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Sample records for progenitoras hematopoyeticas abo

  1. ABO incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    Transfusion reaction - hemolytic; Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction; AHTR; Blood incompatibility - ABO ... to another type of blood can cause a reaction. This is important when someone needs to receive ...

  2. Hemolysis from ABO Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Daimon P; Savage, William J

    2015-06-01

    ABO incompatibility of red blood cells leads to brisk complement-mediated lysis, particularly in the setting of red cell transfusion. The ABO blood group is the most clinically significant blood group because of preformed immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to ABO blood group antigens (isohemagglutinins) in everyone except group AB individuals. In addition to transfusion, ABO incompatibility can cause hemolysis in hematopoietic and solid organ transplantation, hemolytic disease of the newborn, and intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. It is important to prevent ABO incompatibility when possible and to anticipate complications when ABO incompatibility is unavoidable.

  3. Regulation of ABO gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Yoshihiko; Hata, Yukiko; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Takizawa, Hisao

    2005-07-01

    The ABO blood group system is important in blood transfusions and in identifying individuals during criminal investigations. Two carbohydrate antigens, the A and B antigens, and their antibodies constitute this system. Although biochemical and molecular genetic studies have demonstrated the molecular basis of the histo-blood group ABO system, some aspects remain to be elucidated. To explain the molecular basis of how the ABO genes are controlled in cell type-specific expression, during normal cell differentiation, and in cancer cells with invasive and metastatic potential that lack A/B antigens, it is essential to understand the regulatory mechanism of ABO gene transcription. We review the transcriptional regulation of the ABO gene, including positive and negative elements in the upstream region of the gene, and draw some inferences that help to explain the phenomena described above.

  4. Identification of ABO alleles on forensic-type specimens using rapid-ABO genotyping.

    PubMed

    Crouse, C; Vincek, V

    1995-03-01

    Historically, forensic and clinical laboratories utilize serological techniques to identify ABO blood types. These techniques rely on the detection of ABO-associated proteins and are sensitive with very accurate results. This laboratory has simplified the identification of ABO types by taking advantage of previously reported ABO DNA sequence differences. The Rapid-ABO technique involves a two-step process: (i) amplification of DNA samples using primer sets specific for the ABO alleles and (ii) electrophoresis and visualization of amplified ABO fragments on a 3% MetaPhor agarose gel. The major advantage of the Rapid-ABO technique is the identification of ABO genotypes compared to serological tests for ABO phenotypes. This two-step process identifies six possible ABO genotypes including AB, AA, BB, AO, BO and OO. The Rapid-ABO protocol works well with DNA extracted organically or using Chelex 100. Results can be obtained in less than a day utilizing 2 ng of DNA in the amplification reaction. Analysis of 23 animal species shows the Rapid-ABO primers amplify ABO alleles from only human, chimpanzee and gorilla DNA.

  5. ABO-incompatible heart transplants.

    PubMed

    Hageman, M; Michaud, N; Chinnappan, I; Klein, T; Mettler, B

    2015-04-01

    A month-old baby girl with blood type O positive received a donor heart organ from a donor with blood type B. This was the first institutional ABO-incompatible heart transplant. Infants listed for transplantation may be considered for an ABO-incompatible heart transplant based on their antibody levels and age. The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) protocol is infants under 24 months with titers less than or equal to 1:4.(1) This recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies were monitored with titer assays to determine their levels; antibody levels less than 1:4 are acceptable pre-transplant in order to proceed with donor and transplant arrangements.1 Immediately prior to initiating cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a complete whole body exchange transfusion of at least two-times the patient's circulating blood volume was performed with packed red blood cells (pRBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 25% albumin. Titer assays were sent two minutes after initiation of full CPB and then hourly until the cross-clamp was removed. Institutionally, reperfusion of the donor heart is not restored until the antibody level from the titer assay is known and reported as less than 1:4; failing to achieve an immulogically tolerant recipient will provide conditions for hyperacute rejection. The blood collected during the transfusion exchange was immediately processed through a cell saver so the pRBC's could be re-infused to the patient during CPB, as necessary. The remainder of the transplant was performed in the same fashion as an ABO-compatible heart transplant. The patient has shown no signs of rejection following transplantation.

  6. ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Döhler, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard; Süsal, Caner

    2017-01-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression. Anti-A/B antibodies are aimed to be below a certain threshold at the time of ABOi kidney transplantation and during the first 2 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, even a rebound of anti-A/B antibodies does not appear to harm the kidney transplant, a phenomenon that is called accommodation, but is poorly understood. There is still concern, however, that infectious complications such as viral disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and severe urinary tract infections are increased after ABOi transplantations. Recent data from the Collaborative Transplant Study show that during the first year after kidney transplantation, one additional patient death from an infectious complication occurs in 100 ABOi kidney transplant recipients. Herein, we review the recent evidence on ABOi kidney transplantation with a focus on desensitization strategies and respective outcomes. PMID:28321223

  7. ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Döhler, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard; Süsal, Caner

    2017-01-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression. Anti-A/B antibodies are aimed to be below a certain threshold at the time of ABOi kidney transplantation and during the first 2 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, even a rebound of anti-A/B antibodies does not appear to harm the kidney transplant, a phenomenon that is called accommodation, but is poorly understood. There is still concern, however, that infectious complications such as viral disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and severe urinary tract infections are increased after ABOi transplantations. Recent data from the Collaborative Transplant Study show that during the first year after kidney transplantation, one additional patient death from an infectious complication occurs in 100 ABOi kidney transplant recipients. Herein, we review the recent evidence on ABOi kidney transplantation with a focus on desensitization strategies and respective outcomes.

  8. Isoagglutinin adsorption in ABO-incompatible transplantation.

    PubMed

    Genberg, Helena; Kumlien, Gunilla; Wennberg, Lars; Tydén, Gunnar

    2010-10-01

    As the demand for kidney transplantation is constantly growing methods to expand the donor pool have become increasingly important. ABO-incompatibility has hitherto been regarded as an absolute contraindication to living donor donation. However, as ABO-incompatibility has accounted for the majority of living donor exclusions, efforts have been made to overcome this immunologic barrier. Successful desensitization protocols thus far, have combined plasmapheresis for antibody removal with splenectomy to reduce the antibody producing B-cell pool, in addition to quadruple immunosuppression. Although good graft function has been achieved, the high risks involved have been deterrent. We have developed a protocol for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation based on antigen-specific immunoadsorption and rituximab, in combination with standard maintenance immunosuppression (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids). We hypothesized that the anti-A/B antibodies could be effectively eliminated and good graft function achieved, without the complications of coagulopathy and transfusion reactions associated with plasmapheresis. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the substitution of splenectomy with a single dose of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab would further reduce surgical risk as well as the risk of infectious complications. In 2001 the program for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation was started at our center. To date 50 ABO-incompatible kidney transplantations have been performed according to the protocol based on antigen-specific immunoadsorption and rituximab. Safety and efficacy of the protocol has been evaluated in several studies, all showing that the antigen-specific immunoadsorption is well tolerated and without any serious side effects. Patient and graft survival as well as kidney function have been comparable to that of ABO-compatible living donor kidney transplantation and the incidence of antibody-mediated rejection 0%. We conclude that AB0

  9. ABO blood group mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tekgündüz, Sibel Akpınar; Özbek, Namık

    2016-02-01

    Apart from solid organ transplantations, use of ABO-blood group mismatched (ABO-mismatched) donors is acceptable in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. About 20-40% of allogeneic HSCT recipients will receive grafts from ABO-mismatched donors. ABO incompatible HSCT procedures are associated with immediate and late consequences, including but not restricted to acute or delayed hemolytic reactions, delayed red blood cell recovery, pure red cell aplasia and graft-versus-host disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge about consequences of ABO-mismatched HSCT in terms of associated complications and will evaluate its impact on important outcome parameters of HSCT.

  10. ABO incompatible renal transplantation following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Snell, G I; Davis, A K; Menahem, S; Kotecha, S; Whitford, H M; Levvey, B J; Paraskeva, M; Webb, A; Westall, G W; Walker, R G

    2016-11-01

    We present management strategies utilised for the first case of an urgent live-donor ABO incompatible B blood group renal transplant, in a patient with a prior A blood group lung transplant for cystic fibrosis. Three years on, renal function is excellent and stable, whilst lung function has improved.

  11. Rapid direct PCR for ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Many different molecular typing methods have been reported to complement routine serological ABO blood typing in forensics. However, these ABO genotyping methods are often time-consuming and call for an initial DNA isolation step that requires the use of expensive kits or reagents. We report here a rapid direct ABO genotyping method that eliminates the need for DNA extraction from fresh blood, hair, and body fluid stains before PCR. Using a fast PCR instrument and an optimized polymerase, the genotyping method-which employs a multiplex allele-specific primer set for the simultaneous detection of three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites (nucleotides 261, 526, and 803)-identifies A, B, O01/O02, O03, and cis-AB01 alleles in around 70 min from sample collection to electropherogram. Not only will this ABO genotyping method be efficiently used in forensic practice for rapid screening of samples before full-blown multilocus short tandem repeat profiling, but it will also demonstrate an example of rapid direct genotyping of SNPs that offers the advantages of time- and cost-efficiency, convenience, and reduced contamination during DNA analysis.

  12. ABO incompatible renal transplant: Transfusion medicine perspective

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Nayak, Sweta; Chowdhry, Mohit; Jasuja, Sanjiv; Sagar, Gaurav; Rosamma, N. L.; Thakur, Uday Kumar

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our study presents an analysis of the trends of ABO antibody titers and the TPE (Therapeutic Plasma Exchange) procedures required pre and post ABO incompatible renal transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty nine patients underwent ABO incompatible renal transplant during the study period. The ABO antibody titers were done using the tube technique and titer reported was the dilution at which 1+ reaction was observed. The baseline titers of anti-A and anti-B antibodies were determined. The titer targeted was ≤8. Patients were subjected to 1 plasma volume exchange with 5% albumin and 2 units of AB group FFP (Fresh Frozen Plasma) in each sitting. TPE procedures post-transplant were decided on the basis of rising antibody titer with/ without graft dysfunction. RESULTS: The average number of TPE procedures required was 4-5 procedures/patient in the pretransplant and 2-3/patient in the post-transplant period. An average titer reduction of 1 serial dilution/procedure was noted for Anti-A and 1.1/procedure for Anti-B. Number of procedures required to reach the target titer was not significantly different for Anti-A and Anti-B (P = 0.98). Outcome of the transplant did not differ significantly by reducing titers to a level less than 8 (P = 0.32). The difference in the Anti-A and Anti-B titers at 14th day post-transplant was found to be clinically significant (P = 0.042). CONCLUSION: With an average of 4-5 TPE procedures pretransplant and 2-3 TPE procedures post transplants, ABO incompatible renal transplantations can be successfully accomplished. PMID:28316440

  13. ABO-incompatible liver transplantation for severe hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Ju, Weiqiang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Jiao, Xingyuan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dongping; He, Xiaoshun

    2015-07-01

    Effect of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation on patients with severe hepatitis B (SHB) remains unclear. Herein, we summarized 22 cases with SHB in whom were performed emergency liver transplantation from ABO-incompatible donors. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted basiliximab, tacrolimus, steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. The mean MELD score was 35.2 ± 7.1. Major complications included rejection, infections, biliary complications, hepatic artery thrombosis or stenosis and portal vein thrombosis. Patient survival rates were 40.9%, 78.9% and 82.3% in 1 year, 29.2%, 66.8% and 72.9% in 3 years, and 21.9%, 60.1% and 62.5% in 5 years for ABO-incompatible, ABO-compatible and ABO-identical groups. Graft survival rates were 39%, 78.9% and 82.3% in 1 year, 27.8%, 66.4% and 71.1% in 3 years, and 20.9%, 57.9% and 61.0% in 5 years for incompatible, compatible and identical ABO graft-recipient match. The 1-, 3-, 5-year graft and patient survival rates of ABO-incompatible were distinctly lower than that of ABO-compatible group (P < 0.05). Our results suggested that ABO-incompatible liver transplantation might be a life-saving procedure for patients with SHB as a promising alternative operation when ABO-compatible donors are not available and at least bridges the second opportunity for liver retransplantation.

  14. Transfusion Support for ABO-Incompatible Progenitor Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kopko, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary ABO-incompatible transplants comprise up to 50% of allogeneic progenitor cell transplants. Major, minor and bidirectional ABO-incompatible transplants each have unique complications that can occur, including hemolysis at the time of progenitor cell infusion, hemolysis during donor engraftment, passenger lymphocyte syndrome, delayed red blood cell engraftment, and pure red cell aplasia. Appropriate transfusion support during the different phases of the allogeneic progenitor cell transplant process is an important part of ABO-incompatible transplantation. PMID:27022318

  15. [The kidney transplantation from the ABO-incompatible donors].

    PubMed

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dashkova, N G; Salimov, É L

    2012-01-01

    The experience of 28 allotransplantations of ABO-incompatible kidneys was compared with the treatment results of 38 ABO-compatible renal transplantations. The transplanted kidney function, morphological changes of the transplanted kidney and the comparative analysis of actuary survival in both groups showed no significant difference. The results of the study prove the validity of the kidney transplantation from the ABO-incompatible donors.

  16. Evolutionary aspects of ABO blood group in humans.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Bonfanti, Carlo

    2015-04-15

    The antigens of the ABO blood group system (A, B and H determinants) are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on red blood cells and on a variety of other cell lines and tissues. Growing evidence is accumulating that ABO antigens, beyond their key role in transfusion medicine, may interplay with the pathogenesis of many human disorders, including infectious, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. In this narrative review, after succinct description of the current knowledge on the association between ABO blood groups and the most severe diseases, we aim to elucidate the particularly intriguing issue of the possible role of ABO system in successful aging. In particular, focus will be placed on studies evaluating the ABO phenotype in centenarians, the best human model of longevity.

  17. Hemolysis after ABO-incompatible platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Chow, M P; Yung, C H; Hu, H Y; Tzeng, C H

    1991-08-01

    An 18 year old girl, with acute myeloid leukemia, developed progressive hemolysis after receiving multiple transfusions with ABO-incompatible platelets. It was caused by passive transfusion of anti-A and -B isoagglutinin from the donor plasma. Her hemoglobin level returned to normal after giving group compatible or pooled and reduced volume platelet concentrates. Transfusing group-incompatible platelets is not contraindicated, but donor plasma reduction should be considered for those patients who need prolonged platelet support. Testing for isoagglutinin titer in group O donors is an alternate method to reduce the incidence of plasma-induced hemolysis in group-incompatible platelet transfusions.

  18. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  19. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  20. Titers of ABO antibodies in group O blood donors

    PubMed Central

    de França, Natalia Dallaval Galvão; Poli, Mônica Caamaño Cristovão; Ramos, Patrícia Guilhem de Almeida; Borsoi, Cláudia Strang da Rocha; Colella, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasma components of group O blood donations are rarely submitted to ABO antibody titrations even though it is well known that passively acquired antibodies may destroy the recipient's own red cells and tissue grafts. Objective Thus, group O donations stratified by gender and age were randomly titrated to identify the best source of products for apheresis and exsanguinous transfusion. Methods Samples from 603 blood donors were tested by ABO antibody titration using the conventional tube technique at room temperature. ABO antibody levels higher than 64 were considered high. After correction for gender, statistical analyses were performed using the Fisher exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Most donors in the blood bank were male (65.7%). ABO antibody titers ranged from 1 to 2048. The estimations of prevalence for the titers were: anti-A,B < 128 = 86.9% and = 128 = 2.16%; Anti-A = 128 = 9.29% and anti-B = 128 = 4.81%. Low mean titers for both anti-A and anti-B antibodies were found in over 50-year-old men (p-value = 0.040). High anti-B antibody levels were found in young women (p-value = 0.002). Conclusion This study confirms that over 50-year-old O group men should be selected as blood donors in non-identical ABO transfusion situations. Also, titration of ABO antibodies in blood banks will increase safety in non-identical ABO transfusions. PMID:23049315

  1. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Across ABO-Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Chao; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Tsung-Han; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Ching-Song; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of adult ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).ABO-incompatible LDLT is an aggressive treatment that crosses the blood-typing barrier for saving lives from liver diseases. Although graft and patient survival have been improved recently by various treatments, the results of adult ABO-incompatible LDLT require further evaluation.Two regimens were designed based on isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers and the time course of immunological reactions at this institute. When isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers were ≤64, liver transplantation was directly performed and rituximab (375 mg/m) was administrated on postoperative day 1 (regimen I). When isoagglutinin titers were >64, rituximab (375 mg/m) was administered preoperatively with or without plasmapheresis and boosted on postoperative day 1 (regimen II). Immunosuppression was achieved by administration of mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and steroids.Forty-six adult ABO-incompatible and 340 ABO-compatible LDLTs were performed from 2006 to 2013. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores for ABO-incompatible recipients ranged from 7 to 40, with a median of 14. The graft-to-recipient weight ratio ranged from 0.61% to 1.61% with a median of 0.91%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 81.7%, 75.7%, and 71.0%, respectively, for ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients, compared to 81.0%, 75.2%, and 71.5% for ABO-C recipients (P = 0.912). The biliary complication rate was higher in ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients than in the ABO-compatible recipients (50.0% vs 29.7%, P = 0.009).In the rituximab era, the blood type barrier can be crossed to achieve adult ABO-incompatible LDLT with survival rates comparable to those of ABO-compatible LDLT, but with more biliary complications.

  2. Molecular deciphering of the ABO system as a basis for novel diagnostics and therapeutics in ABO incompatible transplantation.

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Jan; Rydberg, Lennart; Breimer, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    In recent years ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (KTx) has become a more or less clinical routine procedure with graft and patient survival similar to those of ABO compatible transplants. Antigen-specific immunoadsorption (IA) for anti-A and anti-B antibody removal constitutes in many centers an important part of the treatment protocol. ABO antibody titration by hemagglutination is guiding the treatment; both if the recipient can be transplanted as well as in cases of suspected rejections if antibody removal should be performed. Despite the overall success of ABO incompatible KTx, there is still room for improvements and an extension of the technology to include other solid organs. Based on an increased understanding of the structural complexity and tissue distribution of ABH antigens and the fine epitope specificity of the ABO antibody repertoire, improved IA matrices and ABO antibody diagnostics should be developed. Furthermore, understanding the molecular mechanisms behind accommodation of ABO incompatible renal allografts could make it possible to induce long-term allograft acceptance also in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitized recipients and, perhaps, also make clinical xenotransplantation possible.

  3. A novel method for ABO genotyping using a DNA chip.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Koichi; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Kaneko, Hiroto; Fukushima, Hisayo; Akutsu, Tomoko; Sakurada, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    ABO genotyping is often performed to identify the blood type of decomposed samples, which is difficult to be determined by a serological test. In this study, we developed a simple method for ABO genotyping using a DNA chip. In this method, polymerase chain reaction-amplified and fluorescent-labeled fragments in the ABO gene and primate-specific D17Z1 were hybridized with DNA probes on a chip designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABO gene and part of the D17Z1 sequence. Using blood samples from 42 volunteers and 10 animal species, we investigated whether the chip could be used to detect SNPs in the ABO gene and the D17Z1 sequence. This method was then applied to various forensic samples, and it was confirmed that this method was suitable for the simultaneous analyses of ABO genotyping and species identification. This method fulfills the recent need for the development of rapid and convenient methods for criminal investigations.

  4. [ABO blood grouping of fingerprint by means of immunohistochemical procedure].

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Ohshima, T; Takayasu, T; Nagano, T; Jia, J

    1993-04-01

    For the purpose of ABO-blood typing on fingerprints, the detection of blood group substances in fingerprints attached on nitrocellulose filter or paper was performed immunohistochemically using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. At first, it was fundamentally tested whether ABO-blood typing could be specifically performed for the fingerprints of known ABO blood group, being made experimentally on nitrocellulose filter or paper, and the effect of fixation and paper quality for the detection was also examined. And, ABO-typing was carried out using transferred fingerprints from a slide glass to a nitrocellulose filter. Moreover, using a fingerprint of unknown ABO-type, serially repetitive blood typing (three times) was compared to individually performed grouping (three tests) after dividing a single fingerprint into three parts. In addition, the method of serial ABO-blood typing after the morphological detection of fingerprints by ninhydrine was also considered. As results, according to primary antibodies applied, ABH activities were specifically detected in the fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter and paper. For the fixation procedure of very minute blood group substances to paper, heat fixation was the most effective and methanol fixation was also available. The intensity of immunostaining of fingerprints decreased according to the deterioration of paper quality used. And, the transferred fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter were also specifically typed. Serially repetitive blood typing (anti-B-->anti-A-->anti-H) was possible to fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter, but it gave poor results to those on paper. To overcome this difficulty, after being detected morphologically by ninhydrine, iodine or aluminium powder and decolored thereafter, a fingerprint on paper was divided into three parts and specific blood typing was possible. As for the double blind test to fingerprints on paper, 22 out of 35 fingerprints were specifically typed and the rate of

  5. ABO-Mismatched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Worel, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative option for a variety of malignant and non-malignant hematological and congenital diseases. Due to the fact that the human leukocyte antigen system is inherited independently of the blood group system, approximately 40-50% of all HSCTs are performed across the ABO blood group barrier. The expected immune-hematological consequences after transplantation of an ABO-mismatched stem cell graft are immediate and delayed hemolytic complications due to presence of isohemagglutinins or passenger lymphocyte syndrome. The risks of these complications can partially be prevented by graft manipulation and appropriate transfusion support. Dependent on the kind of ABO mismatch, different effects on engraftment have been observed, e.g. delayed red blood cell recovery and pure red cell aplasia. Data on incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality, relapse, and overall survival are inconsistent as most studies include limited patient numbers, various graft sources, and different conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis regimens. This makes it difficult to detect a consistent effect of ABO-mismatched transplantation in the literature. However, knowledge of expectable complications and close monitoring of patients helps to detect problems early and to treat patients efficiently, thus reducing the number of fatal or life-threatening events caused by ABO-mismatched HSCT. PMID:27022317

  6. ABO-Incompatible Living Kidney Transplants: Evolution of Outcomes and Immunosuppressive Management.

    PubMed

    Okumi, M; Toki, D; Nozaki, T; Shimizu, T; Shirakawa, H; Omoto, K; Inui, M; Ishida, H; Tanabe, K

    2016-03-01

    ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation (ABO-ILKT) has steadily become more widespread. However, the optimal immunosuppressive regimen for ABO-ILKT remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the longitudinal changes in the outcomes from ABO-ILKT compared with those from ABO-compatible living kidney transplantation (ABO-CLKT) over the last 25 years. Of 1195 patients who underwent living kidney transplantations (LKT) at our institute between 1989 and 2013, 1032-including 247 ABO-ILKT and 785 ABO-CLKT cases-were evaluated for graft survival, patient survival, infectious adverse events, and renal function. The patients were divided into four groups according to the transplantation era and ABO-compatibility. In the past decade, ABO-ILKT and ABO-CLKT recipients yielded almost equivalent outcomes with respect to the 9-year graft survival rates, which were 86.9% and 92.0%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-3.22, p = 0.455). The graft survival rate for ABO-ILKT conducted between 2005 and 2013 was better than that for ABO-ILKT conducted between 1998 and 2004 (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13-0.72, p = 0.007). ABO-ILKT recipients showed substantial improvements in the graft survival rate over time. Graft survival was almost identical over the past decade, regardless of ABO-incompatibility. Currently, ABO-ILKT is an acceptable treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease.

  7. The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Storry, J R; Olsson, M L

    2009-01-01

    The antigens of the ABO system were the first to be recognized as blood groups and actually the first human genetic markers known. Their presence and the realization of naturally occurring antibodies to those antigens lacking from the cells made sense of the erratic failure of blood transfusion hitherto and opened up the possibility of a safe treatment practice in life-threatening blood loss. Although initially apparently simple, the ABO system has come to grow in complexity over the years. The mass of knowledge relating to carbohydrate chemistry, enzymology, molecular genetics, and structural and evolutionary biology is now enormous thanks to more than a century of research using ABO as a principal model. This has provided us with data to form a solid platform of evidence-based transfusion and transplantation medicine used every day in laboratories and clinics around the globe. This review aims to summarize key findings and recent progress made toward further understanding of this surprisingly polymorphic system.

  8. ABO blood group antigens on human plasma von Willebrand factor after ABO-mismatched bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Shimoyama, T; Matsumoto, M; Fujimura, Y; Takemoto, Y; Sako, M; Hamako, J; Titani, K

    1999-10-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is synthesized exclusively by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, and stored in the intracellular granules or constitutively secreted into plasma. ABO blood group antigens are covalently associated with asparagine-linked sugar chains of plasma vWF. The effect of ABO-mismatched bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or blood stem cell transplantation (BSCT) on the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the vWF was examined to obtain information on the origin of these antigens. In ABO-mismatched (HLA-matched) groups, 8 cases of BMT and 4 cases of BSCT were examined. In all cases, the ABO blood groups on red blood cells were gradually converted to the donor's type within 80 to 90 days after the transplantation. The blood group antigens on the vWF were consistent with the recipient's blood group for the period monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). When vWF was isolated from normal platelets and examined for the blood group antigens using ELISA or immunoblotting, it showed few antigens. However, vWF extracted from veins expressed blood group antigens. These findings indicate that platelet (megakaryocyte)-derived vWF does not contain blood group antigens and that these antigens may be specifically associated with vWF synthesized in endothelial cells and secreted into plasma. Furthermore, it is possible that the persistence of the recipient's blood group antigens on plasma glycoproteins such as vWF, independent of the donor-derived erythrocytes, after ABO-mismatched stem cell transplantation, may influence the immunological system in the production of anti-blood group antibodies resulting in the establishment of immunological tolerance in the recipient plasma.

  9. Genetic characterization of the ABO blood group in Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The high polymorphism rate in the human ABO blood group gene seems to be related to susceptibility to different pathogens. It has been estimated that all genetic variation underlying the human ABO alleles appeared along the human lineage, after the divergence from the chimpanzee lineage. A paleogenetic analysis of the ABO blood group gene in Neandertals allows us to directly test for the presence of the ABO alleles in these extinct humans. Results We have analysed two male Neandertals that were retrieved under controlled conditions at the El Sidron site in Asturias (Spain) and that appeared to be almost free of modern human DNA contamination. We find a human specific diagnostic deletion for blood group O (O01 haplotype) in both Neandertal individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that the genetic change responsible for the O blood group in humans predates the human and Neandertal divergence. A potential selective event associated with the emergence of the O allele may have therefore occurred after humans separated from their common ancestor with chimpanzees and before the human-Neandertal population divergence. PMID:19108732

  10. Discontinuation of steroids in ABO-incompatible renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Novosel, Marija Kristina; Bistrup, Claus

    2016-04-01

    A steroid-free protocol for ABO-compatible renal transplantation has been used at our center since 1983. To minimize the adverse effects of steroids, we also developed a steroid sparing protocol for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in 2008. The present study is a report of our results. A retrospective review of the first 50 ABO-incompatible renal transplantations performed at a single university center. If no immunological events occurred in the post-transplant period, prednisolone tapering was initiated approximately 3 months after transplantation. Forty-three patients completed prednisolone tapering after 289 ± 58 days. Three patients died during follow-up, and four patients lost graft function. None of these adverse events were rejection related. Eleven patients experienced rejections; seven were on prednisolone and four were after weaning from prednisolone. All patients responded well to antirejection treatment. Overall, 1-year rejection rate was 19%. One- and 3-year graft survival was 94% and 91%, respectively. One-year post-transplant median serum creatinine was 123 μmol/L. We found acceptable rejection rates, graft survival, and creatinine levels in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible renal transplantations with a steroid sparing protocol. However, a longer follow-up of a lager cohort is needed before firm conclusions can be made.

  11. The histo-blood group ABO system and tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Eastlund, T

    1998-10-01

    In general, one might expect that ABO incompatibility of donor and recipient would be important to some degree if viability of the transplanted allograft is important for graft incorporation and function. This is true for some recipients of organs. However, ABO incompatibility appears to play a minor role, if any, in the clinical success of viable cornea and viable skin allografts. Even though A and B antigens may be present on the transplanted tissue, other factors that can contribute include the strength of the immune response, the avidity of the antibody, and the dose of the antigen presented, which may vary from donor to donor. Although A and B antigens are present on endothelium, the use of ABO-incompatible heart valves is successful, as they carry out their mechanical function by using the strength of the connective tissue rather than the viability of the donor endothelium. The presence, immunogenicity, and significance of A and B antigens in human vessel transplants have not been well studied. With the more commonly transplanted tissue, such as bone and tendon, posttransplant success does not depend on cellular viability or ABO compatibility.

  12. Plasma exchange conditioning for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Winters, J L; Gloor, J M; Pineda, A A; Stegall, M D; Moore, S B

    2004-01-01

    The supply of deceased donor kidneys is inadequate to meet demand. To expand the pool of potential donors, ABO-incompatible transplants from living donors have been performed. We present the Mayo Clinic experience with such transplants. Enrollment was open to patients when the only available potential living kidney donor was ABO-incompatible. Conditioning consisted of plasma exchanges followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Splenectomy was performed at the time of transplant surgery. Post-transplant immunosuppression consisted of anti-T lymphocyte antibody, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Isoagglutinin titers and scores were determined before and after each plasma exchange. Transplant outcomes were determined. Twenty-six ABO-incompatible transplants were performed. No hyperacute rejection occurred. Mean patient follow-up was 400 days. Patient and graft survivals at last follow-up were 92 and 85%, respectively. Antibody-mediated rejection occurred in 46% and was apparently reversed in 83% by plasma exchange and increased immunosuppression. The initial plasma exchange reduced immediate spin and AHG hemagglutination reactivity scores by 53.5 and 34.6%, respectively. Over the course of the pretransplant plasma exchanges, the immediate spin and AHG hemagglutination reactivity scores decreased by 96.4 and 68.5%, respectively. At 3 and 12 months, the immediate spin and AHG hemagglutinin reactivity scores and titers were less than those at baseline but greater than or equal to those on the day of transplantation. Despite an increase in scores and titers, antibody-mediated rejection was not present. Pre-transplant plasma exchange conditioning combined with other immunosuppressives can be used to prepare patients for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation from living donors, but antibody-mediated rejection post-transplant is a common occurrence and allograft survival may be reduced. Controlled clinical trials are needed to identify the optimum

  13. Significance of isoagglutinin titer in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Won, Dahae; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Hee-jung; Kwon, Seog-Woon; Han, Duck-Jong; Park, Su-Kil

    2014-10-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) kidney transplantation (KT) has emerged for overcoming the shortage of organ donors. Although this technique initially achieved only low graft survival due to isoagglutinin, recently developed desensitization protocols have improved survival to levels that are comparable to ABO-compatible KT. However, isoagglutinin is still regarded as a major obstacle to ABO-i KT. In this study, we evaluate the impact of isoagglutinin titer on clinical outcomes as well as factors that may influence isoagglutinin titers. In total, data from 95 patients who underwent ABO-i KT were analyzed. Preoperatively, rituximab administration and plasmapheresis were performed until the titer was reduced to ≤1:4. Retrospective analysis included blood group; timing and dosage of rituximab; isoagglutinin titer; number of plasmapheresis; and clinical outcomes including graft survival and serum creatinine. Graft survival was 95.8% (n = 91) and average serum creatinine at 1- and 1.5-year post-ABOi-KT was 1.3. Three patients died of sepsis. The identified predictors of titer-rebound after transplant were short interval (<7 days) between rituximab and first plasmapheresis (P = 0.004); high initial titer (≥256) (P = 0.023); low titer-reduction rate (P < 0.001); and blood group O (P < 0.001). One patient who experienced a rebound developed antibody-mediated rejection. With low-dose (200 mg) rituximab, the change in isoagglutinin titer-rebound was not significant and the infection rate was significantly decreased (P = 0.001). In conclusion, isoagglutinin titer-rebound within the first 2 weeks after KT may be a risk factor for rejection. The factors identified as affecting titer-rebound after KT were high initial isoagglutinin titer, low titer-reduction rate, short interval, and blood group O.

  14. Crosstalk between ABO and Forssman (FORS) blood group systems: FORS1 antigen synthesis by ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A and B alleles at the ABO genetic locus specify A and B glycosyltransferases that catalyze the biosynthesis of A and B oligosaccharide antigens, respectively, of blood group ABO system which is important in transfusion and transplantation medicine. GBGT1 gene encodes Forssman glycolipid synthase (FS), another glycosyltransferase that produces Forssman antigen (FORS1). Humans are considered to be Forssman antigen-negative species without functional FS. However, rare individuals exhibiting Apae phenotype carry a dominant active GBGT1 gene and express Forssman antigen on RBCs. Accordingly, FORS system was recognized as the 31st blood group system. Mouse ABO gene encodes a cis-AB transferase capable of producing both A and B antigens. This murine enzyme contains the same GlyGlyAla tripeptide sequence as FSs at the position important for the determination of sugar specificity. We, therefore, transfected the expression construct into appropriate recipient cells and examined whether mouse cis-AB transferase may also exhibit FS activity. The result was positive, confirming the crosstalk between the ABO and FORS systems. Further experiments have revealed that the introduction of this tripeptide sequence to human A transferase conferred some, although weak, FS activity, suggesting that it is also involved in the recognition/binding of acceptor substrates, in addition to donor nucleotide-sugars. PMID:28134301

  15. Abo Formation alluvial facies and Associated Basin Fill, Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, S.W.

    1986-03-01

    Outcrops of the Abo Formation (Wolfcampian to early Leonardian age) in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New Mexico record the evolution of a dry alluvial fan system as it was deposited off the pedernal uplift into the Orogrande basin. The location and orientation of present-day outcrops allow us to observe an inferred east-to-west transverse facies tract consisting of: (1) proximal alluvial fans (lower Abo), which are contiguous in places with underlying Laborcita Formation fan-deltaic sediments; (2) medial anastomosed streams (middle Abo); and (3) distal low-gradient mud-dominated flood basins characterized by either distributary streams (upper Abo) or clastic tidal flats (Lee Ranch Tongue of the Abo) with associated marine carbonates (Pendejo Tongue of the Hueco Formation). Tectonism in the Pedernal highlands, which climaxed during the Late Pennsylvanian, apparently continued well into the Wolfcampian in this region, as evidenced by a major basal Abo unconformity and distinct stacked megasequences of lower Abo alluvial fan lithofacies. However, by the middle Abo, tectonic activity had quiesced and the uplift began eroding and retreating to the north and east. By the late Abo, a pediment surface had formed that was subsequently onlapped by upper Abo and eventually Yeso Formation sediments.

  16. Is ABO mismatch another risk factor for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric thalassemic patients?

    PubMed

    Atay, Didem; Erbey, Fatih; Akcay, Arzu; Ozturk, Gulyuz

    2015-09-01

    The ABO incompatibility between donor and recipient is not considered a barrier to successful allogeneic HSCT. Nevertheless, conflicting data still exist about the influence of ABO incompatibility on transplant outcome in pediatric patients with thalassemia. Fifty-one children with beta-thalassemia major who underwent allogeneic HSCT were enrolled this study. Twenty-three of them (45%) received an ABO-incompatible transplant [minor ABO mismatch: six (26%), major ABO mismatch: fourteen (61%), and bidirectional mismatch: three (13%)]. In this study, ABO incompatibility did not significantly impair GVHD, VOD, neutrophil and platelet engraftment, TRM, OS and TFS. Particularly in major and bidirectional ABO-mismatched patients, a delayed erythroid recovery was recorded as compared to the group receiving an ABO-compatible graft (median time, 31 and 38 days vs. 19.5 days; p: 0.02 and p: 0.03). Median time to red cell transfusion independence was significantly longer in major ABO-incompatible patients (median time, 87 days vs. 32 days; p: 0.001). Therefore, whenever feasible, major ABO-mismatched donors should be avoided in HSCT recipients, to prevent delayed erythroid recovery with prolonged RBC transfusion needs and impaired quality of life.

  17. Determination of ABO genotypes by real-time PCR using allele-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Muro, Tomonori; Fujihara, Junko; Imamura, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kimura-Kataoka, Kaori; Toga, Tomoko; Iida, Reiko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Takeshita, Haruo

    2012-01-01

    ABO grouping of biological specimens is informative for identifying victims and narrowing down suspects. In Japan and elsewhere, ABO grouping as well as DNA profiling plays an essential role in crime investigations. In the present study, we developed a new method for ABO genotyping using allele-specific primers and real-time PCR. The method allows for the detection of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nucleotide positions 261, 796, and 803 in the ABO gene and the determination of six major ABO genotypes. This method required less than 2 h for accurate ABO genotyping using 2.0 ng of DNA. This method could be applicable for rapid and simple screening of forensic samples.

  18. Immunohematologic complications of ABO-unmatched liver transplants.

    PubMed

    Triulzi, D J; Shirey, R S; Ness, P M; Klein, A S

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of ABO-unmatched livers has been associated with the development of donor-derived antibody (DDAb) and hemolysis. Nine (22%) of 41 consecutive patients undergoing liver transplantation at our institution received 10 ABO-unmatched livers. Five (56%) of nine patients developed DDAbs and hemolysis. All five patients were group A1 and received group O livers. DDAbs appeared a mean of 9.2 +/- 2.8 (1 SD) days after surgery and persisted for 15.2 +/- 10.3 days. All patients with DDAbs developed hemolysis. During the period when DDAbs were demonstrable, the hemoglobin dropped by a mean of 4.8 g per dL (48 g/L), and the patients were transfused with a mean of 7.8 +/- 2.3 units of group O red cells. One patient with hemolysis underwent exchange transfusion for acute renal failure. Patients with hemolysis required significantly more red cells postoperatively (15.0 vs. 6.9 units, p = 0.04) than did ABO-matched patients. None of the parameters examined (age, recipient or donor gender, secretor status, rejection, or donor isoagglutinin titers) were predictive of DDAb or hemolysis, although hemolysis occurred in three of four cases in which donor serum IgG anti-A titers were > or = 128, as opposed to one of four cases in which titers were < 128. Because recipients of ABO-unmatched livers are at high risk for transiently developing DDAb and hemolysis with associated morbidity, the prophylactic use of donor-type red cells for surgery and after operation is justified.

  19. Structural Insight into Polymorphic ABO Glycan Binding by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Moonens, Kristof; Gideonsson, Pär; Subedi, Suresh; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Romaõ, Ema; Mendez, Melissa; Nordén, Jenny; Fallah, Mahsa; Rakhimova, Lena; Shevtsova, Anna; Lahmann, Martina; Castaldo, Gaetano; Brännström, Kristoffer; Coppens, Fanny; Lo, Alvin W.; Ny, Tor; Solnick, Jay V.; Vandenbussche, Guy; Oscarson, Stefan; Hammarström, Lennart; Arnqvist, Anna; Berg, Douglas E.; Muyldermans, Serge; Borén, Thomas; Remaut, Han

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA binds mucosal ABO/Leb blood group (bg) carbohydrates. BabA facilitates bacterial attachment to gastric surfaces, increasing strain virulence and forming a recognized risk factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. High sequence variation causes BabA functional diversity, but the underlying structural-molecular determinants are unknown. We generated X-ray structures of representative BabA isoforms that reveal a polymorphic, three-pronged Leb binding site. Two diversity loops, DL1 and DL2, provide adaptive control to binding affinity, notably ABO versus O bg preference. H. pylori strains can switch bg preference with single DL1 amino acid substitutions, and can coexpress functionally divergent BabA isoforms. The anchor point for receptor binding is the embrace of an ABO fucose residue by a disulfide-clasped loop, which is inactivated by reduction. Treatment with the redox-active pharmaceutic N-acetylcysteine lowers gastric mucosal neutrophil infiltration in H. pylori-infected Leb-expressing mice, providing perspectives on possible H. pylori eradication therapies. PMID:26764597

  20. Structural Insights into Polymorphic ABO Glycan Binding by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Gideonsson, Pär; Subedi, Suresh; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Romaõ, Ema; Mendez, Melissa; Nordén, Jenny; Fallah, Mahsa; Rakhimova, Lena; Shevtsova, Anna; Lahmann, Martina; Castaldo, Gaetano; Brännström, Kristoffer; Coppens, Fanny; Lo, Alvin W; Ny, Tor; Solnick, Jay V; Vandenbussche, Guy; Oscarson, Stefan; Hammarström, Lennart; Arnqvist, Anna; Berg, Douglas E; Muyldermans, Serge; Borén, Thomas; Remaut, Han

    2016-01-13

    The Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA binds mucosal ABO/Le(b) blood group (bg) carbohydrates. BabA facilitates bacterial attachment to gastric surfaces, increasing strain virulence and forming a recognized risk factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. High sequence variation causes BabA functional diversity, but the underlying structural-molecular determinants are unknown. We generated X-ray structures of representative BabA isoforms that reveal a polymorphic, three-pronged Le(b) binding site. Two diversity loops, DL1 and DL2, provide adaptive control to binding affinity, notably ABO versus O bg preference. H. pylori strains can switch bg preference with single DL1 amino acid substitutions, and can coexpress functionally divergent BabA isoforms. The anchor point for receptor binding is the embrace of an ABO fucose residue by a disulfide-clasped loop, which is inactivated by reduction. Treatment with the redox-active pharmaceutic N-acetylcysteine lowers gastric mucosal neutrophil infiltration in H. pylori-infected Le(b)-expressing mice, providing perspectives on possible H. pylori eradication therapies.

  1. Genetical study of mutation in maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong-qing; Hu, Feng-lan; Cheng, Qiong; Hao, Jian-hua; Zhang, Jian-hua; Lin, Xue-na; Zheng, Bao; Fa, Ping-ping; Yu, Su-yan; Hu, Li-hua

    2015-04-01

    This study looked into a family involving a rare mother-child ABO blood type inconsistency and explored its genetic and molecular basis. In the family, the mother had type AB blood and the father was blood type B and they gave birth to a baby of blood type O. Their blood types were phenotypically identified by using different techniques, including micro-column gel test, immune inhibition test, absorption and elution tests. The sequences of all 7 exons of ABO allele from the core family members were determined by using PCR and clone-based sequencing. The loci of mutated gene were compared against normal human genes. The result showed that the mother's erythrocytes were agglutinable with monoclonal anti-A antibody (2+) and had agglutination reaction with anti-B antibody (4+). The mother's serum registered agglutination action with standard blood type A cells. The findings showed an ABO inconsistency. When domestic antibodies were used, the mother's erythrocytes yielded agglutination reaction with humanized anti-B serum (4+) and anti-B monoclonal antibody but were non-agglutinable with humanized anti-A serum and anti-A monoclonal antibody. Upon absorption and elution, the titer of anit-A antibody was 128 both before and after the absorption test, with no significant difference found between pre- and post-absorption values. Our results confirmed that the mother's allelic gene was type B and contained type A. The father's blood type was type B, and son's blood type was type O. Clone-based sequencing revealed that the mother carried a heterozygous gene of B101.01 (ntA640→G)/O01, which contained an M214→V mutation that could express a weak expression of antigen A, resulting in blood type AB. However, their son did not have the M214→V mutation, which yielded a false ABO-inconsistency between him and his mother. We were led to conclude that type B gene with a M214→V mutation can encode both antigen B and weak antigen B that can lead to false ABO-inconsistencies.

  2. The Mechanism of Allelic Competition in the ABO 547G>A Mutant is Associated with Decreased Activity of Glycosyltransferase B.

    PubMed

    Park, Geon; Cho, Yong Gon

    2016-01-01

    The 547G>A polymorphism demonstrates significant allelic competition in people who harbor the B306 allele. We have performed the full sequencing of ABO gene in family members and measured their serum glycosyltransferase activity for demonstrating the cause of allelic competition. Genetic study including two regulatory regions and exon 1, and exons 2-7 of ABO gene demonstrated c.547G>A in exon 7 of the proband and her second son. The ABO genotype of the proband, husband, first son, and other son was ABO*A102/ABO*B306, ABO*A105/ABO*O02, ABO*A102/ABO*O02, and ABO*B306/ABO*O02 respectively. Serum glycosyltransferse B activity in the proband and her second son was lower than in normal B controls. We infer that allelic competition in the the 547G>A carrying individuals is associated with reduced activity of glycosyltransferase B.

  3. The Classroom-Friendly ABO Blood Types Kit: Blood Agglutination Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Savittree Rochanasmita; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Dahsah, Chanyah; Suwanjinda, Duongdearn

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-friendly ABO blood type kit was developed by combining advantages of modelling and a simulation laboratory to teach the topics of ABO blood types and blood transfusion. Teachers can easily simulate the agglutination reaction on a blood type testing plate in the classroom, and show the students how this reaction occurs by using the…

  4. [Quality control for ABO blood group typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan-Ting; Liang, Xiao-Lan; Han, Jun-Ling; Li, Qian; Qiu, Lu-Gui; Yu, Li-Jia; Sun, Le-Jing; DU, Ying

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate a quality control method for ABO typing of neonatal umbilical cord blood(UCB). The routine serology method was used to identify the ABO type of UCB samples. These samples with questions were further detected by sequence specific primer PCR (PCR-SSP). The results showed that among total of 76120 UCB samples identified by positive ABO typing, there were 78 samples (1 per thousand) which could not be determined. Of these 78 samples, 30 (56.92%) samples with a weak agglutination reaction were excluded by reverse ABO typing. Out of 260 samples in reverse ABO typing, 148 samples were consistent with positive ABO typing, 112 samples (43.08%) were inconsistent with the positive ABO typing. 58 undetermined samples were detected by PCR-SSP. Out of them the genotyping results of 45 samples confirmed the serological typing, the phenotyping results in 3 cases were inconsistent to that of genotyping. 10 cases showed the unconformity between positive and reverse typing, but the genotyping results were fully consistent with the positive typing. In conclusion, positive typing for red cell antigens combined with PCR-SSP is efficient and sensitive for quality control of ABO typing for neonatal UCB.

  5. A simple ABO genotyping by PCR using sequence-specific primers with mismatched nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Taki, Takashi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    In forensics, the specific ABO blood group is often determined by analyzing the ABO gene. Among various methods used, PCR employing sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) is simpler than other methods for ABO typing. When performing the PCR-SSP, the pseudo-positive signals often lead to errors in ABO typing. We introduced mismatched nucleotides at the second and the third positions from the 3'-end of the primers for the PCR-SSP method and examined whether reliable typing could be achieved by suppressing pseudo-positive signals. Genomic DNA was extracted from nail clippings of 27 volunteers, and the ABO gene was examined with PCR-SSP employing primers with and without mismatched nucleotides. The ABO blood group of the nail clippings was also analyzed serologically, and these results were compared with those obtained using PCR-SSP. When mismatched primers were employed for amplification, the results of the ABO typing matched with those obtained by the serological method. When primers without mismatched nucleotides were used for PCR-SSP, pseudo-positive signals were observed. Thus our method may be used for achieving more reliable ABO typing.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-positive multiple myeloma following an ABO incompatible second renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kirushnan, B.; Subbarao, B.; Prabhu, P.

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatible kidney transplant recipients receive higher dose of immunosuppression. Previous data indicate that the incidence of malignancy is not higher in these patients. Compared to the general population, renal transplant recipients are at 4.4-fold higher risk of developing myeloma. We describe a case of posttransplant multiple myeloma in an ABO incompatible renal transplant recipient of a second graft. PMID:27512301

  7. Risk factor for ischemic-type biliary lesion after ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jun Bae; Kim, Bong-Wan; Kim, Young Bae; Wang, Hee-Jung; Lee, Hyun Yeong; Sim, Joohyun; Kim, Taegyu; Lee, Kyeong Lok; Hu, Xu-Guang; Mao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the risk factors for ischemic-type biliary lesion (ITBL) after ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). METHODS: Among 141 ALDLTs performed in our hospital between 2008 and 2014, 27 (19%) were ABO-I ALDLT and 114 were ABO-identical/compatible ALDLT. In this study, we extensively analyzed the clinico-pathological data of the 27 ABO-I recipients to determine the risk factors for ITBL after ABO-I ALDLT. All ABO-I ALDLT recipients underwent an identical B-cell depletion protocol with preoperative rituximab, plasma exchange (PE), and operative splenectomy. The median follow-up period after transplantation was 26 mo. The clinical outcomes of the 27 ABO-I ALDLT recipients were compared with those of 114 ABO-identical/compatible ALDLT recipients. RESULTS: ITBL occurred in four recipients (14.8%) between 45 and 112 d after ABO-I ALDLT. The overall survival rates were not different between ABO-I ALDLT and ABO-identical/compatible ALDLT (P = 0.303). Among the ABO-I ALDLT recipients, there was no difference between patients with ITBL and those without ITBL in terms of B-cell and T-cell count, serum isoagglutinin titers, number of PEs, operative time and transfusion, use of graft infusion therapy, or number of remnant B-cell follicles and plasma cells in the spleen. However, the perioperative NK cell counts in the blood of patients with ITBL were significantly higher than those in the patients without ITBL (P < 0.05). Preoperative NK cell count > 150/μL and postoperative NK cell count > 120/μL were associated with greater relative risks (RR) for development of ITBL (RR = 20 and 14.3, respectively, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High NK cell counts in a transplant recipient’s blood are associated with ITBL after ABO-I ALDLT. Further research is needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of NK cell involvement in the development of ITBL. PMID:27570428

  8. Possible role of ABO system in age-related diseases and longevity: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Claudia; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    ABO blood group antigens are expressed either on the surface of red blood cells either on a variety of other cells. Based on the available knowledge of the genes involved in their biosynthesis and their tissue distribution, their polymorphism has been suggested to provide intraspecies diversity allowing to cope with diverse and rapidly evolving pathogens. Accordingly, the different prevalence of ABO group genotypes among the populations has been demonstrated to be driven by malaria selection. In the similar manner, a particular ABO blood group may contribute to favour life-extension via biological mechanisms important for surviving or eluding serious disease. In this review, we will suggest the possible association of ABO group with age-related diseases and longevity taking into account the biological role of the ABO glycosyltransferases on some inflammatory mediators as adhesion molecules.

  9. Impact of ABO incompatible kidney transplantation on living donor transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an important approach for overcoming donor shortages. We evaluated the effect of ABOi-KT on living donor KT. Methods Two nationwide transplantation databases were used. We evaluated the impact of ABOi-KT on overall living donor transplant activity and spousal donation as subgroup analysis. In addition, we compared the clinical outcome between ABOi-KT and ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT) from spousal donor, and performed a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to define the risk factors affecting the allograft outcomes. Result The introduction of ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT by 12.2% and its portion was increased from 0.3% to 21.7% during study period. The ABOi-KT in living unrelated KT was two times higher than that of living related donor KT (17.8 vs.9.8%). Spousal donor was a major portion of living unrelated KT (77.6%) and ABOi-KT increased spousal donation from 10% to 31.5% in living donor KT. In addition, increasing rate ABOi-KT from spousal donor was 10 times higher than that of living related donor. The clinical outcome (incidence of acute rejection, allograft function, and allograft and patient survival rates) of ABOi-KT from spousal donor was comparable to that of ABOc-KT. Neither ABO incompatibility nor spousal donor was associated with acute rejection or allograft failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusions ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT, and ABOi-KT from spousal donor is rapidly increasing with favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:28323892

  10. Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) Science Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; McInerney, M.; Webster, W. P.; Sinno, S.; Thompson, J. H.; Griffith, P. C.; Hoy, E.; Carroll, M.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of climate change are being revealed at alarming rates in the Arctic and Boreal regions of the planet. NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program has launched a major field campaign to study these effects over the next 5 to 8 years. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) will challenge scientists to take measurements in the field, study remote observations, and even run models to better understand the impacts of a rapidly changing climate for areas of Alaska and western Canada. The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has partnered with the Terrestrial Ecology Program to create a science cloud designed for this field campaign - the ABoVE Science Cloud. The cloud combines traditional high performance computing with emerging technologies to create an environment specifically designed for large-scale climate analytics. The ABoVE Science Cloud utilizes (1) virtualized high-speed InfiniBand networks, (2) a combination of high-performance file systems and object storage, and (3) virtual system environments tailored for data intensive, science applications. At the center of the architecture is a large object storage environment, much like a traditional high-performance file system, that supports data proximal processing using technologies like MapReduce on a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Surrounding the storage is a cloud of high performance compute resources with many processing cores and large memory coupled to the storage through an InfiniBand network. Virtual systems can be tailored to a specific scientist and provisioned on the compute resources with extremely high-speed network connectivity to the storage and to other virtual systems. In this talk, we will present the architectural components of the science cloud and examples of how it is being used to meet the needs of the ABoVE campaign. In our experience, the science cloud approach significantly lowers the barriers and risks to organizations

  11. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  12. Coagulation parameters of ABO group-specific cryosupernatant.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, G S; Hoffman, S M; Williams, E C

    1998-04-01

    Patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura that is refractory to conventional fresh frozen plasma (FFP) exchange therapy are sometimes switched to cryosupernatant as the replacement fluid, although its hemostatic properties are not well defined. We performed several key coagulation assays on three pools of four units from each of three ABO groups of cryosupernatant and FFP. Fibrinogen, factor VIII activity, and von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag) levels were all significantly lower in cryosupernatant compared with FFP, although at levels usually not considered clinically significant. We confirmed that group O FFP contained significantly less factor VIII activity and vWF:Ag compared with groups AB and B. In contrast to FFP, group AB cryosupernatant contained lower levels of fibrinogen, factor V activity, factor VIII activity, and vWF:Ag than groups O or B. Group AB cryosupernatant, with the lowest levels of vWF:Ag and universal ABO compatibility, may be the product of choice for refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

  13. ABO genotyping by PCR-RFLP and cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Haak, Wolfgang; Burger, Joachim; Alt, Kurt Werner

    2004-12-01

    A refined PCR-RFLP based method was established to genotype ABO blood groups. The main objective of this study was to make the techniques also suitable for working with degraded DNA. Specific primer design was carried out to choose fragments shorter than 200 bp as necessary in forensic and archaeological applications. Four fragments of exon 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were amplified and digested by in total 7 restriction endonucleases. Particular attention was paid to the base changes at nucleotide positions 261(delG), 297, 526, 703, 721, 771, 796 and 1060(delC) in order to distinguish the six common alleles A101, A201, B, O01, O02 and O03. Furthermore, this method also enables determination of seven of the less frequent alleles: A104, A204, Ax02, Ax03, O05, O06 and O07. The method was applied successfully to a series of blood samples with known phenotypes and genotypes as well as DNA extracted from a thirty year old blood stain and an ancient tooth sample. However, working with ancient DNA requires additional cloning and sequencing of the RFLP-typing results due to DNA post mortem damages such as deaminations, which could lead to false typing results.

  14. ABO reverse grouping: effect of varying concentrations of the enzyme bromelain.

    PubMed

    Rookard, L E; Edmondson, O; Greenwell, P

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes can be extremely useful for the identification of clinically significant antibodies in blood grouping; however, they can also be destructive to certain agglutination reactions. ABO antibodies are the most clinically significant. A review of the literature reveals little research involving proteolytic enzymes and IgM antibodies. This study investigates the effects of various concentrations of the proteolytic enzyme bromelain on the agglutination of reagent A1 and B cells with donor plasma during ABO reverse grouping on the Olympus PK 7300 automated serology analyser. The optimum bromelain concentration improved or enhanced antigen-antibody reactions, causing a reduction in ABO failures. The results were analysed using an ANOVA test. An anomalous result was obtained at 0% bromelain where less ABO failures were generated than expected. Although most results were not statistically significant, the optimum bromelain concentration for ABO reverse grouping indicated was 0.25%. This work also highlighted the fact that ABO failures can be attributed to other factors such as sensitivity of reagent cells and antibody avidity. This study identified limitations and problems with the methods used and presents recommendations for future research which may assist in the clarification of the role of proteolytic enzymes in ABO reverse grouping.

  15. ABO compatibility can influence the results of platelet transfusion. Results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, E J; Schiffer, C A

    1989-06-01

    Sixty consecutive patients with untreated acute leukemia alternately received either ABO-matched or ABO-mismatched random-donor platelet transfusions prepared from pooled platelet concentrate stored for 1 to 3 days. Patients were assigned randomly to receive matched or mismatched platelets as their first transfusion, and the first four transfusions were analyzed. In 40 evaluable patients, there was no significant difference (paired t test) between the 10-minute posttransfusion corrected count increments (CCI) of the initial transfusions of matched and mismatched platelets. In contrast, the second matched transfusion was significantly better than the second mismatched transfusion. This effect of ABO compatibility was particularly pronounced in a subset of patients. Six patients in whom mismatched transfusions were consistently inferior to matched transfusions had either a significant increase in anti-A or -B isoagglutinin titers following the first transfusion or elevated titers before or at the conclusion of the study. Conversely, in five patients in whom there was no apparent effect of ABO mismatching, only one had an increase in isoagglutinin titer. Platelet survival was not altered as the ratio of 18-hour to 10-minute posttransfusion CCl was 0.6 for both matched and mismatched platelet transfusions. These data demonstrate that ABO compatibility can affect the results of random-donor platelet transfusions and that patients who experience poor increments from ABO-mismatched platelets may benefit from a trial of ABO-compatible platelets before the initiation of HLA-matched platelet transfusion.

