically discriminate the contributions from each source type using a chemical mass balance source apportionment approach. However, only the organic source profiles provided unique PAH tracers (e.g., fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene) for diesel combustion that could be used to identify source contributions generated using multivariate statistical receptor modeling approaches. In addition, the study found significant emission of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0), divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) from gasoline but not from diesel powered motor vehicles. Fuel analysis supported the tunnel measurement results showing that total mercury content in all grades of gasoline (284±108 ng L -1) was substantially higher than total mercury content in diesel fuel (62±37 ng L -1) collected contemporaneously at local Baltimore retailers.

  18. Concordance study on population database samples using the PowerPlex 16 kit and AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus kit and AmpFlSTR COfiler kit.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Sprecher, C J

    2001-05-01

    Over 500 population database samples comprising African Americans, Bahamians, and Southwestern Hispanics were typed using the PowerPlex 16 and the Profiler Plus COfiler kits. There was only one sample in which a typing difference was observed. An FGA heterozygote profile was observed using the PowerPlex 16 primers, and a single allele FGA profile was observed using Profiler Plus primers. Thus, the extant data suggest that the primers used in the PowerPlex 16, Profiler Plus, and COfiler kits are reliable for typing reference samples destined for use in CODIS. In addition, African American, Bahamian, and Southwestern Hispanic databases have been established for the STR loci Penta D and Penta E. Both loci are highly polymorphic. The application of the product rule is valid for estimating the rarity of a multiple loci profile consisting of these two and the 13 core STR loci. PMID:11373002

  19. NON-Shock-Plasticity/Fracture Burst Acoustic-Emission(BAE) ``1''/f -``Noise'' Power-Spectrum Power-Law UNIVERSALITY is Merely F=ma Time-Series Integral-Transform, aka ``Bak'' -``SOC'' REdiscovery'' PRE(1687)-``Bak''(1988)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward; Nabarro, Frank; Brailsford, Alan; Tatro, Clement

    2011-06-01

    NON-shock-plasticity/fracture BAE[E.S.:MSE 8,310(71);PSS:(a)5,601/607(71);Xl.-Latt. Defects 5,277(74);Scripta Met.:6,785(72); 8,587/617(74);3rd Tokyo AE Symp.(76);Acta Met. 25,383(77);JMMM 7,312(78)] ``1''/ ω-``noise'' power-spectrum ``pink''-Zipf-(NOT ``red''-Pareto) power-law UNIVERSALITY is manifestly-demonstrated in two distinct ways to be nothing but Newton Law of Motion F = ma REdiscovery!!!(aka ``Bak''(1988)-``SOC'':1687 < < < 1988: 1988-1687=301-years!!! PHYSICS:(1687) cross-multiplied F=ma rewritten as 1/m=a/F=OUTPUT/IN-PUT=EFFECT/CAUSE=inverse-mass mechanical-susceptibility=X(`` ω'') X(`` ω '') ~(F.-D. thm.) ~P(`` ω'') ``noise'' power-spectrum; (``Max & Al show''): E ~ ω , & E ~(or any/all media with upper-limiting-speeds) ~m. Thus: ω ~ E ~m inverting: 1/ ω ~ 1/E ~1/m ~a/F= X(`` ω'') ~ P(`` ω'') thus: F=ma integral-transform(I-T) is ```SOC'''s'' P(ω) ~ 1/ ω !!!; ``PURE''-MATHS: F=ma DOUBLE-integral time-series(T-S) s(t)=[v0t+(1/2)at2] I-T formally defines power-spectrum:

  20. Offending Profiles of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Study of All Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Examined by the Forensic Psychiatric Service in Norway between 2000 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helverschou, Sissel Berge; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Steindal, Kari; Søndanaa, Erik; Nilsson, Britta; Nøttestad, Jim Aage

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of adults with autism spectrum disorder who have undergone a forensic examination and explored any relationships between the diagnosis and the offence. The reports described 41 men and 7 women. The autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed late (mean age: 25.3?years), and 22 of the 48 cases were diagnosed with…