  16. Early post-transplant complications following ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Naciri Bennani, Hamza; Abdulrahman, Zhyiar; Allal, Asma; Sallusto, Federico; Delarche, Antoine; Game, Xavier; Esposito, Laure; Doumerc, Nicolas; Debiol, Bénédicte; Kamar, Nassim; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Living-kidney transplantation is increasing because of the scarcity of kidneys from deceased donors and the increasing numbers of patients on waiting lists for a kidney transplant. Living-kidney transplantation is now associated with increased long-term patient- and allograft-survival rates. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify, in a cohort of 44 ABO-incompatible (ABOi) live-kidney transplant patients, the main complications that occurred within 6 months post-transplantation, and to compare these findings with those from 44 matched ABO-compatible (ABOc) live-kidney transplant patients who were also from our center. Patients and Methods: This single-center retrospective study assessed post-transplantation complications in 44 ABO-i versus 44 matched ABO-c patients. All patients were comparable at baseline except that ABO-i patients had greater immunological risks. Results: During the 6-month post-transplant period, more ABO-i patients presented with postoperative bleeds, thus requiring significantly more blood transfusions. Bleeds were associated with significantly lower values of fibrinogen, platelets, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin levels. Surgical complications, patient- and graft-survival rates, and kidney-function statuses were similar between both groups at 6 months post-transplantation. Conclusions: We conclude that impairment of hemostatic factors at pre-transplant explained the increased risk of a post-transplant bleed in ABO-i patients. PMID:27047806

  17. Impact of ABO blood group mismatch in alemtuzumab-based reduced-intensity conditioned haematopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Brierley, C K; Littlewood, T J; Peniket, A J; Gregg, R; Ward, J; Clark, A; Parker, A; Malladi, R; Medd, P

    2015-07-01

    The impact of ABO incompatibility on clinical outcomes following haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) remains controversial. This retrospective study assessed the effect of ABO mismatch on transplant outcomes and transfusion requirements in 594 patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioned (RIC) HSCT with alemtuzumab in three UK transplant centres. We found no significant effects of minor, major or bidirectional ABO mismatch on overall survival, relapse-free survival, nonrelapse mortality or relapse incidence. Although the rate of acute GVHD was unaffected by ABO mismatch, the incidence of extensive chronic GVHD was higher in patients with minor and major mismatch compared with those who were ABO matched (hazard ratio (HR) 1.74, P=0.032 for minor, HR 1.69 P=0.0036 for major mismatch). Red cell and platelet transfusion requirements in the first 100 days post transplant did not differ by ABO mismatch. In this large UK series, ABO mismatch in RIC HSCT has no clinically significant effect on survival outcomes but appears to modify susceptibility to extensive chronic GVHD.

  18. ABO desensitization affects cellular immunity and infection control after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schachtner, Thomas; Stein, Maik; Reinke, Petra

    2015-10-01

    The impact of ABO desensitization on overall immunity, infectious control, and alloreactivity remains unknown. We compared 35 ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) to a control of 62 ABO compatible KTRs. Samples were collected before, at +1, +2, +3, +6, and +12 months post-transplantation. CMV-, BKV-specific, and alloreactive T cells were measured using an interferon-γ ELISPOT assay. The extent of immunosuppression was quantified by enumeration of lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokines. No differences were observed for 5-year allograft survival and function between both groups (P > 0.05). However, ABO-incompatible KTRs were more likely to develop CMV infection, BKV-associated nephropathy, and severe sepsis (P = 0.001). Interestingly, ABO-incompatible KTRs with poor HLA-match showed the highest rates of infections and inferior allograft function (P < 0.05). CD3+, CD4+ T-cell counts, interferon-γ and IL-10 levels were lower in ABO-incompatible KTRs early post-transplantation (P < 0.05). Likewise, ABO-incompatible KTRs showed impaired BKV- and CMV-specific T-cell immunity (P < 0.05). ABO-incompatible KTRs showed lower frequencies of alloreactive T cells (P < 0.05). Our data suggest T-cell depletion due to ABO desensitization, which may contribute to the increased risk of T-cell-dependent infections. Elimination of B cells serving as antigen-presenting cells, thereby causing impaired T-cell activation, plays a significant role in both impaired infection control and reduced alloreactive T-cell activation.

  19. First Principles Studies of ABO3 Perovskite Surfaces and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam

    Perovskite-type complex oxides, with general formula ABO 3, constitute one of the most prominent classes of metal oxides which finds key applications in diverse technological fields. In recent years, properties of perovskites at reduced dimensions have aroused considerable interest. However, a complete atomic-level understanding of various phenomena is yet to emerge. To fully exploit the materials opportunities provided by nano-structured perovskites, it is important to characterize and understand their bulk and near-surface electronic structure along with the electric, magnetic, elastic and chemical properties of these materials in the nano-regime, where surface and interface effects naturally play a dominant role. In this thesis, state-of-the-art first principles computations are employed to systematically study properties of one- and two-dimensional perovskite systems which are of direct technological significance. Specifically, our bifocal study targets (1) polarization behavior and dielectric response of ABO3 ferroelectric nanowires, and (2) oxygen chemistry relevant for catalytic properties of ABO3 surfaces. In the first strand, we identify presence of novel closure or vortex-like polarization domains in PbTIO3 and BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanowires and explore ways to control the polarization configurations by means of strain and surface chemistry in these prototypical model systems. The intrinsic tendency towards vortex polarization at reduced dimensions and the underlying driving forces are discussed and previously unknown strain induced phase transitions are identified. Furthermore, to compute the dielectric permittivity of nanostructures, a new multiscale model is developed and applied to the PbTiO3 nanowires with conventional and vortex-like polarization configurations. The second part of the work undertaken in this thesis is comprised of a number of ab initio surface studies, targeted to investigate the effects of surface terminations, prevailing chemical

  20. Current experience with renal transplantation across the ABO barrier.

    PubMed

    Nelson, P W; Helling, T S; Shield, C F; Beck, M; Bryan, C F

    1992-11-01

    Solid organ transplantation has traditionally been governed by the rules of blood group compatibility. Thus, it has been demonstrated that crossing the ABO blood group barrier generally results in hyperacute rejection. However, the A2 subtype of the blood group A is a weaker antigen. Under certain circumstances, organs from donors with blood group A2 can be transplanted across the ABO blood group barrier into recipients of O or B blood type. Since 1986, 33 patients including 24 blood group O and 9 blood group B patients received A2 (30) or A2B (3) donor kidneys. Both cadaver donor (31) and living-related grafts (2) have been undertaken. The mean follow-up since transplantation for the 21 patients with functioning grafts is 36 months, with a 67.2% current graft survival. Immunosuppression for these transplants consisted of azathioprine, prednisone, and cyclosporine, often in combination with prophylactic OKT3 or antilymphocyte globulin as protocol dictated. Special immunosuppressive protocols such as splenectomy or plasmapheresis were not used. The serum of the potential recipient was analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) forms of antibody against A1 and A2 red blood cells. There is a strong correlation between a low (less than or equal to 1:8) anti-A1 IgG titer and both early and long-term graft function. Recipients with an IgG titer greater than 1:8 in the pretransplant serum had a much higher incidence of early graft failure. We no longer recommend transplantation of A2 kidneys into O or B recipients with a pretransplant titer of greater than 1:8 but found that recipients with low titers have graft function rates essentially equal to those of ABO-compatible patients. Patients with blood group B have, over time, lower anti-A IgG titers than do blood group O patients. In addition, the graft survival among blood group B patients is 89% compared with 58% among group O recipients. This may be due to the generally low titers found in blood

  1. [A clinical case of ABO-incompatible living renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Kawami, H; Shiramizu, T; Mori, Y; Yayama, T; Yonemura, T; Oka, N; Inokuchi, K

    1990-08-01

    We successfully made ABO-incompatible renal transplantation, of which report is methodologically the first in Japan and probably the second in the world to our knowledge. Sixty year-old-female (mother) with B-blood type donated her right kidney to 36 years-old male (son) with O-blood type. Pretransplant removal of plasma isoagglutinin of the recipient through plasma exchange with albumin solution followed by hemodialysis with administration of fresh frozen B-type plasma effectively reduced the anti-BIgM-antibody titre of x256 to x8 and the anti-IgG-antibody titre of x512 to x16. Splenectomy was performed at the time of transplantation. On the 10th POD, the anti-B antibody titres were more decreased to IgM antibody x2 and IgG antibody x8. Patient is doing well without any sign of rejection as of 4 months postoperatively.

  2. [Distribution of the ABO blood group system and D antigen in Macedonia].

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, V; Stojceska, N; Milenkov, V; Sotirovska, L; Toplicanec, N

    1978-01-01

    The authors have made a serious effort to present the distribution of ABO and D antigens in SRM for the first time after many uers of these antigens in a representative group in a whole population and according to different nationalities. Also, the comparison as done between obtained results and some others (results from some other countries and from other republics in Yugoslavia). The gene frequency of ABO system was analised.

  3. ABO mismatch is associated with increased non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Aaron C.; Wang, Zhiyu; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Wong, Ruby M.; Lai, Tze; Negrin, Robert S.; Grumet, Carl; Logan, Brent R.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Spellman, Stephen R.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Miklos, David B.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated ABO associated outcomes in 1,737 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) at Stanford University between January 1986 and July 2011. Grafts were 61% ABO matched, 18% major mismatched (MM), 17% minor MM, and 4% bidirectional MM. Median follow-up was 6 years. In multivariate analysis, OS was inferior in minor MM HCT (median 2.1 vs 6.3 years; HR 1.56; 95%CI 1.19-2.05; p=0.001) in comparison with ABO matched grafts. ABO minor MM was associated with an increase in early NRM (18% vs 13%; HR 1.48, 95%CI 1.06-2.06; p=0.02). In an independent Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) analysis of 435 lymphoma patients receiving mobilized peripheral blood grafts, impairment of OS (HR 1.55; 95%CI 1.07 – 2.25; p=0.021) and increased NRM (HR 1.72; 95%CI 1.11 – 2.68; p=0.03) was observed in recipients of ABO minor MM grafts. A second independent analysis of a CIBMTR dataset including 5,179 patients with AML and MDS identified a non-significant trend toward decreased OS in recipients of ABO minor MM grafts and also found ABO major MM to be significantly associated with decreased OS (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08 – 1.31, p<0.001) and increased NRM (HR 1.23, 95%CI 1.08 – 1.4, p=0.002). ABO minor and major MM are risk factors for worse transplant outcomes, although the associated hazards may not be uniform across different transplant populations. Further study is warranted to determine which patient populations are at greatest risk, and whether this risk can be modified by anti-B-cell therapy or other peri-transplant treatments. PMID:25572032

  4. ABO mismatch is associated with increased nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Logan, Aaron C; Wang, Zhiyu; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Wong, Ruby M; Lai, Tze; Negrin, Robert S; Grumet, Carl; Logan, Brent R; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Spellman, Stephen R; Lee, Stephanie J; Miklos, David B

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated ABO associated outcomes in 1737 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) at Stanford University between January 1986 and July 2011. Grafts were 61% ABO matched, 18% major mismatched (MM), 17% minor MM, and 4% bidirectional MM. Median follow-up was 6 years. In multivariate analysis, overall survival (OS) was inferior in minor MM hematopoietic cell transplantations (median 2.1 versus 6.3 years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 2.05; P = .001) in comparison with ABO-matched grafts. ABO minor MM was associated with an increase in early nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (18% versus 13%; HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.06; P = .02). In an independent Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) analysis of 435 lymphoma patients receiving mobilized peripheral blood grafts, impairment of OS (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.25; P = .021) and increased NRM (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.68; P = .03) were observed in recipients of ABO minor-MM grafts. A second independent analysis of a CIBMTR data set including 5179 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome identified a nonsignificant trend toward decreased OS in recipients of ABO minor-MM grafts and also found ABO major MM to be significantly associated with decreased OS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.31; P < .001) and increased NRM (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.4; P = .002). ABO minor and major MM are risk factors for worse transplantation outcomes, although the associated hazards may not be uniform across different transplantation populations. Further study is warranted to determine which patient populations are at greatest risk, and whether this risk can be modified by anti-B cell therapy or other peri-transplantation treatments.

  5. ABO and RH1 blood group phenotyping in pigs (Sus scrofa) using microtyping cards.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Majado, M J; Quereda, J J; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation or transfusion with ABO disparity is a cause for rejection or for severe hemodynamic alterations. ABO groups in pigs are commonly an unknown variable, which has been previously assessed by means of hemagglutination tests or immunohistochemical procedures on tissues. Herein, we have reported a simple method using commercial microcards for human ABO typing. However, the reagents directly derived from human sera included in these cards can result in false determinations due to alpha-gal interference. The ABO groups of 19 wild-type pigs (Landrace x Large White) were assessed using 2 commercial cards: Human sera-based and monoclonal antibody-based cards. The human sera cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the AB group and 11 to the B group. The monoclonal antibody cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the A group and 11 to the O group. None of the pigs showed reactions to Rh1 antibodies. Because the B group has not been described in pigs, the reaction in human sera cards represented an interference with alpha-gal antigen, a molecule structurally similar to the B blood antigen. Thus, microtyping cards based on monoclonal antibodies provided simple, quick way to assess ABO groups in pigs used for xenotransplantation. ABO concordance should always be investigated for these types of procedures.

  6. Comparison of ABO Antibody Titers on the Basis of the Antibody Detection Method Used

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seon Joo; Baik, Sae Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection methods for ABO antibody (Ab) titers vary across laboratories, and the results are different depending on the method used. We aimed to compare titer values using different detection methods for the measurement of ABO Ab titers. Methods For ABO Ab detection, pooled group A or B red blood cells (RBCs) were reacted with each of 20 sera from blood groups A, B, or O without dithiothreitol treatment. The room-temperature (RT) incubation technique and the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) were used in the tube test and gel card test. Flow cytometry (FCM) was performed by using anti-IgM and anti-IgG Abs. Results Regardless of the blood groups tested, the FCM assay with anti-IgM showed the highest titer compared to the tube test and gel card test with RT incubation in both. The tube test with IAT showed a higher titer than the gel card test with IAT (Gel-IAT) or FCM with anti-IgG in blood group A and B, while Gel-IAT showed the highest titer relative to the other tests, only for the anti-A Ab in blood group O. Conclusions There were significant differences in the titers depending on the detection method used, and each method showed a different detection capacity for each ABO Ab depending on the ABO blood group tested. Therefore, caution should be exercised in interpreting ABO Ab titer results, taking into consideration the detection method used and the blood group. PMID:24982835

  7. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation with ABO-Incompatible Grafts: A German Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Goralczyk, Armin D.; Obed, Aiman; Schnitzbauer, Andreas; Doenecke, Axel; Tsui, Tung Yu; Scherer, Marcus N.; Ramadori, Giuliano; Lorf, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs) across the ABO blood group barrier have been reported in Asia, North Americas, and Europe, but not yet in Germany. Several strategies have been established to overcome the detrimental effects that are attached with such a disparity between donor and host, but no gold standard has yet emerged. Here, we present the first experiences with three ABO-incompatible adult living donor liver transplantations in Germany applying different immunosuppressive strategies. Four patient-donor couples were considered for ABO-incompatible ALDLT. In these patients, resident ABO blood group antibodies (isoagglutinins) were depleted by plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption and replenishment was inhibited by splenectomy and/or B-cell-targeted immunosuppression. Despite different treatments ALDLT could safely be performed in three patients and all patients had good initial graft function without signs for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Two patients had long-term graft survival with stable graft function. We thus propose the feasibility of ABO-incompatible ALDLT with these protocols and advocate further expansion of ABO incompatible ALDLT in multicenter trials to improve efficacy and safety. PMID:20148072

  8. Transfusion of ABO-mismatched platelets leads to early platelet refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Carr, R; Hutton, J L; Jenkins, J A; Lucas, G F; Amphlett, N W

    1990-07-01

    Forty-three consecutive patients previously unexposed to platelets and undergoing treatment for acute leukaemia or autografting for relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomized to receive transfused platelets of either their own ABO group (OG) or of a major mismatched group (MMG). The 26 evaluable patients were equally distributed between the two study groups. Nine of 13 (69%) MMG patients became refractory with a median onset at transfusion 7 (15 d), compared with only one of 13 (8%) OG patients (P = 0.001). Refractoriness was associated with the formation of high titre isoagglutinins, anti-HLA and platelet specific antibodies. In one patient refractoriness appeared to be due to high titre isoagglutinins alone. Six other patients developed an increase in isoagglutinin titre sufficient to adversely affect platelet increments. Patients receiving ABO-mismatched platelets had a higher incidence of anti-HLA antibodies (5 v. 1) and platelet specific antibodies (4 v. 1). ABO-mismatched platelets transfused prior to the onset of refractoriness resulted in increments similar to those achieved by ABO-matched platelets. The study demonstrates that ABO-mismatched platelets are as effective as matched platelets in patients with low titre isoagglutinins requiring only few transfusions. However, the greater incidence of early refractoriness induced in MMG patients indicates that ABO-mismatched platelets should not be given to patients with marrow failure requiring long-term support.

  9. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  10. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities. PMID:25307962

  11. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications.

  12. Genetic Sequencing Analysis of A307 Subgroup of ABO Blood Group.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Lin, Jiajin; Zhu, Suiyong

    2015-09-18

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the serology and gene sequence characteristics of the A307 subgroup of the ABO blood group. MATERIAL AND METHODS Monoclonal anti-A and anti-B antibodies were used to detect the ABO antigens of a proband whose positive blood type was not consistent with the negative blood type of the ABO blood group. Standard A-, B-, and O-negative typing cells were used to test for ABO antibodies in the serum. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) was used to confirm the genotype, and subsequently, exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were detected by gene sequencing. Samples from the wife and daughters of the proband were also used for serological and genetic testing. RESULTS Red blood cells of the proband showed weak agglutination reaction with anti-A antibody, while anti-B antibody was detected in the serum. Moreover, PCR-SSP detected A307 and O02 alleles, while gene sequencing revealed mutation of c.745C>T in exon 7, which produced a polypeptide chain p.R249W. The A307 gene of the proband was not inherited by his daughters. CONCLUSIONS A mutation (c.745 C>T) in exon 7 of the ABO blood group gene resulted in low activity of a-1,3-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase, producing A3 phenotype.

  13. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-10-13

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities.

  14. A General Model of Negative Frequency Dependent Selection Explains Global Patterns of Human ABO Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Villanea, Fernando A; Safi, Kristin N; Busch, Jeremiah W

    2015-01-01

    The ABO locus in humans is characterized by elevated heterozygosity and very similar allele frequencies among populations scattered across the globe. Using knowledge of ABO protein function, we generated a simple model of asymmetric negative frequency dependent selection and genetic drift to explain the maintenance of ABO polymorphism and its loss in human populations. In our models, regardless of the strength of selection, models with large effective population sizes result in ABO allele frequencies that closely match those observed in most continental populations. Populations must be moderately small to fall out of equilibrium and lose either the A or B allele (N(e) ≤ 50) and much smaller (N(e) ≤ 25) for the complete loss of diversity, which nearly always involved the fixation of the O allele. A pattern of low heterozygosity at the ABO locus where loss of polymorphism occurs in our model is consistent with small populations, such as Native American populations. This study provides a general evolutionary model to explain the observed global patterns of polymorphism at the ABO locus and the pattern of allele loss in small populations. Moreover, these results inform the range of population sizes associated with the recent human colonization of the Americas.

  15. Relation of factor VIII and IX inhibitors with ABO blood groups in 150 patients with haemophilia A and B.

    PubMed

    Torghabeh, Hassan Mansouri; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar; Shooshtari, Mahmood Mahmoodian; Yazdi, Zahra Rezaie

    2006-03-01

    Many investigations have proved relations between ABO blood groups with some diseases and factor VIII and von willebrand level in plasma. In this study we investigated a relation between ABO blood groups and factor VIII and IX inhibitors in 102 patients with haemophilia A and 48 patients with haemophilia B. The assay of inhibitor was done by Bethesda method. There were no relation between ABO blood groups and factor VIII and IX inhibitors.

  16. Acute antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation treated successfully with antigen-specific immunoadsorption.

    PubMed

    Just, Søren Andreas; Marcussen, Niels; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille; Bistrup, Claus

    2010-01-01

    ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is possible after pre-treatment with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin and basiliximab combined with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. We report on the first patient treated with this protocol who developed acute antibody-mediated rejection (Banff grade II with IgG deposits) caused by ABO antibodies (anti-B). Anti-rejection treatment with anti-B-specific immunoadsorption, intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone efficiently cleared deposited IgG from the kidney allograft and re-established normal kidney function. We suggest that ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation complicated by acute antibody-mediated rejection, caused by ABO antibodies, may successfully be treated with this regime.

  17. Determination of ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor from tooth material

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pooja Vijay; Vanishree, M; Anila, K; Hunasgi, Santosh; Suryadevra, Sri Sujan; Kardalkar, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine blood groups and Rhesus factor from dentin and pulp using absorption-elution (AE) technique in different time periods at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cases, 30 patients each at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were included in the study. The samples consisted of males and females with age ranging 13–60 years. Patient's blood group was checked and was considered as “control.” The dentin and pulp of extracted teeth were tested for the presence of ABO/Rh antigen, at respective time periods by AE technique. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed in proportion. For comparison, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for the small sample. Results: Blood group antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected in dentin and pulp up to 12 months. For both ABO and Rh factor, dentin and pulp showed 100% sensitivity for the samples tested at 0 month and showed a gradual decrease in the sensitivity as time period increased. The sensitivity of pulp was better than dentin for both the blood grouping systems and ABO blood group antigens were better detected than Rh antigens. Conclusion: In dentin and pulp, the antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected up to 12 months but showed a progressive decrease in the antigenicity as the time period increased. When compared the results obtained of dentin and pulp in ABO and Rh factor grouping showed similar results with no statistical significance. The sensitivity of ABO blood grouping was better than Rh factor blood grouping and showed a statistically significant result. PMID:27721625

  18. Frequency of ABO blood group in peptic ulcer disease in Iranian subjects.

    PubMed

    Rasmi, Y; Sadreddini, M; Peirovi, T; Jamali, M; Khosravifar, F; Dadkhah, A; Fatemi, F; Rahmati, M; Zargari, M; Sharifi, R

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between ABO blood group distribution and Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) has been widely evaluated in the past. But data concerning the same evaluation are very limited in Iran. This study sought to determine the distribution of ABO blood group in patients with PUD in Iranian subjects. Eighty-one patients with PUD (51 male and 30 female; mean age: 49 +/- 18 years) who attended our endoscopy section were enrolled. Blood samples were used for ABO/Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigen typing. The ABO blood group phenotype distribution in subjects was as follows: 37.1% (30/81) for group A, 23.4% (19/81) for group B, 35.6% (28/81) for group O and 4.9% (4/81) for group AB. Rh positivity was found in 63% (51/81) of patients. In local healthy population, ABO/Rh blood group distribution was 33.8, 20.7, 34.7, 8.4 and 89.6% for A, B, O, AB and Rh, respectively. AB blood group distribution in healthy population was higher than PUD (8.4 vs 4.9%). In contrast, Rh positivity of PUD in Iran is lower than healthy subjects (63 vs 89.6%). Variation in the results of studies is related to different study communities. According to these results, probably ABO/Rh blood group has an important role in patients with peptic ulceration. The functional significance of ABO blood group distribution might be associated with biological behavior of PUD. The impact of blood group on PUD may be a focus for further studies.

  19. Psycholinguistics and Foreign Language Learning. Papers from a Conference (Stockholm, Sweden and Abo, Finland, October 25-26, 1982). Meddelanden fran Stiftelsens for Abo Akademi Forskningsinstitut Nr.86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan, Ed.

    At irregular intervals, beginning in 1977, Swedish-Finnish conferences on contrastive and applied linguistics have been arranged in Stockholm and Turko/Abo. This volume presents most of the papers given at the 1982 conference. Papers include: "Free Recall of Mixed Language Lists. Error Patterns in Bilingual Memory" (Karin Aronsson, Anja Metsola,…

  20. Dielectrophoretic characterization of erythrocytes: positive ABO blood types.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Soumya K; Daggolu, Prashant R; Burgess, Shane C; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2008-12-01

    Dielectrophoretic manipulation of erythrocytes/red blood cells is investigated as a tool to identify blood type for medical diagnostic applications. Positive blood types of the ABO typing system (A+, B+, AB+ and O+) were tested and cell responses quantified. The dielectrophoretic response of each blood type was observed in a platinum electrode microdevice, delivering a field of 0.025V(pp)/microm at 1 MHz. Responses were recorded via video microscopy for 120 s and erythrocyte positions were tabulated at 20-30 s intervals. Both vertical and horizontal motions of erythrocytes were quantified via image object recognition, object tracking in MATLAB, binning into appropriate electric field contoured regions (wedges) and statistical analysis. Cells of O+ type showed relatively attenuated response to the dielectrophoretic field and were distinguished with greater than 95% confidence from all the other three blood types. AB+ cell responses differed from A+ and B+ blood types likely because AB+ erythrocytes express both the A and B glycoforms on their membrane. This research suggests that dielectrophoresis of untreated erythrocytes beyond simple dilution depends on blood type and could be used in portable blood typing devices.

  1. Classification of ABO3 perovskite solids: a machine learning study.

    PubMed

    Pilania, G; Balachandran, P V; Gubernatis, J E; Lookman, T

    2015-10-01

    We explored the use of machine learning methods for classifying whether a particular ABO3 chemistry forms a perovskite or non-perovskite structured solid. Starting with three sets of feature pairs (the tolerance and octahedral factors, the A and B ionic radii relative to the radius of O, and the bond valence distances between the A and B ions from the O atoms), we used machine learning to create a hyper-dimensional partial dependency structure plot using all three feature pairs or any two of them. Doing so increased the accuracy of our predictions by 2-3 percentage points over using any one pair. We also included the Mendeleev numbers of the A and B atoms to this set of feature pairs. Doing this and using the capabilities of our machine learning algorithm, the gradient tree boosting classifier, enabled us to generate a new type of structure plot that has the simplicity of one based on using just the Mendeleev numbers, but with the added advantages of having a higher accuracy and providing a measure of likelihood of the predicted structure.

  2. ABO blood typing of human skeletal remains in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, I

    1984-03-01

    The author reports about the theoretical effects of his paleoserologic investigations on some historical population genetics problems. First he refers to the essence of the two modifications by the help of which the fluorescent antibody method can be made suitable for blood typing or archeological skeletal remains and determines his working units (sample, series, "population") used in the paleoserologic researches. The benefits of the projection of the ABO blood typing results on the map of the cemetaries are demonstrated. The distribution of the several phenotypes are collated to the character or richness of the grave goods and to the taxonomic features of the late individuals. The thorough examination of the serogenetic distances among the several samples of a given historical period may cast more light on the ethnic interrelations of the earlier populations living in the same geographic area. Following up the serogenetic changes of a population during subsequent historical periods, new ideas can be gained about the importance of the environmental, economic, and demographic factors shaping the serogenetic profile of the population.

  3. An ancient DNA test of a founder effect in Native American ABO blood group frequencies.

    PubMed

    Halverson, Melissa S; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2008-11-01

    Anthropologists have assumed that reduced genetic diversity in extant Native Americans is due to a founder effect that occurred during the initial peopling of the Americas. However, low diversity could also be the result of subsequent historical events, such as the population decline following European contact. In this study, we show that autosomal DNA from ancient Native American skeletal remains can be used to investigate the low level of ABO blood group diversity in the Americas. Extant Native Americans exhibit a high frequency of blood type O, which may reflect a founder effect, genetic drift associated with the historical population decline, or natural selection in response to the smallpox epidemics that occurred following European contact. To help distinguish between these possibilities, we determined the ABO genotypes of 15 precontact individuals from eastern North America. The precontact ABO frequencies were not significantly different from those observed in extant Native Americans from the same region, but they did differ significantly from the ABO frequencies in extant Siberian populations. Studies of other precontact populations are needed to better test the three hypotheses for low ABO blood group diversity in the Americas, but our findings are most consistent with the hypothesis of a founder effect during the initial settlement of this continent.

  4. The Role of ABO Incompatibility in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Önder; Coşkun, Hasan Şanol; Arat, Mutlu; Soydan, Ender; Özcan, Muhit; Gürman, Günhan; Çelebi, Harika; Demirer, Taner; Akan, Hamdi; İlhan, Osnman; Konuk, Nahide; Uysal, Akın; Berksaç, Meral; Koç, Haluk

    2002-09-05

    ABO incompatibility is not a contraindication for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but this procedure requires an extra effort for erythrocyte or plasma depletion in certain well established conditions. Some acute or delayed immunohematological complications such as acute or chronic hemolysis and pure red cell aplasia may be encountered. In this study the outcome and transplant related complications of ABO incompatible and identical cases, who have received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells from their HLA identical siblings were compared with each other. Ninety-one patients (CML 36, AML 37, other 18) were analyzed retrospectively including 51 (60.4%) ABO identical patients and 36 (39.6%) ABO mismatched (MM) patients, who have a bi-directional MM (n= 5), major MM (n= 16), minor MM (n= 9) and Rh MM (n= 6). Median follow up was 13 (0.5-43.0) months. We did not observed any significant differences between two groups (identical vs non-identical) in terms of acute hemolysis preceding stem cell infusion, peritransplant transfusion demand, acute- and chronic graft versus host disease. There was no change in estimated disease free survival and overall survival durations. We did not observed any influence of ABO/Rh incompatibility on short term outcome in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in our series and did not recommend further manipulation of the infused stem cells.

  5. Transfusion of ABO non-identical platelets does not influence the clinical outcome of patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Solves, Pilar; Carpio, Nelly; Balaguer, Aitana; Romero, Samuel; Iacoboni, Gloria; Gómez, Inés; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Moscardó, Federico; Sanz, Jaime; Lopez, Francisca; Martin, Guillermo; Jarque, Isidro; Montesinos, Pau; de la Rubia, Javier; Sanz, Guillermo; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are ABO antigens on the surface of platelets, but whether ABO compatible platelets are necessary for transfusions is a matter of ongoing debate. We retrospectively reviewed the ABO matching of platelet transfusions in a subset of patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation during a 14-year period. Our aim was to analyse the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received platelet transfusions that were or were not ABO identical. Material and methods We analysed 529 consecutive patients with various haematological and non-haematological diseases who underwent 553 autologous progenitor stem cell transplants at the University Hospital la Fe between January 2000 and December 2013. We retrospectively analysed and compared transfusion and clinical outcomes of patients according to the ABO match of the platelet transfusions received. The period analysed was the time from transplantation until discharge. Results The patients received a total of 2,772 platelet concentrates, of which 2,053 (74.0%) were ABO identical and 719 (26.0%) ABO non-identical; of these latter 309 were compatible and 410 incompatible with the patients’ plasma. Considering all transplants, 36 (6.5%) did not require any platelet transfusions, while in 246 (44.5%) cases, the patients were exclusively transfused with ABO identical platelets and in 47 (8.5%) cases they received only ABO non-identical platelet transfusions. The group of patients who received both ABO identical and ABO non-identical platelet transfusions had higher transfusion needs and worse clinical outcomes compared to patients who received only ABO identical or ABO non-identical platelets. Discussion In our hospital, patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation who received ABO identical or ABO non-identical platelet transfusions had similar transfusion and clinical outcomes. The isolated fact of receiving ABO non-identical platelets did not influence

  6. Different sensitivity of rituximab-treatment to B-cells between ABO-incompatible kidney and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Hiroshi; Ide, Kentaro; Tanaka, Yuka; Ishiyama, Kohei; Ohira, Masahiro; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Akita, Tomonori; Tanaka, Junko; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    A desensitization protocol with rituximab is currently widely used for kidney transplantation (KT) and liver transplantation (LT) across the ABO blood group-incompatible (ABO-I) barrier. However, it remains to be elucidated whether rituximab is equally effective for B-cell and T-cell immune responses in both KT and LT recipients. To clarify these effects of rituximab, we enrolled 46 KT and 77 LT recipients in this study. The proportion of peripheral blood B-cells was determined at the perioperative period. T-cell responses to allostimulation were evaluated by a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay. One week after rituximab administration, peripheral B-cells became undetectable in ABO-I KT recipients but remained detectable in some of the ABO-I LT recipients; B-cells were undetectable in both groups by week 2. B-cells remained below the detection limit throughout the first year in the ABO-I KT recipients, whereas they reappeared in the periphery after 6months in the ABO-I LT recipients. There were no significant differences in alloreactive T-cell responses based on MLR analyses between ABO-I and ABO-compatible groups. This study indicates that rituximab has differing B-cell sensitivity between KT and LT recipients and a minimal effect on the alloreactive T-cell responses in KT and LT recipients.

  7. Comparison of Methods for Determining ABO Blood Type in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae M; Park, Hyojun; Cho, Kahee; Kim, Jong S; Park, Mi K; Choi, Ju Y; Park, Jae B; Park, Wan J; Kim, Sung J

    2015-05-01

    Thorough examination of ABO blood type in cynomolgus monkeys is an essential experimental step to prevent humoral rejection during transplantation research. In the present study, we evaluated current methods of ABO blood-antigen typing in cynomolgus monkeys by comparing the outcomes obtained by reverse hemagglutination, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and buccal mucosal immunohistochemistry. Among 21 animals, 5 were type A regardless of the method. However, of 8 serologically type B animals, 3 had a heterozygous type AB SNP profile, among which 2 failed to express A antigen, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis. Among 8 serologically type AB animals, 2 appeared to be type A by SNP analysis and immunohistochemistry. None of the methods identified any type O subjects. We conclude that the expression of ABO blood-group antigens is regulated by an incompletely understood process and that using both SNP and immunohistochemistry might minimize the risk of incorrect results obtained from the conventional hemagglutination assay.

  8. Clinico-serologic co-relation in bi-directional ABO incompatible hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sabita; Dhar, Supriya; Mishra, Deepak; Chandy, Mammen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ABO blood group system is of prime significance in red cell transfusion and organ transplantation. However, ABO compatibility is not critical in allogenic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and approximately 40-50% of hemopoietic stem cell transplants are ABO incompatible. This incompatibility may be major, minor or bi-directional. Though there are descriptions of transfusion practice and protocols in ABO incompatible HSCT, there are considerable variations and transfusion support in these patients can be very challenging. Aims: The immunohematologic observations in two cases of bi-directional ABO incompatible HSCT have been described, and clinico-serologic correlation has been attempted. Materials and Methods: In both cases, peripheral blood stem cell harvests were obtained using the Cobe spectra cell separator. Immunohematologic assessments in the donor and recipient were done as a part of pre HSCT evaluation. Both the standard tube technique and column agglutination method (Ortho Biovue Micro Bead System) was used. Antibody screen was done by column agglutination method using three cell panel (Surgiscreen cells). Isoagglutinin titration was done by the master dilution method and standard validated techniques were used. Results: The pattern of laboratory findings in the two cases was different and so were the clinical outcomes. Although there was early engraftment in the first case, the second case developed pure red cell aplasia and this was well-reflected in the immunohematologic assessments. Conclusion: Immunohematologic assessment correlated well with the clinical picture and could be used to predict clinical outcome and onset of complications in ABO incompatible HSCT. PMID:26420941

  9. Pancreatic cancer: Helicobacter pylori colonization, N-nitrosamine exposures, and ABO blood group.

    PubMed

    Risch, Harvey A

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research with animal models has shown that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is induced by N-nitrosamine carcinogens, which damage DNA through adduct formation. Human risk factors for pancreatic cancer include gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori, as well as dietary intake of those same N-nitrosamines or of nitrite which forms those N-nitrosamines in the stomach, and cigarette smoking which also contains those N-nitrosamines. Physiologic actions of H. pylori colonization enhance the carcinogenic effect of N-nitrosamines delivered by smoking or dietary sources. This effect is modulated by host inflammatory response to the organism, by various virulence and other properties of the Helicobacter itself, and by host-organism interactions. A recent genome-wide association study identified SNPs within the ABO 9q34 locus as statistically significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. A number of recent and older studies going back 40 yr also support the ABO association. ABO-product antigens are expressed on gastrointestinal epithelium on which H. pylori binds, and ABO genotype is known to be associated with risks of duodenal and gastric ulcer and with risk of gastric cancer, conditions definitively related to Helicobacter colonization. We suspect that ABO genotype/phenotype status influences the behavior of H. pylori which in turn affects gastric and pancreatic secretory function, and these ultimately influence the pancreatic carcinogenicity of dietary- and smoking-related N-nitrosamine exposures, and thus risk of pancreatic cancer. Our study results on the interaction of ABO and H. pylori significantly confirm this hypothesis and together with other existing studies strongly implicate this organism in the disease etiology.

  10. The Effect of ABO Blood Incompatibility on Corneal Transplant Failure in Conditions with Low Risk of Graft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Steven P.; Stark, Walter J.; Doyle Stulting, R.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Sugar, Alan; Pavilack, Mark A.; Smith, Patricia W.; Tanner, Jean Paul; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L.; Beck, Roy W.; Kollman, Craig; Mannis, Mark J.; Holland, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether corneal graft survival over a five-year follow-up period was affected by ABO blood type compatibility in participants in the Cornea Donor Study undergoing corneal transplantation principally for Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema, conditions at low risk for graft rejection. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, clinical trial Methods ABO blood group compatibility was determined for 1,002 donors and recipients. During a five-year follow-up period, episodes of graft rejection were documented, and graft failures were classified as to whether or not they were due to immunologic rejection. Endothelial cell density was determined by a central reading center for a subset of subjects. Results ABO donor-recipient incompatibility was not associated with graft failure due to any cause including graft failure due to rejection, or with the occurrence of a rejection episode. The five-year cumulative incidence of graft failure due to rejection was 6% for recipients with ABO recipient-donor compatibility and 4% for those with ABO incompatibility (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 1.25, p=0.20). The five-year incidence for a definite rejection episode, irrespective of whether graft failure ultimately occurred, was 12% for ABO compatible compared with 8% for ABO incompatible cases (p=0.09). Among clear grafts at five years, percent loss of endothelial cells was similar in ABO compatible and incompatible cases. Conclusions In patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema, ABO matching is not indicated since ABO incompatibility does not increase the risk of transplant failure due to graft rejection. PMID:19056078

  11. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  12. ABO System Dependence Of Erythrocyte Crenation By Low Power He-Ne Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasia, Rodolfo J.; Martinelli, Cristina; Valverde de Rasia, Juana R.

    1982-12-01

    Samples of erythrocytes of different ABO groups, diluted in normal saline, were irradiated with high concentrated low power He-Ne Laser beam during 30 minutes. By microscopic observations made every 5 minutes the crenation time history of the irradiated red cells were determined. Assuming the crenation to have two sequential steps, experimental data of the rate constants for each of two steps of each blood sample were calculated. All these parameters and crenation-time history curves appear different and characteristic for each group of ABO-System. Further work to verify detected sensibility changes in inmunohematological reactions with Laser treated red blood cells is under progress.

  13. ABO alleles are linked with haplotypes of an erythroid cell-specific regulatory element in intron 1 with a few exceptions attributable to genetic recombination.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Sano, R; Takahashi, Y; Watanabe, K; Kubo, R; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, K; Takeshita, H; Kominato, Y

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigation of transcriptional regulation of the ABO genes has identified a candidate erythroid cell-specific regulatory element, named the +5·8-kb site, in the first intron of ABO. Six haplotypes of the site have been reported previously. The present genetic population study demonstrated that each haplotype was mostly linked with specific ABO alleles with a few exceptions, possibly as a result of hybrid formation between common ABO alleles. Thus, investigation of these haplotypes could provide a clue to further elucidation of ABO alleles.

  14. Strategic breakthrough in adult ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation: preliminary results of consecutive seven cases.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Yuji; Muto, Jyun; Matono, Rumi; Ninomiya, Mizuki; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikegami, Toru; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    ABO-incompatibility is a major obstacle to expanding exiguous donor pools in adult liver transplantation, especially in countries where grafts from deceased donors are uncommon. We present our preliminary results of ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using a new, simple protocol. Seven consecutive cases of ABO-I LDLT were managed by the same protocol including pre-operative administration of a single dose of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) ) followed by three to five sessions of plasma exchange before LDLT without portal infusion therapy. The triple immunosuppression protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids, with mycophenolate mofetil starting seven d before LDLT. Splenectomy was performed for all cases. All patients are alive (100% survival) with a mean follow-up of 852 d (715-990 d). Neither antibody-mediated nor hyperacute rejection were encountered. There was only one episode of mild acute cellular rejection, for which steroid augmentation was effective. The median preformed isoagglutinin antibody titer before plasma exchange was 256, while the median antibody titer immediately before LDLT was 16. In conclusion, adult ABO-I LDLT results were excellent - comparable or even superior to those of ABO-compatible LDLT. ABO-I adult LDLT has now become a more applicable modality without the need for an appropriate donor.

  15. Association between ABO Blood Group and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: A 6-year large cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Bailing; You, Guoling; Fu, Qihua; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood group, except its direct clinical implications for transfusion and organ transplantation, is generally accepted as an effect factor for coronary heart disease, but the associations between ABO blood group and congenital heart disease (CHD) are not coherent by previous reports. In this study, we evaluated the the potential relationship between ABO blood group and CHD risk. In 39,042 consecutive inpatients (19,795 CHD VS 19,247 controls), we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the roles of ABO blood group, gender, and RH for CHD. The associations between ABO blood group and CHD subgroups, were further evaluated using stratification analysis, adjusted by gender. A blood group demonstrated decreased risk for isolated CHD (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78–0.87) in individuals with A blood group in the overall cohort analysis, and the finding was consistently replicated in independent subgroup analysis. ABO blood group may have a role for CHD, and this novel finding provides ABO blood group as a possible marker for CHD, but more studies need to be done. PMID:28211529

  16. Association between ABO Blood Group and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: A 6-year large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zu, Bailing; You, Guoling; Fu, Qihua; Wang, Jing

    2017-02-17

    ABO blood group, except its direct clinical implications for transfusion and organ transplantation, is generally accepted as an effect factor for coronary heart disease, but the associations between ABO blood group and congenital heart disease (CHD) are not coherent by previous reports. In this study, we evaluated the the potential relationship between ABO blood group and CHD risk. In 39,042 consecutive inpatients (19,795 CHD VS 19,247 controls), we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the roles of ABO blood group, gender, and RH for CHD. The associations between ABO blood group and CHD subgroups, were further evaluated using stratification analysis, adjusted by gender. A blood group demonstrated decreased risk for isolated CHD (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.87) in individuals with A blood group in the overall cohort analysis, and the finding was consistently replicated in independent subgroup analysis. ABO blood group may have a role for CHD, and this novel finding provides ABO blood group as a possible marker for CHD, but more studies need to be done.

  17. First successful perinatal management of pregnancy after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Hisanobu; Obara, Hideaki; Miyakoshi, Kei; Shinoda, Masahiro; Kitago, Minoru; Shimojima, Naoki; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kentaro; Yamada, Yohei; Itano, Osamu; Hoshino, Ken; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Many papers have reported on pregnancy and delivery after liver transplantation, but there have been no reports on pregnancy after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. This paper reports the first successful pregnancy and delivery of a newborn after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. The patient was a 39-year-old female. She had an ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, donated from her husband, due to subacute fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology. She was taking tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, and mizoribine orally for the maintenance of immunosuppression at the time of discharge. She was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 38 without any rejection episodes. At 1 year and 6 mo after transplantation, she indicated a wish to become pregnant. Therefore, treatment with mycophenolate mofetil was interrupted at that time. After two miscarriages, she finally became pregnant and delivered transvaginally 3 years after the transplantation. All of the pregnancies were conceived naturally. The newborn was female with a birth weight of 3146 g; the Apgar scores were 9 and 10. Delivery was performed smoothly, and the newborn exhibited no malformations. The mother and the newborn were discharged uneventfully. We suggest that pregnancy is possible for recipients after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. PMID:28210092

  18. Successful ABO-incompatible living-related intestinal transplantation: a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fan, D M; Zhao, Q C; Wang, W Z; Shi, H; Wang, M; Chen, D L; Zheng, J Y; Li, M B; Wu, G S

    2015-05-01

    ABO-incompatible intestinal transplantation has rarely been performed due to poor patient outcomes. Herein we present a case of successful ABO-incompatible intestinal transplantation with a 2-year follow-up. A 16-year-old female with a history of extensive bowel resection received an ABO-incompatible living donor bowel graft from her father (blood type AB graft into a type A recipient). Posttransplant immunosuppression consisted of an initial anti-CD20, plasmapheresis/intravenous immunoglobulin before transplantation, followed by an anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction and splenectomy, and maintenance with tacrolimus and prednisone. Her postoperative course was remarkable for a single episode of rejection on day 14 which responded promptly to treatment with methyprednisolone and ATG. Three months after transplantation, the patient developed an abdominal abscess requiring open surgical drainage. No viral infections were encountered. Posttransplant anti-B antibody titers and anti-B7 donor-specific antibody levels remained low. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient showed a progressive weight gain of 5.0 kg. This case illustrates that ABO-incompatible living-related bowel transplantation is immunologically feasible and is associated with good outcomes for the recipient. The management of blood type antibodies and the use of adequate immunosuppression in the early period of the procedure may be the keys to the success of future cases.

  19. Study of ABO blood types by combining membrane electrophoresis with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Sun, Liqing; Shao, Yonghong; Lu, Peng; Shi, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    The molecular characterization of ABO blood types, which is clinically significant in blood transfusion, has clinical and anthropological importance. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) is one of the most commonly used methods for the analysis of genetic bases of ABO blood types. However, such methods as PCR-SBT are time-consuming and are high in demand of equipments and manipulative skill. Here we showed that membrane electrophoresis based SERS method employed for studying the molecular bases of ABO blood types can provide rapidand easy-operation with high sensitivity and specificity. The plasma proteins were firstly purified by membrane electrophoresis and then mixed with silver nanoparticles to perform SERS detection. We use this method to classify different blood types, including blood type A (n=13), blood type B (n=9) and blood type O (n=10). Combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and liner discriminant analysis (LDA) was then performed on the SERS spectra of purified albumin, showing good classification results among different blood types. Our experimental outcomes represent a critical step towards the rapid, convenient and accurate identification of ABO blood types.

  20. ABO typing in experimental cynomolgus monkeys using non-invasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Song; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    ABH antigens are not expressed on the red blood cells of monkeys, making it difficult to accurately determine their blood type. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility, convenience, and stability of two non-invasive methods for ABO typing (a reverse gel system assay and a buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay) in cynomolgus monkeys (n = 72). The renal tissue immunofluorescent assay was used to obtain an accurate blood type in the monkeys. Using the reverse gel system assay and preabsorbed serum, we achieved accurate detection of ABO blood groups in 65 of the 72 monkeys but obtained confusing results in the remaining 7. The original immunofluorescent staining of the buccal mucosal smears clearly and correctly identified the ABO blood groups in 50 of the 72 monkeys. After repeated smearing and staining, the ABO group type could be correctly identified in samples from the rest of the monkeys, which were either lacking sufficient buccal mucosal cells or contained impurities. Based on our findings, we recommend the reverse gel system assay as the first choice for primate blood type analysis, and the buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay as a Supplementary Method whenever the reverse gel system assay fails to give a clear result. PMID:28112245

  1. ABO-Incompatible Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Under the Desensitization Protocol With Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Song, G-W; Lee, S-G; Hwang, S; Kim, K-H; Ahn, C-S; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Jung, D-H; Park, G-C; Kim, W-J; Sin, M-H; Yoon, Y-I; Kang, W-H; Kim, S-H; Tak, E-Y

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatibility is no longer considered a contraindication for adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) due to various strategies to overcome the ABO blood group barrier. We report the largest single-center experience of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) ALDLT in 235 adult patients. The desensitization protocol included a single dose of rituximab and total plasma exchange. In addition, local graft infusion therapy, cyclophosphamide, or splenectomy was used for a certain time period, but these treatments were eventually discontinued due to adverse events. There were three cases (1.3%) of in-hospital mortality. The cumulative 3-year graft and patient survival rates were 89.2% and 92.3%, respectively, and were comparable to those of the ABO-compatible group (n = 1301). Despite promising survival outcomes, 17 patients (7.2%) experienced antibody-mediated rejection that manifested as diffuse intrahepatic biliary stricture; six cases required retransplantation, and three patients died. ABOi ALDLT is a feasible method for expanding a living liver donor pool, but the efficacy of the desensitization protocol in targeting B cell immunity should be optimized.

  2. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  3. ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation without graft local infusion and splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Young-Kyu; Lee, Soon-Ae; Park, Sang-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Graft local infusion and splenectomy in ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are associated with high rates of operative complications. Methods Consecutive ABO-I LDLT patients treated at the National Cancer Centre between January 2012 and February 2013 were identified. The protocol for ABO-I LDLT at the study centre included the administration of rituximab (300 mg/m2) at 2 weeks preoperatively, followed by plasma exchanges (target isoagglutinin titre: ≤1 : 8), basiliximab (20 mg on the day of surgery and on postoperative day 4), and i.v. immunoglobulin (0.8 g/kg on postoperative days 1 and 4) without graft local infusion or splenectomy. Results Fifteen patients (11 men and four women) who underwent transplantation for liver cirrhosis (n = 3) or hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 12) were identified. These included 13 patients with hepatitis B virus infection, one with hepatitis C virus infection and one with alcoholic cirrhosis. The mean age, mean Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and mean graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) of these patients was 51.8 years, 11.5 and 0.84, respectively. The median isoagglutinin titre before plasma exchange was 1 : 32 (range: 1 : 4 to 1 : 256). There were no hyperacute or antibody-mediated rejections. No bacterial or fungal infections were observed. Complications included herpes zoster viral infection in one patient, postoperative bleeding in one patient and extrahepatic biliary stricture in three patients. Conclusions This simplified ABO-I LDLT protocol showed good graft outcomes without immunologic failure or serious infections. PMID:24467804

  4. ABO Genotype, ‘Blood-Type’ Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingzhou; García-Bailo, Bibiana; Nielsen, Daiva E.; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘Blood-Type’ diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, the association between blood type-based dietary patterns and health outcomes has not been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ‘blood-type’ diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and whether an individual's ABO genotype modifies any associations. Methods Subjects (n = 1,455) were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study. Dietary intake was assessed using a one-month, 196-item food frequency questionnaire and a diet score was calculated to determine relative adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets. ABO blood group was determined by genotyping rs8176719 and rs8176746 in the ABO gene. ANCOVA, with age, sex, ethnicity, and energy intake as covariates, was used to compare cardiometabolic biomarkers across tertiles of each ‘Blood-Type’ diet score. Results Adherence to the Type-A diet was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-Beta (P<0.05). Adherence to the Type-AB diet was also associated with lower levels of these biomarkers (P<0.05), except for BMI and waist circumference. Adherence to the Type-O diet was associated with lower triglycerides (P<0.0001). Matching the ‘Blood-Type’ diets with the corresponding blood group did not change the effect size of any of these associations. No significant association was found for the Type-B diet. Conclusions Adherence to certain ‘Blood-Type’ diets is associated with favorable effects on some cardiometabolic risk factors, but these associations were independent of an individual's ABO genotype, so the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis. PMID:24454746

  5. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  6. Determination of ABO blood group genotypes using the real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification method

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHAO; ZHU, JUANLI; YANG, JIANGCUN; WAN, YINSHENG; MA, TING; CUI, YALI

    2015-01-01

    ABO genotyping is commonly used in several situations, including blood transfusion, personal identification and disease detection. The present study developed a novel method for ABO genotyping, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). This method allows the simultaneous determination of six ABO genotypes under 40 min at a constant temperature of 62°C. The genotypes of 101 blood samples were determined to be AA (n=6), AO (n=38), BB (n=12), BO (n =29), AB (n=8) and OO (n=8) by the LAMP assay. The results were compared with the phenotypes determined by serological assay and the genotypes determined by direct sequencing, and no discrepancies were observed. This novel and rapid method, with good accuracy and reasonably cost effective, provides a supplement to routine serological ABO typing and may also be useful in other point-of-care testing. PMID:26238310

  7. [Detection of ABO genotype genetic polymorphism by multiplex-PCR based sequencing and application in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Teng; Yan, Chun-Xia; Dang, Yong-Hui; Mu, Hao-Fang; Yu, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Bo; Deng, Ya-Jun

    2008-06-01

    Multiplex PCR-direct sequencing method was established to detect 9 different SNPs in exon 6 and exon 7 of ABO genes and could identify at least 28 different ABO genotypes. Population study was carried out in a sample of 80 unrelated Chinese Tibetan minority individual dwelled in Qinghai Province. The method was also applied to forensic cases. A variety of degeneration forensic samples, including blood stain, hair root, swab, bone and mixed stain were successfully identified by this efficient method and in conformance with serological typing. There were no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in ABO genotypes of Tibetan population. The heterozygosity, polymorphic information content, discrimination power, paternity of exclusion, and probability of genetic identity were 0.675, 0.672, 0.874, 0.391, and 0.126 respectively. The gene frequency of ABO was O>B>A. The multiplex PCR-directed sequencing method can accurately and reliably detect ABO genotypes in many kinds of samples, and it improves personal identification efficiency. The ABO genotype is high variance in Qinghai Tibetan minority group, and it can be applied in forensic medicine and population genetic study.

  8. Erythrocytes in human transplantation: effects of pretreatment with ABO group-specific antigens

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, F. T.; Dausset, J.; Legrand, L.; Barge, A.; Lawrence, H. S.; Converse, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Erythrocyte group antigens A and B can act as potent and group-specific transplantation antigens in man. ABO group-incompatible recipients pretreated with such antigens have rejected skin allografts obtained from donors incompatible for the same antigens in an accelerated (4-5 days) or white graft manner. Skin grafts applied to the same recipients from ABO-compatible donors were accorded first-set survival times. Intact erythrocyte suspensions and antigens isolated from hog (A substance) and horse (B substance) stomachs, were equally capable of inducing this type of allograft sensitivity. The latter observation broadens the spectrum of heterologous antigens capable of inducing allograft sensitivity in the mammalian host and provides a readily available, heat-stable, and water-soluble source of antigens for further studies of allograft rejection mechanisms in man. PMID:4877681

  9. A simple multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine ABO blood types of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Premasuthan, A; Kanthaswamy, S; Satkoski, J; Smith, D G

    2011-06-01

    Rhesus macaques are the most common nonhuman primate model organism used in biomedical research. Their increasingly frequent use as subjects in studies involving transplantation requires that blood and other tissue antigens of donors and recipients be compatible. We report here an easy and rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the ABO blood group phenotypes of rhesus macaques that can be performed with only small amounts of DNA. We phenotyped 78 individuals and found this species to exhibit the A, B and AB phenotypes in frequencies that vary by geographic region. The probability of randomly pairing rhesus macaque donors and recipients that exhibit major ABO phenotype incompatibility is approximately 0.35 and 0.45 for Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques, respectively.

  10. Relic of ancient recombinations in gibbon ABO blood group genes deciphered through phylogenetic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Takashi; Noda, Reiko; Takenaka, Osamu; Saitou, Naruya

    2009-06-01

    The primate ABO blood group gene encodes a glycosyl transferase (either A or B type), and is known to have large coalescence times among the allelic lineages in human. We determined nucleotide sequences of ca. 2.2kb of this gene for 23 individuals of three gibbon species (agile gibbon, white-handed gibbon, and siamang), and observed a total of 24 haplotypes. We found relics of five ancient intragenic recombinations, occurred during ca. 2-7 million years ago, through a phylogenetic network analysis. The coalescence time between A and B alleles estimate precede the divergence (ca. 8MYA) of siamang and common gibbon lineages. This establishes the coexistence of divergent allelic lineages of the ABO blood group gene for a long period in the ancestral gibbon species, and strengthens the non-neutral evolution for this gene.

  11. Association between ABO blood group and HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Xu, Hongqin; Ding, Zhongyang; Jin, Qinglong; Gao, Pujun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The ABO blood group has previously been reported to be associated with risk for certain malignancies; however, data about the risks for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to blood type are limited. Thus, we conducted a retrospective case–control study to investigate whether the ABO blood group contributes to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection–induced HCC. From January 2010 to June 2016, 447 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection were recruited. Of these patients, 217 had HCV-related HCC, and 230 had chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without HCC. We performed multivariate logistic regression to probe the association between the ABO blood group and HCC risk. Compared with subjects with blood type O, patients with blood type A had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.301 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.927–5.653) for HCC after adjusting for age and gender. We found statistically significant associations between blood type A and HCC risk for both men (AOR [95% CI] = 4.192 [1.959–8.973]) and women (AOR [95% CI] = 2.594 [1.231–5.466]), and for patients aged below 70 years (<60 years: AOR [95% CI] = 3.418 [1.338–8.734]; 60–69 years: AOR [95% CI] = 3.917 [1.730–8.867]). Thus, HCC risk is associated with ABO blood type in Chinese CHC patients, and CHC patients with blood type A are more susceptible to HCV-related HCC than patients with other blood types. PMID:27930575

  12. ABO non-O type as a risk factor for thrombosis in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui; Pise, Mayurika N; Overman, Michael J; Liu, Chang; Tang, Hongwei; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Abbruzzese, James L

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood type has previously been identified as a risk factor for thrombosis and pancreatic cancer (PC). The aim of the study is to demonstrate the associations between ABO blood type and other clinical factors with the risk of thromboembolism (TE) in patients with PC. We conducted a retrospective study in 670 patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Clinical information was retrieved from medical records. ABO blood type was determined serologically and/or genetically. Logistic regression models, Kaplan–Meier plot, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed in data analysis. The incidence of TE was 35.2% in 670 patients who did not have TE prior to cancer diagnosis. Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) consisted 44.1% of the TE events. Non-O blood type, pancreatic body/tail tumors, previous use of antithrombotic medication, and obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) were significant predictors for TE in general. Blood type A and AB, low hemoglobin level (≤10 g/dL), obesity, metastatic tumor, and pancreatic body/tail tumors were significant predictors for PE and DVT. Patients with metastatic tumor or pancreatic body/tail tumors had a much higher frequency of early TE events (≤3 months after cancer diagnosis); and early TE occurrence was a significant independent predictor for increased risk of death. These observations suggest that ABO non-O blood type is an independent predictor for TE in PC. A better understanding of the risk factors for TE in PC may help to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26275671

  13. Facies and age of the Oso Ridge Member (new), Abo Formation, Zuni Mountains, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, A.K.; Stamm, R.G.; Kottlowski, F.E.; Mamet, B.L.; Dutro, J.T.; Weary, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Oso Ridge Member (new), at the base of the Abo Formation, nonconformably overlies Proterozoic rocks. The member consists of some 9m of conglomerate and arkose composed principally of fragments of the underlying Proterozoic metamorphic rocks; thin, fossiliferous limestone lenses are interbedded with the arkose. Biota from the lenses include a phylloid alga, foraminifers, conodonts, brachiopods, and molluscs. The age of the Oso Ridge Member is Virgilian Late Pennsylvanian) to Wolfcampian (Early Permian). -from Authors

  14. ABO non-O type as a risk factor for thrombosis in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghui; Pise, Mayurika N; Overman, Michael J; Liu, Chang; Tang, Hongwei; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Abbruzzese, James L

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood type has previously been identified as a risk factor for thrombosis and pancreatic cancer (PC). The aim of the study is to demonstrate the associations between ABO blood type and other clinical factors with the risk of thromboembolism (TE) in patients with PC. We conducted a retrospective study in 670 patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Clinical information was retrieved from medical records. ABO blood type was determined serologically and/or genetically. Logistic regression models, Kaplan-Meier plot, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed in data analysis. The incidence of TE was 35.2% in 670 patients who did not have TE prior to cancer diagnosis. Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) consisted 44.1% of the TE events. Non-O blood type, pancreatic body/tail tumors, previous use of antithrombotic medication, and obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2) ) were significant predictors for TE in general. Blood type A and AB, low hemoglobin level (≤ 10 g/dL), obesity, metastatic tumor, and pancreatic body/tail tumors were significant predictors for PE and DVT. Patients with metastatic tumor or pancreatic body/tail tumors had a much higher frequency of early TE events (≤ 3 months after cancer diagnosis); and early TE occurrence was a significant independent predictor for increased risk of death. These observations suggest that ABO non-O blood type is an independent predictor for TE in PC. A better understanding of the risk factors for TE in PC may help to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation therapy.

  15. An integrated system of ABO typing and multiplex STR testing for forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xianhua; He, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Zhao, Jinling; Chen, Chuguang; Bai, Liping; Liu, Feng; Hou, Guangwei; Guo, Faye

    2012-12-01

    A new amplification system for ABO and STR genotyping in a single reaction has been successfully developed. Two types of information can be obtained from a biological sample at one time. One is the classical information of ABO blood group typing for screening suspects and the other is STR information for individual identification. The system allows for the simultaneous detection of 15 autosomal STR loci (containing all CODIS STR loci as well as Penta D and Penta E), six ABO genotypes (O/O, B/B, A/A, A/O, A/B, and B/O) and the gender-determining locus Amelogenin. Primers are designed so that the amplicons are distributed ranging from 75bp to 500bp within a four-dye fluorescent design, leaving a fourth dye for the internal size standard. With 30 cycles, the results showed that the optimal amount of DNA template for this multiplex ranges from 250pg to 2ng and the lowest detection threshold is 125pg (as low as 63pg for ABO loci). For the DNA template outside the optimal detection range, we could adjust the number of cycles to obtain the robust profiles. Mixture studies showed that over 83% of minor alleles were detected at 1:9 ratios. The full profiles were still observed when 4ng of degraded DNA was digested by DNase I and 1ng undegraded DNA was added to 40μM haematin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based conditions including the concentrations of primers, magnesium and the Taq polymerase as well as volume, cycle numbers and annealing temperature were examined and optimised. In addition, the system was validated by 364 bloodstain samples and 32 common casework samples. According to the Chinese National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines, our system demonstrates good detection performance and is an ideal tool for forensic DNA typing with potential application.

  16. Prognostic Impact of ABO Blood Group on the Survival in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Yang, Li-Chao; He, Zhen-Yu; Li, Fang-Yan; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of ABO blood group on the survival of patients with ovarian cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the ABO blood group in ovarian cancer patients. Methods: 256 ovarian cancer patients who received a cytoreductive surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic impact of the ABO blood group with respect to overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time was 57 months and the 5-year OS was 70.1%. The 5-year OS were 55.0%, 83.3%, 82.5%, and 70.0% in patients with A, B, AB, and O blood type, respectively (p = 0.003). Patients with blood type A had a poorer 5-year OS than patients with blood type non-A (55.0% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.001), especially in patients with age > 50 years (40.0% vs. 62.5%, p = 0.004). Univariate Cox analyses showed that blood type A was significantly associated with OS than those with non-A types (hazard ratio (HR) 2.210, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.373-3.557, p = 0.001). Blood type A remained an independent prognostic factor for OS than those with non-A blood types in multivariate analyses (HR 2.235, 95% CI 1.360-3.674, p = 0.002). Conclusion: ABO blood group is associated with survival in patients with ovarian cancer, patients with blood type A had a significantly worse OS than patients with non-A blood types, especially in patients with age > 50 years. PMID:26316893

  17. ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in developing world - crossing the immunological (and mental) barrier.

    PubMed

    Jha, P K; Bansal, S B; Sethi, S K; Jain, M; Sharma, R; Nandwani, A; Phanish, M K; Duggal, R; Tiwari, A K; Ghosh, P; Ahlawat, R; Kher, V

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatibility has been considered as an important immunological barrier for renal transplantation. With the advent of effective preconditioning protocols, it is now possible to do renal transplants across ABO barrier. We hereby present a single center retrospective analysis of all consecutive ABOi renal transplants performed from November 2011 to August 2014. Preconditioning protocol consisted of rituximab, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate sodium, and prednisolone. The outcome of these ABOi transplants was compared with all other consecutive ABO-compatible (ABOc) renal transplants performed during same time. Twenty ABOi renal transplants were performed during the study period. Anti-blood group antibody titer varied from 1:2 to 1:512. Patient and graft survival was comparable between ABOi and ABOc groups. Biopsy proven acute rejection rate was 15% in ABOi group, which was similar to ABOc group (16.29%). There were no antibody-mediated rejections in ABOi group. The infection rate was also comparable. We conclude that the short-term outcome of ABOi and ABOc transplants is comparable. ABOi transplants should be promoted in developing countries to expand the donor pool.

  18. ABO blood type is associated with ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liangshan; Jin, Wumin; Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Pan, Jiexue; Lin, Jia; Wang, Peiyu; Huang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-09

    Ovarian reserve reflects both the quantity and quality of oocytes available for procreation, and is affected by many known and unknown factors. ABO blood type is related to a number of infertility processes, but it is unclear whether and how ABO blood type affects ovarian reserve. Here, we explored the relationship between ABO blood type and ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Day-3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and blood type were examined in 14,875 women who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. Blood type proportions in the patient population were as follows: 30.98% type A, 24.54% type B, 7.57% type AB, and 36.91% type O. A higher percentage of women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) were blood type O, while a lower percentage had the B antigen (B and AB). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that blood type O was associated with a greater risk of DOR than blood type B and B antigen-positive types. By contrast, the B antigen (B and AB) was associated with a lower incidence of DOR than blood type O. These results suggest that blood type O is a risk factor for DOR while the B antigen (blood type B or AB) is a protective factor for ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect and identify the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Thrombosis Related ABO, F5, MTHFR, and FGG Gene Polymorphisms in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kupcinskiene, Kristina; Murnikovaite, Martyna; Varkalaite, Greta; Juzenas, Simonas; Trepenaitis, Darius; Petereit, Ruta; Maleckas, Almantas

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for thrombotic complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of thrombosis related ABO, F5, MTHFR, and FGG gene polymorphisms in morbidly obese patients and compare them with the group of nonobese individuals. Methods. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed in 320 morbidly obese patients (BMI > 40 kg/m2) and 303 control individuals (BMI < 30 kg/m2) of European descent. ABO C>T (rs505922), F5 C>G (rs6427196), MTHFR C>T (rs1801133), and FGG C>T (rs6536024) SNPs were genotyped by RT-PCR. Results. We observed a tendency for MTHFR rs1801133 TT genotype to be linked with morbid obesity when compared to CC genotype; however, the difference did not reach the significant P value (OR 1.84, 95% CI 0.83–4.05, P = 0.129). Overall, the genotypes and alleles of rs505922, rs6427196, rs1801133, and rs6536024 SNPs had similar distribution between morbidly obese and nonobese control individuals. Distribution of height and weight means among individuals carrying different rs505922, rs6427196, rs1801133, and rs6536024 genotypes did not differ significantly. Conclusions. Gene polymorphisms ABO C>T (rs505922), F5 C>G (rs6427196), MTHFR C>T (rs1801133), and FGG C>T (rs6536024) were not associated with height, weight, or morbid obesity among European subjects. PMID:27999448

  20. Simple "closed-circuit" group-specific immunoadsorption system for ABO-incompatible kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Balint, Bela; Pavlovic, Mirjana; Jevtic, Miodrag; Hrvacevic, Rajko; Ignjatovic, Ljiljana; Ostojic, Gordana; Mijuskovic, Zoran; Blagojevic, Radmila; Trkuljic, Miroljub

    2007-06-01

    There is a need for improvement of the detection and treatment of the antibody-mediated graft rejection for ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. With the development of novel pre-conditioning protocols, which employ anti-CD20 antibody, therapeutic plasma exchange plus extracorporeal immunoadsorption and standard immunosuppression application, together with the use of more sensitive and objective assays for immunological monitoring, patients that were not candidates for kidney transplant in the past, are now being transplanted. We have designed a pre-conditioning protocol for ABO-incompatible kidney transplants based on TPE plus our own simple "closed-circuit" immunoadsorption technique - combined by anti-CD20, standard immunosuppressive treatment, and without splenectomy. The results obtained in this study strongly support our hypothesis leading to the conclusion that this protocol can be used successfully, with high-quality ABO antibody depletion (p<0.001) and beneficial clinical findings. The application of this protocol is safe, and not associated with alteration in normal plasma constituent levels or with occurrence of any side effects of apheresis or clinical consequences. Finally, this pre-conditioning protocol radically reduces the treatment-cost. Definitive conclusions can only be drawn from larger, randomized, controlled clinical trials.

  1. Association of ABO and Colton Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms With Hematological Traits Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Mashayekhi, Amir; Fatahi, Neda; Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hematological parameters are appraised routinely to determine overall human health and to diagnose and monitor certain diseases. In GWASs, more than 30 loci carrying common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms have been identified related to hematological traits. In this study, we investigated the contribution of ABO rs2073823 along with AQP1 rs1049305 and rs10244884 polymorphisms in hematological traits variation in a cohort of Iranian healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 168 healthy volunteer. Genotyping was performed by ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Complete blood analyses were conducted for the participants. Significant association was observed between AQP1 rs1049305 and the hematological traits including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count (P = 0.012, 0.008, and 0.011, respectively). The AQP1 rs10244884 status was also significantly linked to hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the study cohort (P = 0.015 and 0.041, respectively). Furthermore, ABO rs2073823 polymorphism was identified as a hemoglobin and hematocrit levels modifier (both with P = 0.004). AQP1 and ABO variants appear to predict hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but not other erythrocyte phenotype parameters including red blood cell counts and red blood cell indices. PMID:26632894

  2. ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in developing world – crossing the immunological (and mental) barrier

    PubMed Central

    Jha, P. K.; Bansal, S. B.; Sethi, S. K.; Jain, M.; Sharma, R.; Nandwani, A.; Phanish, M. K.; Duggal, R.; Tiwari, A. K.; Ghosh, P.; Ahlawat, R.; Kher, V.

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatibility has been considered as an important immunological barrier for renal transplantation. With the advent of effective preconditioning protocols, it is now possible to do renal transplants across ABO barrier. We hereby present a single center retrospective analysis of all consecutive ABOi renal transplants performed from November 2011 to August 2014. Preconditioning protocol consisted of rituximab, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate sodium, and prednisolone. The outcome of these ABOi transplants was compared with all other consecutive ABO-compatible (ABOc) renal transplants performed during same time. Twenty ABOi renal transplants were performed during the study period. Anti-blood group antibody titer varied from 1:2 to 1:512. Patient and graft survival was comparable between ABOi and ABOc groups. Biopsy proven acute rejection rate was 15% in ABOi group, which was similar to ABOc group (16.29%). There were no antibody-mediated rejections in ABOi group. The infection rate was also comparable. We conclude that the short-term outcome of ABOi and ABOc transplants is comparable. ABOi transplants should be promoted in developing countries to expand the donor pool. PMID:27051135

  3. The Outcomes of Hypertransfusion in Major ABO Incompatible Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Hoon; Lee, Se Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Jinny; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, Won Seog; Jung, Chul Won; Im, Young-Hyuk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Seon Woo; Lee, Kyoo Hyung; Lee, Je Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Major ABO incompatibility may be potentially associated with immediate or delayed hemolysis and delayed onset of erythropoiesis in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To determine if hemolysis can be prevented by the inhibition of graft erythropoiesis, we performed hypertransfusion and assessed red cell transfusion requirement and independence. Between October 1995 and December 2001, 28 consecutive patients receiving major ABO incompatible HSCT at Samsung Medical Center were hypertransfused to maintain their hemoglobin levels at 15 g/dL or more. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of these patients with those of 47 patients at Asan Medical Center whose target hemoglobin levels were 10 g/dL. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly delayed in hypertransfused group (51 days vs. 23 days; p=.001). There was no significant difference in the total amount of red cells transfused within 90 days post-HSCT (25 units vs. 26 units; p=.631). No significant difference in the time to red cell transfusion independence was observed between the two groups (63 days vs. 56 days; p=.165). In conclusion, we failed to improve red cell transfusion requirement and independence in major ABO incompatible HSCT with hypertransfusion. PMID:14966346

  4. Determining the extent and dynamics of surface water for the ABoVE field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, M.; Sohlberg, R. A.; Townshend, J. R.; DiMiceli, C.

    2013-12-01

    The proposed Arctic and Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) will conduct multi-disciplinary studies to explore and quantify the linkages between all of the individual components of the ecosystem. One common thread identified in the final report for the scoping study for ABoVE is the need for maps of the location, extent and dynamics of surface water to connect the different disciplines. Water represents a transport vehicle for nutrients and other solutes, provides habitat for flora and fauna, and has a controlling effect on surface energy exchange yet it remains one of the least characterized features of the study region. We have been selected to develop a new dataset to represent surface water in the ABoVE study region at 30m spatial resolution for 3 epochs (1991, 2001, 2011). These data will be used to identify and quantify the change in surface water over the past 2 decades in the North American High Arctic. In this presentation we will describe the project and give the status of processing as well as early results from select locations.

  5. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation: Case report.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kohei; Obara, Hideaki; Sugita, Kayoko; Shinoda, Masahiro; Kitago, Minoru; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kentaro; Mori, Takehiko; Takano, Yaoko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Itano, Osamu; Hasegawa, Naoki; Iwata, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-07-07

    Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi), a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, is an enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species. We report the first case of H. cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after liver transplantation. A 48-year-old male, who had been a dog breeder for 15 years, underwent ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced decompensated cirrhosis using an anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. The patient was preoperatively administered rituximab and underwent plasma exchange twice to overcome blood type incompatibility. After discharge, he had been doing well with immunosuppression therapy comprising cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid according to the ABO-incompatible protocol of our institution. However, 7 mo after transplantation, he was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of recurrent cellulitis on the left lower extremity, and H. cinaedi was detected by both blood culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Antibiotics improved his symptoms, and he was discharged at day 30 after admission. Clinicians should be more aware of H. cinaedi in immunocompromised patients, such as ABO-incompatible transplant recipients.

  6. ABO blood group and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in a population of Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Liming; Sun, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Lizhen; Su, Dan

    2013-08-15

    Previous studies found that the ABO blood type alters the individual susceptibility of some malignancies. However, whether such an association exists between ABO blood type and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown. A case-control study was conducted, with 1,538 patients who had NPC and 1,260 cancer-free controls. The association between ABO blood type and NPC incidence was evaluated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Compared with subjects with blood type O, a relatively higher risk was observed among cases with blood types A or AB, with ORs (95% confidence interval) of 1.287 (1.072 - 1.545), p = 0.007 and 1.390 (1.007 - 1.919), p = 0.045, respectively, after adjusting for gender, age, smoking status and family history of cancer. The rate of distant metastasis was significantly higher among male patients with blood type A than in patients with non-A blood types (6.8 vs. 3.5%, p = 0.027). Our results suggest that blood types A or AB is associated with an increased risk of NPC. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to explore the mechanisms involved.

  7. A common variant of the ABO gene protects against hypertension in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Gassó, Patricia; Mas, Sergi; Álvarez, Santiago; Ortiz, Jacint; Sotoca, Jose M; Francino, Antonio; Carne, Xavier; Lafuente, Amalia

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to establish whether genetic polymorphisms that could be related to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels are associated with hypertension. A total of 10 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ACE, the ACE I/D polymorphism, and 2 polymorphisms in the ABO (rs495828 and rs8176746) were investigated for association with hypertension in 269 hypertensive patients and 254 healthy controls. All analyses were adjusted for age and body mass index, and corrected for multiple testing. Only one polymorphism of the ABO gene (rs495828) presented nominal pointwise P<0.05 values (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% CI 0.19-0.58, P = 6 × 10(-5)) and achieved P<3.8 × 10(-3), the nominal P-value considered significant after Bonferroni correction. Analysis of the genotype frequencies showed that the model that correctly explained the observed association was the recessive model (odds ratio = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.15, P = 1 × 10(-6)). These results indicate that genetic variants that could be related to ACE activity are good predictors of hypertension, and identify ABO as a good candidate gene for genetic studies of hypertension risk. Further studies are required to confirm this association.

  8. ABO blood type is associated with ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Xia; Pan, Jiexue; Lin, Jia; Wang, Peiyu; Huang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian reserve reflects both the quantity and quality of oocytes available for procreation, and is affected by many known and unknown factors. ABO blood type is related to a number of infertility processes, but it is unclear whether and how ABO blood type affects ovarian reserve. Here, we explored the relationship between ABO blood type and ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Day-3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and blood type were examined in 14,875 women who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. Blood type proportions in the patient population were as follows: 30.98% type A, 24.54% type B, 7.57% type AB, and 36.91% type O. A higher percentage of women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) were blood type O, while a lower percentage had the B antigen (B and AB). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that blood type O was associated with a greater risk of DOR than blood type B and B antigen-positive types. By contrast, the B antigen (B and AB) was associated with a lower incidence of DOR than blood type O. These results suggest that blood type O is a risk factor for DOR while the B antigen (blood type B or AB) is a protective factor for ovarian reserve in Chinese women with subfertility. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect and identify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27462770

  9. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Valsami, Serena; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gialeraki, Argyri; Chimonidou, Maria; Politou, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility) have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT) count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization. PMID:26420927

  10. ABO3, a WRKY transcription factor, mediates plant responses to abscisic acid and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaozhi; Chen, Zhizhong; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Min; Liu, Qian; Hong, Xuhui; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The biological functions of WRKY transcription factors in plants have been widely studied, but their roles in abiotic stress are still not well understood. We isolated an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo3, which is disrupted by a T-DNA insertion in At1g66600 encoding a WRKY transcription factor AtWRKY63. The mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in both seedling establishment and seedling growth. However, stomatal closure was less sensitive to ABA, and the abo3 mutant was less drought tolerant than the wild type. Northern blot analysis indicated that the expression of the ABA-responsive transcription factor ABF2/AREB1 was markedly lower in the abo3 mutant than in the wild type. The abo3 mutation also reduced the expression of stress-inducible genes RD29A and COR47, especially early during ABA treatment. ABO3 is able to bind the W-box in the promoter of ABF2 in vitro. These results uncover an important role for a WRKY transcription factor in plant responses to ABA and drought stress. PMID:20487379

  11. ABO3, a WRKY transcription factor, mediates plant responses to abscisic acid and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaozhi; Chen, Zhizhong; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Min; Liu, Qian; Hong, Xuhui; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2010-08-01

    The biological functions of WRKY transcription factors in plants have been widely studied, but their roles in abiotic stress are still not well understood. We isolated an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo3, which is disrupted by a T-DNA insertion in At1g66600 encoding a WRKY transcription factor AtWRKY63. The mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in both seedling establishment and seedling growth. However, stomatal closure was less sensitive to ABA, and the abo3 mutant was less drought tolerant than the wild type. Northern blot analysis indicated that the expression of the ABA-responsive transcription factor ABF2/AREB1 was markedly lower in the abo3 mutant than in the wild type. The abo3 mutation also reduced the expression of stress-inducible genes RD29A and COR47, especially early during ABA treatment. ABO3 is able to bind the W-box in the promoter of ABF2in vitro. These results uncover an important role for a WRKY transcription factor in plant responses to ABA and drought stress.

  12. Minor ABO-mismatches are risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Ludajic, Katarina; Balavarca, Yesilda; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenmayr, Agathe; Fischer, Gottfried F; Faé, Ingrid; Kalhs, Peter; Pohlreich, David; Kouba, Michal; Dobrovolna, Marie; Greinix, Hildegard T

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the impact of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group matching on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) of 154 patients matched at 10/10 HLA loci with unrelated donors. ABO and Rh, as potential risk factors, were modeled with the clinical outcome--acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD), relapse, treatment-related mortality (TRM), and overall survival (OS)--by simple, multiple, and competing risk analyses. We found that minor ABO-mismatches represent a significant risk factor for aGVHD (II-IV) with an estimated risk increase of almost 3-fold (hazard ratio [HR]=2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43-5.95, P=.003), and even 4-fold for aGVHD (III-IV) (HR=4.24, 95% CI: 1.70-10.56, P=.002), but not for other transplant endpoints. No significant association of the Rh matching status with any of the HSCT endpoints was seen. These results suggest that ABO minor mismatches may play a role in aGvHD pathophysiology, possibly by providing the setting for T cell activation and antibody mediated damage. To decrease the risk of aGVHD, ABO matching should be considered in HSCT.

  13. ABO and Rh (D) group distribution and gene frequency; the first multicentric study in India

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Mehta, Nidhi; Bhattacharya, Prasun; Wankhede, Ravi; Tulsiani, Sunita; Kamath, Susheela

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The study was undertaken with the objective to provide data on the ABO and Rh(D) blood group distribution and gene frequency across India. Materials and Methods: A total of 10,000 healthy blood donors donating in blood banks situated in five different geographical regions of the country (North, South, East and Center) were included in the study. ABO and Rh (D) grouping was performed on all these samples. Data on the frequency of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups was reported in simple numbers and percentages. Results: The study showed that O was the most common blood group (37.12%) in the country closely followed by B at 32.26%, followed by A at 22.88% while AB was the least prevalent group at 7.74%. 94.61% of the donor population was Rh positive and the rest were Rh negative. Regional variations were observed in the distribution. Using the maximum likelihood method, the frequencies of the IA, IB and IO alleles were calculated and tested according to the Hardy Weinberg law of Equilibrium. The calculated gene frequencies are 0.1653 for IA (p), 0.2254 for IB (q) and 0.6093 for IO (r). In Indian Population, O (r) records the highest value followed by B (q) and A (p); O > B > A. Conclusion: The study provides information about the relative distribution of various alleles in the Indian population both on a pan-India basis as well as region-wise. This vital information may be helpful in planning for future health challenges, particularly planning with regards to blood transfusion services. PMID:25161353

  14. The ABO Histo-Blood Group and AKI in Critically Ill Patients with Trauma or Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian J.; Mangalmurti, Nilam S.; Nguyen, Tam D.; Holena, Daniel N.; Wu, Qufei; Nguyen, Ethan T.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Lanken, Paul N.; Christie, Jason D.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shashaty, Michael G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective ABO blood types are determined by antigen modifications on glycoproteins and glycolipids and associated with altered plasma levels of inflammatory and endothelial injury markers implicated in AKI pathogenesis. We sought to determine the association of ABO blood types with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or sepsis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted two prospective cohort studies at an urban, academic, level I trauma center and tertiary referral center; 497 patients with trauma admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between 2005 and 2010 with an injury severity score >15 and 759 patients with severe sepsis admitted to the medical intensive care unit between 2008 and 2013 were followed for 6 days for the development of incident AKI. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network creatinine and dialysis criteria. Results Of 497 patients with trauma, 134 developed AKI (27%). In multivariable analysis, blood type A was associated with higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=229; adjusted risk, 0.28 versus 0.14; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.24; P=0.02). Of 759 patients with sepsis, AKI developed in 326 (43%). Blood type A again conferred higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=437; adjusted risk, 0.53 versus 0.40; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.23; P=0.01). Findings were similar when analysis was restricted to those patients who did not develop acute respiratory distress syndrome or were not transfused. We did not detect a significant association between blood type and AKI risk among individuals of African descent in either cohort. Conclusions Blood type A is independently associated with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or severe sepsis of European descent, suggesting a role for ABO glycans in AKI susceptibility. PMID:26342043

  15. Direct current insulator-based dielectrophoretic characterization of erythrocytes: ABO-Rh human blood typing.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Soumya K; Artemiou, Andreas; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2011-09-01

    A microfluidic platform developed for quantifying the dependence of erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) responses by ABO-Rh blood type via direct current insulator dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) is presented. The PDMS DC-iDEP device utilized a 400 x 170 μm² rectangular insulating obstacle embedded in a 1.46-cm long, 200-μm wide inlet channel to create spatial non-uniformities in direct current (DC) electric field density realized by separation into four outlet channels. The DC-iDEP flow behaviors were investigated for all eight blood types (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O-) in the human ABO-Rh blood typing system. Three independent donors of each blood type, same donor reproducibility, different conductivity buffers (0.52-9.1 mS/cm), and DC electric fields (17.1-68.5 V/cm) were tested to investigate separation dependencies. The data analysis was conducted from image intensity profiles across inlet and outlet channels in the device. Individual channel fractions suggest that the dielectrophoretic force experienced by the cells is dependent on erythrocyte antigen expression. Two different statistical analysis methods were conducted to determine how distinguishable a single blood type was from the others. Results indicate that channel fraction distributions differ by ABO-Rh blood types suggesting that antigens present on the erythrocyte membrane polarize differently in DC-iDEP fields. Under optimized conductivity and field conditions, certain blind blood samples could be sorted with low misclassification rates.

  16. Distribution and clinal trends of the ABO and Rh genes in select Middle Eastern countries.

    PubMed

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Afshan, K; Malik, S

    2015-09-09

    An understanding of the ABO and Rh blood group systems is important for blood transfusions and is also pertinent due to their potential association with certain morbidities and susceptibilities to infections. To investigate the diversity and differentiation of the ABO and Rh loci in Middle Eastern populations, data from twelve representative Middle Eastern populations were analyzed. Six populations were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the ABO locus. The pooled heterozygosity at both loci was calculated to be highest in the sample from Jordan and lowest in Bahrain. Heterogeneity was pronounced in the Northern compared to the Southern Middle Eastern populations. Overall, the absolute gene diversity was 0.0046 and gene differentiation was calculated to be 0.0100. Genetic diversity of the studied loci across all populations (HT) was estimated to be 0.4594, while the diversity within the populations (HS) was 0.4548. Nei's genetic distance analyses revealed highest affinities between the populations of Kuwait and Qatar, Oman and Yemen, and between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. These results were displayed through a UGPMA dendrogram and principal component analyses, which established clustering of certain populations. Clinal trends of the allelic systems were observed by generating contour maps that allow a detailed appreciation of the distributions of alleles across the geography of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Taken together, these analyses are helpful in understanding the differentiation of blood group loci and for designing prospective studies for establishing the associations of these loci with health variables in the populations studied.

  17. A Survey of ABO, Rhesus (D) Antigen and Haemoglobin Genes Variants in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omotosho, Ishiaq

    2015-12-20

    A survey of ABO and Rhesus (Rh D) antigens and variants of haemoglobin genes (HbGen) in Oyo state was carried out. This longitudinal study involved the determination of ABO and Rh(D) antigens in 3241 and HbGen in 2622 male and female adults (aged 26-65years) respectively using standard methods. 94.5% of the subjects were Rh(D) positive while 5.5% were Rh(D) negative respectively based on the detection (Positive) or absence (Negative) of Rh(D) antigen. 22.8% of the subjects had ABO blood group A, 26.4% were group B, 4.1% were group AB while 46.7% were group O. Further analysis revealed that 695 (21.4%) of the group A were Apositive while 44 (1.4%) were Anegative. 800 of these subjects (24.7%) were Bpositive while 56 (1.7%) were group Bnegative. 133 (4.1%) showed group AB out of which 125 (3.8%) were ABpositive and 8 (0.3%) were ABnegative. 1513 (46.7%) were group O out of which 1444 (44.6%) were Opositive while 69 (2.1%) were Onegative. HbGen determination showed that 1933 of the subjects (73.7%) had HbGen AA; 553 (21.1%) were AS; 119 (4.5%) were AC; 11 (0.4%) were SC while 3 subjects representing 0.1% and 0.2% each had HbGen SS and CC respectively. Although the results were similar to earlier ones; however, the need for sustained counselling towards eradication of SS genes and increased research towards identifying artificial blood substitutes was highlighted in this work. The increasing need for blood transfusion especially with the increase in various politically/communally motivated emergency situations underscores this fact.

  18. Allelic variance among ABO blood group genotypes in a population from the western region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hindawi, Salwa Ibrahim; Al-harthi, Sameer; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Haque, Absarul; Ahmad, Waseem; Damanhouri, Ghazi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterization of the ABO blood group at the phenotype and genotype levels is clinically essential for transfusion, forensics, and population studies. This study elucidated ABO phenotypes and genotypes, and performed an evaluation of their distribution in individuals from the western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods One-hundred and seven samples underwent standard serological techniques for ABO blood group phenotype analysis. ABO alleles and genotypes were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analysis was performed to evaluate the highly polymorphic ABO locus. Results A phenotype distribution of 37.4%, 30.8%, 24.3%, and 7.5% was found for blood groups O, A, B, and AB respectively in our study cohort. Genotype analysis identified 10 genotype combinations with the O01/O02 and A102/O02 genotypes being the most frequent with frequencies of 33.6% and 14.95%, respectively. Common genotypes such as A101/A101, A101/A102, A101/B101, B101/B101, and O01/O01 were not detected. Similarly, the rare genotypes, cis-AB01/O02, cis-AB01/O01, and cis-AB01/A102 were not found in our cohort. The most frequently observed allele was O02 (35.98%) followed by the A102 allele (17.76%). Furthermore, our findings are discussed in reference to ABO allele and genotype frequencies found in other ethnic groups. Conclusion The study has a significant implication on the management of blood bank and transfusion services in Saudi Arabian patients. PMID:28090491

  19. [ABO/D discrepancies in the era of automation and molecular immunohematology].

    PubMed

    Hamouche, Elias; Bouix, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABO/D grouping errors are still causing fatalities despite the substantial decrease observed over the past thirty years. This risk reduction is due, in part, to the increased automation of immunohematology techniques, a better control of clerical errors and a better knowledge of group discrepancies. The first part of the text will summarize the etiologies of group discrepancies while the second part will expose briefly the historical and technical evolution in immunohematology. Finally in the third part, the role of molecular techniques in immunohematology will be discussed.

  20. [Erythrocyte substitution and isoagglutinin titer following ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Henneberg-Quester, K B; Luboldt, W; Schaefer, U W; Beelen, D W; Quabeck, K

    1990-01-01

    About 2 or 3 weeks after transplantation, even ABO-Incompatible bone marrow shows a successful graft. Haemopoiesis is not always free of problems. Suppression of erythropoiesis is caused by persistently incompatible agglutinins. Patient's well-being is limited by longer periods of low levels of haemoglobin concentration. Long-lasting need for transfusions is related to the well-known risk of infections. A procedure to eliminate the residual titers of alloantibodies should be discussed in time with the staff of the transfusion department.

  1. A simple technique for red blood cell removal in major ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, G; Wernet, D; Northoff, H; Schneider, W

    1994-01-01

    A simple technique for red blood cell (RBC) removal in major ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation is reported requiring two centrifugation steps, special blood bags and a mechanical device to separate the buffy coat from RBCs within the bag. In 42 transplantations an average of 84% of nucleated cells was recovered with an average contamination of 7.5 ml packed RBCs. The preparations were well tolerated in all patients whose isoagglutinin titers had not been reduced. Bone marrow engraftment was not significantly different from control groups.

  2. The definition of ABO factors in transplantation: relation to other humoral antibody states.

    PubMed

    Starzl, T E; Tzakis, A; Makowka, L; Banner, B; Demetrius, A; Ramsey, G; Duquesnoy, R; Griffin, M

    1987-12-01

    The first examples of hyperacute rejection of renal hemografts were seen almost 25 years ago when kidneys were transplanted to ABO incompatible recipients whose plasma contained antigraft isoagglutinins. Hyperacute rejection caused in sensitized recipients by lymphocytotoxic antibodies is similar in that the immune reaction triggers an acute inflammatory reaction that leads to widespread thrombotic occlusion and devascularization of the graft. The events after xenotransplantation between certain species are essentially the same. Potential strategies to avoid the precipitating antigen antibody reaction or to mitigate the resulting effector cascade are described.

  3. Phenotypic and allelic distribution of the ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups in the Cameroonian population.

    PubMed

    Ndoula, S T; Noubiap, J J N; Nansseu, J R N; Wonkam, A

    2014-06-01

    Data on blood group phenotypes are important for blood transfusion programs, for disease association and population genetics studies. This study aimed at reporting the phenotypic and allelic distribution of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) groups in various ethnolinguistic groups in the Cameroonians. We obtained ABO and Rhesus blood groups and self-identified ethnicity from 14,546 Cameroonian students. Ethnicity was classified in seven major ethnolinguistic groups: Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian/West Atlantic, Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Grassfield, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Mbam and Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Equatorial. ABO allelic frequencies were determined using the Bernstein method. Differences in phenotypic distribution of blood groups were assessed using the chi-square test; a P value <0.05 being considered as statistically significant. The frequencies of the antigens of blood groups O, A, B and AB were 48.62%, 25.07%, 21.86% and 4.45%, respectively. Rhesus-positive was 96.32%. The allelic frequencies of O, A and B genes were 0.6978, 0.1605 and 0.1416, respectively. Phenotypic frequencies of the blood groups in the general study population and in the different ethnolinguistic groups were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations (P > 0.05). The frequencies of O, A, and B blood phenotypes were significantly lower, respectively, in the Nilo-Saharan group (P = 0.009), the Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu groups (P = 0.021) and the Niger-Kordofanian/West-Atlantic group. AB blood group was most frequent in the Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui group (P = 0.024). Our study provides the first data on ethnic distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in the Cameroonian population and suggests that its general profile is similar to those of several sub-Saharan African populations. We found some significant differences in phenotypic distribution amongst major ethnolinguistic groups

  4. Epithelial Expression of Human ABO Blood Group Genes Is Dependent upon a Downstream Regulatory Element Functioning through an Epithelial Cell-specific Transcription Factor, Elf5.

    PubMed

    Sano, Rie; Nakajima, Tamiko; Takahashi, Yoichiro; Kubo, Rieko; Kobayashi, Momoko; Takahashi, Keiko; Takeshita, Haruo; Ogasawara, Kenichi; Kominato, Yoshihiko

    2016-10-21

    The human ABO blood group system is of great importance in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The ABO system is composed of complex carbohydrate structures that are biosynthesized by A- and B-transferases encoded by the ABO gene. However, the mechanisms regulating ABO gene expression in epithelial cells remain obscure. On the basis of DNase I-hypersensitive sites in and around ABO in epithelial cells, we prepared reporter plasmid constructs including these sites. Subsequent luciferase assays and histone modifications indicated a novel positive regulatory element, designated the +22.6-kb site, downstream from ABO, and this was shown to enhance ABO promoter activity in an epithelial cell-specific manner. Expression of ABO and B-antigen was reduced in gastric cancer KATOIII cells by biallelic deletion of the +22.6-kb site using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the site bound to an epithelial cell-specific transcription factor, Elf5. Mutation of the Ets binding motifs to abrogate binding of this factor reduced the regulatory activity of the +22.6-kb site. Furthermore, ELF5 knockdown with shRNA reduced both endogenous transcription from ABO and B-antigen expression in KATOIII cells. Thus, Elf5 appeared to be involved in the enhancer potential of the +22.6-kb site. These results support the contention that ABO expression is dependent upon a downstream positive regulatory element functioning through a tissue-restricted transcription factor, Elf5, in epithelial cells.

  5. Chemotherapy-induced B-cell depletion in hepatoblastoma patients undergoing ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Akinari; Mali, Vidyadhar Padmakar; Rahayatri, Tri Hening; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Kengo; Uchida, Hajime; Shigeta, Takanobu; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kasahara, Mureo

    2016-05-01

    LT from ABO-I donors requires preconditioning regimens to prevent postoperative catastrophic AMR. NAC for HBL is known to cause myelosuppression leading to a reduction in the number and function of lymphocytes. We investigated this chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in HBL patients listed for LT from ABO-I donors with reference to the kinetics of B, T cells, and anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers. Between 2005 and 2015, of the 319 patients who underwent LDLT at our institute, 12 were indicated for unresectable HBL. Three patients with unresectable HBL who underwent LDLT from ABO-I donors are included in this study. Immunosuppression consisted of a standard regime of tacrolimus and low-dose steroids as in ABO compatible/identical LDLT. No additional preoperative therapies for B-cell depletion were used. Absolute lymphocyte counts, lymphocyte subsets (including CD20+ B cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD3+CD8+ T cells), and anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers were measured before LDLT and postoperatively. The median age at diagnosis was 19 months (range, 3-31 months). The median follow-up was seven months (range, 6-15 months). The median interval from the last NAC to LDLT was 33 days (range, 25-52 days). The median interval from LDLT to adjuvant chemotherapy was 28 days (range, 22-36 days). The counts of CD20+ B cells before LDLT were depleted to median 5 cells/mm(3) (range, 0-6 cells/mm(3)). There was a transient rebound in the CD20+ B cell counts on day seven (maximum of 82 cells/mm(3)) followed by a decline starting at 14 days after LDLT that was sustained for the duration of adjuvant chemotherapy. Anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers were lowered to between 1:1 and 1:16 before LDLT and remained low for the duration of follow-up in this study. All of the three patients remained in good health without either acute cellular or AMR after LDLT. The B-cell depletion that occurs after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for HBL may help accomplish safe ABO-I LDLT

  6. Non-AUG start codons responsible for ABO weak blood group alleles on initiation mutant backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2017-01-01

    Histo-blood group ABO gene polymorphism is crucial in transfusion medicine. We studied the activity and subcellular distribution of ABO gene-encoded A glycosyltransferases with N-terminal truncation. We hypothesized that truncated enzymes starting at internal methionines drove the synthesis of oligosaccharide A antigen in those already described alleles that lack a proper translation initiation codon. Not only we tested the functionality of the mutant transferases by expressing them and assessing their capacity to drive the appearance of A antigen on the cell surface, but we also analyzed their subcellullar localization, which has not been described before. The results highlight the importance of the transmembrane domain because proteins deprived of it are not able to localize properly and deliver substantial amounts of antigen on the cell surface. Truncated proteins with their first amino acid well within the luminal domain are not properly localized and lose their enzymatic activity. Most importantly, we demonstrated that other codons than AUG might be used to start the protein synthesis rather than internal methionines in translation-initiation mutants, explaining the molecular mechanism by which transferases lacking a classical start codon are able to synthesize A/B antigens. PMID:28139731

  7. Pure red cell aplasia following major ABO-incompatible allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kang-Er; Xu, Yang; Wu, Dong; Zhong, Juan

    2002-02-01

    Six out of 20 patients undergoing a major ABO-incompatible allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) developed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), which did not show any effects on granulocyte and platelet engraftment, and incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD. All the 6 cases of PRCA were in blood group O recipients of grafts from blood group A donors (n = 5) or blood group B donor (n = 1), suggesting that donor/recipient pair (A/O) is associated with a high risk of PRCA after major ABO-incompatible allo-HSCT. Erythroid engraftment occurred spontaneously in four cases without specific intervention other than the RBC transfusion, which coincided with the decrease of isoagglutinin titers below 8, and the remaining 2 patients with prolonged erythroid aplasia( > 300 days) despite therapy with erythropoietin (EPO) were successfully treated by plasma exchange with donor-type plasma replacement. Cyclosporine did not appear to have played any role in causing PRCA in our patients, however, the occurrence of GVHD may facilitate the recovery of erythropoiesis.

  8. Immunization by blood-type antigen in human immunoglobulin products before ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tokihiko; Ando, Tetsuo; Sato, Sumihiko; Kubota, Keiichi; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Teraoka, Satoshi

    2004-04-01

    A 29-year-old man wanted to receive an ABO-incompatible kidney transplant. His blood type was O, and the donor, his father, was A1. After endoscopic splenectomy performed before kidney transplantation, the recipient developed a high fever and leukocytosis, and he was treated with antibiotics and 5 g of human immunoglobulin products by intravenous infusion for 3 d. Soon after the infusions, his anti-blood type A antibody titer (anti-A titer) rose, and several sessions of plasma-exchange (PEX) and double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) failed to lower it. Three courses of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody were administered to suppress the antibody production more specifically, and the rituximab infusions and repeated PEX and DFPP session lowered the anti-A titer and enabled kidney transplantation. Mild humoral rejection was observed 16 d after transplantation, but the recipient's serum creatinine was 1.5 mg/dL when discharged from the hospital. The increased anti-A titer may have been due to immunization by blood-type A antigen, with the human immunoglobulin products given to the patient being the source of the antigen. Administration of human immunoglobulin products to recipients of ABO-incompatible kidney transplants should be avoided, because it may cause an unexpected increase in anti-blood-type antibody titer.

  9. ABO blood type is associated with endometrial cancer risk in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2011-11-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk of several malignancies. However, results are not consistent. In this population-based case-control study including 1204 incident endometrial cancer cases and 1212 population controls, we examined the association of self-reported serologic blood type with endometrial cancer risk using a logistic regression model. Women with endometrial cancer were more likely to have blood type A. Compared to women with blood type O, the adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer were 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.28] for type B, 1.24 (95% CI, 0.90-1.69) for type AB, and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.19-1.90) for type A. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for cancer risk and level of antigen A (P for trend = 0.0003). The positive association of blood type A with cancer risk was observed regardless of menopausal status, body mass index, oral contraceptive use, or family cancer history. Our results suggest that ABO blood type may be involved in the development of endometrial cancer.

  10. Donor- and recipient-derived immunity in ABO incompatible living-related liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Alexandra; Fiedler, Melanie; Beckebaum, Susanne; Cicinnati, Vito R; Herzer, Kerstin; Lenz, Veronika; Witzke, Oliver; Paul, Andreas; Roggendorf, Michael; Horn, Peter A; Lindemann, Monika

    2015-09-01

    This report describes how donor- and recipient-derived immunity was influenced by immunosuppressive treatment of ABO incompatibility (rituximab and immunoadsorption/plasmaphereses) in the long-term. We present an 8-year course of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity, isohemagglutinins and B cell numbers. Whereas cellular HBV immunity was transferred from the HBV vaccinated donor (blood group A1) to the HBV naïve recipient (blood group 0), humoral HBV specific immune transfer was lacking. Starting at month 17 after transplantation, the recipient was vaccinated six times against HBV. Anti-HBs did not appear until the sixth vaccination at month 44. Immunoadsorption prior to transplantation reduced anti-A1 IgG titers from 256 to 2. Titers after transplantation remained low (⩽64). B cell numbers were below standard values up to month 26, then normalized and exceeded normal values from year 7 to 8 post transplantation. In conclusion, donor-derived B cell immunity was lost but recipient-derived immunity persisted after ABO incompatible transplantation.

  11. [A case of ABO*Ael02/O04 genotype with typical phenotype O].

    PubMed

    Joo, Shin-Young; Shim, Yeong Sook; Kim, Mi Jung; Kwon, Hye Lin; Lee, Kyung; Chang, Ho Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou Sup

    2008-08-01

    Ael is a rare blood type which has the least amount of A antigen among A subgroups. It can be detected by special tests performed to resolve the discrepancy between red cell and serum typing in routine serological typing. The presence of A antigen on Ael red cell is demonstrable only by adsorption and elution tests. An Ael individual does not secret A substance in the saliva and may have anti-A antibody in the serum which is usually less reactive with the reagent red cells than anti-B antibody. In Korea, Ael02 has been reported more frequently than other Ael alleles. We report a case of Ael02/O04 who presented as typical phenotype O with strong anti-A and anti-B antibodies and no A antigen detected even by adsorption and elution tests. The case has been proved to be Ael02/O04 by direct sequencing analysis. In individuals with history of discrepancies in the results of ABO phenotyping, ABO genotyping is needed for an accurate evaluation of their blood type.

  12. Understanding thread properties for red blood cell antigen assays: weak ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Miaosi; Ballerini, David R; Shen, Wei

    2014-12-24

    "Thread-based microfluidics" research has so far focused on utilizing and manipulating the wicking properties of threads to form controllable microfluidic channels. In this study we aim to understand the separation properties of threads, which are important to their microfluidic detection applications for blood analysis. Confocal microscopy was utilized to investigate the effect of the microscale surface morphologies of fibers on the thread's separation efficiency of red blood cells. We demonstrated the remarkably different separation properties of threads made using silk and cotton fibers. Thread separation properties dominate the clarity of blood typing assays of the ABO groups and some of their weak subgroups (Ax and A3). The microfluidic thread-based analytical devices (μTADs) designed in this work were used to accurately type different blood samples, including 89 normal ABO and 6 weak A subgroups. By selecting thread with the right surface morphology, we were able to build μTADs capable of providing rapid and accurate typing of the weak blood groups with high clarity.

  13. Carbohydrate content of human erythrocyte membrane. Variations with ABO-blood group.

    PubMed

    Bladier, D; Perret, G; Baudelot, J; Cornillot, P

    1979-04-01

    The study of the carbohydrates of human erythrocyte membranes has been mainly focused on their glycopeptidic and glycolipidic complexes. Modifications of these carbohydrates have been described in subjects with various pathological states. In order to characterize possible changes of the glycopeptides, or glycolipids obtained from erythrocyte membrane in various pathological situations, the determination of the carbohydrate content of the whole membrane appeared a necessary preliminary. This study concerns the determination of the normal values of the main carbohydrates of whole human erythrocyte membranes, with respect to their blood group. Erythrocyte membranes were prepared from donors of the four ABO blood groups. After acidic hydrolysis, the contents of fucose, mannose, galactose, glucose, glucosamine, galactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid in each blood group were determined and compared with one another. The galactosamine content of A, B and AB erythrocyte membranes is significantly higher than that of the O-erythrocyte. For galactose, the differences are significant for the following pairs: A/O; B/O; AB/O; A/B; A/AB. Significant differences in the mannose contents of O-erythrocytes and A, B and AB erythrocytes have also been found. This result suggests that a basic difference, in the core of the oligosaccharide chains, may exist between O and A, B, AB erythrocyte membranes.

  14. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  15. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  16. Mutations in ABO1/ELO2, a Subunit of Holo-Elongator, Increase Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhizhong; Zhang, Hairong; Jablonowski, Daniel; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Ren, Xiaozhi; Hong, Xuhui; Schaffrath, Raffael; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2006-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in modulating plant growth, development, and stress responses. In a genetic screen for mutants with altered drought stress responses, we identified an ABA-overly sensitive mutant, the abo1 mutant, which showed a drought-resistant phenotype. The abo1 mutation enhances ABA-induced stomatal closing and increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. abo1 mutants are more resistant to oxidative stress than the wild type and show reduced levels of transcripts of several stress- or ABA-responsive genes. Interestingly, the mutation also differentially modulates the development and growth of adjacent guard cells. Map-based cloning identified ABO1 as a new allele of ELO2, which encodes a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Iki3/Elp1/Tot1 and human IκB kinase-associated protein. Iki3/Elp1/Tot1 is the largest subunit of Elongator, a multifunctional complex with roles in transcription elongation, secretion, and tRNA modification. Ecotopic expression of plant ABO1/ELO2 in a tot1/elp1Δ yeast Elongator mutant complements resistance to zymocin, a yeast killer toxin complex, indicating that ABO1/ELO2 substitutes for the toxin-relevant function of yeast Elongator subunit Tot1/Elp1. Our results uncover crucial roles for ABO1/ELO2 in modulating ABA and drought responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:16943431

  17. Does Reduction of Number of Intradetrusor Injection Sites of aboBoNTA (Dysport®) Impact Efficacy and Safety in a Rat Model of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity?

    PubMed Central

    Huynh Le Maux, Amélie; Pignol, Bernadette; Behr-Roussel, Delphine; Blachon, Jean-Luc; Chabrier, Pierre-Etienne; Compagnie, Sandrine; Picaut, Philippe; Bernabé, Jacques; Giuliano, François; Denys, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Intradetrusor injections of Botulinum toxin A—currently onabotulinumtoxinA—is registered as a second-line treatment to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). The common clinical practice is 30 × 1 mL injections in the detrusor; however, protocols remain variable and standardization is warranted. The effect of reducing the number of injection sites of Dysport® abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNTA) was assessed in the spinal cord-injured rat (SCI). Nineteen days post-spinalization, female rats received intradetrusor injections of saline or aboBoNTA 22.5 U distributed among four or eight sites. Two days after injection, continuous cystometry was performed in conscious rats. Efficacy of aboBoNTA 22.5 U was assessed versus aggregated saline groups on clinically-relevant parameters: maximal pressure, bladder capacity, compliance, voiding efficiency, as well as amplitude, frequency, and volume threshold for nonvoiding contractions (NVC). AboBoNTA 22.5 U significantly decreased maximal pressure, without affecting voiding efficiency. Injected in four sites, aboBoNTA significantly increased bladder capacity and compliance while only the latter when in eight sites. AboBoNTA significantly reduced NVC frequency and amplitude. This preclinical investigation showed similar inhibiting effects of aboBoNTA despite the number of sites reduction. Further studies are warranted to optimize dosing schemes to improve the risk-benefit ratio of BoNTA-based treatment modalities for NDO and further idiopathic overactive bladder. PMID:26694464

  18. Incidence and natural history of pure red cell aplasia in major ABO-mismatched haematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Fleur M.; Lichtiger, Benjamin; Bassett, Roland; Liu, Ping; Alousi, Amin; Bashier, Qaiser; Ciurea, Stefan O.; de Lima, Marcos J.; Hosing, Chitra; Kebriaei, Partow; Nieto, Yago; Oran, Betul; Parmar, Simrit; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Shah, Nina; Khouri, Issa; Champlin, Richard E.; Popat, Uday

    2014-01-01

    Summary Major ABO mismatching is not considered a contraindication to allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Modern reduced-intensity conditioning and reduced-toxicity regimens cause much less myeloablation than conventional myeloablative regimens, such as cyclophosphamide with busulfan or total body irradiation, which may affect the incidence of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). We estimated the incidence and described the natural history of PRCA in patients with major ABO-mismatched donor stem cells. Between 2007 and 2008, 161 (27% of all patients undergoing HSCT) underwent allogeneic HSCT with major ABO-mismatched stem cells and 12 (7·5%) of these patients developed PRCA. Thirty and ninety day T-cell and myeloid cell chimerism and neutrophil and platelet engraftment did not differ between patients who developed PRCA and those who did not. The only risk factor associated with PRCA was the use of a fludarabine/busulfan conditioning regimen. All patients with PRCA needed red cell transfusion for several months after HSCT resulting in significant iron overload. Pure red cell aplasia resolved spontaneously in the majority (seven patients) but only resolved after stopping tacrolimus in three patients. Hence, after major ABO-mismatched HSCT, the incidence of PRCA was 7·5% and it resolved spontaneously or after withdrawal of immunosuppression in the majority of patients. PMID:23330820

  19. ABO Blood Group Alleles and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    PubMed Central

    Markt, Sarah C.; Shui, Irene M.; Unger, Robert H.; Urun, Yuksel; Berg, Christine D.; Black, Amanda; Brennan, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Canzian, Federico; Larranga, Nerea; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Naccarati, Alessio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stattin, Par; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ziegler, Regina G.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). Results We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.87-1.08; Type B: OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between ‘dose’ of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Conclusions ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:26268879

  20. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-18

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD.

  1. Postoperative rebound of antiblood type antibodies and antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible living-related kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hideki; Kondo, Tsunenori; Shimizu, Tomokazu; Nozaki, Taiji; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether postoperative antiblood type antibody rebound is attributed to kidney allograft rejection in ABO blood type-incompatible (ABO-I) living-related kidney transplantation (KTx). A total of 191 ABO-I recipients who received ABO-I living-related KTx between 2001 and 2013 were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of low rebound [(≦1:32), N = 170] and Group 2 consisted of high rebound [(≧1:64), N = 21], according to the levels of the rebounded antiblood type antibodies within 1 year after transplantation. No prophylactic treatment for rejection was administered for elevated antiblood type antibodies, regardless of the levels of the rebounded antibodies. Within 1 year after transplantation, T-cell-mediated rejection was observed in 13 of 170 recipients (13/170, 8%) in Group 1 and in 2 of 21 recipients (2/21, 10%) in Group 2 (Groups 1 vs. 2, P = 0.432). Antibody-mediated rejection was observed in 15 of 170 recipients (15/170, 9%) and 2 of 21 recipients (2/21, 10%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.898). In this study, we found no correlation between the postoperative antiblood type antibody rebound and the incidence of acute rejection. We concluded that no treatment is necessary for rebounded antiblood type antibodies.

  2. Single-Center Experience of ABO-Incompatible Living-Donor Liver Transplantation With a New Simplified Intravenous Immunoglobulin Protocol: A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, J D; Choi, D L; Kim, S-G; Lee, A-J

    2016-05-01

    The outcomes of patients who undergo ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have markedly improved as strategies have become more innovative and advanced. Here, we describe 25 cases of ABO-I LDLT with a simplified protocol and compare the outcomes to those of ABO-compatible LDLT. We analyzed outcomes via a retrospective review of 182 adult LDLT cases including 25 ABO-I LDLTs from January 2011 to December 2014. Propensity scoring was used to compare the groups. The desensitization protocol included plasma exchange, rituximab, and intravenous immunoglobulin without local infusion therapy. The triple immunosuppression protocol consisted of tacrolimus and steroids with mycophenolate mofetil; a splenectomy was not routinely performed. The median age of recipients was 51 years (range, 35-66 years), and the median mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 15 (range, 7-37). The initial ranges of isoagglutinin IgM and IgG titers were 1:1 to 1:256 and 1:4 to 1:2048, respectively. There were no significant differences in patient demographics or perioperative variables between the groups. Although significant rebound elevation in anti-ABO antibody during the postoperative period was observed in 3 cases, neither C4d staining nor clinical signs of antibody-mediated rejection was apparent in these cases. No diffuse intrahepatic biliary stricture was encountered in any ABO-I LDLT patient within a mean follow-up of 22.6 ± 17.2 months. Moreover, no significant difference in overall or graft survival was observed between the groups. ABO-I LDLT can be performed safely under this new simplified protocol and may be proposed when ABO-compatible donors are unavailable.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. Results The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (<2+ reaction grade), extra serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. Conclusions ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do. PMID:28028997

  4. Replication and Characterization of Association between ABO SNPs and Red Blood Cell Traits by Meta-Analysis in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Stela; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Charoen, Pimphen; Wong, Andrew; Finan, Chris; Engmann, Jorgen; Shah, Tina; Hersch, Micha; Cavadino, Alana; Jefferis, Barbara J.; Dale, Caroline E.; Hypponen, Elina; Morris, Richard W.; Casas, Juan P.; Kumari, Meena; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Gaunt, Tom R.; Drenos, Fotios; Langenberg, Claudia; Kuh, Diana; Kivimaki, Mika; Rueedi, Rico; Waeber, Gerard; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Price, Jacqueline F.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) traits are routinely measured in clinical practice as important markers of health. Deviations from the physiological ranges are usually a sign of disease, although variation between healthy individuals also occurs, at least partly due to genetic factors. Recent large scale genetic studies identified loci associated with one or more of these traits; further characterization of known loci and identification of new loci is necessary to better understand their role in health and disease and to identify potential molecular mechanisms. We performed meta-analysis of Metabochip association results for six RBC traits—hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell count (RCC)—in 11 093 Europeans from seven studies of the UCL-LSHTM-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium. We identified 394 non-overlapping SNPs in five loci at genome-wide significance: 6p22.1-6p21.33 (with HFE among others), 6q23.2 (with HBS1L among others), 6q23.3 (contains no genes), 9q34.3 (only ABO gene) and 22q13.1 (with TMPRSS6 among others), replicating previous findings of association with RBC traits at these loci and extending them by imputation to 1000 Genomes. We further characterized associations between ABO SNPs and three traits: hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count, replicating them in an independent cohort. Conditional analyses indicated the independent association of each of these traits with ABO SNPs and a role for blood group O in mediating the association. The 15 most significant RBC-associated ABO SNPs were also associated with five cardiometabolic traits, with discordance in the direction of effect between groups of traits, suggesting that ABO may act through more than one mechanism to influence cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27280446

  5. [Social psychological factors of interest in lay personality theories: why is ABO blood-typing popular?].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Y

    2000-12-01

    We hypothesized that one of the reasons that not a few Japanese are interested in lay personality theories of ABO blood-typing and similar unsupported beliefs on human nature, was unsatisfied needs of having clear collective and personal identities. To test the hypothesis, we asked 149 married women, 34 to 62 years of age, to describe themselves as in self introduction to strangers, and then separately indicate the degree of interest in lay personality theories. We then counted the number of references to personal/private aspects (an index of personal identity) and the number to social groups whose membership was known to be exclusive and limited (an index of collective one). Results showed that those who were high on both indices were less interested in lay theories than those low on one or both of personal and collective indices.

  6. Interplay of octahedral distortions in electronic and structural phase transitions in ABO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Rondinelli, James M.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we investigate group-subgroup relationships afforded to ABO3 perovskites from combinations of BO6 distortions - bond stretching and bond angle rotations - with the objective of identifying new pathways for tuning their properties through electron-lattice interactions. Using nickelate and bismuthate perovskite compounds as a template, we decompose their low-symmetry structures into orthonormal symmetry-breaking lattice modes of the parent cubic space group. Statistical analysis of mode decomposition data uncovers previously unappreciated relationships between microscopic octahedral distortion modes and macroscopic physical properties. Finally, we propose novel crystal engineering strategies to study perovskites near phase boundaries that are otherwise extremely difficult to probe experimentally. This project is supported by The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (grant no. N66001-12-4224). The views, opinions, and/or findings reported here are solely those of the authors and do not represent official views of DARPA or DOD.

  7. Pure red-cell aplasia of long duration after major ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Volin, L; Ruutu, T

    1990-01-01

    We describe a patient with an exceptionally long-lasting red-cell aplasia of 330 days following ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Before BMT, the anti-B titre was high, 1:1,024, and it was only temporarily reduced by extensive plasma exchange. The anti-B titre remained above the level of 1:64 for 270 days, and host-derived isoagglutinin could still be detected 3 years after BMT. In vitro bone marrow cultures during the red-cell aplasia showed greatly reduced numbers or total absence of CFU-E, while the number of BFU-E colonies was only moderately subnormal. Six years after BMT, bone marrow and peripheral-blood cell counts are normal.

  8. A case of tacrolimus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy after ABO-blood-type-incompatible renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Asami; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keij; Inaguma, Daizyo; Goto, Norihiko; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Morozumi, Kunio

    2011-07-01

    De novo thrombotic microangiopathy(TMA) is most commonly triggered by calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and the prognosis is less severe than with recurrent TMA. However, it is difficult to distinguish de novo TMA from CNI toxicity and acute antibody-mediated rejection(AMR) soon after renal transplantation. We present a case of tacrolimus-associated TMA soon after ABO blood type incompatible renal transplantation that was difficult to differentiate from acute AMR. On day 9 his urine output decreased dramatically and the Scr level increased. His anti-blood type A antibody titer increased to ×16 postopratively and the tacrolimus trough level was higher than in our immunosuppressive regimen. Although we gave priority to anti-AMR treatment, adequate dose adjustment of tacrolimus after tacrolimus nephrotoxicity was diagnosed from graft biopsy could correct allograft dysfunction.

  9. ABO blood type correlates with survival on prostate cancer vaccine therapy.

    PubMed

    Muthana, Saddam M; Gulley, James L; Hodge, James W; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-13

    Immunotherapies for cancer are transforming patient care, but clinical responses vary considerably from patient to patient. Simple, inexpensive strategies to target treatment to likely responders could substantially improve efficacy while simultaneously reducing health care costs, but identification of reliable biomarkers has proven challenging. Previously, we found that pre-treatment serum IgM to blood group A (BG-A) correlated with survival for patients treated with PROSTVAC-VF, a therapeutic cancer vaccine in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. These results suggested that ABO blood type might influence efficacy. Unfortunately, blood types were not available in the clinical records for all but 8 patients and insufficient amounts of sera were left for standard blood typing methods. To test the hypothesis, therefore, we developed a new glycan microarray-based method for determining ABO blood type. The method requires only 4 μL of serum, provides 97% accuracy, and allows simultaneous profiling of many other serum anti-glycan antibodies. After validation with 220 healthy subjects of known blood type, the method was then applied to 74 PROSTVAC-VF patients and 37 control patients from a phase II trial. In this retrospective study, we found that type B and O PROSTVAC-VF patients demonstrated markedly improved clinical outcomes relative to A and AB patients, including longer median survival, longer median survival relative to Halabi predicted survival, and improved overall survival via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (p = 0.006). Consequently, blood type may provide an inexpensive screen to pre-select patients likely to benefit from PROSTVAC-VF therapy.

  10. ABO-Incompatible Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Hepatitis B Core Antibody Positive Donor to Hepatitis C Liver Cirrhosis Recipient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Yasushi; Wakabayashi, Go

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe an extremely rare experience of a patient with liver cirrhosis from hepatitis C virus (LC-HCV) who underwent an ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (ABO-I-LDLT) using a hepatitis B core antibody (HBc-Ab) positive donor's liver graft. A 47-year-old Japanese woman with end stage LC-HCV, as a recipient, was preoperatively administered rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids without plasma exchange. A routine ABO-I-LDLT procedure was applied using her daughter's HBc-Ab positive liver graft. Prophylaxis of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection using hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and entecavir had been properly administered. Three months after the ABO-I-LDLT, HCV hepatitis relapsed. To date, this patient has been under antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of HBV infection using HBIG, while entecavir has been continued. The cognitions and techniques with regard to ABO-I-LDLT, prophylaxis of HBV cross infection, various patterns of immunosuppression, and antiviral therapy for HCV relapse are indispensable in managing a transplant recipient. According to the prophylaxis of HBV cross infection under ABO-I-LDLT, it may be very important to keep the HBs-Ab titer higher than usual for HBV naïve recipients, because severe systemic immunosuppression can cause de novo hepatitis. PMID:25045572

  11. Quantitative Influence of ABO Blood Groups on Factor VIII and Its Ratio to von Willebrand Factor, Novel Observations from an ARIC Study of 11,673 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Song, Jaewoo; Chen, Fengju; Campos, Marco; Bolgiano, Doug; Houck, Katie; Chambless, Lloyd E; Wu, Kenneth K; Folsom, Aaron R; Couper, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Dong, Jing-fei

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood groups are known to influence the plasma level of von Willebrand factor (VWF), but little is known about the relationship between ABO and coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). We analyzed the influence of ABO genotypes on VWF antigen, FVIII activity, and their quantitative relationship in 11,673 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. VWF, FVIII, and FVIII/VWF levels varied significantly among O, A (A1 and A2), B and AB subjects, and the extent of which varied between Americans of European (EA) and African (AA) descent. We validated a strong influence of ABO blood type on VWF levels (15.2%), but also detected a direct ABO influence on FVIII activity (0.6%) and FVIII/VWF ratio (3.8%) after adjustment for VWF. We determined that FVIII activity changed 0.54% for every 1% change in VWF antigen level. This VWF-FVIII relationship differed between subjects with O and B blood types in EA, AA, and in male, but not female subjects. Variations in FVIII activity were primarily detected at low VWF levels. These new quantitative influences on VWF, FVIII and the FVIII/VWF ratio help understand how ABO genotypes differentially influence VWF, FVIII and their ratio, particularly in racial and gender specific manners.

  12. Rapid Recovery from Chronic PRCA by MSC Infusion in Patient after Major ABO-Mismatched alloSCT.

    PubMed

    Sergeevicheva, Vera; Kruchkova, Irina; Chernykh, Elena; Shevela, Ekaterina; Kulagin, Alexander; Gilevich, Andrey; Lisukov, Igor; Sergeevichev, David; Kozlov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare complication in recipients of allogenic stem cell from ABO incompatible donors. It is characterized by reticulocytopenia and by an absence of red cell cell precursors in the bone marrow. Despite close isohemagglutinins monitoring and standard immunosupressive treatment in these patients prolong PRCA are still associated with severe transfusion dependence. We report the case of a 31 yr old male patient who underwent HLA-matched ABO-mismatched allo-SCT and developed resistance PRCA despite conventional immunosupressive therapy and prophylaxis cotrasplantation of bone marrow derived MSC at day 0. He responded dramatically to therapy with adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells from HSC donors and continued to be transfusion-independent and AML-disease free. This method of the PRCA therapy of deserves further investigation.

  13. Rapid Recovery from Chronic PRCA by MSC Infusion in Patient after Major ABO-Mismatched alloSCT

    PubMed Central

    Sergeevicheva, Vera; Kruchkova, Irina; Chernykh, Elena; Shevela, Ekaterina; Kulagin, Alexander; Gilevich, Andrey; Lisukov, Igor; Sergeevichev, David; Kozlov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare complication in recipients of allogenic stem cell from ABO incompatible donors. It is characterized by reticulocytopenia and by an absence of red cell cell precursors in the bone marrow. Despite close isohemagglutinins monitoring and standard immunosupressive treatment in these patients prolong PRCA are still associated with severe transfusion dependence. We report the case of a 31 yr old male patient who underwent HLA-matched ABO-mismatched allo-SCT and developed resistance PRCA despite conventional immunosupressive therapy and prophylaxis cotrasplantation of bone marrow derived MSC at day 0. He responded dramatically to therapy with adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells from HSC donors and continued to be transfusion-independent and AML-disease free. This method of the PRCA therapy of deserves further investigation. PMID:22778753

  14. Label-free optical sensor based on red blood cells laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy analysis for ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Duo; Zheng, Zuci; Wang, Qiwen; Huang, Hao; Huang, Zufang; Yu, Yun; Qiu, Sufang; Wen, Cuncheng; Cheng, Min; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-10-17

    The clinical significance of ABO blood typing extends beyond transfusion medicine and is demonstrated to be associated with susceptibility to various diseases, even including cancer. In this study, a home-made laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) system was applied to detect red blood cells (RBCs) with the aim to develop a label-free, simple and objective blood typing method for the first time. High-quality Raman spectra of RBCs in the fingerprint region of 420-1700 cm-1 can be obtained, meanwhile exciting blood typing results can be achieved, especially with an accuracy of 100% for identifying Type AB from other blood types with the use of multivariate statistical analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This primary work demonstrates that the label-free RBCs LTRS analysis in conjunction with PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms has great potential as a biosensor for ABO blood typing.

  15. Emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant secondary to fulminant hepatic failure: outcome, role of TPE and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maitta, Robert W; Choate, Jacquelyn; Emre, Sukru H; Luczycki, Stephen M; Wu, Yanyun

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for solid organ transplants has brought to light the need to utilize organs in critical situations despite ABO-incompatibility. However, these transplantations are complicated by pre-existing ABO antibodies which may be potentially dangerous and makes the transplantation prone to failure due to rejection with resulting necrosis or intrahepatic biliary complications. We report the clinical outcome of an emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant (due to fulminant hepatic failure with sudden and rapidly deteriorating mental status) using a modified therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) protocol. The recipient was O-positive with an initial anti-B titer of 64 and the cadaveric organ was from a B-positive donor. The patient underwent initial TPE during the peri-operative period, followed by a series of postoperative daily TPE, and later a third series of TPE for presumptive antibody-mediated rejection. The latter two were performed in conjunction with the use of IVIg and rituximab. The recipient's anti-B titer was reduced and maintained at 8 or less 8 months post-op. However, an elevation of transaminases 3 months post-transplant triggered a biopsy which was consistent with cellular rejection and with weak C4d positive staining suggestive of antibody mediated rejection. Additional plasma exchange procedures were performed. The patient improved rapidly after modification of her immunosuppression regimen and treatment with plasma exchange. This case illustrates that prompt and aggressive plasma exchange, in conjunction with immunosuppression, is a viable approach to prevent and treat antibody mediated transplant rejection in emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant.

  16. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD. PMID:26988722

  17. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Toosi, Parviz; Azimi, Somayyeh; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Montazami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P = 0.46) or Rh (P = 0.76) between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. PMID:27437000

  18. Pure Red Cell Aplasia in Major ABO-Mismatched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Is Associated with Severe Pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Aung, Fleur M; Lichtiger, Benjamin; Rondon, Gabriela; Yin, C Cameron; Alousi, Amin; Ahmed, Sairah; Andersson, Borje S; Bashir, Qaiser; Ciurea, Stefan O; Hosing, Chitra; Jones, Roy; Kebriaei, Partow; Khouri, Issa; Nieto, Yago; Oran, Betul; Parmar, Simrit; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Shah, Nina; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard E; Popat, Uday

    2016-05-01

    In major ABO-mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) persistence of antidonor isohemagglutinins leads to pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). To investigate severe pancytopenia noted in a previous study of PRCA, we analyzed all major ABO-mismatched HSCT between January 2003 and December 2012. Of 83 PRCA patients, 13 (16%) had severe pancytopenia. Severe pancytopenia was defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1.5 K/μL or requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, platelets < 50 K/μL or transfusion dependent, and PRCA with RBC transfusion dependence at post-transplant day 90. In 6 patients (46%) severe pancytopenia resolved after PRCA resolution. Two patients (15%) received a second transplant because of persistent pancytopenia/secondary graft failure, 1 (8%) died from secondary graft failure despite a stem cell boost, 1 (8%) did not recover his platelet counts despite RBC/ANC recovery, and 3 patients (23%) died from disease relapse. We found that severe pancytopenia is frequently associated with PRCA in 16% of major ABO-incompatible HSCT with a higher incidence in males and pancytopenia resolved with resolution of PRCA in 46% of patients.

  19. Phenotypic and allelic profile of ABO and Rhésus D blood group system among blood donor in Antananarivo.

    PubMed

    Randriamanantany, Z A; Rajaonatahina, D H; Razafimanantsoa, F E; Rasamindrakotroka, M T; Andriamahenina, R; Rasoarilalamanarivo, F B; Hanitriniala, S P; Herisoa, F R; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Rakoto Alson, O A

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the phenotypic and allelic profiles of ABO and Rhesus D blood group system among first time blood donors at the National Centre of Blood Supply of Antananarivo. We collected through this retrospective study all data registered during 7 years of practice (from 2003 to 2009). Age and sex were analysed with the result of ABO and RhD screening. They were tested both with Beth Vincent and Simonin tests which were performed in a plate, by using commercial monoclonal antibody (Diaclone(®) et Eryclone(®)), and home-made red cells tests. The Rh D was performed with the same commercial kits. The frequencies of alleles were calculated by using Bernstein method. Data about 45,857 donors were obtained. A male predominance (80.46%) was found and most of our donors were aged <40 (74.92%). 98.90% of the donors were Rh D positive. Phenotypic distribution of each ABO antigen was, respectively, 22.61, 29.66, 6.13 and 41.60% for A, B, AB and O antigen. Allelic frequencies of A, B and O were 0.1559, 0.1987 and 0.6454. These results confirmed the fact that Madagascan population had admixed ethnic origin.

  20. Sample Acquisition and Analytical Chemistry Challenges to Verifying Compliance to Aviators Breathing Oxygen (ABO) Purity Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing two different types of oxygen separation systems. One type of oxygen separation system uses pressure swing technology, the other type uses a solid electrolyte electrochemical oxygen separation cell. Both development systems have been subjected to long term testing, and performance testing under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. Testing these two systems revealed that measuring the product purity of oxygen, and determining if an oxygen separation device meets Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (ABO) specifications is a subtle and sometimes difficult analytical chemistry job. Verifying product purity of cryogenically produced oxygen presents a different set of analytical chemistry challenges. This presentation will describe some of the sample acquisition and analytical chemistry challenges presented by verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator - and verifying oxygen produced by cryogenic separation processes. The primary contaminant that causes gas samples to fail to meet ABO requirements is water. The maximum amount of water vapor allowed is 7 ppmv. The principal challenge of verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator is that it is produced relatively slowly, and at comparatively low temperatures. A short term failure that occurs for just a few minutes in the course of a 1 week run could cause an entire tank to be rejected. Continuous monitoring of oxygen purity and water vapor could identify problems as soon as they occur. Long term oxygen separator tests were instrumented with an oxygen analyzer and with an hygrometer: a GE Moisture Monitor Series 35. This hygrometer uses an aluminum oxide sensor. The user's manual does not report this, but long term exposure to pure oxygen causes the aluminum oxide sensor head to bias dry. Oxygen product that exceeded the 7 ppm specification was improperly accepted, because the sensor had biased. The bias is permanent - exposure to air does not cause the sensor to

  1. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Ground-Water Recharge at Abo Arroyo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Stonestrom, David A.; Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Abo Arroyo, an ephemeral tributary to the Rio Grande, rises in the largest upland catchment on the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB). The 30-kilometer reach of channel between the mountain front and its confluence with the Rio Grande is incised into basin-fill sediments and separated from the regional water table by an unsaturated zone that reaches 120 meters thick. The MRGB portion of the arroyo is dry except for brief flows generated by runoff from the upland catchment. Though brief, ephemeral flows provide a substantial fraction of ground-water recharge in the southeastern portion of the MRGB. Previous estimates of average annual recharge from Abo Arroyo range from 1.3 to 21 million cubic meters. The current study examined the timing, location, and amount of channel infiltration using streamflow data and environmental tracers during a four-year period (water years 1997?2000). A streamflow-gaging station (?gage?) was installed in a bedrock-controlled reach near the catchment outlet to provide high-frequency data on runoff entering the basin. Streamflow at the gage, an approximate bound on potential tributary recharge to the basin, ranged from 0.8 to 15 million cubic meters per year. Storm-generated runoff produced about 98 percent of the flow in the wettest year and 80 percent of the flow in the driest year. Nearly all flows that enter the MRGB arise from monsoonal storms in July through October. A newly developed streambed temperature method indicated the presence and duration of ephemeral flows downstream of the gage. During the monsoon season, abrupt downward shifts in streambed temperatures and suppressed diurnal ranges provided generally clear indications of flow. Streambed temperatures during winter showed that snowmelt is also effective in generating channel infiltration. Controlled infiltration experiments in dry arroyo sediments indicated that most ephemeral flow is lost to seepage before reaching the Rio Grande. Streambed temperature

  2. Association between ABO blood group and osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2014-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine possible associations between ABO blood groups and the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India. This cross-sectional study involved 250 postmenopausal women from North India, ranging in age from 45 to 80 years. Four anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), blood sample (ABO status and haemoglobin concentration) and grip strength (dominant as well as non-dominant hand) of all the participants were taken. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur. Analysis of data revealed that at lumbar spine (L1-L4) osteoporosis was more prevalent among individuals with blood group A (31.58%), followed by those with blood group B (29.67%), AB (28.57%) and then blood group O (15%), whereas for proximal femur individuals with blood group AB (21.43%) showed the highest prevalence of osteoporosis followed by a decreasing trend from blood group A (17.54%) to B (12.08%) and then O (5%). Total prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4% in lumbar spine and 13.2% in proximal femur, indicating that lumbar spine had an elevated risk for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. All the anthropometric variables, haemoglobin concentration as well as grip strength of individuals with blood group O demonstrated non-significant differences with non-O blood group except for weight and body mass index, where differences were statistically significant. Women with blood group O exhibited significantly higher bone mineral density for lumbar spine (0.90 g/cm(2) vs. 0.85 g/cm(2), p<0.05) and proximal femur (0.87 g/cm(2) vs. 0.79 g/cm(2), p<0.05) as compared to those with non-O blood group, thereby suggesting an increasing risk of osteoporosis among individuals with non-O blood group.

  3. Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population.

    PubMed

    Duell, Eric J; Bonet, Catalina; Muñoz, Xavier; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Severi, Gianluca; Canzian, Federico; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Argüelles, Marcial; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Rutch C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Ohlsson, Bodil; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ye, Weimin; Johansson, Matthias; Fenger, Claus; Riboli, Elio; Sala, Núria; González, Carlos A

    2015-02-15

    ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related to GC risk in a European population. The authors conducted an investigation of 32 variants at ABO and FUT1-7 loci and GC risk in a case-control study of 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the EPIC cohort (the EPIC-Eurgast study). Four variants (including rs505922) in ABO, and allelic blood group A (AO+AA, odds ratio=1.84, 95%CI=1.20-2.80) were associated with diffuse-type GC; however, conditional models with other ABO variants indicated that the associations were largely due to allelic blood group A. One variant in FUT5 was also associated with diffuse-type GC, and four variants (and haplotypes) in FUT2 (Se), FUT3 (Le) and FUT6 with intestinal-type GC. Further, one variant in ABO, two in FUT3 and two in FUT6 were associated with H. pylori infection status in controls, and two of these (in FUT3 and FUT6) were weakly associated with intestinal-type GC risk. None of the individual variants surpassed a Bonferroni corrected p-value cutoff of 0.0016; however, after a gene-based permutation test, two loci [FUT3(Le)/FUT5/FUT6 and FUT2(Se)] were significantly associated with diffuse- and intestinal-type GC, respectively. Replication and functional studies are therefore recommended to clarify the role of ABO and FUT alleles in H. pylori infection and subtype-specific gastric carcinogenesis.

  4. A new method for ABO genotyping using fluorescence melting curve analysis based on peptide nucleic acid probes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungmyung; Park, Hyun-Chul; An, Sanghyun; Ahn, Eu-Ree; Lee, Yang-Han; Kim, Mi-Jung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Jae Sin; Jung, Jin Wook; Lim, Sikeun

    2015-09-01

    ABO genotyping has been routinely used to identify suspects or unknown remains in crime investigations. Probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) is a powerful tool for mutation detection and is based on melting temperature shifts due to thermal denaturation. In the present study, we developed a new method for ABO genotyping using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe-based FMCA. This method allowed for the simultaneous detection of three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the ABO gene (nucleotide positions 261, 526, and 803) and the determination of 14 ABO genotypes (A/A, A/O01 or A/O02, A/O03, B/B, B/O01 or B/O02, B/O03, O01/O01 or O01/O02 or O02/O02, O01/O03 or O02/O03, O03/O03, A/B, cis-AB01/A, cis-AB01/B, cis-AB01/O01 or cis-AB01/O02, and cis-AB01/cis-AB01). Using this method, we analyzed 80 samples and successfully identified ABO genotypes (A/A [n=5], A/O01 or A/O02 [n=23], B/B [n=3], B/O01 or B/O02 [n=18], A/B [n=9], O01/O01 or O01/O02 or O02/O02 [n=20], cis-AB01/A [n=1], and cis-AB01/O01 or cis-AB01/O02 [n=1]). In addition, all steps in the method, including polymerase chain reaction, PNA probe hybridization, and FMCA, could be performed in one single closed tube in less than 3h. Since no processing or separation steps were required during analysis, this method was more convenient and rapid than traditional methods and reduced the risk of contamination. Thus, this method may be an effective and helpful tool in forensic investigations.

  5. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect. PMID:25568761

  6. ABO and Rh Blood Type Relationship in Parents with more than One Disabled Child

    PubMed Central

    Mehrmohammadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental blood variables are one of the most important medical-biological causes of intellectual and physical-movement disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between parents’ blood variables (ABO and Rh blood type) and their relationship with frequency of intellectual and physical-movement disabilities in Isfahan province. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive-analytical study and 494 samples were selected from mothers with more than one disabled child and mothers with normal child using simple and multistage random methods. The data collection was done through questionnaire. Based on Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20), the reliability of questionnaire was 0.88. The statistical model in this study was a hierarchical log-linear method. Results There was a significant relationship between mother’s Rh blood and having disabled child (P=0.002). However no significant relationship between having disabled children and the following variables was found: the father’s Rh blood (p=0.2), father and mother’s Rh blood together (P=0.5), father blood type (P=0.56), mother blood type (P=0.42), and mother and father blood types together (P=0.7). Conclusion Maternal and fetal blood incompatibility (motherwith negative Rh blood and fetus with positive Rh blood) increased the likelihood of being born with disabilities. PMID:26985351

  7. ABO-Incompatible Living Donor Kidney Transplantation without Post-Transplant Therapeutic Plasma Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Yabu, J. M.; Fontaine, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Blood group incompatibility remains a significant barrier to kidney transplantation. Approximately one-third of donors are blood group incompatible with their intended recipient. Options for these donor-recipient pairs include blood group incompatible transplantation or kidney paired donation. However, the optimal protocol for blood group incompatible transplantation is unknown. Protocols differ in techniques to remove ABO antibodies, titer targets and immunosuppression regimens. In addition, the mechanisms of graft accommodation to blood group antigens remain poorly understood. We describe a blood group incompatible protocol using pre-transplant therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab in addition to prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. In this protocol, we do not exclude patients based on a high initial titer and do not implement post-transplant TPE. All 16 patients who underwent this protocol received a living donor transplant with 100 percent patient and graft survival, and no reported episodes of antibody-mediated rejection to date with a median follow-up of 2.6 years (range 0.75 to 4.7 years). We conclude that blood group incompatible transplantation can be achieved without post-transplant TPE. PMID:25739580

  8. Temperature-dependent fatigue behaviors of ferroelectric ABO3-type and layered perovskite oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, G. L.; Liu, J.-M.; Wang, Y. P.; Wu, D.; Zhang, S. T.; Shao, Q. Y.; Liu, Z. G.

    2004-04-01

    The temperature-dependent dielectric and ferroelectric fatigue behaviors of ABO3-type perovskite thin films Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) and Pb0.75La0.25TiO3 (PLT) and layered Aurivillius thin films SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) and Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (BLT) with Pt electrodes are studied. The improved fatigue resistance of PZT and PLT at a low temperature can be explained by the defect-induced suppression of domain switch/nucleation near the film/electrode interface, which requires a long-range diffusion of defects and charges. It is argued that the fatigue effect of SBT and BLT is attributed to the competition between domain-wall pinning and depinning. The perovskitelike slabs and/or (Bi2O2)2+ layers act as barriers for long-range diffusion of defects and charges, resulting in localization of the defects and charges. Thus, the fatigued SBT and BLT can be easily rejuvenated by a high electric field over a wide temperature range.

  9. ABO-Incompatible Living Donor Liver Transplantation in Focus of Antibody Rebound

    PubMed Central

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Baerthel, Erik; Juette, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Malessa, Christina; Barz, Dagmar; Settmacher, Utz

    2017-01-01

    Background Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an option to expand the donor organ pool for patients with life-threatening diseases who cannot be supplied with a cadaver organ. Next to the donor risks, complications after ABO-incompatible LDLT (ABOi LDLT) in the recipient are subject to controversial discussion. Improvement in ABOi graft survival rates have been achieved with plasma treatment procedures (PTP) and immunosuppression but antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and graft loss still occur. Methods Since 2008, we have prepared 10 patients for ABOi LDLT. Seven of the 10 patients for transplantation had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results All patients underwent PTP before and after ABOi LDLT as well as immunosuppression according to the treatment schedule. We did not use anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in the transplant setting. We transplanted 6 of 10 preconditioned patients. After 3 years, 5 of the 6 transplanted patients were still alive. Conclusion Even if B-cell depletion with anti-CD 20 treatment in the setting of ABOi LDLT is commonly accepted, our center successfully administered only quadruple drug immunosuppression combined with PTP. Especially patients with HCC had a high titer increment also pre-transplantation and were at high risk for arterial thrombosis and graft loss. PMID:28275333

  10. Current status of liver transplantation across ABO blood-type barrier.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiroto; Ohdan, Hideki; Haga, Hironori; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Oike, Fumitaka; Uemoto, Shinji; Ozawa, Kazue

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes of ABO-blood type incompatible liver transplantation have recently improved owing to various treatments. The typical clinical manifestations of antibody mediated rejection (AMR) are hepatic necrosis and intrahepatic biliary complication (IHBC). The prognosis of AMR is poor. AMR is the result of circulatory disturbance which is caused by injury to the endothelium due to an antibody-antigen-complement reaction. Diffuse C4d staining in the portal capillaries and periportal areas in severe AMR. Since natural antibodies against A/B carbohydrate determinants are likely to develop as a result of exposure to environmental bacteria that express similar determinants, the B-1 lineage has been speculated to be the major population of B-cell types responding to A/B determinants. Calcineurin inhibitors block B-1 cell differentiation. Rituximab can be used to deplete both cells that are producing IgM antibodies and those that have already differentiated into B-1 cells. Mycophenolate mofetil is required to inhibit the production of IgG subclass of antibodies. The outcome is now similar to that of blood-type-matched transplantation. However, there are still issues to be solved in order to further improve the outcome via a decrease of infection.

  11. Transmutation of ABO4 compounds incorporating technetium-99 and caesium-137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, E. Y.; Qin, M. J.; Thorogood, G. J.; Huai, P.; Ren, C. L.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Middleburgh, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The stability of a series of {AB}{{{O}}}4 minerals incorporating radioactive {}99{Tc} during the latter’s β-decay to {}99{Ru} was investigated theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) computations. The compounds investigated were {{KTcO}}4, {{RbTcO}}4 and {{CsTcO}}4. The stability of the latter, {{CsTcO}}4, during transmutation, when the caesium consists of the radioactive isotope {}137{Cs}, was also investigated. For each of the compounds, two similar possible crystal structure types—scheelite and pseudoscheelite—were considered. As the {}99{Tc} decays, or the {}137{Cs} decays to {}137{Ba}, reaction enthalpies were calculated for possible decompositions or precipitations of the transmuting compounds. All the possible decompositions or precipitations investigated had positive reaction enthalpies, suggesting that the transmuting compounds are all chemically stable. Volume and lattice parameter changes, however, suggest that {{KTcO}}4 would also be structurally stable during transmutation to {{KRuO}}4, but that {{CsTcO}}4 would not be structurally stable during its transmutation to {{BaRuO}}4.

  12. ABO blood-typing using an antibody array technique based on surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Houngkamhang, Nongluck; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2013-09-09

    In this study, readily available antibodies that are used in standard agglutination tests were evaluated for their use in ABO blood typing by a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) technique. Five groups of antibodies, including mixed clones of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB, and single clones of anti-A and anti-B, were used to construct the five-line detection arrays using a multichannel flow cell in the SPR imager. The red blood cell (RBC) samples were applied to a multichannel flow cell that was orthogonal to the detection line arrays for blood group typing. We found that the blood samples were correctly grouped in less than 12 min by the SPR imaging technique, and the results were consistent with those of the standard agglutination technique for all 60 samples. We found that mixed clones of antibodies provided 33%-68% greater change in the SPR signal than the single-clone antibodies. Applying the SPR imaging technique using readily available antibodies may reduce the costs of the antibodies, shorten the measurement time, and increase the throughput.

  13. ABO blood groups in oral cancer: a first case-control study in a defined group of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Hajian, Shima; Fadavi, Elnaz; Sabour, Siamak; Baharvand, Maryam; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    The ABO blood group has been recently proposed to influence development of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the type of ABO blood group and oral cancer. In a case-control study, 104 patients with oral cancer were compared with 90 blood donors without cancer as controls. Data regarding the patient demographics, blood groups, Rh status, cancer characteristics and oral habits were also compared between two subgroups of squamous and non-squamous oral cancers. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test, t-student Test and Logistic Regression were used to analyze the relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer. The frequency of blood group B was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than controls (32% vs 13%) (p value=0.01), but Rh factor did not show significant difference between cases and controls. According to Logistic Regression, people with blood group B and those older than 50 had 3.5 and 19.4 times elevated risk of developing oral cancer, respectively. The frequency of squamous cell cancer was also significantly higher in men and people older than 50. On the other hand, females, people under 50, and those with blood group B were at 5.6, 2.9 and 4.3 times higher risk of developing non-squamous cell oral cancer,respectively. People with blood group B are at a greater risk of developing oral cancer, and female patients under 50 years of age with blood group B have the highest risk to develop non-squamous cell oral cancer.

  14. Antigen-Specific versus Non-Antigen-Specific Immunoadsorption in ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Koch, Raphael; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Busch, Veit; Wolters, Heiner; Kelsch, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction ABO-incompatible (ABOi) renal transplantation (RTx) from living donors is an established procedure to expand the donor pool for patients with end stage renal disease. Immunoadsorption (IA) is a standard procedure for the removal of preformed antibodies against the allograft. In this study, antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific IA in ABOi RTx were compared. Patients and Methods 10 patients underwent antigen-specific IA (Glycosorb group) and 13 patients non-antigen-specific IA (Immunosorba group). The effects of both procedures regarding antibody reduction, number of treatments, complications, costs, as well as the allograft function and patient survival were compared between both groups. Results Although the IgG levels were reduced equally by both procedures (p=0.82), the reduction of the IgM level was more effective in the Glycosorb group (p=0.0172). Patients in both groups required a median number of 6 IA before ABOi RTx. Allograft function at one year after AB0i RTx was similar in both groups (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 66 vs. 64 ml/min/1.73m² respectively), with a death-censored graft survival of 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. Complication rates did not differ between procedures. Due to the reuse of non-antigen-specific Immunosorba columns, costs were considerably lower in this group; however, the use of the Immunosorba-based IA was less time-efficient. Conclusion Considering upcoming alternatives as simultaneous performance of dialysis and IA or a possible reuse of Glycosorb columns, this might become less relevant in the future. PMID:26121389

  15. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Tangkawsakul, Wanida; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Baba, Akira

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au) film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B) are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 10(5) cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 10(5) cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 10(8) cells/ml). The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing.

  16. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing

    PubMed Central

    Tangkawsakul, Wanida; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au) film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B) are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 108 cells/ml). The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing. PMID:28101104

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: The relaxational properties of compositionally disordered ABO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, George A.

    2003-03-01

    Random lattice disorder produced by chemical substitution in ABO3 perovskites can lead to the formation of dipolar impurities and defects that have a profound influence on the static and dynamic properties of these materials that are the prototypical soft ferroelectric (FE) mode systems. In these highly polarizable host lattices, dipolar entities form polar nanodomains whose size is determined by the dipolar correlation length, rc, of the host and that exhibit dielectric relaxation in an applied ac field. In the very dilute limit (< 0.1at.%) each domain behaves as a non-interacting dipolar entity with a single relaxation time. At higher concentrations of disorder, however, the domains can interact leading to more complex relaxational behaviour. Among the manifestations of such behaviour is the formation of a glass-like relaxor (R) state, or even an ordered FE state for a sufficiently high concentration of overlapping domains. After a brief discussion of the physics of random-site electric dipoles in dielectrics, this review begins with the simplest cases, namely the relaxational properties of substitutional impurities (e.g., Mn, Fe and Ca) in the quantum paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3. This is followed by discussions of the relaxational properties of Li-and Nb-doped KTaO3 and of the strong relaxors in the PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 and La-substituted PbZr1-xTixO3 families. Some emphasis will be on the roles of pressure and applied dc biasing electric fields in understanding the physics of these materials including the R-to-FE crossover.

  18. Blood group ABO and Lewis antigens in bladder tumors: correlation between glycosyltransferase activity and antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Orntoft, T F; Wolf, H

    1988-01-01

    Pronounced changes in the expression of ABO and Lewis antigens have been observed in transitional cell carcinomas compared with normal urothelium. These changes are associated with changes in the activity of blood-group gene-encoded glycosyltransferases. This paper describes the correlation between blood-group antigen expression and the activity of glycosyltransferases in transitional cell carcinomas. Examined individuals were A1A2BO, Lewis, and secretor typed by the use of blood and saliva. The activity of alpha-2-, and alpha-4-L-fucosyltransferases as well as the alpha-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase were determined as p-moles of labelled sugar incorporated by Lacto-N-biose I and 2'-fucosyllactose, respectively, per 100,000 carcinoma cells. In 3 non-secretors whose erythrocytes types as Le(a+b-), the alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase activity was similar to that in 3 secretors, and the Leb antigen could be demonstrated to be present by monoclonal antibodies, both by immunohistological and immunochemical means. In 11 tumors from A individuals, the A1-transferase was severely reduced in 9 individuals who showed a loss of A antigen expression, and present in 2 individuals with A antigen expression in cytoplasmic vesicles. In conclusion, we demonstrate a good correlation between individual glycosyltransferase activity and expression of blood group Leb and loss of expression of blood group A in transitional cell carcinomas. Immunostaining of neutral glycolipids separated by TLC showed the Leb-active glycolipids to be simple hexa-saccharides in both secretors and non-secretors.

  19. Automated ABO Rh-D blood type detection using smartphone imaging for point-of-care medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya; Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya; Srivathsa, Neha; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel methodology for automated ABO Rh-D blood typing using simple morphological image processing algorithms to be used in conjunction with a fabric strip based rapid diagnostic test. Images of the fabric strip post testing are acquired using low cost mobile phones and the proposed algorithm proceeds to automatically identify the blood type by processing the images using steps comprising of noise reduction, range filtering and empirically derived heuristics. The ultimate goal is to provide a simple mobile phone application to enable automated, rapid and accessible blood type detection at the point-of-care.

  20. Tailoring the Two Dimensional Electron Gas at Polar ABO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces for Oxide Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changjian; Liu, Zhiqi; Lü, Weiming; Wang, Xiao Renshaw; Annadi, Anil; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Shengwei; Ariando; Venkatesan, T.

    2015-01-01

    The 2D electron gas at the polar/non-polar oxide interface has become an important platform for several novel oxide electronic devices. In this paper, the transport properties of a wide range of polar perovskite oxide ABO3/SrTiO3 (STO) interfaces, where ABO3 includes LaAlO3, PrAlO3, NdAlO3, NdGaO3 and LaGaO3 in both crystalline and amorphous forms, were investigated. A robust 4 unit cell (uc) critical thickness for metal insulator transition was observed for crystalline polar layer/STO interface while the critical thickness for amorphous ones was strongly dependent on the B site atom and its oxygen affinity. For the crystalline interfaces, a sharp transition to the metallic state (i.e. polarization catastrophe induced 2D electron gas only) occurs at a growth temperature of 515 °C which corresponds to a critical relative crystallinity of ~70 ± 10% of the LaAlO3 overlayer. This temperature is generally lower than the metal silicide formation temperature and thus offers a route to integrate oxide heterojunction based devices on silicon. PMID:26307382

  1. Tailoring the Two Dimensional Electron Gas at Polar ABO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces for Oxide Electronics.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjian; Liu, Zhiqi; Lü, Weiming; Wang, Xiao Renshaw; Annadi, Anil; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Shengwei; Ariando; Venkatesan, T

    2015-08-26

    The 2D electron gas at the polar/non-polar oxide interface has become an important platform for several novel oxide electronic devices. In this paper, the transport properties of a wide range of polar perovskite oxide ABO3/SrTiO3 (STO) interfaces, where ABO3 includes LaAlO3, PrAlO3, NdAlO3, NdGaO3 and LaGaO3 in both crystalline and amorphous forms, were investigated. A robust 4 unit cell (uc) critical thickness for metal insulator transition was observed for crystalline polar layer/STO interface while the critical thickness for amorphous ones was strongly dependent on the B site atom and its oxygen affinity. For the crystalline interfaces, a sharp transition to the metallic state (i.e. polarization catastrophe induced 2D electron gas only) occurs at a growth temperature of 515 °C which corresponds to a critical relative crystallinity of ~70 ± 10% of the LaAlO3 overlayer. This temperature is generally lower than the metal silicide formation temperature and thus offers a route to integrate oxide heterojunction based devices on silicon.

  2. Tailoring the Two Dimensional Electron Gas at Polar ABO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces for Oxide Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changjian; Liu, Zhiqi; Lü, Weiming; Wang, Xiao Renshaw; Annadi, Anil; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Shengwei; Ariando; Venkatesan, T.

    2015-08-01

    The 2D electron gas at the polar/non-polar oxide interface has become an important platform for several novel oxide electronic devices. In this paper, the transport properties of a wide range of polar perovskite oxide ABO3/SrTiO3 (STO) interfaces, where ABO3 includes LaAlO3, PrAlO3, NdAlO3, NdGaO3 and LaGaO3 in both crystalline and amorphous forms, were investigated. A robust 4 unit cell (uc) critical thickness for metal insulator transition was observed for crystalline polar layer/STO interface while the critical thickness for amorphous ones was strongly dependent on the B site atom and its oxygen affinity. For the crystalline interfaces, a sharp transition to the metallic state (i.e. polarization catastrophe induced 2D electron gas only) occurs at a growth temperature of 515 °C which corresponds to a critical relative crystallinity of ~70 ± 10% of the LaAlO3 overlayer. This temperature is generally lower than the metal silicide formation temperature and thus offers a route to integrate oxide heterojunction based devices on silicon.

  3. Persistently low transplantation rate of ABO blood type O and highly sensitised patients despite alternative transplantation programs.

    PubMed

    Roodnat, Joke I; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; Claas, Frans H; Ijzermans, Jan; Weimar, Willem

    2012-09-01

    ABO blood type O and highly sensitised patients have the smallest chance to receive kidney transplantation. Do alternative donation programs increase this chance? In the period studied: 2323 patients were enlisted on the Rotterdam waiting list for a renal transplantation: 435 patients still waiting (WL), 464 delisted without transplantation (DWT). 1424 received deceased donor (DD, 535) or living donor (LD, 889, including 204 alternative) transplantation. Alternative LD programs in our centre are: paired kidney-exchange, altruistic with domino-paired donation and ABO-incompatible donation (ABOi). Compared to populations not transplanted, blood type O recipients are significantly underrepresented in DD and all LD transplantation populations, except the ABOi program. Highly sensitised patients are overrepresented in DD, but underrepresented in all LD transplantation populations. The high transplantation rate of highly sensitised patients was the result of Eurotransplant Acceptable mismatch program (AM). The LD ABOi and DD AM programs are the only alternative donation programs favourable for patients with low chances. While the contribution of direct LD transplantations will increase in time, the relative success rate of low-chance patients will decrease. Beside increasing LD ABOi transplantation, a new DD allocation model favouring both highly immunised and blood type O patients is essential.

  4. A novel paper-based assay for the simultaneous determination of Rh typing and forward and reverse ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Noiphung, Julaluk; Talalak, Kwanrutai; Hongwarittorrn, Irin; Pupinyo, Naricha; Thirabowonkitphithan, Pannawich; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-05-15

    We propose a new, paper-based analytical device (PAD) for blood typing that allows for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups on the same device. The device was successfully fabricated by using a combination of wax printing and wax dipping methods. A 1:2 blood dilution was used for forward grouping, whereas whole blood could be used for reverse grouping. A 30% cell suspension of A-cells or B-cells was used for haemagglutination on the reverse grouping side. The total assay time was 10 min. The ratio between the distance of red blood cell movement and plasma separation is the criterion for agglutination and indicates the presence of the corresponding antigen or antibody. The proposed PAD has excellent reproducibility in that the same blood groups, namely A, AB, and O, were reported by using different PADs that were fabricated on the same day (n=10). The accuracy for detecting blood group A (n=12), B (n=13), AB (n=9), O (n=14), and Rh (n=48) typing were 92%, 85%, 89%, 93%, and 96%, respectively, in comparison with the conventional slide test method. The haematocrit of the sample affects the accuracy of the results, and appropriate dilution is suggested before typing. In conclusion, this study proposes a novel method that is straightforward, time-saving, and inexpensive for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups, which is promising for use in developing countries.

  5. Impact of ABO Incompatibility on the Development of Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients Presensitized to HLA.

    PubMed

    Chung, Byung Ha; Joo, Yu Young; Lee, Jaesin; Kim, Hyung Duk; Kim, Ji-Il; Moon, In Sung; Choi, Bum Soon; Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo

    2015-01-01

    Whether the coexistence of anti-A/B antibody and donor specific anti-HLA antibody (HLA-DSA) has a synergistic impact on the development of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) is unclear. This study includes 92 KTRs who received a kidney from an ABO-incompatible (ABOi) donor or were presensitized to donor HLA (HLAs) and 292 controls (CONT). HLAs was defined as a crossmatch positivity or the presence of HLA-DSA. We compared the incidence of AAMR among ABOi (n = 58), ABOi+HLAs (n = 12), HLAs (n = 22), and CONT (n = 292) groups and evaluated the risk factors and antibody type (anti-A/B vs. HLA-DSA) responsible for AAMR. AAMR developed less frequently in ABOi and CONT than in the ABOi+HLAs or HLAs (P < 0.05 for all); however, there was no difference between the ABOi+HLAs and HLAs groups. AAMR developed more frequently with strong HLA-DSA at baseline; however, high baseline anti-A/B titer did not affect AAMR development. Strong baseline HLA-DSA was an independent predictor for AAMR, however the baseline anti-A/B titer was not. All four AAMR episodes in ABOi+HLAs were positive to HLA-DSA but not to anti-A/B. In conclusion, ABO incompatibility does not increase the risk for AAMR in HLAs KTRs.

  6. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. Aim To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Materials and Methods Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Conclusion Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination. PMID:27042574

  7. [Hemolytic anemia caused by graft-versus-host reaction in ABO-nonidentical renal transplants from blood group O donors].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C; Navascués, R A

    2001-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia is one of the side effects associated with cyclosporin and tacrolimus therapy, and three mechanisms have been described to account for hemolytic anemia in patients receiving these drugs: drug induced hemolysis, autoimmune hemolysis and alloimmune hemolysis resulting from donor lymphocytes derived from the allograft (passenger lymphocyte syndrome). We report four cases of renal transplant recipients who developed alloimmune hemolytic anemia due to minor ABO incompatibility while under treatment with cyclosporin (two) and tacrolimus (two). The anti-erythrocyte antibodies responsible for hemolysis were of the IgG isotype and showed anti-A or anti-B specificity. These findings suggest that the hemolysis could be related to alloantibodies derived from the clonal development of donor B lymphocytes in the recipients (microchimerism). In summary, hemolytic anemia due to ABO-minor incompatibility occurs infrequently after renal transplantation. Risks are higher for patients A, B or AB blood group receiving an O blood group graft under treatment with cyclosporin or tacrolimus. Follow-up of these patients is warranted for the early detection and optimal management may be achieved by reduction of immunosuppression and change to mycophenolate mofetil.

  8. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  9. ABO-blood type incompatible living donor liver transplantation in a patient with Budd-Chiari Syndrome secondary to essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Amano, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Igarashi, Yuki; Ide, Kentarou; Oshita, Akihiko; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) results from diverse causative factors. Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) account for a minority of BCS cases in Japan. ABO-blood-type incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in adults has become an acceptable procedure owing to the development of new strategies for preventing antibody-mediated rejection. This report presents a rare case of BCS secondary to ET, which was cured by an ABO-incompatible (AB to A) LDLT. In this case, prostaglandin E(1) and gabexate mesilate were administered into portal vein and rituximab prophylaxis was applied. No splenectomy was performed as it is in most ABO-incompatible cases, since a flow cytometry showed no anti-B antibodies in the splenocytes collected by a wedge biopsy during the LDLT. The postoperative course was uneventful. Anti-coagulation therapy was initiated with aspirin and warfarin instead of hydroxyurea. This report describes an ABO-incompatible LDLT without a splenectomy for BCS secondary to ET.

  10. Pilot conversion trial from mycophenolic acid to everolimus in ABO-incompatible kidney-transplant recipients with BK viruria and/or viremia.

    PubMed

    Belliere, Julie; Kamar, Nassim; Mengelle, Catherine; Allal, Asma; Sallusto, Federico; Doumerc, Nicolas; Game, Xavier; Congy-Jolivet, Nicolas; Esposito, Laure; Debiol, Benedicte; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-03-01

    Immunosuppression using everolimus (EVR) plus low-dose tacrolimus (Tac) is commonly used in organ transplantation. EVR has potential antiviral effects. Herein, the long-term outcomes and impacts of Tac-EVR on the BK virus are reported in ABO-incompatible kidney-transplant recipients. The initial immunosuppressive regimen combined steroids, Tac, and mycophenolic acid (MPA). At a median of 141 (34-529) days post-transplantation, seven stable ABO-incompatible kidney-transplant recipients were converted from MPA to EVR because of active BK replication, and compared with a reference group of fourteen ABO-incompatible patients receiving classical Tac plus MPA. At 1 month before conversion, at 1, 3 months after, and at last follow-up, clinical and biological parameters were monitored. The median time from conversion to the last follow-up was 784 (398-866) days. Conversion to EVR caused no change to rejection episodes or immunological status (isoagglutinin titers, anti-HLA antibodies). At last follow-up, median eGFR was similar in the Tac-MPA versus Tac-EVR group (40 [range: 14-56] vs. 54.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) [range: 0-128], P = 0.07). The major adverse event was dyslipidemia. Interestingly, conversion from MPA to EVR decreased BK viral load in five patients. ABO-incompatible kidney-transplant recipients with an active BK virus infection may benefit from conversion to EVR.

  11. Humoral graft-versus-host disease after pancreas transplantation with an ABO-compatible and Rh-nonidentical donor. Case report and a rationale for preoperative screening.

    PubMed

    Sindhi, R; Landmark, J; Stratta, R J; Cushing, K; Taylor, R J

    1996-05-15

    Severe hemolysis and graft ischemia complicating solitary pancreas transplantation with an ABO-compatible, Rh-negative, anti-D-positive donor to Rh-positive recipient is described in this article. A brief review of the literature is presented. A rationale for preoperative screening for red cell antibodies during solid organ transplantation in this special setting is discussed.

  12. Prognostic Correlations between ABO Blood Group and Pre-Treatment Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to assess the prognostic value of ABO blood group in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data on 1397 patients with non-metastatic, newly diagnosed NPC treated using IMRT. Patient survival between different ABO blood groups were compared using log-rank test. Cox hazards model was adopted to establish independent prognostic factors. Results In our study, the distribution of the A, B, AB and O blood groups was 26.6% (372/1397), 26.2% (366/1397), 5.2% (73/1397) and 42.0% (586/1397), respectively. The cut-off value of pre-treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA based on disease-free survival (DFS) was 1355 copies/ml (area under curve [AUC], 0.649; sensitivity, 0.76; specificity, 0.496) for the whole cohort. Estimated four-year DFS, overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) rates were 81.7%, 89.2%, 89.4% and 92.3% for blood group A; 82.1%, 89.3%, 89.0% and 92.0% for group B; 83.3%, 88.1%, 86.2% and 95.5% for group AB, 80.9%, 90.7%, 88.4% and 90.2% for group O (P > 0.05 for all rates). Multivariate analysis revealed ABO blood group was not an independent prognostic factor for DFS, OS, DMFS or LRRFS (P > 0.05 for all rates) after adjusting for plasma EBV DNA in either the whole cohort or subgroup analysis by gender. Conclusions The prognostic value of ABO blood group may be limited for patients with NPC in the era of IMRT, and no substantial correlation between ABO blood group and plasma EBV DNA was observed. PMID:27835689

  13. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  14. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S.; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Context: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. Aims: This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Results: Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh −ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. Conclusions: The knowledge of distribution of

  15. Major non-ABO incompatibility caused by anti-Jk(a) in a patient before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, M Y; Chaudhary, P; Shulman, I A; Pullarkat, V

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old white man with blood group AB, D+ was found to have alloanti-Jk(a) and -K when he developed a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Given that his stem cell donor was blood group O, D+, Jk(a+), K-, rituximab was added to his conditioning regimen of fludarabine and melphalan to prevent hemolysis of engrafting Jk(a+) donor red blood cells. The patient proceeded to receive a peripheral blood stem cell transplant from a matched unrelated donor with no adverse events. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successful management of major non-ABO incompatibility caused by anti-Jk(a) in a patient receiving an allogeneic HSCT reported in the literature.

  16. Comparison of Total and IgG ABO Antibody Titers in Healthy Individuals by Using Tube and Column Agglutination Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Su; Jo, Kyung Il; Park, Rojin; Choi, Tae Yoon; Bang, Hae In; Chai, Gum Ran; Yun, Soon Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Most immune reactions related to transfusion and transplantation are caused by IgM ABO antibodies. However, IgG also plays an important role in these reactions. Therefore, a method to measure antibodies, including IgG, is necessary. We investigated ABO antibody titers of healthy individuals using a column agglutination technique (CAT) with or without dithiothreitol (DTT) and compared them with titers obtained using a conventional tube method. Methods Among healthy adults who underwent a medical examination, 180 individuals (60 with blood group A, 60 with group B, and 60 with group O) were selected. Antibody titrations were performed using the immediate spin (IS) tube, anti-human globulin (AHG) tube, and CAT with or without DTT methods. Results Higher median values of anti-B and anti-A titers in groups A and B individuals, respectively, were obtained using the IS method than using the AHG method. Higher values for group O individuals were obtained using the AHG method. Higher median titers of anti-B and anti-A in group O individuals were obtained using CAT without DTT than using the AHG method. Median titers of anti-B and anti-A in all blood groups were higher in CAT without DTT than in CAT with DTT, especially for group O individuals. Conclusions We recommend CAT with and without DTT for titration of anti-A and anti-B, especially in group O individuals, to provide more sensitive results that include IgG data. Adjustment of insurance coverage of fees associated with antibody titration might be necessary, considering the actual cost of reagents and personnel. PMID:24790910

  17. Prospective study of ABO blood type and the risk of pulmonary embolism in two large cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Brian M; Kabrhel, Christopher; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Kraft, Peter; Rimm, Eric B; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Camargo, Carlos A; Fuchs, Charles S

    2010-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested an association of ABO blood type and the risk of venous thromboembolism; however, most studies were retrospective and lacked important covariates or validated endpoints. Moreover, risk estimates varied widely across studies. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association of blood type and the risk of incident pulmonary embolism (PE) in two large cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. During 1,010,378 person-years of follow-up among 77,025 women and 30,105 men, 499 participants developed PE. Compared to those with O-blood type, participants with non-O blood type had multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.86 (95% CI, 1.35-2.57) for idiopathic PE, 1.29 (95% CI, 1.03-1.62) for non-idiopathic PE, and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.22-1.76) for any PE. Hazard ratios were similar for participants with blood types A, B, and AB. Age-adjusted absolute rates of idiopathic PE over 10 years of follow-up differed by blood type: 0.11% for O, 0.20% for A, 0.19% for AB, and 0.21% for B. For idiopathic PE, the population attributable fraction was 33% for inheritance of non-O blood type. Among past and current smokers, participants with non-O vs. O-blood type had a HR for idiopathic PE of 2.56 (95% CI, 1.61-4.08). Among never smokers, the HR for idiopathic PE was 1.30 (95% CI, 0.82-2.05; P interaction=0.04). In two large, prospective cohorts, ABO blood type was significantly associated with the risk of idiopathic and non-idiopathic PE, with even greater risk for idiopathic PE among current and past smokers with non-O blood type.

  18. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    PubMed

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing.

  19. DNA extraction for short tandem repeat typing from mixed samples using anti-human leukocyte CD45 and ABO blood group antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shizue; Honda, Katsuya; Kaminiwa, Junko; Nishi, Takeki; Iwabuchi, Yayoi; Sugano, Yukiko; Kurosu, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    DNA testing from mixed cell samples can be difficult to use successfully in criminal investigations. Here, we present a method for the extraction of DNA from mixed bloodstains involving plural contributors, after antibody-microbead captured cell separation. This method, together with the multiplex short tandem repeat typing presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles corresponding to the ABO blood type. Methodological steps include magnetic separation using leukocyte specific CD45 antibody-coated microbeads and centrifugal separation of leukocyte agglutination by ABO antibody. The detection results of variable mixed ratio showed that the target DNA was detected accurately as low as 1:512 mixed ratio, regardless of the large amount of the background DNA present. The method presented here is applicable to PCR-based identification for various kinds of mixed samples.

  20. Risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects is influenced by ABO blood group and cagA status.

    PubMed

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kato, Ikuko; Plummer, Martyn; Muñoz, Nubia; Stein, Angelika; Jan van Doorn, Leen; Franceschi, Silvia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-07-15

    A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For our study, we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2,077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene, and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of IM or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared to subjects carrying cagA negative strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95% CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (p=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status.

  1. Pure red cell aplasia after ABO major-mismatched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation successfully treated with plasma exchange and low-dose steroid: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hui-Jen; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Liu, Ta-Chih; Chang, Chao-Sung; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Chen, Tyen-Po

    2004-03-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a complication of ABO-incompatible allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The mechanism is not well known, although the isoagglutinin titer before transplantation or cyclosporine use is considered to be the cause. Patients with this complication require more blood transfusions than those without it. There is no standard treatment. We report two cases of PRCA after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that were successfully treated with plasma exchange and low-dose steroid.

  2. Risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects is influenced by ABO blood group and cagA status

    PubMed Central

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kato, Ikuko; Plummer, Martyn; Muñoz, Nubia; Stein, Angelika; van Doorn, Leen Jan; Franceschi, Silvia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-01-01

    A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For this study we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared with subjects carrying cagA− strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95%CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (P=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status. PMID:23319424

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies That the ABO Blood Group System Influences Interleukin-10 Levels and the Risk of Clinical Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Åsa; Alfredsson, Jenny; Eriksson, Niclas; Wallentin, Lars; Siegbahn, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. We have previously shown that increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels are associated with poor outcome in ACS patients. Method We performed a genome-wide association study in 2864 ACS patients and 408 healthy controls, to identify genetic variants associated with IL-10 levels. Then haplotype analyses of the identified loci were done and comparisons to levels of IL-10 and other known ACS related biomarkers. Results Genetic variants at the ABO blood group locus associated with IL-10 levels (top SNP: rs676457, P = 4.4 × 10−10) were identified in the ACS patients. Haplotype analysis, using SNPs tagging the four main ABO antigens (A1, A2, B and O), showed that O and A2 homozygous individuals, or O/A2 heterozygotes have much higher levels of IL-10 compared to individuals with other antigen combinations. In the ACS patients, associations between ABO antigens and von Willebrand factor (VWF, P = 9.2 × 10−13), and soluble tissue factor (sTF, P = 8.6 × 10−4) were also found. In the healthy control cohort, the associations with VWF and sTF were similar to those in ACS patients (P = 1.2 × 10−15 and P = 1.0 × 10−5 respectively), but the healthy cohort showed no association with IL-10 levels (P>0.05). In the ACS patients, the O antigen was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, all causes of death, and recurrent myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24–1.29, P = 0.029–0.00067). Conclusion Our results suggest that the ABO antigens play important roles, not only for the immunological response in ACS patients, but also for the outcome of the disease. PMID:26600159

  4. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations.

  5. The evaluation of histo-blood group ABO typing by flow cytometric and PCR-amplification of specific alleles analyses and their application in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Aki, Kensaku; Izumi, Azusa; Hosoi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    ABO antigens are oligosaccharide antigens, and are widely distributed on red blood and tissue cells as well as in saliva and body fluid. Therefore, these antigens are important not only for blood transfusion, but also for tissue cell and organ transplantations. Also, blood, hair, and seminal fluid are important sources of evidence at crime scenes, and these antigens are some of the most important markers for personal identification in forensic investigations. Here, we describe the development and use of quantitative analysis of A, B, and H antigens on red blood cells by employing flow cytometric analysis and the ABO genotyping method based on PCR-amplification of specific alleles (PASA) within DNA, especially from blood and saliva. In this study, flow cytometric analysis could be used to compare the differences between the expression of A and/or B and H antigens on red blood cells with various phenotypes, and the PASA method was able to determine the genotype of the type cisA(2)B(3) pedigree using only DNA extracted from saliva. These analysis methods are simple and useful for judging the ABO blood group system and genotyping, and are used widely throughout research and clinical laboratories and forensic fields.

  6. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amundadottir, Laufey; Kraft, Peter; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Bamlet, William; Berg, Christine D.; Berrino, Franco; Bingham, Sheila; Buring, Julie E.; Bracci, Paige M.; Canzian, Federico; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Clipp, Sandra; Cotterchio, Michelle; de Andrade, Mariza; Duell, Eric J.; Fox, John W.; Gallinger, Steven; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; González, Carlos A.; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hassan, Manal; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jackson, Rebecca; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Klein, Alison P.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kurtz, Robert C.; Li, Donghui; Lynch, Shannon M.; Mandelson, Margaret; McWilliams, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Olson, Sara H.; Overvad, Kim; Patel, Alpa V.; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Thomas, Gilles; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer, a cancer with one of the poorest survival rates worldwide. Initially, we genotyped 558,542 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,896 incident cases and 1,939 controls drawn from twelve prospective cohorts plus one hospital-based case-control study. In a combined analysis adjusted for study, sex, ancestry and five principal components that included an additional 2,457 cases and 2,654 controls from eight case-control studies, we identified an association between a locus on 9q34 and pancreatic cancer marked by the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs505922 (combined P=5.37 × 10-8; multiplicative per-allele odds ratio (OR) 1.20; 95% CI 1.12-1.28). This SNP maps to the first intron of the ABO blood group gene. Our results are consistent with earlier epidemiologic evidence suggesting that people with blood group O may have a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than those with groups A or B. PMID:19648918

  7. A case of uneventful ABO-incompatible liver transplantation from a deceased donor managed with routine immunosuppressive treatment.

    PubMed

    Tümgör, Gökhan; Tuncer, Recep; Yıldızdaş, Dinçer; Ülkü, Abdullah; Akcam, Atılgan Tolga; Demiryürek, Haluk

    2014-12-01

    ABO-incompatible liver transplantation (ILT) was formerly contraindicated because of the increased risk of antibody-mediated humoral graft rejection due to preformed anti-A/-B antibodies on recipient endothelial cells. A 2.5-year-old girl with end-stage liver disease underwent cadaveric donation ILT because of acute liver failure and esophageal variceal bleeding before transplantation. The patient's blood type was A Rh (-) and the donor's blood type B Rh (+). The operation and postoperative course were uneventful. The immunosuppression consisted of steroids, and tacrolimus was initiated on the day of the surgery. The patient's hemoglobin level did not change, and direct Coombs test performed daily was consistently negative. Anti-B titer was observed at a maximum of 1/8. The patient was followed up during the first year. This case of ILT from a cadaveric donor is significant because the 2.5-year-old recipient did not experience any complications after undergoing routine immunosuppressive treatment.

  8. Design of allele-specific primers and detection of the human ABO genotyping to avoid the pseudopositive problem.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Hidenobu; Yukimasa, Tetsuo; Nakano, Shu-ichi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Oka, Hiroaki

    2008-11-01

    PCR experiments using DNA primers forming mismatch pairing with template lambda DNA at the 3' end were carried out in order to develop allele-specific primers capable of detecting SNP in genomes without generating pseudopositive amplification products, and thus avoiding the so-called pseudopositive problem. Detectable amounts of PCR products were obtained when primers forming a single or two mismatch pairings at the 3' end were used. In particular, 3' terminal A/C or T/C (primer/template) mismatches tended to allow PCR amplification to proceed, resulting in pseudopositive results in many cases. While less PCR product was observed for primers forming three terminal mismatch pairings, target DNA sequences were efficiently amplified by primers forming two mismatch pairings next to the terminal G/C base pairing. These results indicate that selecting a primer having a 3' terminal nucleotide that recognizes the SNP nucleotide and the next two nucleotides that form mismatch pairings with the template sequence can be used as an allele-specific primer that eliminates the pseudopositive problem. Trials with the human ABO genes demonstrated that this primer design is also useful for detecting a single base pair difference in gene sequences with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 45.

  9. [Time course of morphological changes in humoral renal allograft rejection in ABO incompatibility between donor and recipient].

    PubMed

    Morozova, M M; Kozmin, L D; Fedorov, D N; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and five biopsy specimens taken in different periods after 34 ABO-incompatible mismatched related kidney transplantations were examined to establish the patterns of humoral activity from the morphological changes and expression of C4d deposits in the peritubular capillaries. Severe reversible forms of acute humoral rejection (AHR) (2 patients) and minimal morphological manifestations (13 patients) were observed in the biopsy specimens taken as long as 2 months later in Group 1 (C4d+). In the early period, the minimal manifestations of AHR did not cause organ dysfunction; but in the late period, 5 of them developed chronic humoral rejection in persistent humoral activity; 4 grafts were removed 531,720, 1019, and 1252 days later. Group 2 (C4d-) (n = 19) showed no graft losses or significant chronic changes; the late minimal manifestations of AHR had no impact on the duration of organ function in 3 recipients. The timely detection of early humoral activity and minimal manifestations of AHR is needed for the measures taken to reduce a risk for late function loss of the grafted organ.

  10. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion.

  11. Genetic admixture of eight Mexican indigenous populations: based on five polymarker, HLA-DQA1, ABO, and RH loci.

    PubMed

    Buentello-Malo, Leonora; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the genetic admixture of eight Mexican indigenous populations (Otomi-Ixmiquilpan, Otomi-Actopan, Tzeltales, Nahua-Milpa-Alta, Nahua-Xochimilco, Nahua-Zitlala, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, and Nahua-Coyolillo) on the basis of five PCR-based polymorphic DNA loci (LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC), HLA_DQA1, and the blood groups ABO and Rh (CcDEe). Among the indigenous populations, the highest gene frequencies for O and D were 0.9703 and 1.000 for Zitlala (State of Guerrero) and 0.9955 and 0.9414 for Tzeltales (State of Chiapas), respectively. Maximum likelihood estimates of admixture components yield a trihybrid model with Amerindian (assuming that Nahua-Zitlala is the most representative indigenous population), Spanish, and African ancestry with the admixture proportions: 93.03, 6.03, and 0.94 for Tzeltales, and 28.99, 44.03, and 26.98 for Coyolillo. A contribution of the ancestral populations of Ixhuatlancillo, Actopan, Ixmiquilpan, Milpa-Alta, and Xochimilco were found with the following average of admixture proportions: 75.84, 22.50, and 1.66. The findings herein demonstrate that the genetic admixture of the Mexican indigenous populations who at present speak the same Amer-Indian language can be differentiated and that the majority of them have less ancestral indigenous contribution than those considered as Mestizo populations.

  12. Difference in outcomes after antibody-mediated rejection between abo-incompatible and positive cross-match transplantations.

    PubMed

    Couzi, Lionel; Manook, Miriam; Perera, Ranmith; Shaw, Olivia; Ahmed, Zubir; Kessaris, Nicos; Dorling, Anthony; Mamode, Nizam

    2015-10-01

    Graft survival seems to be worse in positive cross-match (HLAi) than in ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation. However, it is not entirely clear why these differences exist. Sixty-nine ABOi, 27 HLAi and 10 combined ABOi+HLAi patients were included in this retrospective study, to determine whether the frequency, severity and the outcome of active antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) were different. Five-year death-censored graft survival was better in ABOi than in HLAi and ABOi+HLAi patients (99%, 69% and 64%, respectively, P = 0.0002). Features of AMR were found in 38%, 95% and 100% of ABOi, HLAi and ABOi+HLAi patients that had a biopsy, respectively (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001). After active AMR, a declining eGFR and graft loss were observed more frequently in HLAi and HLAi+ABOi than in ABOi patients. The poorer prognosis after AMR in HLAi and ABOi+HLAi transplantations was not explained by a higher severity of histological lesions or by a less aggressive treatment. In conclusion, ABOi transplantation offers better results than HLAi transplantation, partly because AMR occurs less frequently but also because outcome after AMR is distinctly better. HLAi and combined ABOi+HLAi transplantations appear to have the same outcome, suggesting there is no synergistic effect between anti-A/B and anti-HLA antibodies.

  13. Reassessment of ABO blood group, sex, and age on laboratory parameters used to diagnose von Willebrand disorder: potential influence on the diagnosis vs the potential association with risk of thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Soltani, Soma; McDonald, Jane; Grezchnik, Ella; Easton, Leanne; Favaloro, James W C

    2005-12-01

    We reassessed the influence of ABO blood group, sex, and age on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen, vWF:ristocetin cofactor, vWF:collagen binding assay, and factor VIII coagulant (FVIII:C). Data show that levels of vWF and FVIII:C increase with increasing age (P < .001 for all parameters) and that the ABO blood group influences plasma levels such that O group levels are significantly less than non-O group levels. There was no significant association with sex and Rh status. The selection of normal ranges based on ABO blood groups may influence the clinical diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (vWD) but might not be clinically relevant or help identify people at increased risk of bleeding. Differences in ABO-related ranges were more extensive at the high end of the ranges. This is of particular interest because high levels of vWF and FVIII are associated with thrombosis risk, and an ABO relationship also has been described. O group individuals may or may not be at greater risk for bleeding (they have lower levels of vWF and FVIII:C) and are more likely to be diagnosed with vWD. It also is possible that O group status may be protective for thrombosis.

  14. Prevention of pure red cell aplasia after major or bidirectional ABO blood group incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by pretransplant reduction of host anti-donor isoagglutinins

    PubMed Central

    Stussi, Georg; Halter, Jörg; Bucheli, Eveline; Valli, Piero V.; Seebach, Lutz; Gmür, Jürg; Gratwohl, Alois; Schanz, Urs; Passweg, Jakob R.; Seebach, Jörg D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Persistent anti-donor isoagglutinins after major ABO blood group incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may cause delayed red blood cell engraftment and post-transplant pure red cell aplasia. Design and Methods We investigated the effect of pretransplant anti-donor isoagglutinin reduction by in vivo absorption and/or plasmapheresis on the incidence of pure red cell aplasia and the time to red blood cell engraftment in 153 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with major ABO incompatibility. Results Twelve patients (8%) developed pure red cell aplasia, 3/98 (3%) with, and 9/55 (16%) without prior isoagglutinin reduction (p=0.009). Red blood cell engraftment was faster in patients with isoagglutinin reduction; in addition, peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, acute graft-versus-host disease, and younger age were associated with faster red blood cell engraftment in Cox regression analysis. In patients with pure red cell aplasia the mean red blood cell engraftment occurred after 225 days (p<0.001) and was associated with a simultaneous decrease of anti-donor isoagglutinins. Patients with pure red cell aplasia had higher pretransplant anti-donor isoagglutinin titers (p=0.001) and received more post-transplant red blood cell transfusions (p<0.001). Conclusions Following major ABO incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pure red cell aplasia and delayed red blood cell engraftment depend on the levels of anti-donor isoagglutinins and are efficiently prevented by the pretransplant removal of these isoagglutinins. The benefits of reducing the time of transfusion-dependency and transfusion-associated risks must be carefully balanced against the potential side effects of isoagglutinin reduction. PMID:19144657

  15. Plasmapheresis as preconditioning protocol in an extremely high titer ABO incompatible renal transplant (ABOiRTx) case: A new prospect for chronic kidney disease patients in India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prashant; Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Sharma, Jyoti; Dixit, Surbhi; Raina, Vimarsh

    2013-08-01

    The biggest hurdle in renal transplantation is the ABO blood group system. But recently ABO incompatible renal transplants have been performed using plasmapheresis (PP) as a part of the preconditioning protocol. In the present study, the objective of PP along with immunosuppression was to bring down the antibody titer of the patient to ≤ 16 during the transplant and keep it low, around 32, until post-operative 4-14 weeks. The patient (O Negative) had his mother (B Positive) as the ABO non-identical donor. The PP was performed with an apheresis equipment Com.Tec (Fresenius Kabi, Germany) to lower the anti-B antibody titer in the recipient. An Antihuman globulin (AHG) titer was performed for anti-B antibody following the departmental standard operating procedure. A total of 11 plasmapheresis procedures was performed preoperatively and four procedures were performed post-operatively to maintain the titer of the anti-B antibody at or below the desired level. The baseline anti-B antibody titer in the recipient was 512. The baseline titer came down to 8 after the end of the 11th procedure. Post-operatively we performed four plasmapheresis procedures to keep the titer at 32. During the post-operative follow up the titer has been maintained at 32 and the serum creatinine level has been maintained at approximately 1.0mg/dl and other parameters relevant to graft function were within normal limits. Our case could be the first reported case from India in which we used a plasmapheresis procedure as a part of preconditioning protocol instead of using an immunoadsorption column. Furthermore, it could be one of the few ABOiRTx cases, which has been performed at an isoagglutinin titer of 512 using plasma exchange as part of a preconditioning regime.

  16. Distribution of ABO blood groups in the patients with intracranial aneurysm and association of different risk factors with particular blood type

    PubMed Central

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The association between ABO blood groups and intracranial aneurysms is not well-known. Many co-morbid factors are associated with intracranial aneurysms. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of different blood group in patients with intracranial aneurysm and to look for associations between risk factors and these groups. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study includes 1,491 cases who underwent surgical operations for intracranial aneurysms from 1993-2014. We have evaluated the information related to clinical history, ABO blood groups and associated risk factors in the patients both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by chart review of the cases. Results: In our study, out of 1,491 cases, the most common ABO blood groups were group O (668 cases, 44.80%) and Group A (603 cases, 40.44%), and Rh(+) in 1,319 (88.4%) and Rh(-) in 147 (11.6%). Blood Group A (43% vs. 36%) and Group B (16.2% vs. 8.6%) were significantly higher in Caucasian and African Americans respectively. However, in general population, there was no significant difference in blood groups between Caucasians and African Americans. Rh(-) factor was significantly higher in Caucasians compared to African Americans. Incidence of smoking was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with O group compared to others. In addition, incidence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with A group compared to others. Conclusion: The racial disparity in the distribution of blood groups, and risk factor association with blood groups in the development of intracranial aneurysm needs to be considered. The findings from our study may be useful in identifying patients at increased risk. Further study may be required to establish the risks from multiple centers studies around the world. PMID:26396600

  17. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADALI, Fatemeh; POURFATHOLLAH, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Results Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P <0.05) ; percentage of HIV Ag/Ab was higher in donors who had blood group “A” and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low. PMID:25909065

  18. A low diversity, seasonal tropical landscape dominated by conifers and peltasperms: Early Permian Abo Formation, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Chaney, D.S.; Nelson, W.J.; Lucas, S.G.; Looy, C.V.; Quick, K.; Jun, W.

    2007-01-01

    Walchian conifers (Walchia piniformis Sternberg, 1825) and peltasperms similar to Supaia thinnfeldioides White and cf. Supaia anomala White dominate floodplain deposits of a narrow stratigraphic interval of the middle Abo Formation, Lower Permian of central New Mexico. The plant fossils occur in thinly bedded units up to two meters thick, consisting of coarse siltstone to very fine sandstone with clay partings. Bedding is primarily tabular, thin, and bears rare ripple marks and trough cross beds. Bedding surfaces display mud cracks, raindrop imprints, horizontal and vertical burrows of invertebrates, and footprints of terrestrial vertebrates. These features indicate intermittent and generally unchannelized stream flow, with repeated exposure to air. Channels appear to have cannibalized one another on a slowly subsiding coastal plain. Conifers are dominant at three collecting sites and at three others Supaia dominates. Although each of these genera occurs in assemblages dominated by the other, there are no truly co-dominant assemblages. This pattern suggests alternative explanations. Landscapes could have consisted of a small-scale vegetational patchwork dominated almost monospecifically in any one patch, meaning that these plants could have coexisted across the landscape. On the other hand, conifer and supaioid dominance could have been temporally distinct, occurring during different episodes of sedimentation; although in the field there are no noticeable sedimentological differences between conifer-dominated and Supaia-dominated channel deposits, they may represent slightly different climatic regimes. The considerable morphological differences between conifers and Supaia suggest that the floristic patterns are not a taphonomic effect of the loss of a significant part of the original biodiversity. In general, the climate under which this vegetation developed appears to have been relatively warm and arid, based on the geology (pervasive red color [oxidation

  19. Influences of ABO blood group, age and gender on plasma coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 levels in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongkui; Dou, Miaomiao; Du, Xi; Ma, Li; Sun, Pan; Cao, Haijun; Ye, Shengliang; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fengjuan; Lin, Fangzhao

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO blood group is a hereditary factor of plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Age and gender have been shown to influence FVIII, VWF, fibrinogen (Fbg), and ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We investigated the effects of ABO type, age, and gender on plasma levels of FVIII, Fbg, VWF, and ADAMTS13 in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 290 healthy volunteers were eligible for this study. ABO blood group was determined by indirect technique. FVIII:C and Fbg were measured by clotting assays. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), collagen-binding activity (VWF:CBA), and ADAMTS13 antigen were assessed by ELISA, whereas VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof) was performed by agglutination of platelets with ristocetin. Results Mean FVIII:C and VWF levels (VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof) were significantly higher in non-O than in O type subjects (p < 0.05 for all comparison). ADAMTS13 antigen decreased with increasing age, whereas the other parameters increased. Other than ADAMTS13 (p < 0.01), no gender-related variations were observed in the other parameters. Moreover, FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof showed significant and positive relationships with age (r = 0.421, 0.445, 0.410, 0.401, and 0.589, resp.; all p < 0.001), whereas a negative relationship was observed for ADAMTS13 antigen (r = 0.306; p = 0.006). Furthermore, FVIII:C were strongly correlated with VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof (r = 0.746, r = 0.746, and r = 0.576, resp.; p < 0.0001). VWF parameters were also strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.0.847 for VWF:Ag and VWF:CBA; r = 0.722 for VWF:Ag and VWF:Rcof; p < 0.0001). Conclusions ABO blood group, age, and gender showed different effects on plasma levels of FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, VWF:Rcof, and ADAMTS13 antigen. These new data on a Chinese population are quite helpful to compare with other ethnic groups. PMID

  20. [Discovery of a novel A2 allel in ABO blood group system and investigation of its distribution in Han population of Chinese Fujian province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai; Chi, Quan; Ren, Ben-Chun

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of A2 subgroup in Han Population of Chinese Fujian province and its molecular mechanisms. One individual with serologic ABO blood grouping discrepancy was identified with commercially available monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and lectin: anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB, anti-A1, and anti-H reagents according to the routine laboratory methods. DNA sequences of exon 6, 7 and intron 6 of ABO gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA and direct DNA sequencing or sequencing after gene cloning. Red cells of 3 176 A or AB unrelated individuals were tested with anti-A1. The results showed that this individual was identified as A2 subgroup by serological technology, sequencing analysis indicated the A2 subgroup with novel A variant allele, the novel A allele being different from the allele A101 by 467C > T and 607G > A missense mutation in exon 7, no A2 subgroup was identified from the 3 176 individuals by using standard serological technology. It is concluded that a novel A allele responsible for A2 subgroup composing of 467C > T and 607G > A has been firstly confirmed, and the A2 subgroup is very rare in Chinese Fujian Han population.

  1. Computational studies on the interaction of ABO-active saccharides with the norovirus VA387 capsid protein can explain experimental binding data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppisetty, Chaitanya A. K.; Nasir, Waqas; Strino, Francesco; Rydell, Gustaf E.; Larson, Göran; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2010-05-01

    Norovirus strains are known to cause recurring epidemics of winter vomiting disease. The crystal structure of the capsid protein of VA387, a representative of the clinically important GII.4 genocluster, was recently solved in complex with histo-blood group A- and B-trisaccharides. However, the VA387 strain is known to bind also to other natural carbohydrates for which detailed structural information of the complexes is not available. In this study we have computationally explored the fit of the VA387 with a set of naturally occurring carbohydrate ligands containing a terminal α1,2-linked fucose. MD simulations both with explicit and implicit solvent models indicate that type 1 and 3 extensions of the ABO-determinant including ALeb and BLeb pentasaccharides can be well accommodated in the site. Scoring with Glide XP indicates that the downstream extensions of the ABO-determinants give an increase in binding strength, although the α1,2-linked fucose is the single strongest interacting residue. An error was discovered in the geometry of the GalNAc-Gal moiety of the published crystal structure of the A-trisaccharide/VA387 complex. The present modeling of the complexes with histo-blood group A-active structures shows some contacts which provide insight into mutational data, explaining the involvement of I389 and Q331. Our results can be applicable in structure-based design of adhesion inhibitors of noroviruses.

  2. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for ABH antigen detection on red blood cells and in saliva: secretor status-related ABO subgroup identification.

    PubMed

    Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Sutapun, Boonsong; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Seedacoon, Wuttigrai; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2017-03-27

    Low antigenic expression of ABO subgroup system on red blood cell (RBC) is cause of discrepancy between forward and reverse blood typing in the standard agglutination technique. Neutralization agglutination is employed for verification of the detection of ABH substances in saliva. However, the neutralization technique is complicated, time-consuming and requires expertise. To overcome these drawbacks, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging was developed for ABH antigen detection on RBCs and in saliva. An antibody array was designed to classify the ABO subgroups by anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies; the array was immobilized on a carboxymethyl-dextran sensor-surface. RBCs and saliva specimens from sixty-four donors were analysed by passing them over the antibody array, where the secretor status and blood group could be simultaneously identified. Consequently, the immobilized antibodies could specifically and quantitatively detect the ABH antigen on RBCs. Using the direct assay, the SPR signal of saliva detection was weaker than that of RBC detection. However, a sandwich assay with a mixture of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies could efficiently enhance the signal. The sensor chip provided high specificity (cut-off at 100 to 175 micro refractive index units) and high precision at 0.06%-4.9% CV. The blood group results of the sixty-four donor specimens obtained by SPR agreed with the standard agglutination test with 100% accuracy. SPR could indicate different ABH antigen densities on the RBCs and nearly the same amounts of ABH substances in the saliva of strong and weak subgroups. Finally, we also demonstrated reduced assay time and fewer complications with the SPR imaging platform compared to the neutralization technique.

  3. Role of ABO blood group and of other risk factors on the presence of residual vein obstruction after deep-vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Dentali, Francesco; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Turato, Sara; Crestani, Silvia; Ambrosino, Pasquale; Bonfanti, Carlo; Di Minno, Giovanni; Ageno, Walter; Franchini, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of residual vein obstruction (RVO) has been consistently associated with an increased risk of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with a previous deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and there is some evidence suggesting an increased risk of DVT recurrence. Only few studies have assessed potential risk factors for RVO. In this study, we evaluated whether ABO blood group with or without associated thrombophilic abnormalities is associated with RVO after a standard course of anticoagulation for a first DVT. Patients with a first DVT who underwent screening for thrombophilic abnormalities were eligible for this study. Information was collected on ABO blood group and on risk factors for DVT. Each patient underwent compression ultrasonography of the lower limbs for the detection of RVO at least 6months after a standard course of anticoagulant treatment. A total of 268 patients (mean age 50.3years, 120 women) were included. After 8.3±2.9months of anticoagulant treatment, 126 (47.0%) patients had RVO. At multivariate analysis, active malignancy (Odds Ratios [OR] 5.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17, 14.13), non-O blood group (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.61, 8.56), and femoral involvement (OR 3.35 95% CI 1.94, 5.78) were significantly associated with RVO whereas an unprovoked index event was only marginally significant (OR 1.81 95% CI 0.98, 3.36 p 0.06) and severe thrombophilia was not associated with RVO (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.56, 3.11). After a standard course of anticoagulation for a first DVT, patients with non-O blood group are at increased risk of RVO.

  4. Plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection in a patient with ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Maiko; Yamamoto, Izumi; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Naoki; Tanno, Yudo; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yokoo, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection in a patient with ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. A 33-year-old man was admitted for an episode biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 5.7 mg/dL 1 year following primary kidney transplantation. Histological features included two distinct entities: (1) a focal, aggressive tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell (predominantly plasma cells) infiltration with moderate tubulitis; and (2) inflammatory cell infiltration (including neutrophils) in peritubular capillaries. Substantial laboratory examination showed that the patient had donor-specific antibodies for DQ4 and DQ6. Considering both the histological and laboratory findings, we diagnosed him with plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection. We started 3 days of consecutive steroid pulse therapy three times every 2 weeks for the former and plasma exchange with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the latter histological feature. One month after treatment, a second allograft biopsy showed excellent responses to treatment for plasma cell-rich rejection, but moderate, acute antibody-mediated rejection remained. Therefore, we added plasma exchange with IVIG again. After treatment, allograft function was stable, with an S-Cr level of 2.8 mg/dL. This case report demonstrates the difficulty of the diagnosis of, and treatment for, plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection in a patient with ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. We also include a review of the related literature.

  5. ABO blood types associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism in Han Chinese people: A hospital-based study of 200,000 patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefeng; Feng, Jun; Wu, Wei; Peng, Min; Shi, Juhong

    2017-03-06

    ABO blood types are putatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but it is not proved in Chinese people. A large population of Han Chinese patients discharged from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2010 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed in a case-control study. A total of 1412 VTE patients were identified from 200,660 discharged Han Chinese patients, including 600 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 441 patients with pulmonary embolism, and 371 patients with both DVT and pulmonary embolism. The prevalence of non-O blood type was weakly but statistically higher in VTE patients compared with 199,248 non-VTE patients, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.362 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.205-1.540). Subgroup analysis showed that the OR for non-O blood type was still increased. It was greater in pre-hospital VTE (OR = 1.464) than that in hospital-acquired VTE (OR = 1.224), and greater in unprovoked VTE (OR = 1.859) than that in provoked VTE (OR = 1.227). The OR for non-O blood type decreased with age in subgroup analysis. These results suggest a weak but statistically significant correlation between non-O blood type and risk of VTE in Han Chinese people.

  6. Comparative study of blood group-recognizing lectins toward ABO blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Hamako, J; Ozeki, Y; Titani, K

    2001-02-16

    Binding specificities of ABO blood group-recognizing lectins toward blood group antigens on neoglycoproteins, glycoproteins and complex-type oligosaccharides were studied by lectin-blotting analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and lectin-conjugated agarose column chromatography. Human serum albumin conjugated with A- and B-trisaccharides was clearly recognized by Helix pomatia (HPA), Phaseolus lunatus, Dolichos biflorus agglutinins, and Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin B(4), respectively. Almost the same results were obtained for human group A and B ovarian cyst and A-active hog gastric mucins, but Glycine max agglutinin only reacted to the group A hog mucin. When human plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF), having Asn-linked blood group antigens, was tested, HPA was highly sensitive to blood group A antigen on the vWF. Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) preferentially bound to the vWF from blood group O plasma. Within the GalNAc-recognizing lectins examined, a biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide having the blood group A structure retarded on an HPA-agarose column, and the affinity was diminished after digestion with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. This product bound to UEA-I agarose column. These results indicate that HPA and UEA-I are most sensitive for detection of glycoproteins possessing small amounts of blood group A and H antigens and also useful for fractionation of complex-type oligosaccharides with blood group A and H antigens, respectively.

  7. ABO blood types associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism in Han Chinese people: A hospital-based study of 200,000 patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuefeng; Feng, Jun; Wu, Wei; Peng, Min; Shi, Juhong

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood types are putatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but it is not proved in Chinese people. A large population of Han Chinese patients discharged from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2010 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed in a case-control study. A total of 1412 VTE patients were identified from 200,660 discharged Han Chinese patients, including 600 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 441 patients with pulmonary embolism, and 371 patients with both DVT and pulmonary embolism. The prevalence of non-O blood type was weakly but statistically higher in VTE patients compared with 199,248 non-VTE patients, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.362 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.205–1.540). Subgroup analysis showed that the OR for non-O blood type was still increased. It was greater in pre-hospital VTE (OR = 1.464) than that in hospital-acquired VTE (OR = 1.224), and greater in unprovoked VTE (OR = 1.859) than that in provoked VTE (OR = 1.227). The OR for non-O blood type decreased with age in subgroup analysis. These results suggest a weak but statistically significant correlation between non-O blood type and risk of VTE in Han Chinese people. PMID:28262729

  8. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  9. Successful high-dose dexamethasone treatment of acquired pure red cell aplasia following ABO major mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yuki; Shiono, Yousuke; Suzuki, Ikuko; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Kato, Yuichi; Tajima, Katsushi; Kato, Takeo

    2016-06-01

    A 46-year-old man was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia involving inv(16)(p13.1q22) in August 2007. He received a human leukocyte antigen-identical, ABO major-mismatched (donor: A, recipient: O) bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor in June 2009. Cyclosporin A (CsA) and short-course methotrexate were used for graft versus host disease prophylaxis. Although granulocyte and platelet engraftment were achieved, the patient exhibited persistent anemia and was dependent on red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Bone marrow aspiration on day 63 revealed the near absence of erythroid precursors, a finding consistent with pure red cell aplasia. No CBFβ-MYH11 transcripts were detected. The recipient's anti-A IgM antibody titer was 1:64, and his anti-A IgG antibody titer was 1:1024. The discontinuation of CsA, and the initiation of rituximab and donor lymphocyte infusions were all ineffective against his anemia. He was treated with high-dose dexamethasone (DEXA) (40 mg/day DEXA, days 657-660, days 757-760; 20 mg/day DEXA, days 764-767, days 772-775) in April 2010. A follow-up examination performed at 7 months after the high-dose DEXA treatment showed the patient's anti-A antibody titer to have dropped to an undetectable level. His hemoglobin levels also returned to normal (Hb: 13.4 g/dl), and he no longer required RBC transfusions.

  10. Recovery and archiving key Arctic Alaska vegetation map and plot data for the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Field Experiment (ABoVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Breen, A. L.; Broderson, D.; Epstein, H. E.; Fisher, W.; Grunblatt, J.; Heinrichs, T.; Raynolds, M. K.; Walker, M. D.; Wirth, L.

    2013-12-01

    Abundant ground-based information will be needed to inform remote-sensing and modeling studies of NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE). A large body of plot and map data collected by the Alaska Geobotany Center (AGC) and collaborators from the Arctic regions of Alaska and the circumpolar Arctic over the past several decades is being archived and made accessible to scientists and the public via the Geographic Information Network of Alaska's (GINA's) 'Catalog' display and portal system. We are building two main types of data archives: Vegetation Plot Archive: For the plot information we use a Turboveg database to construct the Alaska portion of the international Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA) http://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/ava/. High quality plot data and non-digital legacy datasets in danger of being lost have highest priority for entry into the archive. A key aspect of the database is the PanArctic Species List (PASL-1), developed specifically for the AVA to provide a standard of species nomenclature for the entire Arctic biome. A wide variety of reports, documents, and ancillary data are linked to each plot's geographic location. Geoecological Map Archive: This database includes maps and remote sensing products and links to other relevant data associated with the maps, mainly those produced by the Alaska Geobotany Center. Map data include GIS shape files of vegetation, land-cover, soils, landforms and other categorical variables and digital raster data of elevation, multispectral satellite-derived data, and data products and metadata associated with these. The map archive will contain all the information that is currently in the hierarchical Toolik-Arctic Geobotanical Atlas (T-AGA) in Alaska http://www.arcticatlas.org, plus several additions that are in the process of development and will be combined with GINA's already substantial holdings of spatial data from northern Alaska. The Geoecological Atlas Portal uses GINA's Catalog tool to develop a

  11. The influence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in differential recognition of inhibitory acceptor analogs by human ABO(H) blood group A and B glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa P; Seto, Nina O L; Cai, Ye; Leinala, Eeva K; Borisova, Svetlana N; Palcic, Monica M; Evans, Stephen V

    2003-12-05

    Human ABO(H) blood group glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB catalyze the final monosaccharide addition in the biosynthesis of the human A and B blood group antigens. GTA and GTB utilize a common acceptor, the H antigen disaccharide alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-Galp-OR, but different donors, where GTA transfers GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc and GTB transfers Gal from UDP-Gal. GTA and GTB are two of the most homologous enzymes known to transfer different donors and differ in only 4 amino acid residues, but one in particular (Leu/Met-266) has been shown to dominate the selection between donor sugars. The structures of the A and B glycosyltransferases have been determined to high resolution in complex with two inhibitory acceptor analogs alpha-l-Fucp(1-->2)-beta-d-(3-deoxy)-Galp-OR and alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-(3-amino)-Galp-OR, in which the 3-hydroxyl moiety of the Gal ring has been replaced by hydrogen or an amino group, respectively. Remarkably, although the 3-deoxy inhibitor occupies the same conformation and position observed for the native H antigen in GTA and GTB, the 3-amino analog is recognized differently by the two enzymes. The 3-amino substitution introduces a novel intramolecular hydrogen bond between O2' on Fuc and N3' on Gal, which alters the minimum-energy conformation of the inhibitor. In the absence of UDP, the 3-amino analog can be accommodated by either GTA or GTB with the l-Fuc residue partially occupying the vacant UDP binding site. However, in the presence of UDP, the analog is forced to abandon the intramolecular hydrogen bond, and the l-Fuc residue is shifted to a less ordered conformation. Further, the residue Leu/Met-266 that was thought important only in distinguishing between donor substrates is observed to interact differently with the 3-amino acceptor analog in GTA and GTB. These observations explain why the 3-deoxy analog acts as a competitive inhibitor of the glycosyltransferase reaction, whereas the 3-amino analog displays complex modes of

  12. Renal transplantation across ABO barrier

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, P. N.; Pokhariyal, S.; Bansal, S.; Jain, S.; Saxena, V.; Sharma, R.; Jain, M.; Jha, P.; Sethi, S. K.; Ghosh, P.; Tewari, A.; Ahlawat, R.; Kher, V.

    2013-01-01

    In India, patients without a compatible blood group donor are usually excluded from renal transplantation. For young patients, it is a difficult therapeutic choice to stay on long-term dialysis. We describe the case of a 19-year-old male patient who had blood group O +ve and had no compatible donor in the family. His mother was B +ve and was willing to donate. The patient had an initial anti-B antibody titer of 1:512 and underwent antibody depletion with plasmapheresis (11 sessions) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 100 mg/kg after every plasmapheresis. He also received rituximab 500 mg for 3 days prior to transplant and was induced with basiliximab. At the time of transplant, his anti-B titers were <1:8. Post-operatively, he required four sessions of plasmapheresis and IVIG as his titers rebounded to 1:64. The titers then spontaneously subsided to <1:16 and have stayed at the same level for 6 months post-transplant. The patient continues to have normal renal function with a creatinine of 1.4 mg/dl% and has had no episodes of rejection. PMID:23814422

  13. Analysis of a Larger SNP Dataset from the HapMap Project Confirmed That the Modern Human A Allele of the ABO Blood Group Genes Is a Descendant of a Recombinant between B and O Alleles.

    PubMed

    Itou, Masaya; Sato, Mitsuharu; Kitano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The human ABO blood group gene consists of three main alleles (A, B, and O) that encode a glycosyltransferase. The A and B alleles differ by two critical amino acids in exon 7, and the major O allele has a single nucleotide deletion (Δ261) in exon 6. Previous evolutionary studies have revealed that the A allele is the most ancient, B allele diverged from the A allele with two critical amino acid substitutions in exon 7, and the major O allele diverged from the A allele with Δ261 in exon 6. However, a recent phylogenetic network analysis study showed that the A allele of humans emerged through a recombination between the B and O alleles. In the previous study, a restricted dataset from only two populations was used. In this study, therefore, we used a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset from the HapMap Project. The results indicated that the A101-A201-O09 haplogroup was a recombinant lineage between the B and O haplotypes, containing the intact exon 6 from the B allele and the two critical A type sites in exon 7 from the major O allele. Its recombination point was assumed to be located just behind Δ261 in exon 6.

  14. First-principles electronic structure of the delafossites ABO 2 (A=Cu, Ag, Au; B=Al, Ga, Sc, In, Y): evolution of d 10-d 10 interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandpal, Hem Chandra; Seshadri, Ram

    2002-08-01

    While bonding between d 10 atoms and ions in molecular systems has been well studied, less attention has been paid to interactions between such seemingly closed shell species in extended inorganic solids. In this contribution, we present visualizations of the electronic structures of the delafossites ABO 2 (A = Cu, Ag, Au) with particular emphasis on the nature of d 10-d 10 interactions in the close packed plane of the coinage metal ion. We find that on going from Cu to Ag to Au, the extent of bonding between A and A increases. However, the structures (in terms of distances) of these compounds are largely determined by the strongly ionic B IIIO interaction and for the larger B ions Sc, In and Y, the A atoms are sufficiently well-separated that AA bonding is almost negligible. We also analyze some interesting differences between Ag and Au, including the larger AO covalency of the Au. The trends in electronic structure suggest that the Ag and Au compounds are not good candidate transparent conducting oxides.

  15. pH-induced conformational changes in human ABO(H) blood group glycosyltransferases confirm the importance of electrostatic interactions in the formation of the semi-closed state.

    PubMed

    Johal, Asha R; Blackler, Ryan J; Alfaro, Javier A; Schuman, Brock; Borisova, Svetlana; Evans, Stephen V

    2014-03-01

    The homologous human ABO(H) A and B blood group glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB have two mobile polypeptide loops surrounding their active sites that serve to allow substrate access and product egress and to recognize and sequester substrates for catalysis. Previous studies have established that these enzymes can move from the "open" state to the "semi-closed" then "closed" states in response to addition of a substrate. The contribution of electrostatic interactions to these conformational changes has now been demonstrated by the determination at various pH of the structures of GTA, GTB and the chimeric enzyme ABBA. At near-neutral pH, GTA displays the closed state in which both mobile loops order around the active site, whereas ABBA and GTB display the open state. At low pH, the apparent protonation of the DXD motif in GTA leads to the expulsion of the donor analog to yield the open state, whereas at high pH, both ABBA and GTB form the semi-closed state in which the first mobile loop becomes an ordered α-helix. Step-wise deprotonation of GTB in increments of 0.5 between pH 6.5 and 10.0 shows that helix ordering is gradual, which indicates that the formation of the semi-closed state is dependent on electrostatic forces consistent with the binding of substrate. Spectropolarimetric studies of the corresponding stand-alone peptide in solution reveal no tendency toward helix formation from pH 7.0 to 10.0, which shows that pH-dependent stability is a product of the larger protein environment and underlines the importance of substrate in active site ordering.

  16. High Resolution Structures of the Human ABO(H) Blood Group Enzymes in Complex with Donor Analogs Reveal That the Enzymes Utilize Multiple Donor Conformations to Bind Substrates in a Stepwise Manner.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Susannah M L; Meloncelli, Peter J; Zheng, Ruixiang B; Haji-Ghassemi, Omid; Johal, Asha R; Borisova, Svetlana N; Lowary, Todd L; Evans, Stephen V

    2015-11-06

    Homologous glycosyltransferases α-(1→3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) and α-(1→3)-galactosyltransferase (GTB) catalyze the final step in ABO(H) blood group A and B antigen synthesis through sugar transfer from activated donor to the H antigen acceptor. These enzymes have a GT-A fold type with characteristic mobile polypeptide loops that cover the active site upon substrate binding and, despite intense investigation, many aspects of substrate specificity and catalysis remain unclear. The structures of GTA, GTB, and their chimeras have been determined to between 1.55 and 1.39 Å resolution in complex with natural donors UDP-Gal, UDP-Glc and, in an attempt to overcome one of the common problems associated with three-dimensional studies, the non-hydrolyzable donor analog UDP-phosphono-galactose (UDP-C-Gal). Whereas the uracil moieties of the donors are observed to maintain a constant location, the sugar moieties lie in four distinct conformations, varying from extended to the "tucked under" conformation associated with catalysis, each stabilized by different hydrogen bonding partners with the enzyme. Further, several structures show clear evidence that the donor sugar is disordered over two of the observed conformations and so provide evidence for stepwise insertion into the active site. Although the natural donors can both assume the tucked under conformation in complex with enzyme, UDP-C-Gal cannot. Whereas UDP-C-Gal was designed to be "isosteric" with natural donor, the small differences in structure imposed by changing the epimeric oxygen atom to carbon appear to render the enzyme incapable of binding the analog in the active conformation and so preclude its use as a substrate mimic in GTA and GTB.

  17. Glycosyltransfer in mutants of putative catalytic residue Glu303 of the human ABO(H) A and B blood group glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB proceeds through a labile active site.

    PubMed

    Blackler, Ryan J; Gagnon, Susannah M L; Polakowski, Robert; Rose, Natisha L; Zheng, Ruixiang B; Letts, James A; Johal, Asha R; Schuman, Brock; Borisova, Svetlana N; Palcic, Monica M; Evans, Stephen V

    2016-11-22

    The homologous glycosyltransferases α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) and α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GTB) carry out the final synthetic step of the closely related human ABO(H) blood group A and B antigens. The catalytic mechanism of these model retaining enzymes remains under debate, where Glu303 has been suggested to act as a putative nucleophile in a double displacement mechanism, a local dipole stabilizing the intermediate in an orthogonal associative mechanism or a general base to stabilize the reactive oxocarbenium ion-like intermediate in an S N i-like mechanism. Kinetic analysis of GTA and GTB point mutants E303C, E303D, E303Q and E303A shows that despite the enzymes having nearly identical sequences, the corresponding mutants of GTA/GTB have up to a 13-fold difference in their residual activities relative to wild type. High-resolution single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal, surprisingly, that the mutated Cys, Asp and Gln functional groups are no more than 0.8 Å further from the anomeric carbon of donor substrate compared to wild type. However, complicating the analysis is the observation that Glu303 itself plays a critical role in maintaining the stability of a strained "double-turn" in the active site through several hydrogen bonds, and any mutation other than E303Q leads to significantly higher thermal motion or even disorder in the substrate recognition pockets. Thus, there is a remarkable juxtaposition of the mutants E303C and E303D, which retain significant activity despite disrupted active site architecture, with GTB/E303Q, which maintains active site architecture but exhibits zero activity. These findings indicate that nucleophilicity at position 303 is more catalytically valuable than active site stability and highlight the mechanistic elasticity of these enzymes.

  18. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (P<0.001). However, Rh type was not associated with brucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  19. ABO Blood Group Distribution in Serum Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewkonia, R. M.; Finn, Ronald

    1969-01-01

    A disproportionate excess of blood group O was found in a circumscribed outbreak of serum hepatitis among patients and staff of a haemodialysis unit. The more severe cases were also mostly of group O. This suggests that host factors may be important in the genesis of this disease. PMID:5800364

  20. Impact of ABO-Identical vs ABO-Compatible Nonidentical Plasma Transfusion in Trauma Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    requirements. McNemar 2 test was used to compare proportions and paired t test to compare means. Outcomes (mortality, length of stay, and complications) be...tween matched cohorts were compared by McNemar 2 test for proportions and Wilcoxon test for matched sample for means. Data were analyzed by means of...the McNemar 2 test; P values for continuous variables were derived from the paired t test. bPatients were matched for the variables that were

  1. A new approach to the thermodynamic study of ABO antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Rouger, P; Salmon, C

    1979-01-01

    Enthalpy change was determined for natural anti-A (B, O subjects) and anti-B (A1, A2, O subjects). Entropy change, free energy change and association constant were calculated according to the law of mass action and the Wurmser method. The concentrations of allohaemagglutinins were measured by the Wilkie and Becker method using an autoanalyser. 2-Mercaptoethanol was used to estimate the proportions of IgG and IgM and their respective contribution to the thermodynamic properties. The following results and conclusions were obtained. Individual enthalpy and entrophy changes are different for each subject so that only the average values of these thermodynamic parameters represent a characteristic of the phenotype. There is a correlation between enthalpy and entropy changes and the relative proportion of anti-A or anti-B IgG. There is heterogeneity of the values of association constant. Free energy change is about 10 kcal mol-1 for all anti-A and anti-B; this result confirms the low energy binding between antigen and antibody. All these results confirm the role of environment and red-cell phenotype in the synthesis of allohaemagglutinins. PMID:500114

  2. Synthetic receptors for selectively detecting erythrocyte ABO subgroups.

    PubMed

    Seifner, Alexandra; Lieberzeit, Peter; Jungbauer, Christof; Dickert, Franz L

    2009-10-05

    Surface imprinting techniques with erythrocytes as templates yield polymer coatings with selective recognition sites towards red blood cells. The resulting cavities in the respective surface exhibit selectivity between blood subgroups as shown by Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) measurements. Mass sensitive effects in the kilohertz range could be observed for concentrations down to 0.5 x 10(8) cells/mL. Frequency response as well as recovery of the sensor took place within a few minutes, indicating that no covalent binding is involved. Linear concentration dependence over a defined region provides ideal conditions for cross selectivity measurements. A1 imprinted sensor coatings resulted in an effect of 40 kHz when exposed to the template blood group, while A2 erythrocytes yielded just 11% of that value on the same layer. Furthermore, A2 imprinted coatings incorporated only one third the amount of A1 erythrocytes as compared to A2 ones. Therefore, imprinted materials depict the entire cell surface and utilize it for recognition, whereas natural antibodies bind on the defined antigen position and thus usually cannot distinguish between cells carrying different amounts of them.

  3. Undetectable ABO isoagglutinin in a patient with chronic myelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Hasegawa, S

    1977-01-01

    An instance of undetectable anti(A+B) was described in a patient, group O, in acute crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. The finding was not parallel to the level of gamma globulin in the patient and a possibility of functional abnormality of the related antibody was discussed.

  4. Incidence and Complications of Open Hip Preservation Surgery: An ABOS Database Review.

    PubMed

    Hedgecock, Jon; Cook, P Christopher; Harrast, John; Baumhauer, Judith F; Giordano, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    Hip preservation surgery encompasses various surgical procedures that have the goal of decreasing the progression of osteoarthritis, preserving normal hip function, and delaying the need for arthroplasty. These procedures can encompass arthroscopic, open, and combined techniques. This study investigated the trends and complications associated with open hip preservation surgery performed by candidates undergoing Part II of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery examination. The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Part II surgeon case database was queried from the years 2003 to 2013 for Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes related to open hip preservation surgery in patients 10 years and older. Patient demographics, fellowship training, geographic location, and complications were extracted from the database. These data were analyzed to determine the incidence by year of individual procedures and complications. During the study period, 644 cases (352 male, 292 female; mean age, 29.7 years) and 730 CPT codes were reported. The most commonly reported fellowship was pediatric orthopedics. No trend was observed in the overall incidence of these surgeries, but there was an increase in the number of cases performed in the Midwest. There were 212 reported complications, with a rate of 33% per case, or 29% per CPT code (range, 12.5%-100% per CPT code). Complications reported ranged from infection to death. The incidence of complications over time showed no discernible trend. Based on the results of this study, the yearly incidence and complications associated with open hip preservation surgery performed by surgeons undergoing board certification should continue at a predictable rate. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e109-e116.].

  5. Cohesion and Semantics. Reports on Text Linguistics. Meddelanden Fran Stiftelsens for Abo Akademi Forskningsinstitut, Nr 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Jan-Ola, Ed.

    This collection of papers on semantics and cohesion is organized into two sections: Meaning and Semantics, and Textual Cohesion. Titles and authors are as follows: "Functional Text Semantics, Idioms, and Variability" (Jan-Ola Ostman); "On the Degree of Motivation in Signs Used in Metaphors Involving Plant Symbolism" (Ralf…

  6. Coherence and Composition: A Symposium. Papers. (Abo, Finland, March 16-18, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enkvist, Nils Erik, Ed.

    A selection of the papers from a symposium on the application of linguistic concepts to teaching composition are contained in this document. The papers and authors are as follows: "Introduction: Coherence, Composition, and Text Linguistics" (Nils Erik Enkvist); "TUAP and the Teaching of Writing in Sweden" (Lennart Bjork): "Discourse-Level…

  7. Repeat ABO-incompatible platelet transfusions leading to haemolytic transfusion reaction.

    PubMed

    Sadani, D T; Urbaniak, S J; Bruce, M; Tighe, J E

    2006-10-01

    A 65-year-old woman, blood group A RhD positive, who had completed her first course of induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia was transfused with apheresis platelets over a number of days. On three occasions she received group O RhD positive units, which had been screened and found not to contain high-titre anti-A,B isoagglutinins. Following the third unit, she developed a haemolytic transfusion reaction and died soon thereafter. This has led to change in policy of the supplying centre in testing for high-titre anti-A,B isoagglutinins. Blood group O apheresis platelets and fresh-frozen plasma units are now labelled as high titre with a cut-off of 1/50 as compared to the previous cut-off of 1/100 for anti-A,B isoagglutinins. A universal approach to testing donations for high-titre anti-A,B isoagglutinins, better compliance of guidelines and monitoring of patients is necessary.

  8. Preparation, Magnetic Susceptibility, and Specific Heat on Interlanthanide Perovskites {ital AB}O

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kentaro; Tezuka, Keitaro; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2001-02-15

    The interlanthanide perovskites LaHoO{sub 3}, LaErO{sub 3}, LaTmO{sub 3}, LaYbO{sub 3}, LaLuO{sub 3}, CeTmO{sub 3}, CeYbO{sub 3}, CeLuO{sub 3}, PrYbO{sub 3}, and PrLuO{sub 3} were prepared by the coprecipitation method. Their magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out in the temperature range between 1.8 and 300 K, and it was found that LaYbO{sub 3}, CeYbO{sub 3}, and PrYbO{sub 3} had antiferromagnetic ordering with a weak ferromagnetism at 2.7 K. LaErO{sub 3} also showed antiferromagnetic ordering at 2.4 K. Specific heat measurements for LaErO{sub 3} and LaYbO{sub 3} showed the {lambda}-type anomaly at 2.4 and 2.7 K, respectively, which is in good agreement with the susceptibility measurements.

  9. ABO-compatible Liver Allograft Antibody-mediated Rejection: an update

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, Anthony J.; Zeevi, Adriana; O’Leary, Jacqueline G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Liver allograft antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) studies have lagged behind parallel efforts in kidney and heart because of a comparative inherent hepatic resistance to AMR. Three developments, however, have increased interest: 1) solid phase antibody testing enabled more precise antibody characterization; 2) increased expectations for long-term, morbidity-free survival; and 3) immunosuppression minimization trials. Recent Findings Two overlapping liver allograft AMR phenotypic expressions are beginning to emerge: acute and chronic AMR. Acute AMR usually occurs within the several weeks after transplantation and characterized clinically by DSA persistence, allograft dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and hypocomplementemia. Acute AMR appears histopathologically similar to acute AMR in other organs: diffuse microvascular endothelial cell hypertrophy, C4d deposits, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and macrophage-mediated microvasculitis/capillaritis, along with liver-specific ductular reaction, centrilobular hepatocyte swelling and hepatocanalicular cholestasis often combined with T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR). Chronic AMR is less well-defined, but strongly linked to serum class II DSA and associated with late-onset acute TCMR, fibrosis, chronic rejection and decreased survival. Unlike acute AMR, chronic AMR is a slowly evolving insult with a number of potential manifestations, but most commonly appears as low-grade lymphoplasmacytic portal and perivenular inflammation accompanied by unusual fibrosis patterns and variable microvascular C4d deposition; capillaritis is more difficult to identify than in acute AMR. Summary More precise DSA characterization, increasing expectations for long-term survival, and immunosuppression weaning precipitated a re-emergence of liver allograft AMR interest. Pathophysiological similarities exist between heart, kidney, and liver allografts, but liver-specific considerations may prove critical to our ultimate understanding of all solid organ AMR. PMID:25944231

  10. Strategic Applications of Ultra-Cold Atoms; MURI Fellowship for J.R. Abo-Shaeer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-14

    dissipative and require physics beyond the Gross - Pitaevskii equation. Crystallization of the vortex lattice. The top row shows three condensates...dissociation products will populate higher-lying atomic states if the ramp is fast (compared to the strength of the coupling between the molecular and...atomic states). Therefore, from the observed dissociation energies, the strength of the atom-molecule coupling could be determined. The non-linear

  11. First-principles effective Hamiltonian simulation of ABO3-type perovskite ferroelectrics for energy storage application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui; Tian, Enke; Wu, Longwen; Li, Longtu

    2016-08-01

    Dielectric materials with high power density and energy density are eagerly desired for the potential application in advanced pulsed capacitors. Here, we present the first-principles effective Hamiltonian simulation of perovskite ferroelectrics BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and KNbO3 in order to better predict and design materials for energy storage application. The lattice constant, dielectric constant and ferroelectric hysteresis, and energy-storage density of BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and KNbO3 were calculated with the consideration of the effects of temperature and external electric field.

  12. ABO3 (A = La, Ba, Sr, K; B = Co, Mn, Fe) perovskites for thermochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiniec, Sean M.; Coker, Eric N.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Miller, James E.

    2016-05-01

    The use of perovskite oxides as a medium for thermochemical energy storage (TCES) in concentrating solar power systems is reported. The known reduction/oxidation (redox) active perovskites LaxSr1-xCoyMn1-yO3 (LSCM) and LaxSr1-xCoyFe1-yO3 (LSCF) were chosen as a starting point for such research. Materials of the LSCM and LSCF family were previously synthesized, their structure characterized, and thermodynamics reported for TCES operation. Building on this foundation, the reduction onset temperatures are examined for LSCM and LSCF compositions. The reduction extents and onset temperatures are tied to the crystallographic phase and reaction enthalpies. The effect of doping with Ba and K is discussed, and the potential shortcomings of this subset of materials families for TCES are described. The potential for long-term stability of the most promising material is examined through thermogravimetric cycling, scanning electron microscopy, and dilatometry. The stability over 100 cycles (450-1050 °C) of an LSCM composition is demonstrated.

  13. ABO Antibody Titers are not Predictive of Hemolytic Reactions Due to Plasma Incompatible Platelet Transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Karafin, Matthew S.; Blagg, Lorraine; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; King, Karen E.; Ness, Paul M.; Savage, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The overall risk of hemolytic transfusion reactions from plasma (minor) incompatible platelet transfusions and the role of a critical anti-A or anti-B titer in predicting/preventing these reactions has not been clearly established. Methods We evaluated all apheresis platelet (AP) transfusions for three months. Using the gel titer method, we determined the anti-A and/or the anti-B IgG titer for all incompatible APs. Reported febrile transfusion reactions and hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) were recorded; transfusions were not prospectively evaluated by the study team. A post-transfusion DAT and eluate were performed after a reported febrile or hemolytic reaction for patients who received plasma incompatible APs. Results 647of 4,288 AP transfusions (15.1%) were plasma incompatible. Group O APs (N = 278) had significantly higher anti-A and anti-B titers than group A or B APs (p<0.0001). No group A or B APs had a titer >128 (0/342). For group O APs, 73 had titers ≥256 (26.3%), and 27 had titers ≥512 (9.7%). No HTRs were reported to any plasma incompatible AP transfusion during the study period. Two plasma incompatible AP transfusions were associated with fever/chills and positive DATs, of which one had a positive eluate. The incidence of a DAT and eluate positive febrile transfusion reaction in the plasma incompatible AP population is 0.15% (95% CI 0.0–0.86%). Conclusion A critical anti-A or B titer is not sufficient to predict the risk of hemolysis in patients receiving plasma incompatible APs, although underreporting of reactions to the blood bank may limit the generalizability of this study. PMID:22339320

  14. A case of accelerated acute rejection after ABO-compatible living unrelated kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Nanae; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Yamamoto, Izumi; Mitome, Jun; Maruyama, Yukio; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Yoichi; Utsunomiya, Yasunori; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2009-08-01

    A 59-yr-old Japanese woman with chronic renal failure caused by IgA nephropathy and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related glomerulonephritis underwent kidney transplantation from a living unrelated spousal donor. The blood type was compatible, while the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing showed a 5/6 locus mismatch. She had become pregnant twice by her donor and had never received blood transfusions. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match, flow cytometry cross-match (FCXM), and flow panel reactive antibody (PRA) were negative. She initially underwent one week of immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) immediately before transplantation to reduce the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. Induction therapy consisted of MMF, tacrolimus (TAC), methylprednisolone (MP), and basiliximab. The allograft function was excellent immediately after the operation. However, the urine output and platelet count declined rapidly on post-operative day (POD) 3, while the serum creatinine (sCr) and lactate dehydrogenase levels rose gradually. Subsequently, we could not detect the diastolic arterial flow on Doppler sonography. We diagnosed accelerated acute rejection and treated her with plasma exchange (PEX), intravenous MP pulse therapy, and rituximab. The first episode biopsy on POD 7 revealed acute vascular rejection and acute antibody-mediated rejection (Banff score AMR II). Her urinary excretion increased beginning on POD 13, while the sCr level decreased gradually and reached 0.9 mg/dL on POD 22. In our retrospective analysis, the LAB screen detected donor-specific antibody (DSA). This case suggested that, for successful kidney transplantation in highly sensitized recipients, such as husband-to-wife spousal kidney transplantation with a history of pregnancy, we should keep the risk of AMR in mind, even if the sensitive antibody detection tests are negative.

  15. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Carol

    2005-01-01

    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  16. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Quantum chemical modelling of electron polarons and excitons in ABO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotomin, E. A.; Eglitis, R. I.; Borstel, G.

    2000-09-01

    Quantum chemical calculations using the intermediate neglect of the differential overlap (INDO) method, combined with the large unit cell periodic model argue for an existence of the self-trapped electrons in KNbO3 and KTaO3 perovskite crystals. An electron in the ground state occupies predominantly t2g orbital of a Nb4+ ion. Its orbital degeneracy is lifted by a combination of the breathing and Jahn-Teller modes where four nearest equatorial O atoms are displaced outwards and two oxygens shift inwards along the z axis. Triplet exciton is shown to be in a good approximation of a pair of nearest Jahn-Teller electron and hole polarons (a bipolaron) which is very likely responsible for the `green' luminescence observed in these crystals.

  17. Comparative study of substrate and product binding to the human ABO(H) blood group glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Soya, Naoto; Shoemaker, Glen K; Palcic, Monica M; Klassen, John S

    2009-11-01

    The first comparative thermodynamic study of the human blood group glycosyltransferases, alpha-(1-->3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) and alpha-(1-->3)-galactosyltransferase (GTB), interacting with donor substrates, donor and acceptor analogs, and trisaccharide products in vitro is reported. The binding constants, measured at 24 degrees C with the direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS) assay, provide new insights into these model GTs and their interactions with substrate and product. Notably, the recombinant forms of GTA and GTB used in this study are shown to exist as homodimers, stabilized by noncovalent interactions at neutral pH. In the absence of divalent metal ion, neither GTA nor GTB exhibits any appreciable affinity for its native donors (UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Gal). Upon introduction of Mn(2+), both donors undergo enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis in the presence of either GTA or GTB. Hydrolysis of UDP-GalNAc in the presence of GTA proceeds very rapidly under the solution conditions investigated and a binding constant could not be directly measured. In contrast, the rate of hydrolysis of UDP-Gal in the presence of GTB is significantly slower and, utilizing a modified approach to analyze the ES-MS data, a binding constant of 2 x 10(4) M(-1) was established. GTA and GTB bind the donor analogs UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-Glc with affinities similar to those measured for UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc (GTB only), suggesting that the native donors and donor analogs bind to the GTA and GTB through similar interactions. The binding constant determined for GTA and UDP-GlcNAc (approximately 1 x 10(4) M(-1)), therefore, provides an estimate for the binding constant for GTA and UDP-GalNAc. Binding of GTA and GTB with the A and B trisaccharide products was also investigated for the first time. In the absence of UDP and Mn(2+), both GTA and GTB recognize their respective trisaccharide products but with a low affinity approximately 10(3) M(-1); the presence of UDP and Mn(2+) has no effect on A trisaccharide binding but precludes B-trisaccharide binding.

  18. Impromptu Speech: A Symposium. Papers Contributed to a Symposium on Problems in the Linguistic Study of Impromptu Speech (Abo, Finland, November 20-22, 1981). Meddelanden fran Stiftelsens for Abo Akademi Forskningsinstitut Nr.78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enkvist, Nils Erik, Ed.

    The titles of papers in this document on impromptu or spontaneous speech are as follows: "Impromptu Speech, Structure, and Process"; "Non-Verbal Aspects of Impromptu Speech"; "Echanges, interventions et actes de langage dans la structure de la conversation" ("Exchanges, Interventions, and Speech Acts in the…

  19. [Contribution of the genetic fingerprintings compared to grouping ABO/Rhesus technique in the expertise of filiation].

    PubMed

    Souiden, Y; Chaieb, K; Romdhani, M; Mahdouani, K

    2007-01-01

    Paternity is based on biological analyzes that have drastically developed during the past 20 years. According to scientific developments, paternity testing was based on red blood groups studies, the analysis of red cell enzymes and plasma proteins polymorphisms, the typing of the HLA antigens, and the DNA polymorphism in its various forms. This study aims at comparing two analyses: red blood groups and DNA polymorphism. The performance of each test is analyzed in this report, based on a study of 142 cases. Indeed, the numbers of case of paternity exclusion are respectively 6 and 45 by the classic method and the genetic one. Thanks to studies based on the gene amplification of microsatellites, the efficiency of this reference technique has been proved, however, the classic one makes it possible in the cases of exclusion to lead to a certain decision without recourse to other systems. Of these facts, beyond the most efficient biological analysis, it is very important to think about paternity testing as a process in which biological tests are only one step.

  20. Variability of impurity doping in the modified Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 ceramics of type ABO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Bing-Huei; Wu, Long

    2004-04-01

    The influence of sintering effects on microstructure, mechanical quality factor Qm and electromechanical coupling factor κ of 1 mol% Nb-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramics with a composition Zr/Ti=53/47 prepared by the conventional ceramic technology were investigated. Replacement of Ti +4 by Nb +5 in such perovskite type solid solutions was accomplished by the creation of cation vacancies. These created vacancies seemed to facilitate material transport and benefit from sintering. Calcined at 850 °C/2 h and sintered at 1250 °C/2 h, the PZT ceramics had the minimum value of Qm 50 and exhibited maximum electromechanical coupling factor κp 0.62 in accordance with the relationship between mechanical quality factor and electromechanical coupling factor. The measured P- E hysteresis loop illustrated that the remanent polarization ( Pr) and coercive field ( Ec) were 8.63 μC/cm 2 and 17.2 kV/cm, respectively. The fundamental resonance frequency was around 200 kHz, which was suitable for piezoelectric resonator and filter applications.

  1. Purification of heavy metal loaded wastewater from electroplating industry under synthesis of delafossite (ABO2) by "Lt-delafossite process".

    PubMed

    John, Melanie; Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya; Ullrich, Aladin; Rettenwander, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In this study we present a new, environmental friendly and economic method, called Lt-delafossite process to treat industrial wastewater (initial Cu(2+)-concentrations of 1-15.6 g/l) by subsequent synthesis of nano-crystalline (doped) delafossite (CuFeO2) solely by precipitation and ageing at temperatures between 50 °C and 90 °C. The reached water purification rates are exclusively ≥99.99% for both wastewater models and wastewaters from electroplating industry. We succeeded to synthesize a mixture of 3R and 2H delafossite at 50 °C after 90 h and ≥70 °C after 16 h of ageing directly from industrial wastewater without any additional phases. In all cases green rust (GR), a Fe(II-III) layered double hydroxysulphate, Cu2O (cuprite) and Fe10O14(OH)2 (ferrihydrite) precipitates first. During ageing of the residues the metastable phases transform to delafossite. The residues are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, VFTB and Mößbauer measurements.

  2. Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology II (ADST-II) LAM Task Force DO #14 CDRL ABO3 After Action Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Dykstra Phil 1-888-612-9200 Kile Tom 1-888-612-9401 Ksel Jan 1-888-612-9258 LTC Smart Tom 1-888-612-9212 Edwards Bob 1-800-528-0799 Campbell John... Kile 1-410-278-6808 Tl 10/10 10/31/96 ARLto AE3 AT&T 24 hour line: 826-7982 Ron Brewer 1-303-430-2156 Tom Kile 1-410-278-6808 Mike Looney

  3. Foreign Language Learning and Bilingualism. Publications of the Research Institute of the ABO Akademi Foundation NR 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan, Ed.

    This collection of six essays and one bibliography on second language learning includes: (1) "Transfer in Relation to Some Other Variables in L2-Learning" (Hakan Ringbom); (2) "Word Frequencies in Finnish and Finland-Swedish Learner Language" (Hakan Ringbom); (3) "The Influence of Swedish on the English of Finnish…

  4. [Validation of antibody screening by indirect antigloblin test and ABO blood typing by filtration and microplate techniques: assessment of robustness].

    PubMed

    Mannessier, L; Delamaire, M; Bouix, O; Krause, C; Roubinet, F

    2006-10-01

    According to requirements of the French Committee for Accreditation (Cofrac), it is essential to use validated and standardised methods in Immunohematology. This imposes first the knowledge of metrological tolerances for all the technics. Two multicenter studies were carried out to define the maximal acceptable deviations concerning incubation temperature and time, volumes of patient plasma and tests cells for antibody screening using indirect antiglobulin test on one hand and for reverse grouping on another hand. All equipment used (temperature test chamber, chronometer, pipettes) were calibrated according to Cofrac standards. The antibody screenings were performed manually using 3 different filtration systems: ID Diamed, Biovue Ortho and Scangel Biorad, the same tests cells, a standard 20 ng/mL anti RH1, a positive control anti KEL1 and a negative control; the reverse blood grouping was performed manually using the above mentionned filtration systems and microplate technic with the same A1 and B test cells. These two studies showed that all the tests from the multiples combinations of the above parameters gave the same results and allowed us to define a range of tolerance for 4 critical physical parameters involved in the antibody screening and blood typing.

  5. [Role of genetic blood markers (ABO-HLA systems) in the formation of increased sensitivity to occupational allergen epichlorohydrin].

    PubMed

    Davydova, N S; Bodienkova, G M

    2002-01-01

    The authors demonstrated that genetic factors play the certain role in hypersensitivity to occupational allergen epichlorohydrin. The sensibilized workers demonstrated higher incidence of individuals with OB (III) blood group and having phenotypic B8 antigen of HLA-system.

  6. Effect of A and B-site cations on surface exchange coefficient for ABO3 perovskite materials.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Eric N; Duncan, Keith L; Wachsman, Eric D

    2013-02-21

    A novel approach, called isothermal isotope exchange (IIE), was applied to varying A- and B-site lanthanum manganites, ferrites, and cobaltites in the perovskite crystal structure in order to extract accurate surface exchange coefficients (k*). Pure electronic conductors revealed temperature dependent isotope exchange, while for mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIEC) the extent of exchange was independent of temperature. MIEC materials have higher k* values than pure electronic conductors in the temperature range from 500-850 °C, demonstrating the importance of both electronic species and oxygen vacancies being present for surface exchange. Strontium doped perovskites exhibited opposite temperature dependencies to parent materials. Some perovskites exhibited an apparent negative activation energy for k*, the behavior of which is explained by a precursor-mediated mechanism for dissociative adsorption. The results have significant implications for the improvement of the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and numerous other energy technologies.

  7. Development of a Laboratory Project to Determine Human ABO Genotypes--Limitations Lead to Further Student Explorations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex allele-specific PCR analysis was developed to identify six "common" genotypes: AA, AO, BB, BO, OO, and AB. This project included a pre-laboratory exercise that provided active learning experiences and developed critical thinking skills. This laboratory resulted in many successful analyses, which were verified by student knowledge of…

  8. Crystal structure of Li 3ABO 5 ( A = Al,Ga; B = Si,Ge): A novel wurtzite superstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakle, J. M. S.; Fletcher, J. G.; Howie, R. A.; Lee, C. K.; West, A. R.

    1992-05-01

    The crystal data for lithium aluminogermanate, Li 3AlGeO 5, are Mr 200.386, orthorhombic, P2 1nb, a = 4.881(1), b = 5.404(3), and c = 15.841(7)Å, V = 417.9Å 3, Z = 4, Dx = 3.184 g cm -3, λ(Mo Kα) = 0.71069Å, F(000) = 376.0, T = 298 K, R = 0.043, and Rw = 0.045 for 553 independent reflections. The structure consists of hexagonal close-packed oxide ions with cations ordered over one set of tetrahedral sites. It may also be described as a cristobalite-like sheet structure. The phases Li 3AlSiO 5, Li 3GaSiO 5, and Li 3GaGeO 5 are isostructural, as confirmed by Rietveld refinement.

  9. The role of deep acceptor centers in the oxidation of acceptor-doped wide-band-gap perovskites ABO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putilov, L. P.; Tsidilkovski, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    The impact of deep acceptor centers on defect thermodynamics and oxidation of wide-band-gap acceptor-doped perovskites without mixed-valence cations is studied. These deep centers are formed by the acceptor-bound small hole polarons whose stabilization energy can be high enough (significantly higher than the hole-acceptor Coulomb interaction energy). It is shown that the oxidation enthalpy ΔHox of oxide is determined by the energy εA of acceptor-bound states along with the formation energy EV of oxygen vacancies. The oxidation reaction is demonstrated to be either endothermic or exothermic, and the regions of εA and EV values corresponding to the positive or negative ΔHox are determined. The contribution of acceptor-bound holes to the defect thermodynamics strongly depends on the acceptor states depth εA: it becomes negligible at εA less than a certain value (at which the acceptor levels are still deep). With increasing εA, the concentration of acceptor-bound small hole polarons can reach the values comparable to the dopant content. The results are illustrated with the acceptor-doped BaZrO3 as an example. It is shown that the experimental data on the bulk hole conductivity of barium zirconate can be described both in the band transport model and in the model of hopping small polarons localized on oxygen ions away from the acceptor centers. Depending on the εA magnitude, the oxidation reaction can be either endothermic or exothermic for both mobility mechanisms.

  10. Block synthesis of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides related to the human ABO blood group system.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Ivan M; Korchagina, Elena Yu; Popova, Inna S; Tyrtysh, Tatiana V; Paramonov, Alexander S; Bovin, Nicolai V

    2016-07-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of 3-aminopropyl glycosides of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides via [3 + 1] block scheme. Peracetylated trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides were used as glycosyl donors. The well-known low reactivity of 4-OH group of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine forced us to test four glucosamine derivatives (3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc and 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl β-glycosides of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc, 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3, and 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2) to select the best glycosyl acceptor for the synthesis of type 2 tetrasaccharides. The desired tetrasacchrides were not isolated, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycosyde of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAcβ was glycosylated. Glycosylation of 3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc derivative resulted in α-glycoside as a major product. High stereospecificity was achieved only in the synthesis of B (type 2) tetrasaccharide, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2β was applied as the glycosyl acceptor (β/α 5:1), whereas glycosylation with trichloroacetimidate of A trisaccharide was not stereospecific (β/α 1.3:1). Glycosylation of 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycoside of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3β with trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides provided the same stereochemical yield (β/α 1.5:1).

  11. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  12. The effectiveness of the Invisalign appliance in extraction cases using the the ABO model grading system: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihong; Wang, Shimei; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess treatment outcomes of the Invisalign and compare results with braces. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two adult orthodontic patients, referred to two Orthodontic Specialist Clinics, were randomized to receive either invisalign or brace treatment. All patients were evaluated by using methods from the American Board of Orthodontics Phase III examination. The discrepancy index was used to analyze pretreatment records to control for initial severity of malocclusion. The objective grading system was used to systematically grade posttreatment records. The Wilcoxon 2-sample tests were used to evaluate treatment outcome of Invisalign and braces. Results: The total mean scores of the objective grading system categories were improved after treatment in both groups. The improvements were not statistically significant in scores for alignment, marginal ridges, occlusal relations, over jet, inter-proximal contacts, and root angulation. Invisalign scores were consistently lower than braces scores for buccolingual inclination and occlusal contacts. Conclusions: The overall improvement in OGS scores indicate that both Invisalign and fixed appliances were successful in treating Class I adult extraction cases in this sample. PMID:26221410

  13. Proceedings from the Nordic Conference for English Studies (2nd, Hanasaari/Hanaholmen, Finland, May 19-21, 1983). Meddelanden fran Stiftelsens for Abo Academi Forskningsinstitut Nr. 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan, Ed.; Rissanen, Matti, Ed.

    The 50 papers on English language and literature included in this compilation are grouped under the following headings: Old English (editing "Judgment Day," the syntactic types "every man" and "each of men," and continuity and variation in psalm glosses); Present-Day English (speech rate and vowel quantity as compared with Finnish): neutralization…

  14. First-principles and molecular-dynamics study of structure and bonding in perovskite-type oxynitrides ABO(2)N (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; B = Ta, Nb).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Holger; Dronskowski, Richard

    2008-10-01

    A series of perovskite-type phases of alkaline-earth-based tantalum and niobium oxynitrides has been studied using both first-principles electronic-structure calculations and molecular-dynamics simulations, in particular by investigating different structural arrangements and anion distributions in terms of total-energy calculations. The structural properties are explained on the basis of COHP chemical bonding analyses and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations. We provide theoretical proof for the surprising result that the local site symmetries of these phases are lower than cubic because density-functional calculations clearly show that all crystallographic unit cells are better described as being orthorhombic with space group Pmc2(1) to optimize metal-nitrogen bonding; nonetheless, there is no contradiction with a macroscopic cubic description of the structures of BaTaO(2)N and BaNbO(2)N adopting space group Pm3m. Additionally, we find that the anionic sublattice is ordered in all compounds studied over a wide temperature range.

  15. Metal-insulator transition in 3d transition-metal oxides with ABO 3 and A 2BO 4 type structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisaki, H.; Ido, T.; Magoshi, K.; Mochizuki, M.; Yamatsu, H.; Ito, T.; Uchida, S.

    1991-12-01

    3d transition-metal oxides with perovskite and K 2NiF 4 crystal structures, (La,Sr)VO 3, (La,Sr)FeO 3, (La,Sr)CoO 3, LaNiO 3 and (La,Sr) 2NiO 4 systems are investigated focusing on the effect of carrier doping performed by the A-site ion substitution. Both (La,Sr)VO 3 and (La,Sr)CoO 3 systems show an insulator to metal transition by Sr substitution, however, the magnetic behavior differs drastically. The mid-infrared structure induced by Sr substitution is observed in the optical spectra of (La,Sr) 2NiO 4 system. Relation between the behavior of metal-insulator transition and the variation of the electronic and/or spin structure in these systems is discussed in comparison with the high-T c copper oxides.

  16. On a generalized Aharonov-Bohm plus oscillator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibler, M.; Campigotto, C.

    1993-09-01

    Dynamical algebras, of the so(3,2) and so(3) types, are obtained for a generalized Aharanov-Bohm plus oscillator (ABO) system. Two types of coherent states are introduced for this generalized ABO system. A ( q,p)-analogue of this system is proposed that reduces to the generalized ABO system in the limiting case p= q-1=1. Finally, the classical motions for the generalized ABO system are briefly described.

  17. Chemical bond properties and charge transfer bands of O(2-)-Eu(3+), O(2-)-Mo(6+) and O(2-)-W(6+) in Eu(3+)-doped garnet hosts Ln3M5O12 and ABO4 molybdate and tungstate phosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Li, Ling; Noh, Hyeon Mi; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2014-06-21

    Charge transfer (CT) energy from the ligand to the central ions is an important factor in luminescence properties for rare earth doped inorganic phosphors. The dielectric theory of complex crystals was used to calculate chemical bond properties. Combining the photoluminescence and the dielectric theory of complex crystals, the CT bands of O(2-)-Eu(3+), O(2-)-Mo(6+) and O(2-)-W(6+) for Eu(3+)-doped inorganic phosphors have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Taking Eu(3+)-doped Ln3M5O12 (Ln = Y, Lu and M = Al, Ga), Gd3Ga5O12, MMoO4 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) and MWO4 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) as typical phosphors, we investigated the effects of the cation size on the CT bands and chemical bond properties including the bond length (d), the covalency (fc), the bond polarizability (αb) and the environmental factor (he) of O(2-)-Eu(3+), O(2-)-Mo(6+) and O(2-)-W(6+), respectively. For systematic isostructural Ln3M5O12 (Ln = Y, Lu and M = Al, Ga) phosphors, with the increasing M ion radius, the bond length of Ln-O decreases, but fc and αb increase, which is the main reason that the environmental factor increased. For the isostructural MMoO4:Eu, with the increasing M ion radius, the Mo-O bond length increases, but fc and αb decrease, and thus he decreases. However, in the compound system MWO4:Eu (M = Ca, Ba) with the increasing M ion radius, the O-W bond length increases, but fc and αb increase, and thus he increases and the O-W CT energy decreases. Their O(2-)-Eu(3+), O(2-)-Mo(6+) and O(2-)-W(6+) CT bands as well as their full width at half maximum (FWHM) were directly influenced by he. And with the increasing he, CT bands of O-Eu or O-Mo or O-W decrease and their FWHM increases. These results indicate a promising approach for changing the material properties, searching for new Eu(3+) doped molybdate, tungstate or other oxide phosphors and analyzing the experimental result.

  18. Manifestation of screening effects and A-O covalency in the core level spectra of A site elements in the ABO3 structure of Ca1-xSrxRuO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravi Shankar; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the evolution of Ca2p and Sr3d core level spectra in Ca1-xSrxRuO3 using photoemission spectroscopy. Core level spectra in this system exhibit multiple features and unusual evolution with the composition and temperatures. Analysis of the core level spectra in conjunction with the band structure results indicates final state effects due to different core hole screening channels. Such screening in the photoemission final states can be attributed to the large A-O covalency in these systems. Changes in the core level spectra with temperature and composition suggest significant modification in A-O (A=Ca/Sr) covalency in Ca-dominated samples, which gradually reduces with the increase in Sr content and becomes insignificant in SrRuO3 . This study thus provides a direct evidence of cation-oxygen covalency and its evolution with temperature, which may be useful in understanding the unusual ground state properties of these materials.

  19. Treatment outcome in a graduate orthodontic clinic using the American Board of Orthodontics grading system.

    PubMed

    Yang-Powers, Linda C; Sadowsky, Cyril; Rosenstein, Sheldon; BeGole, Ellen A

    2002-11-01

    Since 1999, the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) has used the objective grading system (OGS) to grade clinical case reports; the ABO also encourages prospective candidates to use the system. Ninety-two cases that satisfied the specifications of 6 of the ABO's malocclusion categories were selected from the files of 500 consecutively completed patients in the graduate orthodontic clinic at the University of Illinois at Chicago; this was called the university group. A comparison group of 32 cases previously presented to the ABO was collected from 5 clinicians in the Chicago area who had passed the ABO examination and become board-certified between 1984 and 2000; this was called the ABO group. Fourteen of the 32 cases in the ABO group were presented to the ABO after implementation of the OGS; these were also analyzed separately. Overall, the ABO group lost fewer points (had lower OGS scores) than did the university group (P <.05); the ABO group comprised a highly selected sample. The university group had significantly (P <.05) better scores for root parallelism, whereas the ABO group had significantly better scores for occlusal contacts and overjet scores, possibly reflecting settling after appliance removal. Finishing in the anterior segment and the second molar region was better in the ABO group. Orthodontists are good at correcting spaces in the arch and are deficient in placing adequate torque in the buccal segments. No differences were found in OGS scores among the 6 malocclusion categories. This study suggests how university cases could be completed to a higher level of quality and how other samples could be evaluated to raise the level of orthodontic treatment outcome.

  20. Effects of luminol on the subsequent analysis of bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Laux, D L

    1991-09-01

    The effects of luminol upon additional presumptive chemical tests, subsequent confirmatory blood tests, species determination by immunoelectrophoresis, ABO typing by absorption elution, and genetic marker analysis by multienzyme system electrophoresis were examined. Results indicate that luminol does not affect additional presumptive chemical tests, confirmatory tests, species determination, or ABO typing, but does affect certain genetic marker systems.

  1. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optionally for differentiating ABO Blood groups: Blood group Color of label paper O Blue A Yellow B Pink AB... color scheme may be used for differentiating ABO Blood groups: Blood group Color of label O Blue A... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Finished Product Control §...

  2. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Frei, Karen; Nahab, Fatta; Tagliati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. To date, most literature reviews for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm have examined the effectiveness of all botulinum neurotoxin type A products as a class. However, differences in dosing units and recommended schemes provide a clear rationale for reviewing each product separately. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm published in English between January 1991 and March 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE) were searched. A total of five primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were identified and summarized. Results Data included 374 subjects with blepharospasm and 172 subjects with hemifacial spasm treated with ABO. Total ABO doses ranged between 80 and 340 U for blepharospasm and 25 and 85 U for hemifacial spasm, depending on the severity of the clinical condition. All studies showed statistically significant benefits for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies. Adverse events considered to be associated with ABO treatment included: ptosis, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dry eyes, and facial weakness. Discussion These data from 5 randomized clinical studies represents the available evidence base of ABO in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Future studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26566457

  3. Breakdown of the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisana, Simone; Lazzeri, Michele; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Geim, A. K.; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Mauri, Francesco

    2007-03-01

    The adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation (ABO) has been the standard ansatz to describe the interaction between electrons and nuclei since the early days of quantum mechanics. ABO assumes that the lighter electrons adjust adiabatically to the motion of the heavier nuclei, remaining at any time in their instantaneous ground state. ABO is well justified when the energy gap between ground and excited electronic states is larger than the energy scale of the nuclear motion. In metals, the gap is zero and phenomena beyond ABO (such as phonon-mediated superconductivity or phonon-induced renormalization of the electronic properties) occur. The use of ABO to describe lattice motion in metals is, therefore, questionable. In spite of this, ABO has proved effective for the accurate determination of chemical reactions, molecular dynamics and phonon frequencies in a wide range of metallic systems. Here, we show that ABO fails in graphene. Graphene, recently discovered in the free state, is a zero-bandgap semiconductor that becomes a metal if the Fermi energy is tuned applying a gate voltage, Vg. This induces a stiffening of the Raman G peak that cannot be described within ABO.

  4. Effects of a Psychosocial Couple-Based Prevention Program on Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Roettger, Michael E.; Jones, Damon E.; Paul, Ian M.; Kan, Marni L.

    2015-01-01

    Although maternal stress and depression have been linked to adverse birth outcomes (ABOs), few studies have investigated preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health as a means of reducing ABOs. This randomized controlled study examines the impact of Family Foundations (FF)—a transition to parenthood program for couples focused on promoting coparenting quality, with previously documented impact on maternal stress and depression—on ABOs. We also examine whether intervention buffers birth outcomes from the negative effect of elevated salivary cortisol levels. We use intent-to-treat analyses to assess the main effects of the FF intervention on ABOs (prematurity, birth weight, pregnancy complications, Cesarean section, and days in hospital for mothers and infants) among 148 expectant mothers. We also test the interaction of cortisol with intervention condition status in predicting ABOs. FF participation was associated with reduced risk of C-section (OR .357, p < 0.05, 95 % CI 0.149, 0.862), but did not have main effects on other ABOs. FF significantly buffered (p < 0.05) the negative impact of maternal cortisol on birth weight, gestational age, and days in hospital for infants; that is, among women with relatively higher levels of prenatal cortisol, the intervention reduced ABOs. These results demonstrate that a psycho-educational program for couples reduces incidence of ABOs among higher risk women. Future work should test whether reduced maternal stress and depression mediate these intervention effects. PMID:24969352

  5. Aorta Balloon Occlusion in Trauma: Three Cases Demonstrating Multidisciplinary Approach Already on Patient’s Arrival to the Emergency Room

    SciTech Connect

    Hörer, Tal M.; Hebron, Dan; Swaid, Forat; Korin, Alexander; Galili, Offer; Alfici, Ricardo; Kessel, Boris

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo describe the usage of aortic balloon occlusion (ABO), based on a multidisciplinary approach in severe trauma patients, emphasizing the role of the interventional radiologist in primary trauma care.MethodsWe briefly discuss the relevant literature, the technical aspects of ABO in trauma, and a multidisciplinary approach to the bleeding trauma patient. We describe three severely injured trauma patients for whom ABO was part of initial trauma management.ResultsThree severely injured multi-trauma patients were treated by ABO as a bridge to surgery and embolization. The procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist in the early stages of trauma management.ConclusionsThe interventional radiologist and the multidisciplinary team approach can be activated already on severe trauma patient arrival. ABO usage and other endovascular methods are becoming more widely spread, and can be used early in trauma management, without delay, thus justifying the early activation of this multidisciplinary approach.

  6. Genetic Variation within the Anticoagulant, Procoagulant, Fibrinolytic and Innate Immunity Pathways as Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Petterson, Tanya M.; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Rider, David N.; de Andrade, Mariza

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly heritable (estimated heritability [h2]=0.62) and likely a result of multigenic action. Objective To systematically test variation within genes encoding for important components of the anticoagulant, procoagulant, fibrinolytic and innate immunity pathways for an independent association with VTE. Methods Non-Hispanic adults of European ancestry with objectively-diagnosed VTE, and age-, sex-group frequency matched controls were genotyped for 13,031 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 764 genes. Analyses (n=12,296 SNPs) were performed with PLINK using an additive genetic model and adjusted for age, sex, state of residence, and myocardial infarction or stroke. Results Among 2927 individuals, one or more SNPs within ABO, F2, F5, F11, KLKB1, SELP and SCUBE1 were significantly associated with VTE, including Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A, ABO non-O blood type, and a novel association with ABO rs2519093 (OR=1.68, p-value=8.08×10−16) that was independent of blood type. In stratified analyses, SNPs in the following genes were significantly associated with VTE: F5 and ABO among both genders and LY86 among women; F2, ABO and KLKB1 among Factor V Leiden non-carriers; F5, F11, KLKB1 and GFRA1 in ABO non-O blood type; and ABO, F5, F11, KLKB1, SCUBE1 and SELP among Prothrombin G20210A non-carriers. The ABO rs2519093 population-attributable risk (PAR) exceeded that of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A, and the joint PAR of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A, ABO non-O and ABO rs2519093 was 0.40. Conclusions Anticoagulant, procoagulant, fibrinolytic and innate immunity pathway genetic variation accounts for a large proportion of VTE among non-Hispanic adults of European-ancestry. PMID:21463476

  7. A genome-wide association study of venous thromboembolism identifies risk variants in chromosomes 1q24.2 and 9q

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Asmann, Yan W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Matsumoto, Martha E.; Petterson, Tanya M.; de Andrade, Mariza

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives To identify venous thromboembolism (VTE) disease-susceptibility genes. Patients/Methods We performed in silico genome wide association (GWAS) analyses using genotype data imputed to ~2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from adults with objectively-diagnosed VTE (n=1503), and controls frequency-matched on age and sex (n=1459; discovery population). SNPs exceeding genome-wide significance were replicated in a separate population (VTE cases, n=1407; controls, n=1418). Genes associated with VTE were resequenced. Results Seven SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8); four on chromosome 1q24.2 (F5 rs6025 [Factor V Leiden], BLZF1 rs7538157, NME7 rs16861990 and SLC19A2 rs2038024) and three on chromosome 9q34.2 (ABO rs2519093 [ABO intron 1], rs495828, rs8176719 [ABO blood type O allele]). The replication study confirmed a significant association of F5, NME7, and ABO with VTE. However, F5 was the main signal on 1q24.2 as only ABO SNPs remained significantly associated with VTE after adjusting for F5 rs6025. This 1q24.2 region was shown to be inherited as a haplotype block. ABO resequencing identified 15 novel single nucleotide variations (SNV) in ABO intron 6 and the ABO 3’ UTR that were strongly associated with VTE (P < 10-4) and belonged to three distinct linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks; none were in LD with ABO rs8176719 or rs2519093. Our sample size provided 80% power to detect odds ratios=2.0 and 1.51 for minor allele frequencies=0.05 and 0.5, respectively (α=1 × 10-8; 1% VTE prevalence). Conclusions Aside from F5 rs6025, ABO rs8176719 and rs2519093, and F2 rs1799963, additional common and high VTE-risk SNPs among whites are unlikely. PMID:22672568

  8. Genetic polymorphisms at three loci in two populations of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Maishnam Rustam; Singh, T Shyamacharan

    2008-06-01

    The Phayengs and Khurkhuls are sections of the Meiteis, the largest community in Manipur, India. Racially they are Mongoloids, and marry mostly among themselves. The present study reveals the frequencies of ABO blood groups as A1 (36.54%), B (28.85%), O (25.96%) and A1B (8.65%) in the Phayengs (n = 124) and A1 (39.84%), B (21.14%), O (22.76%) and A1B (16.26 %) in the Khurkhuls (n = 123). The subtype A2 is completely absent in both. The gene frequencies are ABO*A1 = 0.262, ABO*B = 0.212 and ABO*O = 0.526 for the Phayeng and ABO*A1 = 0.334, ABO*B = 0.206, ABO*O = 0.526 among the Khurkhuls. The Phayengs show a frequency of Rh negatives as 1.92%, the frequency of the RH*d allele being 0.139. The incidence of HB E is 38.46% resulting into the frequency of HB*E = 0.266. This is the highest value so far reported from Manipur State. No Rh(D) negative individuals have been encountered among the Khurkhuls, and the incidence of HB E is 16.26%, the frequency of HB*E being 0.085.

  9. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Lower Limb Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J; Walker, Heather W; Lee, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of AbobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with lower limb spasticity.A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials of ABO in the treatment of adult lower limb spasticity.Of the 295 records identified, 6 primary publications evaluated ABO for the management of lower limb spasticity of various etiologies and were evaluated. Total ABO doses ranged between 500 and 2000 U for lower limb spasticity, depending on the muscles injected. All studies in lower limb spasticity showed statistically significant reduction in muscle tone based on Modified Ashworth Scale of ABO versus placebo. Significant effects on active movement and pain were demonstrated albeit less consistently. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies; most adverse events reported were considered unrelated to treatment. Treatment-related adverse events included but not limited to fatigue, local pain at injection site, hypertonia, dry mouth, weakness of the noninjected muscle, abnormal gait, and urinary tract infection.These data from 6 randomized clinical studies provide the beginnings of an evidence base for the use of ABO to reduce lower limb spasticity. Ongoing studies in this area will add to this evidence base.

  10. Continuous measurement of oxygen tensions in the air-breathing organ of Pacific tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides) in relation to aquatic hypoxia and exercise.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Farrell, Anthony P; Christian, Keith; Clark, Timothy D; Bennett, Michael B; Wells, Rufus M G; Baldwin, John

    2007-07-01

    The Pacific tarpon is an elopomorph teleost fish with an air-breathing organ (ABO) derived from a physostomous gas bladder. Oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in the ABO was measured on juveniles (238 g) with fiber-optic sensors during exposure to selected aquatic PO(2) and swimming speeds. At slow speed (0.65 BL s(-1)), progressive aquatic hypoxia triggered the first breath at a mean PO(2) of 8.3 kPa. Below this, opercular movements declined sharply and visibly ceased in most fish below 6 kPa. At aquatic PO(2) of 6.1 kPa and swimming slowly, mean air-breathing frequency was 0.73 min(-1), ABO PO(2) was 10.9 kPa, breath volume was 23.8 ml kg(-1), rate of oxygen uptake from the ABO was 1.19 ml kg(-1) min(-1), and oxygen uptake per breath was 2.32 ml kg(-1). At the fastest experimental speed (2.4 BL s(-1)) at 6.1 kPa, ABO oxygen uptake increased to about 1.90 ml kg(-1) min(-1), through a variable combination of breathing frequency and oxygen uptake per breath. In normoxic water, tarpon rarely breathed air and apparently closed down ABO perfusion, indicated by a drop in ABO oxygen uptake rate to about 1% of that in hypoxic water. This occurred at a wide range of ABO PO(2) (1.7-26.4 kPa), suggesting that oxygen level in the ABO was not regulated by intrinsic receptors.

  11. Blood group change in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Rakul K.; Prakash, N. P.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood group antigens are either sugars or proteins found attached to the red blood cell membrane. ABO blood group antigens are the most clinically important antigens because they are the most immunogenic. As red blood cell antigens are inherited traits, they are usually not altered throughout the life of an individual. There have been occasional case reports of ABO blood group antigen change in malignant conditions. We report two such cases of ABO antigen alteration associated with acute myeloid leukemia. These patients had suppression of their blood group antigens during their leukemic phase, and the antigens were reexpressed when the patients attained remission. PMID:28127141

  12. Development of a microblood-typing system using assembly-free process based on virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Gyoo-Whung; Lim, Geunbae; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2005-02-01

    ABO typing is the first test done on blood that is to be used for transfusion. A person must receive ABO-matched blood, as ABO incompatibility is the major cause of fatal transfusion reactions. Until now, this blood typing has been done manually, and there is therefore a need for an automated typing machine that uses a very small volume of blood. In this paper, we present a new micro blood-typing system with a fully 3-dimentional geometry, which was realized using micro-stereolithography. This system was fabricated with a novel integration process based on a virtual environment and blood typing experiments using this system were successfully performed.

  13. [Hematopoietic stem cells transplant in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Is a therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; Herrera-Sánchez, Diana Andrea; López-Pérez, Patricia; Chávez-García, Aurora; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: Los pacientes con inmunodeficiencia común variable presentan mayor incidencia de infecciones sinopulmonares y gastrointestinales, así como de enfermedades linfoproliferativas y autoinmunes. El tratamiento de elección es el reemplazo con gammaglobulina humana. El trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas es una modalidad terapéutica no convencional. Caso clínico: Mujer de 26 años de edad sin antecedentes heredofamiliares de inmunodeficiencias primarias ni consanguinidad, con procesos repetidos de otitis, sinusitis, gastroenteritis y bronquitis desde la infancia. En la adolescencia fue diagnosticada con inmunodeficiencia común variable; se le prescribió gammaglobulina intravenosa, antimicrobianos de amplio espectro y macrólidos. A los 22 años se le realizó trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas por continuar con infecciones severas. A los 4 meses del trasplante se le diagnosticó hipotiroidismo e insuficiencia ovárica. Durante los siguientes 3 años no presentó infecciones, pero a los 25 años manifestó púrpura trombocitopénica inmune, que persistía al momento de este informe con enfermedad de Raynaud e infecciones reincidentes de vías respiratorias altas. Es tratada con gammaglobulina intravenosa y profilaxis con claritromicina, sin esteroides ni danazol. Conclusiones: Dada la alta tasa de morbimortalidad asociada y falla en la reconstitución inmunológica, el trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas deberá ser cuidadosamente evaluado en pacientes con infecciones sin respuesta al tratamiento o con enfermedades linfoproliferativas.

  14. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.

    PubMed

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-10-31

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection.

  15. von Willebrand Factor Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... anything else I should know? A person's ABO blood type affects VWF concentrations. People with type O blood ... up to 25% lower than those with other blood types. Measuring levels of other acute phase reactants such ...

  16. Treatment of a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with a high mandibular angle.

    PubMed

    Vaught, R A

    2000-09-01

    This case was presented as part of the American Board of Orthodontics case displays at the 1999 AAO meeting. It was selected to be submitted for publication in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Orthopedics by the ABO.

  17. Treatment of a Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Vaught, R A

    2000-08-01

    This case was presented as part of the American Board of Orthodontics case displays at the 1999 AAO meeting. It was selected to be submitted for the publication in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics by the ABO.

  18. NASA's TRMM Satellite Sees Heavy Rainfall in Hurricane Odile

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM Satellite measured rainfall in Odile on Sept. 15. Odile contained intense thunderstorms around the eye above 12.5 km (about 7.8 miles) high dropping rain at a rate of over 188.4 mm (abo...

  19. Category 2: Adult malocclusion with open bite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keum-Ryung

    2009-01-01

    This case report was displayed by the American Board of Orthodontics at the Annual Session of the American Association of Orthodontists, as an example of a successfully completed case from the 2006 ABO clinical exam.

  20. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity. ... and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron ...

  1. 25 CFR 290.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions. Appropriate Bureau official (ABO) means the Bureau official with delegated authority to approve... jurisdiction, including tribal justice systems or as established by the tribe. Member of an Indian tribe...

  2. 76 FR 38744 - Proposed Information Collection (Application by Insured Terminally Ill Person for Accelerated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... through Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at http://www.Regulations.gov ; or to Nancy J. Kessinger... Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance ABO Claim Processing, 290 West Mt. Pleasant Avenue, Livingston, NJ 07039,...

  3. Close Encounter With 'Fired Up' J-2X Engine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a spillway view of the 550-second, full-duration test of the J-2X engine on Feb. 27 at Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. Data from the test will provide critical information abo...

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water treatment plants are currently using alternative disinfectants to treat drinking water, with ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine being the most popular. However, compared to chlorine, which has been much more widely studied, there is little information abo...

  5. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients 2014 Data Report: Intestine.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junchao; Wu, Guosheng; Qing, Annie; Everly, Matthew; Cheng, Elaine; Terasaki, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As of September 19, 2014, 2441 cases of intestinal transplantation have been performed in 46 centers (2400 deceased, 41 living). Eight centers did more than 100 transplants. Annual case numbers peaked in 2007 (N = 198) and steadily decreased to 109 cases in 2013. Short gut syndrome (68%) and functional bowel problems (15%) are two major indications for intestinal transplantation. The 3 major types of transplants involving the intestine include: isolated intestine transplant (I); simultaneous intestine, liver, and pancreas transplant (I+L+P); and, combined intestine and liver (I+L) transplant. Graft survival has significantly improved in recent years, mainly due to improved first year graft survival. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year graft survivals were: 74%, 42%,and 26%, respectively (I); 70%, 50%, and 40%, respectively (I+L+P); and 61%, 46%, and 40%, respectively (I+L). The longest graft survivals for I, l+L+P, and l+L were 19 years, 16 years, and 23 years, respectively. Steroids, Thymoglobulin, and rituximab are 3 major induction agents used in recent years. Prograf, steroids, and Cellcept are 3 major maintenance agents. Induction recipients (68% of all patients) had a significantly lower acute rejection rate than nonrecipients before discharge (60% versus 75%, p < 0.001). Most of the patients received 2 (53%) or 3 (25%) maintenance immunosuppressants. Acute rejection episodes were usually treated with one (60%) or two agents (27%). Steroids were most commonly used (50-60%). OKT3 has been replaced with antithymocyte globulin (since 1999) and rituximab (since 2006). During 1990-2000, 94% (N = 445) of patients received ABO identical intestinal transplants, while 6% (N = 29) received ABO compatible transplants. ABO identical transplant recipients had a significantly higher 5-year graft survival rate than ABO compatible recipients (39% versus 21%, p < 0.0001). In recent years (2001- 2012), more patients received ABO compatible (N = 188, 11%) than in the early decade (p < 0

  6. Antibody-Mediated Rejection of Human Orthotopic Liver Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, A. Jake; Jaffe, Ron; Tzakis, A.; Ramsey, Glenn; Todo, S.; Belle, Steven; Esquivel, Carlos; Shapiro, Ron; Markus, Bernd; Mroczek, Elizabeth; Van Thiel, D. H.; Sysyn, Greg; Gordon, Robert; Makowka, Leonard; Starzl, Tom

    1988-01-01

    A clinicopathologic analysis of liver transplantation across major ABO blood group barriers was carried out 1) to determine if antibody-mediated (humoral) rejection was a cause of graft failure and if humoral rejection can be identified, 2) to propose criteria for establishing the diagnosis, and 3) to describe the clinical and pathologic features of humoral rejection. A total of 51 (24 primary) ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) liver grafts were transplanted into 49 recipients. There was a 46% graft failure rate during the first 30 days for primary ABO-I grafts compared with an 11% graft failure rate for primary ABO compatible (ABO-C), crossmatch negative, age, sex and priority-matched control patients (P < 0.02). A similarly high early graft failure rate (60%) was seen for nonprimary ABO-I grafts during the first 30 days. Clinically, the patients experienced a relentless rise in serum transaminases, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy during the first weeks after transplant. Pathologic examination of ABO-I grafts that failed early demonstrated widespread areas of geographic hemorrhagic necrosis with diffuse intraorgan coagulation. Prominent arterial deposition of antibody and complement components was demonstrated by immunoflourescent staining. Elution studies confirmed the presence of tissue-bound, donor-specific isoagglutinins within the grafts. No such deposition was seen in control cases. These studies confirm that antibody mediated rejection of the liver occurs and allows for the development of criteria for establishing the diagnosis. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:3046369

  7. Predictors of success on the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery examination.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Allan, Bassan J; Dyer, George; Jawa, Andrew; Zurakowski, David

    2009-09-01

    Predictors of success of orthopaedic residents on the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) examination are controversial. We therefore evaluated numerous variables that may suggest or predict candidate performance on the ABOS examination. We reviewed files of 161 residents (all graduates) from one residency program distributed into two study groups based on whether they passed or failed their first attempt on the ABOS Part I or Part II examination from 1991 through 2005. Predictors of success/failure on the ABOS I included the mean percentile score on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE) (Years 2 through 4), the percentile OITE score in the last year of training, US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) score, Dean's letter, election to Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA), and number of honors in selected third-year clerkships. All but the USMLE score predicted passing the ABOS Part II examination. These data suggest there are objective predictors of residents' performance on the ABOS Part I and Part II examinations.

  8. Low titer group O whole blood in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Strandenes, Geir; Berséus, Olle; Cap, Andrew P; Hervig, Tor; Reade, Michael; Prat, Nicolas; Sailliol, Anne; Gonzales, Richard; Simon, Clayton D; Ness, Paul; Doughty, Heidi A; Spinella, Philip C; Kristoffersen, Einar K

    2014-05-01

    In past and ongoing military conflicts, the use of whole blood (WB) as a resuscitative product to treat trauma-induced shock and coagulopathy has been widely accepted as an alternative when availability of a balanced component-based transfusion strategy is restricted or lacking. In previous military conflicts, ABO group O blood from donors with low titers of anti-A/B blood group antibodies was favored. Now, several policies demand the exclusive use of ABO group-specific WB. In this short review, we argue that the overall risks, dangers, and consequences of "the ABO group-specific approach," in emergencies, make the use of universal group O WB from donors with low titers of anti-A/B safer. Generally, risks with ABO group-specific transfusions are associated with in vivo destruction of the red blood cells transfused. The risk with group O WB is from the plasma transfused to ABO-incompatible patients. In the civilian setting, the risk of clinical hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) due to ABO group-specific red blood cell transfusions is relatively low (approximately 1:80,000), but the consequences are frequently severe. Civilian risk of HTRs due to plasma incompatible transfusions, using titered donors, is approximately 1:120,000 but usually of mild to moderate severity. Emergency settings are often chaotic and resource limited, factors well known to increase the potential for human errors. Using ABO group-specific WB in emergencies may delay treatment because of needed ABO typing, increase the risk of clinical HTRs, and increase the severity of these reactions as well as increase the danger of underresuscitation due to lack of some ABO groups. When the clinical decision has been made to transfuse WB in patients with life-threatening hemorrhagic shock, we recommend the use of group O WB from donors with low anti-A/B titers when logistical constraints preclude the rapid availability of ABO group-specific WB and reliable group matching between donor and recipient is

  9. Alterations of platelet function and clot formation kinetics following in vitro exposure to anti-A and -B antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Refaai, Majed A.; Carter, Jessie; Henrichs, Kelly F.; Davidson, Donna C.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Casey, Ann E.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Phipps, Richard P.; Francis, Charles W.; Blumberg, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Background ABO mismatched platelets are commonly transfused despite reported complications. We hypothesized that because platelets possess A and B antigens on their surface, ABO mismatched transfused or recipient platelets could become activated and/or dysfunctional after exposure to anti-A or -B antibodies in the transfused or recipient plasma. We present here in vitro modeling data on the functional effects of exposure of platelets to ABO antibodies. Methods Platelet functions of normal platelets of all ABO types were assessed before and after incubation with normal saline, ABO identical plasmas, or O plasmas with varying titers of anti-A and anti-B (anti-A/B) antibodies. Assays used for this assessment include: platelet aggregation, clot kinetics, thrombin generation, platelet cytoskeletal function, and mediator release. Results Exposure of antigen bearing platelets to O plasma with moderate to high titers of anti-A/B antibodies significantly inhibits aggregation, prolongs PFA-100 epinephrine closure time, disrupts clot formation kinetics, accelerates thrombin generation, reduces total thrombin production, alters platelet cytoskeletal function, and influences pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediator release. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a wide range of effects that anti-A/B antibodies have on platelet function, clot formation, thrombin generation, platelet cytoskeletal function, and mediator release. These data provide potential explanations for clinical observations of increased red cell utilization in trauma and surgical patients receiving ABO non-identical blood products. Impaired hemostasis caused by anti-A/B antibodies interacting with A and B antigens on platelets, soluble proteins, and perhaps even endothelial cells is a potential contributing factor to hemorrhage in patients receiving larger volumes of ABO non-identical transfusions. PMID:22624532

  10. Scalability of the LEU-Modified Cintichem Process: 3-MeV Van de Graaff and 35-MeV Electron Linear Accelerator Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rotsch, David A.; Brossard, Tom; Roussin, Ethan; Quigley, Kevin; Chemerisov, Sergey; Gromov, Roman; Jonah, Charles; Hafenrichter, Lohman; Tkac, Peter; Krebs, John; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-10-31

    Molybdenum-99, the mother of Tc-99m, can be produced from fission of U-235 in nuclear reactors and purified from fission products by the Cintichem process, later modified for low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The key step in this process is the precipitation of Mo with α-benzoin oxime (ABO). The stability of this complex to radiation has been examined. Molybdenum-ABO was irradiated with 3 MeV electrons produced by a Van de Graaff generator and 35 MeV electrons produced by a 50 MeV/25 kW electron linear accelerator. Dose equivalents of 1.7–31.2 kCi of Mo-99 were administered to freshly prepared Mo-ABO. Irradiated samples of Mo-ABO were processed according to the LEU Modified-Cintichem process. The Van de Graaff data indicated good radiation stability of the Mo-ABO complex up to ~15 kCi dose equivalents of Mo-99 and nearly complete destruction at doses >24 kCi Mo-99. The linear accelerator data indicate that even at 6.2 kCi of Mo-99 equivalence of dose, the sample lost ~20% of Mo-99. The 20% loss of Mo-99 at this low dose may be attributed to thermal decomposition of the product from the heat deposited in the sample during irradiation.

  11. Amycolatopsis tucumanensis sp. nov., a copper-resistant actinobacterium isolated from polluted sediments.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Trujillo, Martha E; Amoroso, María Julia; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, ABO(T), isolated from copper-polluted sediments showed remarkable copper resistance as well as high bioaccumulation abilities. Classical taxonomic methods, including chemotaxonomy and molecular techniques, were used to characterize the isolate. Strain ABO(T) developed a honey-yellow substrate mycelium on all ISP media tested. Abundant, white, aerial mycelium was only formed on ISP 2, 5 and 7 and MM agar. Both types of hyphae fragmented into squarish rod-shaped elements. The aerial mycelium displayed spore-like structures with smooth surfaces in long, straight to flexuous chains. The organism has a type-IV cell wall lacking mycolic acids and type-A whole-cell sugar pattern (meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose) in addition to a phospholipid type-II profile. 16S rRNA gene sequence studies indicated that this organism is a member of the family Pseudonocardiaceae and that it forms a monophyletic clade with Amycolatopsis eurytherma NT202(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain ABO(T) to A. eurytherma DSM 44348(T) was 39.5 %. It is evident from these genotypic and phenotypic data that strain ABO(T) represents a novel species in the genus Amycolatopsis, for which the name proposed is Amycolatopsis tucumanensis sp. nov. The type strain is ABO(T) (=DSM 45259(T) =LMG 24814(T)).

  12. Implementation of post treatment critical evaluation improved the quality of orthodontic care in postgraduate orthodontic clinic: A 10 years comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rashmi; Utreja, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of post- treatment critical evaluation on the quality of orthodontic care in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Materials and Methods: Orthodontic treatment outcome of 109 consecutively treated cases was evaluated in Phase-I evaluation. Following Phase-I evaluation, PTCE of each case was made mandatory. After 6-years of implementation of compulsory PTCE for each case, orthodontic treatment outcome of all consecutively treated cases (n = 126) was evaluated (Phase-II). The treatment outcome was evaluated by American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO MGS) and Subjective evaluation (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS). Results: Based on the ABO scores, the cases were divided into three grades, that is, Grade-I, Grade-II, and Grade-III. The mean total ABO score was improved significantly in Phase-II evaluation (P < 0.01). The total number of cases in ABO Grade-II were increased significantly (P < 0.01) whereas cases in ABO Grade-I remained comparable. The VAS score was improved from 5.66 ± 0.77 at Phase-I to 6.02 ± 0.99 at Phase-II evaluation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The implementation of PTCE significantly improved the quality of orthodontic care in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Clinical Significance: Grading one's own treatment improves the quality of future treatment. PMID:26392728

  13. Prognosis of probability of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carriage in women with compromised family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rybchenko, L A; Bychkova, A M; Skyban, G V; Klymenko, S V

    2013-01-01

    Obtjazhenist' simejnogo anamnezu shhodo raku molochnoi' zalozy ta/abo raku jajechnykiv mozhe svidchyty pro nosijstvo mutacii' v BRCA1 ta BRCA2 genah. Meta: ocinyty ta porivnjaty mozhlyvosti Manchesters'koi' bal'noi' systemy, algorytmu Penn II ta Myriad na indyvidual'nomu rivni vidriznjaty pacijentiv z mutacijeju BRCA1/2 ta osib bez mutantnyh alelej sered ukrai'ns'kyh zhinok z rannim rozvytkom raku molochnoi' zalozy ta/abo obtjazhenym simejnym anamnezom shhodo raku molochnoi' zalozy ta/abo raku jajechnykiv. Material ta metody doslidzhennja. Materialom doslidzhennja sluguvaly rezul'taty genealogichnogo, molekuljarno-genetychnogo ta kliniko-morfologichnogo obstezhennja 44 osib, hvoryh na rak molochnoi' zalozy, z rannim rozvytkom zahvorjuvannja abo z obtjazhenym simejnym anamnezom shhodo onkologichnoi' patologii' molochnoi' zalozy ta/abo jajechnykiv. Vyznachennja najbil'sh imovirnyh nosii'v mutacij BRCA1 i BRCA2 sered obstezhenyh zhinok provodyly za dopomogoju tr'oh vyshhezgadanyh algorytmiv. Rezul'taty ta vysnovky. Manchesters'ka bal'na systema maje krashhu zdatnist' na indyvidual'nomu rivni vidriznjaty pacijentiv z mutacijeju ta osib bez mutantnyh alelej. Ploshha pid kryvoju Manchesters'koi' bal'noi' systemy skladaje 0,84, Penn II – 0,66, Myriad – 0,68.

  14. Climbing the Slope of Enlightenment during NASA's Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; Hoy, E.; Duffy, D.; McInerney, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) is a new field campaign sponsored by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program and designed to improve understanding of the vulnerability and resilience of Arctic and boreal social-ecological systems to environmental change (http://above.nasa.gov). ABoVE is integrating field-based studies, modeling, and data from airborne and satellite remote sensing. The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) has partnered with the NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems Office (CCEO) to create a high performance science cloud for this field campaign. The ABoVE Science Cloud combines high performance computing with emerging technologies and data management with tools for analyzing and processing geographic information to create an environment specifically designed for large-scale modeling, analysis of remote sensing data, copious disk storage for "big data" with integrated data management, and integration of core variables from in-situ networks. The ABoVE Science Cloud is a collaboration that is accelerating the pace of new Arctic science for researchers participating in the field campaign. Specific examples of the utilization of the ABoVE Science Cloud by several funded projects will be presented.

  15. Evaluation of Neonatal Hemolytic Jaundice: Clinical and Laboratory Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Cherepnalkovski, Anet Papazovska; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Zafirovska-Ivanovska, Beti; Gruev, Todor; Markic, Josko; Aluloska, Natasa; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Piperkovska, Katica

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal jaundice that occurs in ABO or Rhesus issoimunisation has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for development of severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin neurotoxicity. AIM: Aim of our study was to investigate clinical and laboratory parameters associated with hemolytic jaundice due to Rh and ABO incompatibility and compare results with the group of unspecific jaundice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred sixty seven (167) neonatal hyperbilirubinemia cases were included in the study, 24.6% of which presented with ABO/Rhesus type hemolytic jaundice, and the rest with unspecific jaundice. Evaluation included: blood count, reticulocites, serum bilirubin, aminotransferases, blood grouping, and Coombs test, also the day of bilirubin peak, duration of the hyperbilirubinemia, and additional bilirubin measurements. RESULTS: We showed significantly lower mean values of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and hematocrit and significantly higher values of reticulocytes in the group of ABO/Rh incompatibility compared to the group of jaundice of unspecific etiology; also an earlier presentation and a higher-grade jaundice in this group. CONCLUSIONS: The laboratory profile in ABO/Rh isoimmunisation cases depicts hemolytic mechanism of jaundice. These cases carry a significant risk for early and severe hyperbilirubinemia and are eligible for neurodevelopmental follow-up. Hematological parameters and blood grouping are simple diagnostic methods that assist the etiological diagnosis of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:27275310

  16. Erythrocyte antigen and reticulocyte engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, I; Ozer, Y; Yüksel, M K; Arat, M; Arslan, O

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to study the usefulness of erythrocyte antigen (EA) measurement to study engraftment after allogeneic HSCT. In all, 31 consecutive patients receiving HLA-identical bone marrow (BM) (n=13) or peripheral blood stem cells (n=18) were investigated. Apart from the ABO group, 15 EAs representing six minor blood groups were followed by the simple tube agglutination technique. A total of 20 (64.5%) patients received ABO-identical, eight (25.8%) received ABO minor and three (9.7%) received ABO major mismatched grafts. In all, 29 patients were followed for a median of 12 (6-16) months; 65% of the patients expressed donor type EA 1 month and almost all did so 6 months after transplant. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly shorter than EA engraftment (median 18 vs 35 days) (P=0.001). Patients who received PB stem cells showed significantly faster EA and reticulocyte engraftment than patients who received BM stem cells (P=0.038 and 0.025). ABO compatibility did not have an impact on reticulocyte and EA engraftment (P=0.4 and 0.55). The earliest donor type EA detected was from the Rh and Kidd system. These data suggest that EA and reticulocyte assays are useful in monitoring engraftment.

  17. The American Board of Orthodontics: Diplomate recertification.

    PubMed

    Riolo, Michael L; Owens, S Ed; Dykhouse, Vance J; Moffitt, Allen H; Grubb, John E; Greco, Peter M; English, Jeryl D; Briss, Barry S; Cangialosi, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    Although some specialty certifying boards began recommending or requiring recertification of their "boarded" specialists as early as 1986, recertification is a relatively new concept for the specialty of orthodontics. In the mid 1990s, the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) recognized that many other medical and dental specialty boards had already established voluntary or mandatory recertification policies and decided to establish its own time-limited certifying policy. After a series of field tests involving former directors, council members of the College of Diplomates of the ABO, and volunteer diplomates, the ABO instituted a recertification policy for candidates who applied for initial certification after January 1, 1998. Since then, the total number of diplomates who have been recertified has steadily increased. Surveys of successfully recertified diplomates reflect a positive feeling about the process. When medical and dental specialists are expected to be more accountable, recertification has been shown to be a valid method to help ensure continued competency. The ABO believes that the formulation of educational and certifying processes to document a diplomate's clinical competency throughout his or her career will help to serve the public welfare. The ABO is attempting to make initial certification and periodic recertification attainable for more orthodontists and, in so doing, to provide a standard by which we exist as a specialty.

  18. Phase behavior and dynamics of a cholesteric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.; Fragiadakis, D.; Roland, C. M.; Dabrowski, R.; Dziaduszek, J.; Urban, S.

    2014-02-21

    The synthesis, equation of state, phase diagram, and dielectric relaxation properties are reported for a new liquid crystal, 4{sup ′}-butyl-4-(2-methylbutoxy)azoxybenzene (4ABO5*), which exhibits a cholesteric phase at ambient temperature. The steepness of the intermolecular potential was characterized from the thermodynamic potential parameter, Γ = 4.3 ± 0.1 and the dynamic scaling exponent, γ = 3.5 ± 0.2. The difference between them is similar to that seen previously for nematic and smectic liquid crystals, with the near equivalence of Γ and γ consistent with the near constancy of the relaxation time of 4ABO5* at the cholesteric to isotropic phase transition (i.e., the clearing line). Thus, chirality does not cause deviations from the general relationship between thermodynamics and dynamics in the ordered phase of liquid crystals. The ionic conductivity of 4ABO5* shows strong coupling to the reorientational dynamics.

  19. Mycobacterium setense sp. nov., a Mycobacterium fortuitum-group organism isolated from a patient with soft tissue infection and osteitis.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Brigitte; Marchandin, Hélène; Hamitouche, Kamel; Laurent, Frédéric

    2008-02-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped acid-fast bacterium was isolated from a patient with a post-traumatic chronic skin abscess associated with osteitis. Morphological analysis, 16S rRNA, hsp65, sodA and rpoB gene sequence analysis, cell-wall fatty acid and mycolic acid composition analyses and biochemical tests showed that the isolate, designated ABO-M06(T), belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Its phenotype was unique and genetic and phylogenetic findings suggest that strain ABO-M06(T) represents a novel species within the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The name Mycobacterium setense sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain ABO-M06(T) (=CIP 109395(T)=DSM 45070(T)).

  20. Accuracy of user-friendly blood typing kits tested under simulated military field conditions.

    PubMed

    Bienek, Diane R; Charlton, David G

    2011-04-01

    Rapid user-friendly ABO-Rh blood typing kits (Eldon Home Kit 2511, ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit) were evaluated to determine their accuracy when used under simulated military field conditions and after long-term storage at various temperatures and humidities. Rates of positive tests between control groups, experimental groups, and industry standards were measured and analyzed using the Fisher's exact chi-square method to identify significant differences (p < or = 0.05). When Eldon Home Kits 2511 were used in various operational conditions, the results were comparable to those obtained with the control group and with the industry standard. The performance of the ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit was adversely affected by prolonged storage in temperatures above 37 degrees C. The diagnostic performance of commercial blood typing kits varies according to product and environmental storage conditions.

  1. Crystallographic shear mechanisms in Rh one-dimensional oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, María; Boulahya, Khalid; Parras, Marina; González-Calbet, José M.

    2005-02-01

    Electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy have been used to characterize two new one-dimensional superstructures in the A sbnd Rh sbnd O system (A = Ca, Sr) related to the 2H-ABO 3-type. They are formed by the intergrowth of n A 3A'BO 6 blocks, showing the Sr 4RhO 6-type, with A 12A' 2B 8O 30 blocks, constituted by two A 3O 9 and two A 3A'O 6 layers alternating in the stacking sequence 1:1, leading to the A 27A' 7B 13O 60 ( n=5) and A 30A' 8B 14O 66 ( n=6) compositions. A crystallographic shear mechanism is proposed to describe the structural relationship between Sr 4RhO 6 (A 3A'BO 6-type) and the new superstructures.

  2. Upper Limb Neurodynamic Test 1 on Healthy Individuals: Intra- and Intersession Reliability of the Angle between Pain Onset and Submaximal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of nerve trunk mechanosensitivity using the upper limb neurodynamic test 1 (ULNT1) often includes measurement of the angle of occurrence in the range of pain onset (PO) and submaximal pain (SP). A measurement that better fits the idea of mechanosensitivity could be the angle between PO and SP (AbOS). This study investigated the intra- and intersession reliability of AbOS, PO, and SP during the ULNT1. Forty-four healthy volunteers underwent three ULNT1 to the point of PO and SP, twice in the first session and once in the second. AbOS, PO, and SP angles of occurrence reliability were examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC 3,1) and Bland-Altman plots. The intra- and intersession ICC values for AbOS were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.47; 0.85) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.60; 0.89), respectively. The intra- and intersession mean difference and 95% limits of agreement (±1.96 SD) in the Bland-Altman plots were 2.3° (−18.3°; 23.1°) and 2.8° (−14.7°; 20.4°), respectively. The intra- and intersession reliability of the AbOS during the ULNT1 in healthy individuals is high and higher than the reliability of PO and SP angles of occurrence. The AbOS could be a preferable variable in the assessment of neural mechanosensitivity. PMID:27746681

  3. Ab initio calculations of SrTiO3, BaTiO3, PbTiO3, CaTiO3, SrZrO3, PbZrO3 and BaZrO3 (001), (011) and (111) surfaces as well as F centers, polarons, KTN solid solutions and Nb impurities therein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglitis, R. I.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the review of recent results of calculations of surface relaxations, energetics, and bonding properties for ABO3 perovskite (001), (011) and (111) surfaces using mostly a hybrid description of exchange and correlation is presented. Both AO and BO2-terminations of the nonpolar (001) surface and A, BO, and O terminations of the polar (011) surface, as well as B and AO3-terminations of the polar (111) surface were considered. On the AO-terminated (001) surface, all upper-layer A atoms relax inwards, while all second layer atoms relax outwards. For the BO2-terminated (001) surface, in most cases, the largest relaxations are on the second-layer metal atoms. For almost all ABO3 perovskites, the surface rumpling is much larger for the AO-terminated than for the BO2-terminated (001) surface, but their surface energies are always quite similar. In contrast, different terminations of the (011) ABO3 surface lead to very different surface energies for the O-terminated, A-terminated, and BO-terminated (011) surface, respectively. A considerable increase in the Ti-O or Zr-O, respectively, chemical bond covalency near the (011) surface as compared both to the bulk and to the (001) surface in ABO3 perovskites were predicted. According to the results of ab initio calculations for Nb doped SrTiO3, Nb is a shallow donor; six nearest O ions are slightly displaced outwards from the Nb ion. The F center in ABO3 perovskites resembles electron defects in the partially-covalent SiO2 crystal rather than usual F centers in ionic crystals like MgO and alkali halides. The results of calculations for several perovskite KNbxTa1-xO3 (KTN) solid solutions, as well as hole and electron polarons in ABO3 perovskites are analyzed.

  4. A Brief History of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed. PMID:23514954

  5. Quantum oscillations in superconductors in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdikov, Vladimir M.; Gvozdikova, Mariya V.

    2000-07-01

    The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations (ABO) of the free energy, the critical temperature, and the magnetic susceptibility in a stack of hollow mesoscopic cylinders are calculated. It is shown that sinusoidal (in flux) ABO crosses over to the parabolic Little-Parks oscillations (LPO) when the diameter of cylinders exceeds the coherence length. The exponential temperature behaviour of the magnetic susceptibility is like that found in Ag cylinders with thin Nb coating [Czech. J. Physics 46 (1996) 2317]. The formal analogy between oscillations of the free energy in the Aharonov-Bohm system in question and the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations (dHvAO) in layered superconductors is discussed.

  6. Effects of Coastal Acidification on the Life Cycle and Fitness of the Mysid Shrimp Americamysis Bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies of animal responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification focus on isolated individuals or uniformly aged and conditioned cohorts that lack the complexities typical of wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for meta-analytic predictions abo...

  7. A serological and histological study of the Egyptian mummy 'Iset Iri Hetes' from the Ptolemaic period III-I B.C.

    PubMed

    Kłys, M; Opolska-Bogusz, B; Próchnicka, B

    1999-01-25

    Serological and histological examinations of the muscles of the calf of an Egyptian mummy dated between the third and first centuries B.C. were performed. Human protein was identified, the ABO phenotype was determined as type B, and morphological disruption of the cells was observed.

  8. Organ transplantation and replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Cerilli, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 49 chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular, Genetic, and Clinical Aspects of the HLA System; The Normal Immune Response; Significance of the ABO Antigen System; The Role of Dialysis in the Management of End-Stage Renal Disease; Access for Dialysis; Patient Selection for Renal Transplantation; The Living Donor in Kidney Transplantation; and Kidney Preservation by Cold Storage.

  9. 42 CFR 493.959 - Immunohematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Rho) typing, and unexpected antibody detection; (3) Those that in addition to paragraph (a)(2) of this... section antibody identification. (b) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for... Test Procedure ABO group (excluding subgroups) D (Rho) typing Unexpected antibody...

  10. 42 CFR 493.959 - Immunohematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Rho) typing, and unexpected antibody detection; (3) Those that in addition to paragraph (a)(2) of this... section antibody identification. (b) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for... Test Procedure ABO group (excluding subgroups) D (Rho) typing Unexpected antibody...

  11. 42 CFR 493.959 - Immunohematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Rho) typing, and unexpected antibody detection; (3) Those that in addition to paragraph (a)(2) of this... section antibody identification. (b) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for... Test Procedure ABO group (excluding subgroups) D (Rho) typing Unexpected antibody...

  12. 42 CFR 493.959 - Immunohematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Rho) typing, and unexpected antibody detection; (3) Those that in addition to paragraph (a)(2) of this... section antibody identification. (b) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for... Test Procedure ABO group (excluding subgroups) D (Rho) typing Unexpected antibody...

  13. 42 CFR 493.959 - Immunohematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Rho) typing, and unexpected antibody detection; (3) Those that in addition to paragraph (a)(2) of this... section antibody identification. (b) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for... Test Procedure ABO group (excluding subgroups) D (Rho) typing Unexpected antibody...

  14. Reports on Text Linguistics: Approaches to Word Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enkvist, Nils Erik; Kohonen, Viljo

    This volume contains papers presented in connection with a symposium held in 1975 and sponsored by Abo Akademi, for the purpose of discussing ongoing research in word-order studies. Papers include: (1) a prolegomena by N.E. Enkvist; (2) "On the Ordering of Sister Constituents in Swedish," by E. Andersson; (3) "What is New…

  15. CO2-caused change in plant species composition rivals the shift in vegetation between mid-grass and tallgrass prairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric CO2 enrichment usually changes the contributions of plant species to biomass production of grasslands, but the types of species favored and mechanisms by which change is mediated differ among ecosystems. We measured changes in the contributions of C3 perennial forbs and C4 grasses to abo...

  16. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... color scheme may be used for differentiating ABO Blood groups: Blood group Color of label O Blue A... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Additional Labeling Standards for Blood and Blood Components § 606.121 Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed...

  17. 77 FR 49020 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NMNM 108040, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NMNM 108040... provisions of Title IV of the Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management Act of 1982, the Bureau of Land Management received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease NMNM 108040 from the lessees ABO...

  18. 76 FR 60866 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NMNM 113399

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NMNM 113399... Title IV, Public Law 97-451, the Bureau of Land Management received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease NMNM 113399 from the lessees Three Rivers Acquisition LLC, ABO Petro Corp,...

  19. On the Science of Sustainability Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is widely associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs…” Hence, sustainability is abo...

  20. The phenotype Ae1B: a probable result of chimerism.

    PubMed Central

    Longster, G H; Robinson, E A; North, D I

    1978-01-01

    An apparently normal healthy adult with the blood group phenotype Ae1B is described. The unusual ABO group is apparently the result of chimerism, the proportion of the minor population of cells being so small as to be only detectable by absorption and elution techniques. PMID:739532

  1. Universal pathogen-reduced plasma in elective open-heart surgery and liver resection.

    PubMed

    Solheim, Bjarte G

    2006-09-01

    ABO-incompatible transfusions and transfusion-related lung injury are today the leading transfusion-related causes of death in the developed world. Since anti-A and anti-B antibodies in plasma can give rise to serious, even fatal, transfusion reactions, ABO-identical/compatible plasma is indicated, but presents a logistical challenge and a risk for transfusion of incorrect plasma. In an effort to circumvent these problems, an ABO-independent universally applicable, pathogen-reduced plasma, Uniplas, has been developed and proven safe and efficacious for use in adults through prospective, randomized, controlled open-heart surgery studies and in prospective, parallel group, controlled liver resection studies. The results of these trials are presented and discussed in relation to solvent/detergent (SD) treated plasma, in general. The cost effectiveness of pathogen-reduced plasma is low because of the very low risk for transfusion transmitted viral infections in the developed world (US 2 to 9 million dollars per quality-adjusted life year). However, taking into account the combined safety of Uniplas with regard to transfusion-related lung injury, pathogen reduction and independence of ABO blood groups, the cost per gained life year is reduced to US 40,000 dollars to 100,000 dollars.

  2. It's just grass, isn't it?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theme of the Calvin Sperling Memorial Lectureship is "biodiversity" specifically with regard to crop germplasm. Could any other theme be nearer to the heart and soul of a plant breeder or geneticist? In 40 years of working on crop germplasm biodiversity, I've (hopefully) learned some lessons abo...

  3. Impact of rituximab desensitization on blood-type-incompatible adult living donor liver transplantation: a Japanese multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Egawa, H; Teramukai, S; Haga, H; Tanabe, M; Mori, A; Ikegami, T; Kawagishi, N; Ohdan, H; Kasahara, M; Umeshita, K

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rituximab prophylaxis on outcomes of ABO-blood-type-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (ABO-I LDLT) in 381 adult patients in the Japanese registry of ABO-I LDLT. Patients underwent dual or triple immunosuppression with or without B cell desensitization therapies such as plasmapheresis, splenectomy, local infusion, intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab. Era before 2005, intensive care unit-bound status, high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score and absence of rituximab prophylaxis were significant risk factors for overall survival and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the univariate analysis. After adjustment for era effects in the multivariate analysis, only absence of rituximab prophylaxis was a significant risk factor for AMR, and there were no significant risk factors for survival. Rituximab prophylaxis significantly decreased the incidence of AMR, especially hepatic necrosis (p < 0.001). In the rituximab group, other B cell desensitization therapies had no add-on effects. Multiple or large rituximab doses significantly increased the incidence of infection, and early administration had no advantage. In conclusion, outcomes in adult ABO-I LDLT have significantly improved in the latest era coincident with the introduction of rituximab.

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES IN AN UNDERGROUND SCHOOL, A WINDOWLESS SCHOOL AND CONVENTIONAL SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COOPER, JAMES G.; IVEY, CARL H.

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE INTO THE EFFECTS OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL-FALLOUT SHELTER UPON THE EDUCATIONAL CLIMATE WITHIN THAT SCHOOL AS COMPARED TO THE CLIMATES OF WINDOWLESS OR CONVENTIONAL SCHOOLS. THE ABO SCHOOL IN ARTESIA, NEW MEXICO, WAS BUILT WITHOUT WINDOWS AND ENTIRELY BELOW GROUND EXCEPT FOR THE ENTRY. INITIAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS WERE ABOUT…

  5. TODAY: EPA Administrator to Attend Wall Street Journals ECO:nomics Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join the Wall Street Journal's ECO:nomics conference for an interview with Editor in Chief Gerard Baker on the economic need for acting on climate change. Administrator McCarthy will speak abo

  6. Pressure as a probe of the physics of relaxor ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    SAMARA,GEORGE A.

    2000-01-25

    Pressure studies have provided new insights into the physics of compositionally-disordered ABO{sub 3} oxide relaxors. Specifically, results will be presented and discussed on a pressure-induced ferroelectric-to-relaxer crossover phenomenon, the continuous evolution of the energetic and dynamics of the relaxation process, and the interplay between pressure and electric field in determining the dielectric response.

  7. Connecting stakeholders and climate science: A summary of farmer, rancher, and forester climate data needs and climate change attitudes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mission of the USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub is to provide farmers, ranchers and forest land owners and managers with information and resources to cope with the impacts of climate change. As such, a clear understanding of landowner needs for weather and climate data and their attitudes abo...

  8. 76 FR 6788 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM...-FM, Facility ID 32386, BPH-20101222ABO, From GREAT FALLS, MT, To HIGHWOOD, MT; THE MONTANA...

  9. Using Sustainability Metrics and Indicators to Design Sustainable Supply Chains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is widely associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs…” Hence, sustainability is abo...

  10. [The pretransfusion bedside agglutination test is not a "Gold Standard"].

    PubMed

    Levy, G

    2008-11-01

    ABO-incompatible transfusions remain frequent in Europe despite the technological progresses in relation with the potential number of human errors during the control procedures of the transfusion chain. The agglutination bedside-test is only one step of this chain and the amelioration of the security will be achieved by its replacement by an electronical check.

  11. Susceptibility of Children to Sapovirus Infections, Nicaragua, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Carlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Larson, Göran; Blandon, Patricia; Vilchez, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua. PMID:23092588

  12. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... matrix. (g) The package label or package insert shall state the blood group antigens that have been... accompanying antigenic constitution matrix. Cells for ABO Serum Grouping are exempt from this requirement. The package insert or antigen constitution matrix shall list each of the antigens tested with only one...

  13. Association mapping analysis of the response to Macrophomina phaseolina in the Andean Diversity Panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Andean Diversity Panel was evaluated for response to inoculation with charcoal rot in a field trial in Isabela, Puerto Rico in 2012. The trial was inoculated with backpack sprayers at flowering and a visual evaluation was conducted three weeks later. There was a broad range of response, with abo...

  14. A dispermic chimera with mixed field blood group B and mosaic 46,XY/47,XYY karyotype.

    PubMed

    Cho, Duck; Lee, Sang Ku; Yazer, Mark Harris; Shin, Myung Geun; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Song, Jeong Won; Jeon, Mee Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Jong Tae; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2007-06-01

    Chimerism in humans is a rare phenomenon often initially identified in the resolution of an ABO blood type discrepancy. We report a dispermic chimera who presented with mixed field in his B antigen typing that might have been mistaken for the B3 subtype. The propositus is a healthy Korean male blood donor. Neither his clinical history nor initial molecular investigation of his ABO gene explained his mixed field agglutination with murine anti-B. Chimerism was suspected, and 9 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed on DNA extracted from blood, buccal swabs, and hair from this donor and on DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes from his parents. The propositus' red blood cells demonstrated mixed field agglutination with anti-B. Exon 6 and 7 and flanking intronic regions of his ABO gene were sequenced and revealed an O01/O02 genotype. B allele haplotype-specific PCR, along with exon 6 and 7 cloning and sequencing demonstrated a third ABO allele, B101. Four STR loci demonstrated a pattern consistent with a double paternal chromosome contribution in the propositus, thus confirming chimerism. His karyotype revealed a mosaic pattern: 32/50 metaphases were 46,XY and 18/50 metaphases demonstrated 47,XYY.

  15. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... availability of blood and blood products. (b) Provision of testing. The facility must provide prompt ABO grouping, D(Rho) typing, unexpected antibody detection, compatibility testing, and laboratory investigation... meeting equivalent requirements as determined by CMS. (c) Blood and blood products storage...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... availability of blood and blood products. (b) Provision of testing. The facility must provide prompt ABO grouping, D(Rho) typing, unexpected antibody detection, compatibility testing, and laboratory investigation... meeting equivalent requirements as determined by CMS. (c) Blood and blood products storage...

  17. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  18. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... availability of blood and blood products. (b) Provision of testing. The facility must provide prompt ABO grouping, D(Rho) typing, unexpected antibody detection, compatibility testing, and laboratory investigation... meeting equivalent requirements as determined by CMS. (c) Blood and blood products storage...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... availability of blood and blood products. (b) Provision of testing. The facility must provide prompt ABO grouping, D(Rho) typing, unexpected antibody detection, compatibility testing, and laboratory investigation... meeting equivalent requirements as determined by CMS. (c) Blood and blood products storage...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... availability of blood and blood products. (b) Provision of testing. The facility must provide prompt ABO grouping, D(Rho) typing, unexpected antibody detection, compatibility testing, and laboratory investigation... meeting equivalent requirements as determined by CMS. (c) Blood and blood products storage...

  1. The impact of platelet transfusion characteristics on posttransfusion platelet increments and clinical bleeding in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Triulzi, Darrell J; Assmann, Susan F; Strauss, Ronald G; Ness, P M; Hess, John R; Kaufman, Richard M; Granger, Suzanne; Slichter, Sherrill J

    2012-06-07

    Platelet characteristics, such as platelet dose, platelet source (apheresis vs pooled), platelet donor-recipient ABO compatibility, and duration of platelet storage, can affect posttransfusion platelet increments, but it is unclear whether these factors impact platelet transfusion efficacy on clinical bleeding. We performed secondary analyses of platelet transfusions given in the prospective randomized Platelet Dose Study, which included 1272 platelet-transfused hematology-oncology patients who received 6031 prophylactic platelet transfusions. The primary outcome of these analyses was time from first transfusion to first World Health Organization ≥ grade 2 bleeding. Platelet transfusion increments were assessed at 0.25 to 4 hours and 16 to 32 hours after platelet transfusion. There were 778 patients evaluable for analysis of time to bleeding. Adjusted models showed that randomized dose strategy, platelet source, ABO compatibility, and duration of storage did not predict this outcome. Platelet increments were generally higher for transfusions of apheresis platelets, ABO-identical platelets, and platelets stored 3 days versus 4 to 5 days. Thus, although platelet source, ABO compatibility, and duration of storage exert a modest impact on both absolute and corrected posttransfusion platelet increments, they have no measurable impact on prevention of clinical bleeding. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00128713.

  2. 25 CFR 290.12 - What information must the tribal revenue allocation plan contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allow the ABO to determine that it complies with this section and IGRA particularly regarding funding... incompetents' per capita payments by the parent or legal guardian; and (iii) Establishing a process, system, or... according to specific eligibility requirements and must utilize or establish a tribal court system, forum...

  3. Effects of the Case-Based Instruction Method on the Experience of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiri Farahani, Leila; Heidari, Tooba

    2014-01-01

    This semi-experimental study was conducted with twenty-seven midwifery students who were randomly allocated to either case-based instruction or lecture-based instruction groups. The selected subjects -- foetal intrapartum assessment, foetal antepartum assessment, ABO and Rh blood group system mismatch -- were presented in four ninety-minute…

  4. Initiation of a Teacher Education Project in Tanzania (TEPT). Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik, Ed.

    This volume describes and analyzes the initiation of a Bachelors in Education course carried out as part-time (distance) and full-time (seminar) studies at Teacher's College in Morogoro, Tanzania. The volume contains six chapters, including: (1) "Framework for English Content Instruction at the Department of Teacher Education at Abo Akademi…

  5. Academic Administration: Planning, Budgeting, and Decision Making with Multiple Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang M.; Van Horn, James C.

    A systematic approach to the management of higher education institutions is described. The methodology combines administration by objectives (ABO), a management technique that helps academic administrators structure decisions in a systematic manner, with goal programming (GP), a decision-science tool that is ideally suited to the analysis of…

  6. Epidemiologic study of neonatal jaundice. A survey of contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Bracci, R; Buonocore, G; Garosi, G; Bruchi, S; Berni, S

    1989-01-01

    In the attempt to detect factors influencing bilirubinemia in healthy full-term or near-term newborn infants, a statistical analysis was carried out on a population of 1,126 neonates to study the variables possibly associated with maximum bilirubin values reached in the first days of life. The following variables were studied: maximum bilirubin level (maxBIL), sex, mode of delivery, gestational age, birthweight, ratio of birthweight/weight on 5th day, Apgar score, Rh and ABO incompatibility. Blood glucose and calcium levels, haematocrit, intake of breast milk, formula and glucose solution were also evaluated during the first 5 days of life. Higher maxBIL was found in males compared to females, after spontaneous delivery vs. emergency caesarean section, after caesarean section without fetal distress vs. emergency caesarean section, and in ABO incompatibility vs. no ABO incompatibility. Statistically significant inverse correlations were observed between maxBIL and gestational age, birth weight, blood glucose, and SE-calcium. Significant positive correlations were found between maxBIL and haematocrit and breast milk intake. A multiple regression analysis between maxBIL and the significantly correlated parameters showed that only gestational age and birth weight remained significantly correlated with maxBIL. The results of the present investigation confirm that the factors most commonly reported as being responsible for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia do in fact play a role, although it can be considered almost negligible with the exception of gender, mode of delivery, ABO incompatibility, birthweight and gestational age.

  7. Abobotulinum Toxin A in the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Duarte; Kumar, Aditya; Jabbari, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a debilitating condition with a complex and multifactorial pathophysiology. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) have strong analgesic effects, as shown in both animal models of pain and in human beings. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel format study to investigate the efficacy of abobotulinum toxin A (aboA) in chronic low back pain was conducted. The study cohort consisted of 18 patients who received 100 units of aboA into each of the five lumbar extensor spinae muscles unilaterally or bilaterally (total dose 500 to 1000 units), and 19 who received normal saline of the same volume. The level of pain and quality of life were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and three questionnaires including the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (OLBPDQ). Patients’ perception of improvement was recorded via patient global impression of change (PGIC). The primary outcome measure, the proportion of responders with VAS of <4 at 6 weeks, was not met, but the data was significantly in favor of aboA at 4 weeks (p = 0.008). The total Oswestry score representing quality of life improved in the aboA group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0448). Moreover, significantly more patients reported their low back pain as “much improved” in the abobotulinum toxin A group (0.0293). PMID:27983689

  8. NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: A large-scale study of environmental change in Western North America and its implications for ecological systems and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Hayes, D. J.; Griffith, P. C.; Larson, E. K.; Wickland, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change in high northern latitudes is unfolding faster than anywhere else on Earth, resulting in widespread changes in landscape structure and ecosystem function in the Arctic-Boreal Region (ABR). Recognizing its sensitivity, vulnerability and global importance, national- and international-level scientific efforts are now advancing our ability to observe, understand and model the complex, multi-scale processes that drive the ABR's natural and social systems. Long at the edge of our mental map of the world, environmental change in the ABR is increasingly becoming the focus of numerous policy discussions at the highest levels of decision-making. To improve our understanding of environmental change and its impacts in the ABR, the Terrestrial Ecology Program of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning its next major field campaign for Western Canada and Alaska. The field campaign will be based on the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) concept as described in the Revised Executive Summary from the ABoVE Scoping Study Report. The original Scoping Study Report provided the proof-of-concept demonstration of scientific importance and feasibility for this large-scale study. In early 2013, NASA announced the selection of the ABoVE Science Definition Team, which is charged with developing the Concise Experiment Plan for the campaign. Here, we outline the conceptual basis for ABoVE and present the compelling rationale explaining the scientific and societal importance of the study. We present the current status of the planning process, which includes development of the science questions to drive ABoVE research; the study design for the field campaign to address them; and the interagency and international collaborations necessary for implementation. The ABoVE study will focus on 1) developing a fuller understanding of ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the ABR, and 2) providing the scientific information required to

  9. Heat treatment effect on crystal structure and design of highly sensitive room temperature CO2 gas sensors using anodic Bi2O3 nanoporous formed in a citric acid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahila, M.; Dhanalakshmi, J.; Celina Selvakumari, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the crystal structure of anodic bismuth trioxide (ABO) layers prepared via anodization in a citric acid-based electrolyte was studied. The samples were annealed in air at temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 600 °C. Characterization of nanoporous ABO layers was carried out through x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). Effects of heat treatment on crystallinity, morphology and gas-sensing properties were investigated in detail. The XRD measurements showed that a gradual phase change from beta to gamma occurs with an increase in annealing temperature. The beta to gamma transformation occurred between 500 and 600 °C. The changes in the average crystallite sizes of beta and gamma occurring during heat treatment of the ABO layers are correlated with the mechanism of gamma-phase nucleation. During the growth of the gamma phase, the grain size gets enlarged with a reduction in the total area of grain boundary. The pores’ formation and the pore diameter of both anodized and annealed samples were found to be in the range of 50 to 150 nm. The band gap of the ABO layer crystallines was determined using the diffuse reflectance technique according to the Kubelka-Munk theory. Results showed that the band gap of the ABO layer decreased from 4.09 to 2.42 eV when the particle size decreased from 58 to 24 nm. The CO2 sensing properties of the ABO were investigated at room temperature for 0-100 ppm concentration. The variations in the electrical resistances were measured with the exposure of CO2 as a function of time. The maximum value of the response magnitude of 77% was obtained for 100 ppm of CO2. These experimental results show that the ABO layer of nanoporous is a promising material for CO2 sensors at room temperature.

  10. On Biological Functions Mapping to the Heterochromatin of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Pimpinelli, Sergio; Sullivan, William; Prout, Mary; Sandler, L.

    1985-01-01

    We examined the behavior of an autosomal recessive maternal-effect mutation, abnormal-oocyte (abo), that is located in the euchromatin of the left arm of chromosome 2. When homozygous in females, abo results in a marked reduction in the probability that an egg produced by a mutant mother will develop into an adult. However, this probability is increased if the fertilizing sperm delivers to the egg either a normal allele of the maternal-effect gene or a specific type of heterochromatin (called ABO) that is located in small regions of the X and Y chromosome constitutive heterochromatin as well as in some autosomal heterochromatin. These regions, moreover, all react to Hoechst 33258 fluorescent dye identically and specifically. The amelioration of the maternal effect produced by this heterochromatin differs temporally from that caused by the normal allele of the euchromatic gene: the heterochromatin reduces only precellular blastoderm mortality, whereas the normal allele of the euchromatic gene reduces only postblastoderm mortality. Thus, although the genome of the preblastoderm Drosophila embryo is apparently mostly silent, the ABO-containing heterochromatin functions at this early time. Finally, preliminary data indicate that abo is but one member of a cluster of linked genes, each of which interacts with its own normal allele and with a different, locus-specific, heterochromatic factor. From these observations, it appears that Drosophila heterochromatin contains developmentally important genetic elements, and that a functional concomitant of heterochromatic location is gene action at a developmental stage during which the activity of the euchromatic genome is as yet undetectable. Some general implications of these inferences are considered. PMID:2580754

  11. The Effect of Awareness of American Board of Orthodontics Criteria on Treatment Outcomes in a Postgraduate Dental Clinic.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Rahime Burcu Nur; Nalbantgil, Didem; Ozdemir, Fulya

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the posttreatment outcomes in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic following a course on American Board of Orthodontics Cast and Radiograph Evaluation (ABO-CRE); to compare the outcomes of postgraduate students who took the course before and after finishing treatment of their cases; and to assess if the need for orthodontic treatment as determined by the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) at the beginning of treatment affected students' final scores. A course on ABO-CRE was given to second- (group A), third- (group B), and fourth- (group C) year postgraduate students at Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey, in 2012. Pre- and posttreatment plaster models of 253 cases (group A) were treated by students in 2011-12. An additional 251 (group B, 2012-13) and 341 (group C, 2013-14) cases were evaluated in the first and second years after the course, respectively. The models were graded retrospectively using the ABO-CRE and IOTN. The results showed that the total mean scores on the posttreatment plaster models were significantly higher in the pre-course group than the first- and second-year post-course group (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). The borderline cases (grade 3) received a lower score on the ABO-CRE than the cases with need (grade 4) (p<0.01) and severe need (grade 5) (p<0.01) for orthodontic treatment. Increasing awareness by giving information about the ABO-CRE significantly improved the posttreatment success of these postgraduate students. After the course, treatment outcomes in the following year were better than two years later, suggesting it may be useful to teach the course annually to refresh students' knowledge.

  12. Cation Ordering within the Perovskite Block of a Six-layer Ruddlesden-Popper Oxide from Layer-by-layer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Niu, H. J.; Rosseinsky, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    The (AO)(A BO3)n Ruddlesden-Popper structure is an archetypal complex oxide consisting of two distinct structural units, an (AO) rock salt layer separating an n-octahedra thick perovskite block. Conventional high-temperature oxide synthesis methods cannot access members with n > 3 , butlowtemperaturelayer - by - layerthinfilmmethodsallowthepreparationofmaterialswiththickerperovskiteblocks , exploitinghighsurfacemobilityandlatticematchingwiththesubstrate . Thispresentationdescribesthegrowthofann = 6 memberCaO / (ABO 3)n (ABO 3 : CaMnO 3 , La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 orCa 0.85 Sm 0.15 MnO 3) epitaxialsinglecrystalfilmsonthe (001) SrTiO 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition with the assistance of a reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED).

  13. Blood-type distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  14. Amplification refractory mutation system-PCR is essential for the detection of chimaeras with a minor allele population: a case report.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Park, Hye Ryoen; Park, Tae Sung; Oh, Seung Hwan; Shin, Myung Geun; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook; Park, Jong Tae; Cho, Duck

    2013-05-01

    Blood chimaera is a rare but important issue for immunohaematology laboratories. Several molecular approaches, such as ABO genotyping, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing and DNA short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, have been used to identify chimaerism. Unfortunately, the minor allele population can be overlooked by PCR-based methods, which preferentially amplify the major allele population. A case with AweakB (AwB), demonstrating a mixed-field pattern, was sent to our laboratory for further evaluation. Direct sequencing of ABO exons 6 and 7 revealed a B101/O02 genotype. Analysis of the 12 STR loci and HLA typing did not provide any evidence of chimaerism. However, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR identified the minor A102 allele in addition to B101/O02. Three alleles of the chimaera were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Thus, ARMS-PCR is essential, especially in the case of a chimaera with a minor allele population.

  15. A new micromethod for the in vitro detection of antiplatelet antibodies: C-FDA thrombocytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lizak, G.E.; Grumet, F.C.

    1980-07-01

    A new microtechnique, C-FDA, for the in vitro detection of antiplatelet antibodies, is described. This technique is faster and simpler than either 51Cr thrombocytotoxicity or immunofluorescence (IF). C-FDA is more sensitive than 51Cr for all (anti-HLA, --P1A1, ABO, drug-related, and ITP-related) antibodies tested. Although IF was more sensitive for many types of antibodies, C-FDA was as good or better a clinical test method for all drug-related and isoimmune neonatal thrombocytopenia patient sera tested. Preliminary data also suggest that this method detects possible new non-HLA, non-ABO, nonP1A1 platelet antigens.

  16. Analysis of electrostatic stability and ordering in quaternary perovskite solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, Clovis; Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron

    2016-04-01

    There are three distinct classes of perovskite structured metal oxides, defined by the charge states of the cations: AIBVO3,AIIBIVO3 , and AIIIBIIIO3 . We investigated the stability of cubic quaternary solid solutions A B O3-A'B'O3 using a model of point-charge lattices. The mixing enthalpies were calculated and compared for the three possible types of combinations of the compounds, both for the random alloys and the ground-state-ordered configurations. The mixing enthalpy of the (I,V)O3-(III,III)O3 alloy is always larger than the other alloys. We found that, different from homovalent alloys, for these heterovalent alloys a lattice constant mismatch between the constituent compounds could contribute to stabilize the alloy. At low temperatures, the alloys present a tendency to spontaneous ordering, forming superlattices consisting of alternated layers of AB O 3 and A'B'O3 along the [110 ] direction.

  17. Late onset of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and pure red cell aplasia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using in vivo alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Oshima, Kumi; Nishimoto, Nahoko; Sato, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takuro; Hosoya, Noriko; Motokura, Toru; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Kamijo, Aki; Takahashi, Koki; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-03-01

    Hemolytic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been reported to be mainly related to ABO-incompatibility between donor and recipient. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) without ABO-incompatibility has been also reported after allogeneic HSCT, especially with T-cell depletion. However, optimal management of AIHA or PRCA remains unclear. A 54-year-old male with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) underwent haploidentical human leukocyte antigen-mismatched HSCT using in vivo alemtuzumab and developed AIHA and PRCA simultaneously 15 months after transplantation, following the administration of cidofovir and probenecid for persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and retinitis. AIHA was successfully treated with rituximab, and subsequently PRCA with cyclosporine without relapse of MDS or recurrence of CMV infection. The clinical course suggested that AIHA was mainly caused by humoral immune response, while PRCA was mainly caused by cell-mediated immune response in this patient, although these immune responses might be related to each other.

  18. The PNarec method for detection of ancient recombinations through phylogenetic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Saitou, Naruya; Kitano, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Recombinations are known to disrupt bifurcating tree structure of gene genealogies. Although recently occurred recombinations are easily detectable by using conventional methods, recombinations may have occurred at any time. We devised a new method for detecting ancient recombinations through phylogenetic network analysis, and detected five ancient recombinations in gibbon ABO blood group genes [Kitano et al., 2009. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 51, 465-471]. We present applications of this method, now named as "PNarec", to various virus sequences as well as HLA genes.

  19. Investigation of Aerosol Penetration through Individual Protective Equipment in Elevated Wind Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Proving Ground: Permeation of Air-Permeable, Semipermeable and Impermeable Materials with Chemical Agents or Simulants (Swatch Testing ). TOP 8-2-501...predictions. MODELING APPROACH An IPE system must provide protection for an individual from airborne agents under a range of wind conditions. A full...Methodology for Evaluation of Chemical /Biological (CB) Protective Garments. TECOM project No. 8-EI-825-ABO-004, Dugway, Utah, 1996. 2. U.S. Army Dugway

  20. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  1. Preparation of single donor platelet with low antibody titers for all patients.

    PubMed

    Romphruk, Amornrat V; Cheunta, Siriluk; Pakoate, Lamoon; Kumpeera, Pravee; Sripara, Poonsup; Paupairoj, Chintana; Romphruk, Arunrat

    2012-04-01

    Platelet concentrates from ABO-identical donors are the components of choice for patients. However, since inventories are generally insufficient and because there is usually a relative abundance of group O donors, perfect matches are not always possible. It is therefore the accepted practice for platelets to be transfused out of the ABO group when ABO-identical platelets are unavailable. Notwithstanding, the transfusion of platelets containing high titers of antibodies to the antigens on the red blood cells of the patient can cause clinically significant hemolysis. The way to improve the safety of group O platelets has focused on defining a safe level of antibodies or reducing the volume of incompatible plasma. In the current study, 107 group O single donor platelets (SDP) were modified after collecting the platelet pellet in a bag. The AB plasma was added instead of the donor's own plasma. The direct agglutination titers of anti-A/anti-B in the original group O SDPs' plasma were performed by doing a gel test, resulting in from 1:4 to 1:1024. The prevalence of high titers (i.e., at least 1:64 in our study) was relatively high, ∼63% for anti-A and 78% for anti-B. The titer of residual anti-A/anti-B in the modified SDPs ranged from negative to 1:8. In most of the modified SDPs anti-A/anti-B could not be detected in the plasma (58.9% and 52.3%, respectively). The results indicate that our modified SDPs have very low titers; that is, acting as a universal SDP which is safe for all ABO patients. This modified SDP form is a more convenient way to overcome the risk from incompatible plasma or loss of platelets during the process of volume reduction and can help effectively manage our inventory.

  2. Fibrinogen Recovery in Two Methods of Cryoprecipitate Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    volume of isoagglutinins and absence of red blood cells, cryoprecipitate can be transfused without regard for the ABO group or Rh type of the...intervention and support. Treatment for these patients is replacement therapy, supplying fibrinogen through transfusion . The first treatment for...represents the transfusable product. Conversely, loss refers to the fibrinogen or factor VIII that is "lost" into the supernatant plasma and therefore not

  3. Induction of Human Blood Group A Antigen Expression on Mouse Cells, Using Lentiviral Gene Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohu; Lang, Haili; Zhou, Xianpei; Zhang, Li; Yin, Rong; Maciejko, Jessica; Giannitsos, Vasiliki; Motyka, Bruce; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ABO histo-blood group system is the most important antigen system in transplantation medicine, yet no small animal model of the ABO system exists. To determine the feasibility of developing a murine model, we previously subcloned the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (H-transferase, EC 2.4.1.69) cDNA and the human α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (A-transferase, EC 2.4.1.40) cDNA into lentiviral vectors to study their ability to induce human histo-blood group A antigen expression on mouse cells. Herein we investigated the optimal conditions for human A and H antigen expression in murine cells. We determined that transduction of a bicistronic lentiviral vector (LvEF1-AH-trs) resulted in the expression of A antigen in a mouse endothelial cell line. We also studied the in vivo utility of this vector to induce human A antigen expression in mouse liver. After intrahepatic injection of LvEF1-AH-trs, A antigen expression was observed on hepatocytes as detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. In human group A erythrocyte-sensitized mice, A antigen expression in the liver was associated with tissue damage, and deposition of antibody and complement. These results suggest that this gene transfer strategy can be used to simulate the human ABO blood group system in a murine model. This model will facilitate progress in the development of interventions for ABO-incompatible transplantation and transfusion scenarios, which are difficult to develop in clinical or large animal settings. PMID:20163247

  4. The Relative Acceptability and Consumption of the Current and Proposed Versions of the T Ration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Fbr the majority of nutrients, soldiers cnsmed at or aboe the r-a -ld levels . Neither ration acpace, ration tonrjsion, body weight loss, or hydration...Focus Group to Probe Perception of the Ration 14 H. Statistical Analysis 15 IV . Results and Discussion 16 A. Activity Profile 16 1. Service Battery 16...34 Participants 125 K. T Ration Menus and Nutrient Information 139 L. MRE Menus and Nutrient Information 167 iv Figures and Tables Figure Page 1

  5. On the Phase Transition of N-Isopropylcarbazole.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    nonlinear coupling is already known in the literature for the phase transitions in terbium molybdate20 and chloranilI0 . The theory predicts a...partially for the critical behavior in chloranil1 O , terbium molybdate2 0 and ABO3 perovskites. 2 2 A soft optical mode at the Brillouin zone center...Coupling between strains and temperature dependent Raman -optical modes provides a satisfactory * 12 explanation for the elastic behavior in s-triazine

  6. Genetic markers in atherosclerosis: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, N E

    1976-01-01

    There is a growing number of lipoprotein markers recognized by immunological, electrophoretic, and other biochemical methods, and a beginning has been made on studying their modes of inheritance and linkage relations. Suggestive but inconclusive evidence of a relation between the cerumen polymorphism and arteriosclerosis has been published. Associations of the ABO blood groups with cardiovascular disease and serum lipid levels have been established, but the exact relation to lipoproteins and atherosclerosis remains to be determined. PMID:180292

  7. National Dam Inspection Program. Lewis Lake Dam (NDI-ID Number PA-00061, DER-ID Number 58-7), Susquehanna River Basin, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    INSPECTORS: R. Houseal (Recorder) OWNER’S REPRESENTATIVE(s): H. Jongsma William Yakley R. Shireman Joseph Wojak A. Bartl ]’tt NORMAL POOL ELEVATION...6.52 1 1079. ( 16.B9) I 30.56)( 2 5770. ( 163.39)( 3 abo.01 C 158.59)( 4 4538, I 12B,0)O 5 3238. C 91,70)( SUIhARY OF PAM SAFETY ANALISIS PLAN I

  8. Comprehensive Development Program of Hunter-Killer Peptides for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    mnay Flectroplioresis of proteins "sas carlied Oiit using eilher S ot 121",. SDS polbacrtlaitide ges, Fquiial atiounts of total protein isere loaded...Rat iser iicioidriu xxerc prepacit as described aboe. Ile pep- liihood ofb helteitx in tile presence of negatisely charged unenibranes, tide...APPENDIX 3 Targeting the prostate for destruction through a vascular address Wadih Arap*t*, Wolfgang Haedicke* t§, Michele Bemasconi*, Renate Kain൓

  9. Blood Far Forward - A Whole Blood Research and Training Program for Austere Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    collaboration between the Norwegian Naval Special Operation Com- mando and the Department of Immunology and Transfu- sion Medicine at Haukeland University...comparing From the Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando; the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital; and...testing regimens for ABO/RH blood typing and various transfusion-transmitted viruses (HIV, HBV, and HCV ), clinical evaluation of bleeding, transfusion

  10. [Teaching design and practice of human blood type traits in genetics comprehensive laboratory course].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Hu, Dongmei; Yu, Dade; Dong, Mingliang; Li, Yun; Fan, Yingming; Wang, Yanwei; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Comprehensive laboratory courses, which enable students to aptly apply theoretic knowledge and master experiment skills, play an important role in the present educational reform of laboratory courses. We utilized human ABO blood type as the experimental subject, and designed the experiment--"Molecular Genotyping of Human ABO Blood Type and Analysis of Population Genetic Equilibrium". In the experiment, DNA in mucosal cells is extracted from students' saliva, and each student's genotype is identified using a series of molecular genetics technologies, including PCR amplification of target fragments, enzymatic digestion, and electrophoretic separation. Then, taking the whole class as an analogous Mendel population, a survey of genotype frequency of ABO blood type is conducted, followed with analyses of various population genetic parameters using Popgene. Through the open laboratory course, students can not only master molecular genetic experimental skills, but also improve their understanding of theoretic knowledge through independent design and optimization of molecular techniques. After five years of research and practice, a stable experimental system of molecular genetics has been established to identify six genotypes of ABO blood types, namely I(A)I(A), I(A)i, I(B)I(B), I(B)i, I(A)I(B) and ii. Laboratory courses of molecular and population genetics have been integrated by calculating the frequencies of the six genotypes and three multiple alleles and testing population genetic equilibrium. The goal of the open laboratory course with independent design and implementation by the students has been achieved. This laboratory course has proved effective and received good reviews from the students. It could be applied as a genetics laboratory course for the biology majors directly, and its ideas and methods could be promoted and applied to other biological laboratory courses.

  11. Histo-blood group gene polymorphisms as potential genetic modifiers of the development of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, K; Ihara, K; Ikeda, K; Nagata, H; Mizuno, Y; Hara, T

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal immunological responses to certain microbial agents may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD). The association studies between histo-blood group genes (Lewis and ABO blood types) and various types of infectious diseases or vasculopathy have been carried out based on the fact that glycosylated antigens could directly mediate microbial infections. We attempted to clarify the role of blood type antigens in the development of KD and coronary artery lesions in KD patients. The subjects included 164 KD patients enrolled from 1998 to 2003 (1st group), 232 patients from 2004 to 2009 (2nd group), and 223 healthy children and 118 patients with growth hormone deficiency as controls. The genotyping of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes, and ABO genotypes, was determined with the TaqMan SNP assay and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. No significant differences were observed in the genotypes and allele frequencies of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes between the groups. The frequency of the BB blood genotype was significantly higher in KD patients with coronary artery lesions in the 1st and 2nd groups than in the controls (17% and 14% vs. 5%, P = 0.0020). This is the first report to investigate the roles of ABO and Lewis blood types in the development of KD, and in the formation of coronary artery lesions in KD patients. These data suggest that the ABO blood type may play a role in the development of coronary artery lesions in KD patients.

  12. Amish burn ointment and burdock leaf dressings: assessments of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Rieman, Mary T; Neely, Alice N; Boyce, Steven T; Kossenjans, William J; Durkee, Paula J; Zembrodt, Jacquelyn M; Puthoff, Barbara K; Kagan, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Amish burn wound ointment (ABO) contains honey, lanolin, oils, glycerin, bees wax, and other natural additives. Although there are many anecdotal reports that this ointment covered with a burdock leaf (BL) dressing promotes burn wound healing, little scientific testing of this treatment has occurred. The goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro some of the components of this treatment modality for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The ABO was tested for sterility using standard microbiological techniques. Because of the semisolid, lipid-based nature of the salve, the at-use product could not be tested in bioassays. Samples of BL and the dry ingredients (DI) used in the ointment were provided by the Amish vendor. Aqueous extracts of the DI and of the BL were prepared and freeze dried. The freeze-dried extracts were reconstituted, filtered, and tested separately on keratinocyte and fibroblast cell cultures for cytotoxicity (growth inhibition assay) and against a panel of susceptible and resistant microbes for antimicrobial activity (Nathan's agar-well diffusion assay) in a series of concentrations (% wt/vol). Neither DI nor BL extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against any of organisms tested. The DI extract inhibited growth of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts at the 0.1% concentration. The 0.1 and 0.03% concentrations of the BL extract were cytotoxic to both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Although tests for microbial growth from the at-use preparation of the ABO were negative, extracts of the DI and BL did not demonstrate any antimicrobial activity. Additionally, both extracts inhibited the growth of skin cells in vitro at higher concentrations. These results suggest caution in the use of ABO and BL dressings if there is more than a minimal risk of complications from the burn injury.

  13. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 27, January - February 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-21

    BIBLIOGRAPHY OF.$OVIET LASER DEVELOPMENTS, N 27, JANUARY - FEBRUARY 1977 6. PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(o) 9...Gasdynamic ................................ 12 N ~ZinLO PAS KMK-abo nED I -- ,, --. , W~--- -- ---------- I 3. Excimer...V. Draganescu, and N . Comaniciu (NS). Depen- dence of the optimum hydrogen pressure on the discharge in sealed-off CO2 lasers. Revue roumaine de

  14. Comprehensive clinical evaluation as an outcome assessment for a graduate orthodontics program.

    PubMed

    Pinskaya, Yuliya B; Hsieh, Tsung-Ju; Roberts, W Eugene; Hartsfield, James K

    2004-11-01

    To supplement the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) objective grading system (OGS) for posttreatment dental casts and panoramic radiographs, a comprehensive clinical assessment (CCA) method was developed to assess facial form, dental esthetics, vertical dimension, arch form, periodontium preservation, root resorption, and treatment efficiency. The sum of the CCA and the ABO OGS scores was defined as the clinical outcome. To determine a 3-year baseline for treatment outcomes in a graduate orthodontic program, the posttreatment records of 521 consecutive patients were evaluated. The mean ABO OGS score for the entire sample was 34.4 points: 32.4, 33.1, and 37.8 points for 1998, 1999, and 2000, respectively. The mean CCA score for the entire sample was 4.67 points: 2.96, 5.13, and 6.15 points for 1998, 1999, and 2000, respectively. Corresponding ABO OGS and CCA scores showed a progressive decrease in the quality of finished cases that was associated with a treatment time increase from 28.9 to 39.3 months. Overall, longer active treatment times resulted in a diminished clinical outcome, primarily due to "patient burn-out." Scoring of all finished cases is an effective means for determining clinical outcomes. However, the data suggest that, in initiating a clinical grading program, it is important to establish a multiyear baseline. Patients who are progressing well in treatment tend to be finished by the time the current class graduates, and the problem patients are transferred. Because long treatment times are associated with diminished clinical outcomes, it is often in the best interest of the uncooperative patient to terminate treatment rather than extend active mechanics in an attempt to achieve a better result.

  15. The cis-AB blood group phenotype: fundamental lessons in glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark H; Olsson, Martin L; Palcic, Monica M

    2006-07-01

    The cis-AB phenotype can raise questions about an apparently paradoxical inheritance of the ABO blood group, such as the birth of an O child from an AB mother. These subtype ABO alleles confer the ability to create both A and B antigens with a single enzyme. A variety of different cis-AB enzymes have been reported and many feature an interchange of amino acids between the normal A enzyme sequence and its B counterpart, rendering the mutant enzyme capable of creating both antigens. The resulting red blood cells do not usually express A or B antigen at the same level that would be expected on common group A(1) or B red blood cells, and the results of investigations into the kinetics of the cis-AB enzyme more clearly predict the extent of antigen expression. By correctly identifying the cis-AB phenotype, the blood bank can be of assistance to a clinician faced with a patient with what appears to be a genetically impossible ABO blood group.

  16. Tracking performance with two breathing oxygen concentrations after high altitude rapid decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesthus, Thomas E.; Schiflett, Samuel G.; Oakley, Carolyn J.

    1992-01-01

    Current military aircraft Liquid Oxygen (LOX) systems supply 99.5 pct. gaseous Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (ABO) to aircrew. Newer Molecular Sieve Oxygen Generation Systems (MSOGS) supply breathing gas concentration of 93 to 95 pct. O2. The margin is compared of hypoxia protection afforded by ABO and MSOGS breathing gas after a 5 psi differential rapid decompression (RD) in a hypobaric research chamber. The barometric pressures equivalent to the altitudes of 46000, 52000, 56000, and 60000 ft were achieved from respective base altitudes in 1 to 1.5 s decompressions. During each exposure, subjects remained at the simulated peak altitude breathing either 100 or 94 pct. O2 with positive pressure for 60 s, followed by a rapid descent to 40000 ft. Subjects used the Tactical Life Support System (TLSS) for high altitude protection. Subcritical tracking task performance on the Performance Evaluation Device (PED) provided psychomotor test measures. Overall tracking task performance results showed no differences between the MSOGS breathing O2 concentration of 94 pct. and ABO. Significance RMS error differences were found between the ground level and base altitude trials compared to peak altitude trials. The high positive breathing pressures occurring at the peak altitudes explained the differences.

  17. Alternative Living Kidney Donation Programs Boost Genetically Unrelated Donation

    PubMed Central

    Poldervaart, Rosalie A.; Laging, Mirjam; Royaards, Tessa; Kal-van Gestel, Judith A.; van Agteren, Madelon; de Klerk, Marry; Zuidema, Willij; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; Roodnat, Joke I.

    2015-01-01

    Donor-recipient ABO and/or HLA incompatibility used to lead to donor decline. Development of alternative transplantation programs enabled transplantation of incompatible couples. How did that influence couple characteristics? Between 2000 and 2014, 1232 living donor transplantations have been performed. In conventional and ABO-incompatible transplantation the willing donor becomes an actual donor for the intended recipient. In kidney-exchange and domino-donation the donor donates indirectly to the intended recipient. The relationship between the donor and intended recipient was studied. There were 935 conventional and 297 alternative program transplantations. There were 66 ABO-incompatible, 68 domino-paired, 62 kidney-exchange, and 104 altruistic donor transplantations. Waiting list recipients (n = 101) were excluded as they did not bring a living donor. 1131 couples remained of whom 196 participated in alternative programs. Genetically unrelated donors (486) were primarily partners. Genetically related donors (645) were siblings, parents, children, and others. Compared to genetically related couples, almost three times as many genetically unrelated couples were incompatible and participated in alternative programs (P < 0.001). 62% of couples were genetically related in the conventional donation program versus 32% in alternative programs (P < 0.001). Patient and graft survival were not significantly different between recipient programs. Alternative donation programs increase the number of transplantations by enabling genetically unrelated donors to donate. PMID:26421181

  18. Severe immune haemolysis in a group A recipient of a group O red blood cell unit.

    PubMed

    Barjas-Castro, M L; Locatelli, M F; Carvalho, M A; Gilli, S O; Castro, V

    2003-08-01

    Haemolysis caused by passive ABO antibodies is a rare transfusional complication. We report a case of severe haemolytic reaction in a 38-year-old man (blood group A) with lymphoma who had received one red blood cell (RBC) unit group O. After transfusion of 270 mL, the patient experienced fever, dyspnoea, chills and back pain. On the following morning he was icteric and pale. Haptoglobin was inferior to 5.8 mgdL(-1), haemoglobin was not increased and lactate dehydrogenase was elevated. Haemolysis was evident on observation of the patient's post-transfusion samples. The recipient's red cells developed a positive direct antiglobulin test and Lui elution showed anti-A coated the cells. Fresh donor serum had an anti-A titre of 1024, which was not reduced by treating the serum with dithiothreitol. Donor isoagglutinin screening has been determined by microplate automated analyser and showed titre higher than 100. Physicians should be aware of the risk of haemolysis associated with ABO-passive antibodies. There is generally no agreement justifying the isoagglutinin investigation prior to transfusion. However, automated quantitative isoagglutinin determination could be part of the modern donor testing process, mainly in blood banks where identical ABO group units (platelets or phenotyped RBCs) are not available owing to limited supply.

  19. Pathogenesis and mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Willy A

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of antibodies to red blood cells (RBC) have been studied for a century. Most clinically relevant antibodies can be detected by sensitive in vitro assays. Several mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis are well understood. Such hemolysis following transfusion is reliably avoided in a donor/recipient pair, if one individual is negative for the cognate antigen to which the other has the antibody. Study design and results Mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis were reviewed based on a presentation at the Strategies to Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions Workshop addressing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and ABO antibodies. The presented topics included the rates of intravascular and extravascular hemolysis; IgM and IgG isoagglutinins; auto- and alloantibodies; antibody specificity; A, B, A,B and A1 antigens; A1 versus A2 phenotypes; monocytes/macrophages, other immune cells and complement; monocyte monolayer assay (MMA); antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC); and transfusion reactions due to ABO and other antibodies. Conclusion Several clinically relevant questions remained unresolved, and diagnostic tools were lacking to routinely and reliably predict the clinical consequences of RBC antibodies. Most hemolytic transfusion reactions associated with IVIG were due to ABO antibodies. Reducing the titers of such antibodies in IVIG may lower the frequency of this kind of adverse event. The only way to stop these events is to have no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in the IVIG products. PMID:26174897

  20. Efficacy of IgM anti-blood type antibody monitoring by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after renal transplantation across the blood barrier: high-dose immunoglobulin administration blocks IgM rather than IgG anti-blood type antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Tanabe, K; Furusawa, M; Isizuka, T; Tokumoto, T; Shimmura, H; Shimizu, T; Miyamoto, N; Hayashi, T; Toma, H

    2004-09-01

    We used an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate the presence of subtypes of anti-blood-type antibodies in patients with biopsy-proven humoral rejection after ABO-incompatible renal transplantation. High agglutinin IgG and IgM anti-blood type antibodies from 12 ABO-incompatible recipients with vascular rejection were separately assessed using an ELISA. Patients who exhibited excellent renal function despite high agglutinin titers of anti-blood-type antibodies(n = 8) were also examined. All 12 rejection patients exhibited highly elevated titers of IgG and IgM, while the eight stable patients exhibited only slightly elevated IgG titers, but not IgM. IgG and IgM titers did not change after plasmapheresis and steroid pulse therapy, whereas IVIg treatment significantly blocked both IgG and IgM, with IgM being blocked to a larger extent than IgG. Blocking of IgM seems to play an important role in improving ABO-incompatible grafts.

  1. Blood Group Substances as Potential Therapeutic Agents for the Prevention and Treatment of Infection with Noroviruses Proving Novel Binding Patterns in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Shin; Yokobori, Takehiko; Ueta, Gen; Ide, Munenori; Altan, Bolag; Thongprachum, Aksara; Nishimura, Toyo; Nakajima, Tamiko; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Asao, Takayuki; Saniabadi, Abby R.; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Le Pendu, Jacques; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Blood group-related glycans determining ABO and Lewis blood groups are known to function as attachment factors for most of the norovirus (NoV) strains. To identify binding specificity of each NoV, recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLPs) and human saliva samples with different ABO, Lewis phenotypes and secretor status have been commonly applied. When binding specificities of VLPs prepared from 16 different genotypes of NoVs in GI and GII genogroups were characterized in samples of human gastric mucosa compared to human saliva based on blood group phenotypes, considerable differences were observed for several strains. Novel binding specificities determined by an ELISA using preparations from human gastric mucosa were also ascertained by immunohistochemical analyses using human jejunal mucosa, widely believed to be susceptible to NoV infection. Further, A, B and O(H) blood group substances prepared from porcine and squid tissues were found to be effective for preventing ABO blood group-specific binding of VLPs to both saliva and mucosa samples. Therefore, these blood group substances might have potential for the prevention and treatment of NoV infection. PMID:24558470

  2. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction method for the selective separation and preconcentration of ultra trace molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Ghiasvand, A R; Shadabi, S; Mohagheghzadeh, E; Hashemi, P

    2005-05-15

    A new simple and efficient homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction method for the selective separation and preconcentration of molybdenyl ions was developed. alpha-Benzoin oxime (ABO) was investigated as a complexing ligand, and perfluorooctanoate ion (PFOA(-)) was applied as a phase-separator agent under strongly acidic conditions. Under the optimal conditions ([ABO]=2.1x10(-3)M, [PFOA(-)]=1.8x10(-2)M, [HNO(3)]=1.7M, [acetone]=11.8% (v/v)), 10mug of molybdenum in 5ml aqueous phase could be extracted quantitatively into 40mul of the sedimented phase. The maximum concentration factor was 125-fold. Thiocyanate was applied as a chromogenic reagent for the direct spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in the sedimented phase. The reproducibility of the proposed method is at the most 2.4%. The influence of the type and concentration of acid solution, the concentration of ABO, the type and volume of the water-miscible organic solvent, the concentration of PFOA(-), and the effect of different diverse ions on the extraction and determination of molybdenum(VI) were investigated. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of molybdenum(VI) in natural water, Spinach, and Lucerne samples. A satisfactory agreement exists between the results obtained by the proposed method and those reported by GF-AAS.

  3. The association of some genetic factors with pulmonary tuberculosis in Georgian and Azeri ethno groups.

    PubMed

    Khukhunaishvili, R; Tskvitinidze, S; Nagervadze, M; Akhvlediani, L; Koridze, M

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the major public health problems. Over the last half decade the significant problem is an increased ratio of drug-resistant TB cases. TB is as well the most significant infectious disease in the country of Georgia. Pulmonary tuberculosis is assessed as a complex infectious disease affected by both, environmental and genetic factors. Present study was undertaken to find out the correlation between pulmonary tuberculosis and erythrocyte blood groups antigens determinant alleles (ABO - r, p, q; Rh D+, Rh D- and MN - p, q) in two different, Georgian and Azeri, ethno groups. Immune-serological methods, direct reaction of universal monoclonal antibodies were used. Materials processed by biostatistician methods. The study had shown different correlation of pulmonary tuberculosis to erythrocyte blood groups determinant alleles in Georgian and Azeri ethno groups. In Georgian ethno group pulmonary TB correlates with ABO-r and p, Rh-D,+' and MN-p alleles, whether ABO-q, Rh-D,-' and MN-p in Azeri ethno group.

  4. [Risk and crisis management by anesthesiologists regarding 'Guidelines for Actions Against Intraoperative Critical Hemorrhage' published by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists and the Japan Society of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy].

    PubMed

    Irita, Kazuo; Yoshimura, Hayashi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiro; Takamatsu, Chihiro; Tokuda, Kentaro

    2008-09-01

    According to a survey of anesthesia-related critical incidents by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists, hemorrhage was the major cause of cardiac arrest developing in the operating room. To deal with critical hemorrhage swiftly, not only cooperation between anesthesiologists and surgeons but also the linkage of operating rooms with transfusion management divisions and the blood center is important. It is desirable for the hospital transfusion committee to prepare hospital regulations on 'actions to be taken to manage critical hemorrhage', and practice the implementation of these guidelines by simulated drills. When critical hemorrhage occurs, a person in charge is appointed, and an emergency is declared (call for manpower and notification of the emergency to the transfusion management divisions). A person in charge comprehensively assesses the hemostatic condition, hemodynamics, laboratory data, and blood product supply system, and consults the operator regarding the continuation of surgery or changing surgical procedures. When time is short, the cross-matching test is omitted, and the ABO-identical blood is used. When a supply of the identical ABO-type blood is not available, compatible blood type is used. The evolving concept of hemostatic resuscitation seems to be important to prevent coagulopathy, which easily develops during massive hemorrhage. Anesthesiologists should be aware of the risk of such an emergency transfusion and procedures to be taken to switch to transfusion of the ABO-identical blood. Establishment of a hospital emergency transfusion system depends on the overall capability of the critical and crisis management systems of the hospital.

  5. Orthotopic liver transplantation in fulminant and subfulminant hepatitis. The Paul Brousse experience.

    PubMed Central

    Bismuth, H; Samuel, D; Castaing, D; Adam, R; Saliba, F; Johann, M; Azoulay, D; Ducot, B; Chiche, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report on the experience of orthotopic liver transplantation in fulminant hepatitis at Paul Brousse Hospital. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver transplantation is a breakthrough in the treatment of patients with fulminant hepatitis. However, the indications, the timing for transplantation, the type of transplantation, and the use of ABO incompatible grafts in this setting still are debated. METHODS: Transplantation was indicated in patients with confusion or coma and factor V less than 20%, younger than 30 years of age, and confusion or coma and factor V less than 30% older than 30 years of age. RESULTS: Among 139 patients who met the aforementioned criteria for transplantation, 1 recovered, 22 died before transplantation, and 116 underwent transplants with a 1-year survival of 68%. Survival was 83% in patients with grade 1 and 2 comas at transplantation versus 56% (p < 0.001) in those with grade 3 comas; it was 51% versus 81% (p < 0.001) in those transplanted with high risk (ABO-incompatible, split, or steatotic) and low-risk grafts, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, steatotic and partial grafts were predictive of poorer patient survival, and ABO incompatibility was predictive of poorer graft survival. CONCLUSIONS: Orthotopic liver transplantation is an effective treatment in fulminant hepatitis. Use of high-risk grafts permitted transplantation of 83% of patients, but was responsible for higher mortality. PMID:7639578

  6. Blood typing profile of a school-aged population of a North Togo township.

    PubMed

    Vovor, Ahoefa; Fétéké, Lochina; Kueviakoe, Irénée M; Kpatarou, Laye; Mawussi, Koffi; Magnang, Hézouwè; Ségbéna, Akuété Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of hemoglobin (Hb) variants and ABO blood groups in a school population aged 6 to 9 years in the township of Agbandé-Yaka in North Togo. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 children of four primary schools at Agbande-Yaka, between March and July 2010. Hemoglobin characterization was done by alkaline buffer electrophoresis and the blood types ABO-Rhesus (Rh) D by immuno-hematological methods. A Hb variant was detected in 37.0% of the schoolchildren. Among them, the AS trait accounted for 11.9% and the AC trait for 20.2%. Homozygous Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) was not found but Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) appeared at a frequency of 3.3%, while compound heterozygotes carrying Hb SC were seen at a frequency of 1.6%. The O, B and A blood groups accounted for 49.0, 26.8 and 21.9%, respectively. The Hb anomalies reached a high prevalence in this school population. These results are remarkable by the absence of homozygous Hb S individuals compared to homozygous Hb C individuals, which were as numerous as expected. The frequencies of the ABO blood groups are similar to what has been found in other West African populations.

  7. Helical mode and supercurrent measured on the topological surface states of Bi2Te3 nanoribbon field effect devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Luis A.; Pettes, Michael T.; Shi, Li; Rokhinson, Leonid P.; Chen, Yong P.

    2014-03-01

    Topological superconductivity can be proximity induced by coupling s-wave superconductors with spin-helical electron systems, such as the surface of 3D topological insulators (TIs), where the energy bands follow Dirac dispersion and the electronic states possess helical spin-momentum locking. We have grown Bi2Te3 nanoribbons (NRs) by vapor liquid solid method and characterized their crystalline structure by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. We fabricate backgated field effect devices where the chemical potential (μ) can be tuned from bulk bands to surface states and ambipolar field effect has been observed. The temperature dependence of the resistance and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations show suppressed bulk conduction with surface conduction dominating and a pi-Berry's phase. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations (ABO), measured with a magnetic field parallel to the NR axis, have a period equal to one flux quanta with conductance maxima at half flux quanta (pi-ABO), for μ close to the charge neutrality point. Such pi-ABO is a direct evidence of the existence of 1D helical modes at half flux quanta. We have also fabricated Josephson junctions on our TI NR devices with inter-electrode separations up to 200 nm, and measured supercurrent with a proximity induced gap of 0.5meV at 0.25K.

  8. [Present status of critical hemorrhage and its management in the operating room].

    PubMed

    Irita, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhage is a major cause of cardiac arrest in the operating room. Many human factors, including surgical procedures, transfusion practices, blood supply, and anesthetic management, are involved in the process that leads to hemorrhage developing into a critical situation. It is desirable for hospital transfusion committees to prepare hospital-based regulations on 'actions to be taken to manage critical hemorrhage', and practice the implementation of these regulations with simulated drills. If intraoperative hemorrhage may become critical, a state of emergency should immediately be declared to the operating room staff, the blood transfusion service staff, and blood bank staff in order to organize a systematic approach to the ongoing problem and keep all responsible staff working outside the operating room informed of events developing in the room. To rapidly deal with critical hemorrhage, not only cooperation between anesthesiologists and surgeons but also linkage of operating rooms with blood transfusion services and a blood bank are important. When time is short, cross-matching tests are omitted, and ABO-identical red blood cells are used. When supplies of ABO-identical red blood cells are not available, ABO-compatible, non-identical red blood cells are used. Because a systematic, not individual, approach is required to prevent and manage critical hemorrhage, whether or not a hospital can establish a procedure to deal with it depends on the overall capability of critical and crisis management of the hospital. (Review).

  9. Platelet Transfusion – the Art and Science of Compromise

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Joan; Harm, Sarah K.; Yazer, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Many modern therapies depend on platelet (PLT) transfusion support. PLTs have a 4- to 7-day shelf life and are frequently in short supply. In order to optimize the inventory PLTs are often transfused to adults without regard for ABO compatibility. Hemolytic reactions are infrequent despite the presence of ‘high titer’ anti-A and anti-B antibodies in some of the units. Despite the low risk for hemolysis, some centers provide only ABO identical PLTs to their recipients; this practice might have other beneficial outcomes that remain to be proven. Strategies to mitigate the risk of hemolysis and the clinical and laboratory outcomes following ABO-matched and mismatched transfusions will be discussed. Although the PLTs themselves do not carry the D antigen, a small number of RBCs are also transfused with every PLT dose. The quantity of RBCs varies by the type of PLT preparation, and even a small quantity of D+ RBCs can alloimmunize a susceptible D− host. Thus PLT units are labeled as D+/–, and most transfusion services try to prevent the transfusion of D+ PLTs to D– females of childbearing age. A similar policy for patients with hematological diseases is controversial, and the elements and mechanisms of anti-D alloimmunization will be discussed. PMID:23922541

  10. Red cell antibodies arising from solid organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, G

    1991-01-01

    RBC antibodies arising from transplanted organs and directed against recipient RBCs represent a well-established immunohematologic complication of solid organ transplantation. In ABO-unmatched organs, the frequency and severity of graft antibodies and hemolysis generally increase with the size (lymphoid content) of the organ, from kidney to liver to heart-lung transplants. In the cases reviewed here, the frequency of hemolysis increased in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant recipients and O-to-A liver transplant recipients and decreased in group AB liver transplant recipients and kidney transplant recipients receiving azathioprine or low-dose postoperative graft irradiation. Available data cannot otherwise distinguish which cyclosporine-treated recipients of ABO-unmatched kidneys and livers (30-40% of total) will develop graft antibody. There has been no conclusive effect to date of the age, race, or gender of the donor or the recipient, of cadaver versus living kidney donors, or of patients' A2 or secretor status. In a few cases of living-donor kidney grafts, the donor was the patient's mother or wife who had been exposed to the recipient's RBC antigens via pregnancy. The ABO antibodies are typically IgG, appear 7 to 10 days after transplantation, and last for about a month. If immediate-spin crossmatching is done routinely, DATs are recommended in compatibility testing after ABO-unmatched transplants. Changes in the immunosuppressive regimen, such as a change from cyclosporine therapy, have not affected the duration of these antibodies. Most patients require only transfusions for this self-limited process, but six cases of hemolysis-induced acute renal failure have been reported, and one death was attributed to complications of hemolysis. RBC or plasma exchange has been performed in a few fulminant cases. RBCs of the donor's blood type are given when antibody appears. Some workers recommend such transfusion as prophylaxis at the time of surgery, although in

  11. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karagoz, Hatice; Erden, Abdulsamet; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Bulut, Kadir; Mutlu, Hasan; Simsek, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. Patients and methods A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/−). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012. Results There was a significant difference between the patients with GDM and control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups. Blood group AB was found to be higher in the patients with GDM compared to the control group (P=0.029). When the patients were compared according to the development of DM, the ratio

  12. Biochemical and Structural Insights into Enzymatic Depolymerization of Polylactic Acid and Other Polyesters by Microbial Carboxylesterases.

    PubMed

    Hajighasemi, Mahbod; Nocek, Boguslaw P; Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Brown, Greg; Flick, Robert; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Hai, Tran; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Golyshin, Peter N; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2016-06-13

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polyester derived from renewable resources, which is a leading candidate for the replacement of traditional petroleum-based polymers. Since the global production of PLA is quickly growing, there is an urgent need for the development of efficient recycling technologies, which will produce lactic acid instead of CO2 as the final product. After screening 90 purified microbial α/β-hydrolases, we identified hydrolytic activity against emulsified PLA in two uncharacterized proteins, ABO2449 from Alcanivorax borkumensis and RPA1511 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Both enzymes were also active against emulsified polycaprolactone and other polyesters as well as against soluble α-naphthyl and p-nitrophenyl monoesters. In addition, both ABO2449 and RPA1511 catalyzed complete or extensive hydrolysis of solid PLA with the production of lactic acid monomers, dimers, and larger oligomers as products. The crystal structure of RPA1511 was determined at 2.2 Å resolution and revealed a classical α/β-hydrolase fold with a wide-open active site containing a molecule of polyethylene glycol bound near the catalytic triad Ser114-His270-Asp242. Site-directed mutagenesis of both proteins demonstrated that the catalytic triad residues are important for the hydrolysis of both monoester and polyester substrates. We also identified several residues in RPA1511 (Gln172, Leu212, Met215, Trp218, and Leu220) and ABO2449 (Phe38 and Leu152), which were not essential for activity against soluble monoesters but were found to be critical for the hydrolysis of PLA. Our results indicate that microbial carboxyl esterases can efficiently hydrolyze various polyesters making them attractive biocatalysts for plastics depolymerization and recycling.

  13. Changes in sex and non-sex hormones and distribution of erythrocyte antigens in reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus in Adjara.

    PubMed

    Nakashidze, I; Kotrikadze, N; Diasamidze, A; Nagervadze, M; Ramishvili, L

    2013-04-01

    The aim the research was to study the hormonal state of reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus. The quantitative changes of sex steroid hormones: progesterone (P), estradiol (E), testosterone (T), gonadotropine -Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were investigated. Distribution of ABO blood group antigens and Rh-Hr systems genetic variants in the blood of women living in Adjara Region was also studied. For study was used reproductive age women's blood with benign (fibromioma) and malignant (endometrial cancer) tumors of body of uterus (the middle age was 20-45 years). The determination of hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA). For the research of blood groups, were used the immunoserologic methods. The study have revealed that in blood of reproductive age women with benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus, level of estradiol was increased while levels of progesterone and testosterone were sharply reduced. Amount of Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone were also increased. It's significant that, both hormones were sharply increased in case of cancer of body of uterus, in comparison with control group and benign tumor. According to distribution of ABO blood group phenotypes - O (I) phenotypic group of ABO system has its highest frequency in blood of women with cancer of body of uterus. Cancer of body of uterus is associated with O (I) phenotypic groups; benign tumor of body of uterus - with A(II) and AB(IV) phenotypic groups. Women with cc and EE genetic variants of Rh-Hr system have sensitivity to the development of benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus; women with ee genetic variant have lower sensitivity towards body of uterus cancer and sharply expressed sensitivity to uterus benign tumors. In women with malignant tumors of body of uterus the frequency of distribution of Rh-Hr system CC genetic variant was sharply reduced.

  14. Breaking wind to survive: fishes that breathe air with their gut.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J A

    2014-03-01

    Several taxonomically disparate groups of fishes have evolved the ability to extract oxygen from the air with elements of their gut. Despite perceived difficulties with balancing digestive and respiratory function, gut air breathing (GAB) has evolved multiple times in fishes and several GAB families are among the most successful fish families in terms of species numbers. When gut segments evolve into an air-breathing organ (ABO), there is generally a specialized region for exchange of gases where the gut wall has diminished, vascularization has increased, capillaries have penetrated into the luminal epithelium and surfactant is produced. This specialized region is generally separated from digestive portions of the gut by sphincters. GAB fishes tend to be facultative air breathers that use air breathing to supplement aquatic respiration in hypoxic waters. Some hindgut breathers may be continuous, but not obligate air breathers (obligate air breathers drown if denied access to air). Gut ABOs are generally used only for oxygen uptake; CO₂ elimination seems to occur via the gills and skin in all GAB fishes studied. Aerial ventilation in GAB fishes is driven primarily by oxygen partial pressure of the water (PO₂) and possibly also by metabolic demand. The effect of aerial ventilation on branchial ventilation and the cardiovascular system is complex and generalizations across taxa or ABO type are not currently possible. Blood from GAB fishes generally has a low blood oxygen partial pressure that half saturates haemoglobin (p50) with a very low erythrocytic nucleoside triphosphate concentration [NTP]. GAB behaviour in nature depends on the social and ecological context of the animal as well as on physiological factors.

  15. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Deniz; Karagoz, Hatice; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Bulut, Kadir; Aykas, Fatma; Cetinkaya, Ali; Uslu, Emine; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Erden, Abdulsamet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT) and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. Patients and methods A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/−). Results There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029). The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006). The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004). Discussion In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum. PMID:27143904

  16. Evasion of Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum: Rosettes of Blood Group A Impair Recognition of PfEMP1

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kirsten; Palmkvist, Mia; Ch'ng, Junhong; Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven; Wahlgren, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are expressed on erythrocytes but also on endothelial cells, platelets and serum proteins. Notably, the ABO blood group of a malaria patient determines the development of the disease given that blood group O reduces the probability to succumb in severe malaria, compared to individuals of groups A, B or AB. P. falciparum rosetting and sequestration are mediated by PfEMP1, RIFIN and STEVOR, expressed at the surface of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC). Antibodies to these antigens consequently modify the course of a malaria infection by preventing sequestration and promoting phagocytosis of pRBC. Here we have studied rosetting P. falciparum and present evidence of an immune evasion mechanism not previously recognized. We find the accessibility of antibodies to PfEMP1 at the surface of the pRBC to be reduced when P. falciparum forms rosettes in blood group A RBC, as compared to group O RBC. The pRBC surrounds itself with tightly bound normal RBC that makes PfEMP1 inaccessible to antibodies and clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, pRBC of in vitro cloned P. falciparum devoid of ABO blood group dependent rosetting were equally well detected by anti-PfEMP1 antibodies, independent of the blood group utilized for their propagation. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the severe forms of malaria may in patients of blood group A depend on the ability of the parasite to mask PfEMP1 from antibody recognition, in so doing evading immune clearance. PMID:26714011

  17. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Cumulative Author Index. Volumes 38-42

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    42-2314 i rapid runway repairs [1986, 41-1355 CRREL BIBLIOGRAPHY Abo.L. Service life of itructurn bulll of ■utoclaved concrilM. Sum- miriet...microbiological investigations [1983, p.34-36, rusj 38-15« Micronora of the central antarctic glacier and control meth- od» of sterile isolation of the ice core...for microbiological analyses [1982, p.337-34B, rus, 38-193 Mycelial fungi isolated from a glacier of central Antarctica (1982, p.433-436, rusj 38

  18. USSR Report, Problems of the Far East No 4, Oct-Dec 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    into the patriotic cnurch and the »church in the catacombs", the "church of silence The lat- Ws activity especially as regards Jesuits , was...autono- mous oreanTsations of this type exist and that this "church’ docs not hTe a will e aboTated hierarchy.’« Hans Waldcnfeld a Jesuit who...Pone JohnPaul 11 in connection with the 400th anniversary of the arn- vaTin CMna of the first Jesuit missionary Matteo Rice» "who succeeded in

  19. Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Bele,:1t )"(vaiaable Copy AD AD-E4OI 102 TECMNICA._ REPORT ;RLCD-TR-83047 CARS SPECTROSCOPY Of PROPELLANT FLAMES L. E. HARRIS DTIC ii IELECTE0 "" NOV...4. TITLE (mid Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CARS SPECTROSCOPY OF PROPELLANT FLAMES Final Ś. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a...ea•abo. Broadband CARS CARS spectra Spectroscopy Propellant *0AUINIACT (0w o roemtae 401 N uueedswr Mu $000tit? b7 61"k Auhee) Obtaining useful

  20. Superconducting double perovskite bismuth oxide prepared by a low-temperature hydrothermal reaction.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Mirza H K; Miura, Akira; Takei, Takahiro; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Mozahar Ali, M; Nagao, Masanori; Watauchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Isao; Oka, Kengo; Azuma, Masaki; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Azharul Islam, A K M

    2014-04-01

    Perovskite-type structures (ABO3) have received significant attention because of their crystallographic aspects and physical properties, but there has been no clear evidence of a superconductor with a double-perovskite-type structure, whose different elements occupy A and/or B sites in ordered ways. In this report, hydrothermal synthesis at 220 °C produced a new superconductor with an A-site-ordered double perovskite structure, (Na(0.25)K(0.45))(Ba(1.00))3(Bi(1.00))4O12, with a maximum T(c) of about 27 K.

  1. Pressure-induced isostructural transition in a distorted perovskite via octahedron reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Fang; Yue, Binbin; Hirao, Naohisa; Ren, Guohao; Chen, Bin; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2016-12-01

    Perovskite material studies encompass many fields such as energy harvesting, superconductivity, magnetism, and beyond. Thus, it is very important to investigate their structural varieties in external environments. Here, the pressure-induced structure change of a distorted perovskite, Y0.7Lu0.3AlO3, was examined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Upon compression, it underwent an isostructural transition near 22 GPa. The quenchable high-pressure phase had a much higher bulk modulus than the low-pressure phase. This work shows the flexibility of perovskite distortion and will help to understand the property anomalies in prevailing perovskite ABO3 systems and design more functional materials.

  2. A Theater Missile Defense Integration Study; Active Defense Systems Priorities and Issues First Quarter, Fiscal Year 1996.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    United States portion oLFMEADS *All lOCs shown are current Service estirnates *MEADS funded from ACAP lrineto the exreri possible C- 13 A THEA TER...10 11 12 13 14 15 1-4 POM Years -0ý AboC Figure C-12: BM1,DO P0.1 Less .’tMD and 400/2 00 Option MEADS and Navy Theater Wide funded from ACAP line to...Ground-Based Radar funded throug~h partial procurement *PAC-4 given plus-up from ACAP to enable IOC in FY 2006 *Remaining ACAP funds in FY 2006-20 13

  3. Processing, testing and selecting blood components.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alister; Heyes, Jennifer

    Transfusion of blood components can be an essential and lifesaving treatment for many patients. However, components must comply with a number of national requirements to ensure they are safe and fit for use. Transfusion of incorrect blood components can lead to mortality and morbidity in patients, which is why patient testing and blood selection are important. This second article in our five-part series on blood transfusion outlines the requirements for different blood components, the importance of the ABO and RhD blood group systems and the processes that ensure the correct blood component is issued to each patient.

  4. Humanized in vivo Model for Autoimmune Diabetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-07

    complexes in the thymus. As T cell CD4 avidity interaction with the 2 domain of the MHC class II has been shown to contribute positively to thymic T...mice (DR4) were generated as previously de- scribed [ 2 ]. These C57BL/6 I-Abo/o mice express a human- mouse chimeric class II molecule in which the TcR...transgenic for the type 1 diabetes- associated human MHC class II allele, DRB1*0401. J Clin Invest 1996;98:2597e603. [9] Kim J, Richter W, Aanstoot HJ

  5. Genotypic Profile of the Outer Membrane Proteins BabA and BabB in Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Colbeck, Jeffrey C.; Hansen, Lori M.; Fong, Julie M.; Solnick, Jay V.

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori BabA is the ABO blood group antigen binding adhesin, which has a closely related paralogue (BabB) whose function is unknown. PCR and DNA sequence analysis showed extensive genotypic diversity in babA and babB across different strains, as well as within a strain colonizing an individual patient. We hypothesize that diverse profiles of babA and babB reflect selective pressures for adhesion, which may differ across different hosts and within an individual over time. PMID:16790815

  6. Advances in the epidemiology of gestational trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J R

    1994-03-01

    Recent reports on the incidence of hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma are reviewed, with consideration of the methodologic difficulties of obtaining accurate rates. The incidence of hydatidiform mole appears to be about 1 per 1,000 pregnancies in most parts of the world and perhaps twice as high in Japan. Choriocarcinoma is much less common, and estimates of the incidence are highly variable. Maternal age and a history of hydatidiform mole have been established as strong risk factors for both hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. The evidence for a role of other factors, including diet, ethnicity, endogenous estrogen levels, ABO blood group and environmental toxins, is weaker.

  7. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Immunofluorescence as Indicators of Platelet Compatibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-23

    Studies were performed to determine if the increase in MPV was due to the presence of alloantibodies or if it was due to ABO isoagglutinins anti-A and...blood group types (Tables IA and 1B). Sera from donors with blood group type 0 containing anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins always caused type A...platelets to swell (range 7-24%) (Table 1A). Mixtures of B and 0 platelets with sera containing anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins demonstrated no change or

  8. 'O' blood type is associated with larger grey-matter volumes in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Matteo; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence indicated higher incidence of cognitive deficits in ABO blood-type system 'AB' individuals. Since this statistical difference might originate from the lack of protective effects exerted by 'O' alleles on the brain via vascular or non-vascular routes, this study investigated volumetric differences in grey matter between 'O' and non-'O' adults to explore the possibility of a structural endophenotype visible in 'O' adults without cognitive impairment or neurodegeneration. A large sample of cognitively healthy adults who had previously undergone structural MRI for research purposes were contacted telephonically and enquired about their ABO blood type. Out of the 189 individuals who were able to retrieve and communicate this information, 'O' (n=76) and 'A' adults (n=65) were included in Model 1. In Model 2, all non-'O' (n=113) were instead collapsed in a single group. Voxel-Based Morphometry analyses were carried out on three-dimensional T1-weighted scans, and between-sample t tests were run to compare the maps of grey-matter volumes of the subgroups of interest, controlling for major nuisance variables. In Model 1, 'O' adults had larger grey-matter volumes in two symmetrical clusters within the posterior ventral portion of the cerebellum. This was confirmed in Model 2. Additionally, non-'O' adults showed lower volume values in temporal and limbic regions, including the left hippocampus. The cerebellar clusters were located in regions previously found to be part of a network responsible for sensorimotor integration. It is speculated that the structural reductions seen in non-'O' adults might result in a susceptibility to down-regulation of this network. This occurrence is likely to intensify along the ageing process and may contribute to foster cognitive decline. Although Model 2 seems to suggest that having a 'O' blood type might play a role in protection against those conditions in which temporal and mediotemporal volumetric loss is observed (Alzheimer

  9. Review of Specifications for Zinc-Rich Paints,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    s for stractares in the cited areas is to raise the steel of the stru1_ctures well abo-ve the salt s--las*h :o-os. A cost esti-7ate stud :. wri be...pairt with the skin should be avoided. Paint sprayers, in addition to wearing protective clothing and gloves, should wear an air-fed hood when and if...the bond coat of the epoxy asphalt paving. The inorganic zinc primer furnished must satisfy these adhesion requirements. (b) Except as specified

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of the Caucasus ethnic groups: distribution of some blood group genetic markers (Part II).

    PubMed

    Nasidze, I S

    1995-08-01

    The compiled data on the distribution of polymorphic blood groups (ABO, Diego, Duffy, Kell-Cellano, Kidd, MN, MNSs, P, Penney, Rh(D), Rh-Hr), secretion ABH antigens in saliva, HLA system (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR), immunoglobulin (GM1) and other miscellaneous data (phenylthiocarbamide taste, tongue rolling) in the Caucasus are presented. Results of the interpopulation heterogeneity test show that, in spite of the limited territory of the Caucasus, a high level of genetic variability was observed. In terms of gene frequencies, these ethnic groups are approximately equidistant from European and West Asian Populations.

  11. Neonatal haemochromatosis with reversible pituitary involvement.

    PubMed

    Indolfi, Giuseppe; Bèrczes, Rita; Pelliccioli, Isabella; Bosisio, Michela; Agostinis, Cristina; Resti, Massimo; Zambelli, Marco; Lucianetti, Alessandro; Colledan, Michele; D'Antiga, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal haemochromatosis is a rare alloimmune gestational disease with a high mortality. The hallmark of neonatal haemochromatosis is severe neonatal liver failure associated with extrahepatic siderosis. Thus far, no pituitary dysfunction has been reported to result from the tissue damage associated with extrahepatic siderosis. The present report describes a neonate with neonatal haemochromatosis and secondary hypothyroidism associated with pituitary iron deposition. Both the conditions were successfully treated by ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. Pituitary gland dysfunction is another possible extrahepatic manifestation of neonatal haemochromatosis, and it is reversible after liver transplantation.

  12. Determinants and Outcomes of Collective Organizational Climate among Shipboard Independent Duty Hospital Corpsmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-29

    job yclated attitudes and behaviors, litltlc is known about the sirhipboard climate and its potential impact on TpCs. Clima te generally refel.rs to...approach to def mne the aggi-ega te organi aat iona.] cli mateus or percep tuLl, env i ronmen ts in Ahich 1DCs f uinc t ionl ab)o artd Shlip). 1n iidd...due to ndssixng data. Addi t inal organi zat ional outcnmes of i nteres t in this study wer e spe- rific !,atisfactions (Hackman and Oldham, 197-5

  13. Protective coatings for metal alloys and methods incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Ibanez, Sergio; Swartz, Scott L.

    2015-06-09

    An electrochemical device having one or more solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), each of the SOFCs including a cathode, an anode, and an electrolyte layer positioned between the cathode and anode; and at least one additional component comprising a metallic substrate having an electronically conductive, chromium-free perovskite coating deposited directly thereon. The perovskite coating has the formula ABO.sub.3, wherein A is a lanthanide element or Y, and B is a mixture of two or more transition elements, with the A site undoped by any alkaline earth element, and the perovskite coating exhibits limited or no ionic transport of oxygen.

  14. Operation REDWING. Project 2.1. Gamma Exposure Versus Distance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    This work was performed by Kaman Tempo under contract DNA001-79-C-0455 with the close cooperation of the Classification ’ M ( ,_,. Management...Film in NBS holder.) 18 MitohMairn Ihn ■"—-^-"""^ ■ ■■ " ■- ■ r mm base required to return the overlaying acldlmetric dye to...Able ABCE ABC ABD ABCD ABC 212.02 Charlie ABC.F ABC ABO — ABCD ABC 212.03 Dog ABC ABC ACDF A ABDF ABC 212.04 Easy ABC AB ABODE A ABCO ABC

  15. First-principles calculations of the OH- adsorption energy on perovskite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzuku, Hideo; Ikeno, Hidekazu; Yamada, Ikuya; Yagi, Shunsuke

    2016-08-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) that occurs during water oxidation is of considerable importance as an essential energy conversion reaction for rechargeable metal-air batteries and direct solar water splitting. ABO3 perovskite oxides have been extensively studied because of their high catalytic OER activity. In the present study, the OH- adsorption process on the perovskite surface about different B site cations was investigated by the first-principles calculations. We concluded that the adsorption energy of SrFeO3 surface is larger than that of SrTiO3.

  16. Experiences with "self service" electronic blood banking.

    PubMed

    Cheng, G

    1998-01-01

    Electronic verification of ABO compatibility (computer crossmatching) has been accepted as the crossmatching procedure for patients without clinically significant alloantibodies. Computer crossmatching offers several advantages over the immediate spin crossmatch and enables the setting up of a self service blood banking system. Self service blood banking saves manpower, improves crossmatch/transfusion(C/T) ratio and makes the maximum surgical blood ordering schedule (MSBOS) redundant. Blood banking service can also be provided at satellite hospitals without stationing blood banking staff there. We have also developed a novel self service system that does not require expensive computer hardware and networking.

  17. Tooth positioners and their effects on treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pravindevaprasad, A.; Therese, Beena Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusion can also be corrected by means of clear removable appliances called as “tooth positioners” or “aligners”. A tooth positioner is used to control settling and to minimize or eliminate relapse of the teeth after an orthodontic treatment. In this article, a complete review of the objectives, course of treatment, fabrication, and the materials used for fabrication of tooth positioners along with their importance and disadvantages were discussed. Tooth positioners did improve the overall orthodontic treatment outcome as quantified by the ABO (American Board of orthodontics) objective scoring method. But once the initial occlusal contact was achieved, the vertical movement of teeth was found to be inhibited. PMID:24082720

  18. Molecular blood group typing in Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abd Gani, Rahayu; Manaf, Siti Mariam; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Norazmi, Mohd Noor; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2015-08-01

    In this study we genotyped ABO, Rhesus, Kell, Kidd and Duffy blood group loci in DNA samples from 120 unrelated individuals representing four Malay subethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia (Banjar: n = 30, Jawa: n = 30, Mandailing: n = 30 and Kelantan: n = 30). Analyses were performed using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits (BAG Health Care GmbH, Lich, Germany). Overall, the present study has successfully compiled blood group datasets for the four Malay subethnic groups and used the datasets for studying ancestry and health.

  19. Applications of the polarizability model to various displacive-type ferroelectric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann-Holder, A.; Bilz, H.; Benedek, G.

    1989-05-01

    We apply the theory of ferroelectricity in the framework of the polarizability model, which has been presented in a previous paper, to various classes of displacive-type ferroelectrics. We show that the experimental data of temperature-dependent quantities like soft-mode frequencies and dielectric constants can be well reproduced using a very limited set of parameters. We present results for ABO3 perovskites, IV-VI compounds, SbSI, K2SeO4, hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics, antiferroelectric compounds, and their mixed isostructural ferroelectrics.

  20. Effects of cation disorder and size on metamagnetism in A-site substituted Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavani, K. R.; Paulose, P. L.

    2005-04-01

    The effects of A-site cation disorder and size on metamagnetism of ABO3 type charge and orbital ordered Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 system have been studied by substituting Ba+2 for Ca+2 or La+3 for Pr+3. Substitution of 5% Ba+2 or 5% La+3 drastically reduces the critical magnetic field (Hc) for metamagnetism and induces successive steplike metamagnetic transitions at low temperatures. Interestingly, with further increase in substitution, Hc rises. We find that there is a sharp decrease in electrical resistivity corresponding to the metamagnetic transitions, which is indicative of strongly correlated magnetic and electronic transitions in these manganites.

  1. Study of visible emission and phase transition in nanocrystalline A 1- xA‧ xTiO 3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J. F.; Rai, Brajesh K.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Zou, G. T.

    1997-02-01

    Room temperature photoluminescence spectra on Ba 1- xPb xTiO 3 and Sr 1- xPb xTiO 3, with grain sizes of ∼ 60 and ∼ 30 nm, respectively, have been measured. The Pb content dependence of the visible emission can be used to provide evidence for the origin of photoluminescence occuring in these nanocrystalline ABO 3 oxides. The phase transitions for Ba 1- xPb xTiO 3 and Sr 1- xPb xTiO 3 are found to have an obvious effect on the visible emission band.

  2. Growth and properties of REBiO 3 new buffer materials for coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Pu, M. H.; Sun, R. P.; Wang, W. T.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Cheng, C. H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-09-01

    A new series of ABO 3-type REBiO 3 have been derived from the system Bi 2O 3-RE 2O 3, in which cubic RE 2O 3 stabilize cubic structure of δ-Bi 2O 3, enabling the formation of REBiO 3 at relatively low temperature range. A chemical solution deposition (CSD) route has been used to deposit epitaxial thin films of REBiO 3. The crystal lattice, chemical stability, texture development, combined with the successful deposition of high quality superconducting layer demonstrate that the newly developed compounds may play as potential alternatives of buffer layer materials for REBCO-based coated conductors.

  3. [Preventive measures against transfusion-associated complications and side effects].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho; Ikebuchi, Kenji

    2008-09-01

    The current efforts and strategies have greatly helped reduce transfusion-associated risks. Indeed, the risk of being infected by a contaminated blood unit today is lower than that thirty years ago. This improvement is due to the introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT). Compatibility testing is designed to ensure that the patient receives the intended units of red cell concentrate (RCC) and that transfusion will be effective with minimum risk of adverse reactions. The process includes ABO and Rh typing of patients, testing recipient serum for clinically important alloantibodies, and crossmatching donor red cells with recipient serum by a technique that detects serological incompatibility.

  4. Public Diplomacy, Cultural Diplomacy: The Debate Over USIA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    I i t-,at i on became an imperative. ’ rh i’_~ nat 1,:,n’ s Nat i,:,na! Security Strategy stresses "mc, ra]. and F:;O].Ltical example" among its...a- as ~ - - " . . . . . . . . . . . ~..... . ~ ~, . . . . aw i; rh ::,t i ~ {ll,::A-’" ::T-- L’!" b~ L.’ ~. i ’[: ~’. ~: C~]. . . . . . ’I...relations with ea::h ,:,f the c, ther players. T"ne greates;t ar~<.:iui.-:.Jq i r~ the arguments ,:o;-;~iderec! abo ’~e has ar:.~ ..~en from discus

  5. Risk Factors for Graft Failure and Death following Geriatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyungjin; Yu, Hoon; Shin, Eunhye; Kim, Young Hoon; Park, Su-Kil; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Population aging is a major health concern in Asian countries and it has affected the age distribution of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a consequence, the need for kidney transplantation in the geriatric population has increased, but the shortage of donors is an obstacle for geriatric renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for graft failure and death in geriatric renal transplantation. Methods Kidney transplantations performed in a tertiary hospital in South Korea from May 1995 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Recipients younger than 60 years of age or who underwent other organ transplantations were excluded. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess patient and graft survival. A Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for graft failure and patient death. Results A total of 229 kidney transplantation patients were included. Graft survival at 1, 5, and 10 years were 93.2%, 82.9%, and 61.2% respectively. Patient survival at 1, 5, and 10 years were 94.6%, 86.9%, and 68.8%, respectively. According to the Cox multivariate analysis, ABO incompatibility (hazard ratio [HR] 3.91, p < 0.002), DGF (HR 3.544, p < 0.004), CMV infection (HR 2.244, p < 0.011), and HBV infection (HR 6.349, p < 0.015) were independent risk factors for graft survival. Recipient age (HR 1.128, p < 0.024), ABO incompatibility (HR 3.014, p < 0.025), CMV infection (HR 2.532, p < 0.010), and the number of HLA mismatches (HR 1.425, p < 0.007) were independent risk factors for patient death. Conclusion Kidney transplantation in the geriatric population showed good clinical outcomes. ABO incompatibility, DGF, CMV infection, and HBV infection were risk factors for graft failure and the recipient age, ABO incompatibility, CMV infection, and the number of HLA mismatches were risk factors for patient death in geriatric renal transplantation. PMID:27074003

  6. Six end-stage renal disease patients benefited from first non-simultaneous single center 6-way kidney exchange transplantation in India

    PubMed Central

    Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Varyani, Umesh T; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Rizvi, Sayyed J; Pal, Bipin C; Shah, Priya S; Wakhare, Pavan S; Ghodela, Vijay A; Shinde, Saiprasad G; Trivedi, Varsha B; Patel, Minaxi H; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To avoid desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (KT) due to high costs and increased risk of infections from intense immunosuppression. METHODS We present institutional ethical review board - approved study of single center 6-way kidney exchange transplantation. The participants comprised ABO incompatibility (n = 1); positive cross-match and/or presence of donor specific antibody (n = 5). The average time required from registration in kidney paired donation (KPD) registry to find suitable donors was 45 d and time required to perform transplants after legal permission was 2 mo. RESULTS Graft and patient survival were 100%, and 100%, respectively. One patient had biopsy-proven acute borderline T cell rejection (Banff update 2013, type 3). Mean serum creatinine was 0.8 mg/dL at 9 mo follow-up. The waiting time in KPD was short as compared to deceased donor KT. CONCLUSION We report first non-simultaneous, single center, 6-way kidney exchange transplantation from India. Our experience will encourage other centers in India to undertake this practice. PMID:27872835

  7. Molecular Evolution of the Glycosyltransferase 6 Gene Family in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça-Mattos, Patricia Jeanne de Souza; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Glycosyltransferase 6 gene family includes ABO, Ggta1, iGb3S, and GBGT1 genes and by three putative genes restricted to mammals, GT6m6, GTm6, and GT6m7, only the latter is found in primates. GT6 genes may encode functional and nonfunctional proteins. Ggta1 and GBGT1 genes, for instance, are pseudogenes in catarrhine primates, while iGb3S gene is only inactive in human, bonobo, and chimpanzee. Even inactivated, these genes tend to be conversed in primates. As some of the GT6 genes are related to the susceptibility or resistance to parasites, we investigated (i) the selective pressure on the GT6 paralogs genes in primates; (ii) the basis of the conservation of iGb3S in human, chimpanzee, and bonobo; and (iii) the functional potential of the GBGT1 and GT6m7 in catarrhines. We observed that the purifying selection is prevalent and these genes have a low diversity, though ABO and Ggta1 genes have some sites under positive selection. GT6m7, a putative gene associated with aggressive periodontitis, may have regulatory function, but experimental studies are needed to assess its function. The evolutionary conservation of iGb3S in humans, chimpanzee, and bonobo seems to be the result of proximity to genes with important biological functions. PMID:28044107

  8. Nonmyeloablative Stem Cell Transplantation with Alemtuzumab/Low-Dose Irradiation to Cure and Improve the Quality of Life of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Santosh L; Oh, Annie L; Patel, Pritesh R; Jalundhwala, Yash; Sweiss, Karen; Koshy, Matthew; Campbell-Lee, Sally; Gowhari, Michel; Hassan, Johara; Peace, David; Quigley, John G; Khan, Irum; Molokie, Robert E; Hsu, Lewis L; Mahmud, Nadim; Levinson, Dennis J; Pickard, A Simon; Garcia, Joe G N; Gordeuk, Victor R; Rondelli, Damiano

    2016-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is rarely performed in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We utilized the chemotherapy-free, alemtuzumab/total body irradiation 300 cGy regimen with sirolimus as post-transplantation immunosuppression in 13 high-risk SCD adult patients between November 2011 and June 2014. Patients received matched related donor (MRD) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, including 2 cases that were ABO incompatible. Quality-of-life (QoL) measurements were performed at different time points after HSCT. All 13 patients initially engrafted. A stable mixed donor/recipient chimerism was maintained in 12 patients (92%), whereas 1 patient not compliant with sirolimus experienced secondary graft failure. With a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 12 to 44 months) there was no mortality, no acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and no grades 3 or 4 extramedullary toxicities. At 1 year after transplantation, patients with stable donor chimerism have normalized hemoglobin concentrations and improved cardiopulmonary and QoL parameters including bodily pain, general health, and vitality. In 4 patients, sirolimus was stopped without rejection or SCD-related complications. These results underscore the successful use of a chemotherapy-free regimen in MRD HSCT for high-risk adult SCD patients and demonstrates a high cure rate, absence of GVHD or mortality, and improvement in QoL including the applicability of this regimen in ABO mismatched cases (NCT number 01499888).

  9. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  10. Mapping growth windows in quaternary perovskite oxide systems by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahlek, Matthew; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hai-Tian; Lapano, Jason; Dedon, Liv R.; Martin, Lane W.; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Requisite to growing stoichiometric perovskite thin films of the solid-solution A'1-xAxBO3 by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy is understanding how the growth conditions interpolate between the end members A'BO3 and ABO3, which can be grown in a self-regulated fashion, but under different conditions. Using the example of La1-xSrxVO3, the two-dimensional growth parameter space that is spanned by the flux of the metal-organic precursor vanadium oxytriisopropoxide and composition, x, was mapped out. The evolution of the adsorption-controlled growth window was obtained using a combination of X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, reflection high-energy electron-diffraction (RHEED), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric growth conditions can be mapped out quickly with a single calibration sample using RHEED. Once stoichiometric conditions have been identified, the out-of-plane lattice parameter can be utilized to precisely determine the composition x. This strategy enables the identification of growth conditions that allow the deposition of stoichiometric perovskite oxide films with random A-site cation mixing, which is relevant to a large number of perovskite materials with interesting properties, e.g., high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance, that emerge in solid solution A'1-xAxBO3.

  11. Molecular matching of red blood cells is superior to serological matching in sickle cell disease patients

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Daiane Cobianchi; Pellegrino Jr, Jordão; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Ribeiro, Karina Antero Rosa; Gilli, Simone Cristina Olenscki; Castilho, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of DNA methods to provide a means to precisely genotypically match donor blood units for the antigen-negative type of 35 sickle cell disease patients. Methods Red blood cell units were investigated for ABO, D, C, c, E, e, K, Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, S, s, Dia and RH variants by performing a molecular array (Human Erythrocyte Antigen BeadChipTM, BioArray Solutions), polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of patient samples and donor units that had been serologically matched based on the ABO, Rh and K phenotypes and the presence of antibodies. Results Matches for 21 of 35 sickle cell disease patients presented discrepancies or mismatches for multiple antigens between the genotype profile and the antigen profile of their serologically-matched blood units. The main discrepancies or mismatches occurred in the RH, FY, JK and MNS systems. Eight Rh alloimmunized patients presented RHD and RHCE variants that had not been serologically identified. According to these results better matches were found for the patients with genotyped units and the patients benefited as shown by better in vivo red blood cell survival. Conclusion Molecular matching is superior to serological matching in sickle cell disease patients, decreasing the risk of transfusion reactions, especially delayed transfusion reactions to existing alloantibodies and preventing alloimmunization. PMID:23580882

  12. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the erythrocytes of newborn infants with hyperbilirubinemia and asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Mydlil, V; Tomasová, H; Cápová, E; Cerná, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors measured erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity in 51 physiologic newborn infants, 35 pregnant women and 101 infants with hyperbilirubinemia caused by hemolytic diseases in the ABO and Rh systems, or of other origin (6 children). In total, 374 examinations of erythrocyte ACHE were performed. The normal values of physiologic infants during the first hours of life were 0.162 +/- 0.03, at the age of 3 days 0.104 +/- 0.04. The values in pregnant women were 0.206 +/- 0.07. The ACHE activity was considerably decreased in newborn infants affected by erythroblastosis-ABO, and its mean value, in the case of exsanguinotransfusion indicated by the Polácek scheme, amounted to 0.060 +/- 0.051. It raised after exsanguinotransfusion and was equal to the value of red cells transfused. In newborn infants affected by erythroblastosis-Rh, the value decreased in the cases complicated with asphyxia. Low values of ACHE are sometimes found in certain cases of IRDS or of septicemia. The determination of erythrocyte ACHE activity enables assessing the state of red blood cells.

  13. Literature review of passenger lymphocyte syndrome following renal transplantation and two case reports.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, L; Ashman, N; Thuraisingham, R; Barber, C; Allard, S; Green, L

    2013-06-01

    Passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) is an immune-mediated hemolysis. It occurs following ABO blood group mismatched solid organ and/or bone marrow transplantation between donor and recipient. We report two cases of PLS occurring after renal transplantation. Both recipients received live related kidney transplants; one from his mother and the other from his brother. The direction of blood group transfer, from donor to recipient, was O Rh D+ to A Rh D+ in both cases. Approximately 12 days after transplantation, both recipients showed a rapid fall in their hemoglobin levels with no identifiable bleeding source. DAT positive hemolysis was confirmed and anti-A antibodies were detected in recipient sera, confirming a diagnosis of PLS. Both cases required blood transfusion support to maintain their hemoglobin and both had good renal outcomes. We have identified 99 PLS cases following renal transplant in the English literature. Previous ABO sensitization, donor blood group O to recipient blood group A or B transfer, and ciclosporin treatment have been identified as risk factors for PLS. Clinical outcomes in general are good; nonetheless, cases of graft failure and deaths have been reported. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important in at risk individuals.

  14. Elemental sulfur in Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinds, Jim S.; Cunningham, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    Sulfur has been reported in Eddy County, N. Mex., in rocks ranging from Silurian to Holocene in age at depths of 0-15,020 feet. Targets of present exploration are Permian formations in the Delaware Basin and northwest shelf areas at depths of less than 4,000 feet. Most of the reported sulfur occurrences in the shelf area are in the 'Abo' (as used by some subsurface geologists), Yeso, and San Andres Formations and the Artesia Group. Sulfur deposition in the dense dolomites of the 'Abo,' Yeso, and San Andres Formations is attributed to the reduction of ionic sulfate by hydrogen sulfide in formation waters in zones of preexisting porosity and permeability. A similar origin accounts for most of the sulfur deposits in the formations of the Artesia Group, but some of the sulfur in these formations may have originated in place through the alteration of anhydrite to carbonate and sulfur by the metabolic processes of bacteria in the presence of hydrocarbons. Exploration in the Delaware Basin area is directed primarily toward the Castile Formation. Sulfur deposits in the Castile Formation are found in irregular masses of cavernous brecciated secondary carbonate rock enveloped by impermeable anhydrite. The carbonate masses, or 'castiles,' probably originated as collapse features resulting from subsurface solution and upward stopping. Formation of carbonate rock and sulfur in the castiles is attributed to the reduction of brecciated anhydrite by bacteria and hydrocarbons in the same process ascribed to the formation of carbonate and sulfur in the caprocks of salt domes.

  15. Distribution of haptoglobins in different dialect groups of Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Ong, Y W

    1984-07-01

    A total of 870 subjects comprising 524 Chinese (from different dialect groups), 231 Malays and 115 Tamil Indians were investigated for the distribution of haptoglobin types and ABO blood groups. Haptoglobins were typed by PAG electrophoresis using discontinuous buffer system. The frequencies of Hp,1 Hp2 and Hp0 were found to be 0.330, 0.670 and 0.029 in Chinese; 0.298, 0.702 and 0.004 in Malays; and 0.167, 0.833 and 0.009 in Indians. The Hainanese had the highest frequency of Hp1 (0.375) followed by Cantonese (0.348), Teochew (0.333) and Hakkas (0.288). The distribution of all the phenotypes of haptoglobin was at equilibrium in all the population groups studied. No association of ABO blood groups was detected with the haptoglobin types. However, there was an excess of AB blood group in persons carrying Hp2 compared with those with Hp1.

  16. [Differences in root developmenly of winter wheat cultivars in Huang-Huai Plain, China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xin-Qiang; Gao, Yang; Li, Xin-Qiang; Huang, Ling; Duan, Ai-Wang

    2012-07-01

    Selecting one presently popularized winter wheat cultivar (Zhengmai 9023) and two cultivars (Abo and Fengchan 3) introduced in the 1950s and 1960s in Huang-Huai Plain as test materials, and by using minirhizotron technique, this paper studied the live root length, root diameter distribution, and net root growth rate of the cultivars. Fine roots with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm occupied the majority of the whole root system, and the fine roots with a diameter less than 0.5 mm accounted for 98% of the live root length. The average root diameter varied with plant growth, the variation range being 0.15 - 0.22 mm, and no significant difference was observe among the cultivars. The live root length was significantly positively correlated root number, suggesting that root number was the main factor for the increase of live root length. The most vigorous growth period of the roots was from reviving to jointing stage, and Abo and Fengchan 3 had a longer period increased root vitality, as compared with Zhengmai 9023. For Zhengmai 9023, its fine roots with a diameter more than 0.1 mm had an increasing proportion after jointing stage, which was helpful for improving plant resistance, root activity, and grain-filling at late growth stages.

  17. Can Rh antigens be a risk factor in noise-induced hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Ayçiçek, Abdullah; Sargin, Ramazan; Kenar, Fethullah; Dereköy, F Sefa

    2009-03-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most common occupational problems and is one of the main causes of deafness. Many factors cause NIHL. Individual susceptibility is one of them. Rhesus (Rh) antigens and ABO blood groups can be factors in determining individual susceptibility. We aim to investigate the relationship between the Rh antigens and NIHL. The study was conducted in 438 factory workers who had been exposed to a noise level more than 85 dB for 8 h a day for a period of >/=15 years. The audiologic results and blood groups were obtained from the individual health records of the factory workers. We determined NIHL in 236 (53.9%) workers. Two hundred and nineteen (55.4%) of Rh-positive workers and seventeen (39.5%) of Rh-negative workers have NIHL, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05), whereas no statistically significant difference was determined between the NIHL and ABO blood groups. In conclusion, we suggest that the people with Rh-positive blood group are more prone to develop NIHL.

  18. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women under combined oral contraceptive. The PILl Genetic RIsk Monitoring (PILGRIM) Study.

    PubMed

    Suchon, Pierre; Al Frouh, Fadi; Henneuse, Agathe; Ibrahim, Manal; Brunet, Dominique; Barthet, Marie-Christine; Aillaud, Marie-Françoise; Venton, Geoffroy; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m⁻² (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3% vs 23.9%, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia.

  19. Increasing access to kidney transplantation in countries with limited resources: the Indian experience with kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2014-10-01

    According to the Indian chronic kidney disease registry, in 2010 only 2% of end stage kidney disease patients were managed with kidney transplantation, 37% were managed with dialysis and 61% were treated conservatively without renal replacement therapy. In countries like India, where a well-organized deceased donor kidney transplantation program is not available, living donor kidney transplantation is the major source of organs for kidney transplantation. The most common reason to decline a donor for directed living donation is ABO incompatibility, which eliminates up to one third of the potential living donor pool. Because access to transplantation with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible transplantation is very limited due to high costs and increased risk of infections from more intense immunosuppression, kidney paired donation (KPD) promises hope to a growing number of end stage kidney disease patients. KPD is a rapidly growing and cost-effective living donor kidney transplantation strategy for patients who are incompatible with their healthy, willing living donor. In principle, KPD is feasible for any centre that performs living donor kidney transplantation. In transplant centres with a large living donor kidney transplantation program KPD does not require extra infrastructure, decreases waiting time, avoids transplant tourism and prevents commercial trafficking. Although KPD is still underutilized in India, it has been performed more frequently in recent times. To substantially increase donor pool and transplant rates, transplant centres should work together towards a national KPD program and frame a uniform acceptable allocation policy.

  20. USP38, FREM3, SDC1, DDC, and LOC727982 Gene Polymorphisms and Differential Susceptibility to Severe Malaria in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Manjurano, Alphaxard; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Wangai, Hannah; Maxwell, Caroline; Olomi, Raimos; Reyburn, Hugh; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Riley, Eleanor M.; Clark, Taane G.

    2015-01-01

    Populations exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection develop genetic mechanisms of protection against severe malarial disease. Despite decades of genetic epidemiological research, the sickle cell trait (HbAS) sickle cell polymorphism, ABO blood group, and other hemoglobinopathies remain the few major determinants in severe malaria to be replicated across different African populations and study designs. Within a case-control study in a region of high transmission in Tanzania (n = 983), we investigated the role of 40 new loci identified in recent genome-wide studies. In 32 loci passing quality control procedures, we found polymorphisms in USP38, FREM3, SDC1, DDC, and LOC727982 genes to be putatively associated with differential susceptibility to severe malaria. Established candidates explained 7.4% of variation in severe malaria risk (HbAS polymorphism, 6.3%; α-thalassemia, 0.3%; ABO group, 0.3%; and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 0.5%) and the new polymorphisms, another 4.3%. The regions encompassing the loci identified are promising targets for the design of future treatment and control interventions. PMID:25805752

  1. Predictive factors for outcomes after reduced intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies: a 10-year retrospective analysis from the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Le, Quoc-Hung; Mohty, Mohamad; Prébet, Thomas; Nicolini, Franck; Boiron, Jean Michel; Esperou, Hélène; Attal, Michel; Milpied, Noel; Lioure, Bruno; Bordigoni, Pierre; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Rio, Bernard; Deconinck, Eric; Renaud, Marc; Chir, Zina; Blaise, Didier

    2008-05-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the impact of demographic and transplantation variables on outcomes of 1108 patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning (RIC HSCT) for hematological malignancies and were reported to the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire registry between November 1994 and December 2004. Only 442 patients (40%) were in complete remission (CR) at time of transplantation. Peripheral blood stem cells were used in the majority of patients (n = 878; 79%), 255 patients received fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation, while 465 patients (42%) fludarabine and busulfan with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulins (ATG). The impact of demographic and transplant variables was studied on overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis. With a median follow-up of 21 months, 3-year probability of OS and EFS was 42% and 30%, respectively, and treatment-related mortality was 15% at 2 years. The multivariate analysis showed a significant negative impact on OS and EFS of the absence of CR status before transplantation; conditioning regimen, including >10 mg/kg ATG; and minor ABO incompatibility. In conclusion, this study highlights the major impact on RIC HSCT outcome of disease status before transplantation, ATG dose and ABO incompatibility.

  2. Red Blood Cell Antigen Genotyping for Sickle Cell Disease, Thalassemia, and Other Transfusion Complications.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Ross M; Chou, Stella T

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group in the early 20th century, more than 300 blood group antigens have been categorized among 35 blood group systems. The molecular basis for most blood group antigens has been determined and demonstrates tremendous genetic diversity, particularly in the ABO and Rh systems. Several blood group genotyping assays have been developed, and 1 platform has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a "test of record," such that no phenotype confirmation with antisera is required. DNA-based red blood cell (RBC) phenotyping can overcome certain limitations of hemagglutination assays and is beneficial in many transfusion settings. Genotyping can be used to determine RBC antigen phenotypes in patients recently transfused or with interfering allo- or autoantibodies, to resolve discrepant serologic typing, and/or when typing antisera are not readily available. Molecular RBC antigen typing can facilitate complex antibody evaluations and guide RBC selection for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. High-resolution RH genotyping can identify variant RHD and RHCE in patients with SCD, which have been associated with alloimmunization. In the future, broader access to cost-efficient, high-resolution RBC genotyping technology for both patient and donor populations may be transformative for the field of transfusion medicine.

  3. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant - Update and review of some current issues.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination techniques with immunoadsorption and anti-CD20 antibodies becoming the norm, and spleenectomy fading out. The implications and practices of transfusion medicine in organ transplant are also undergoing drastic changes. The practice of infusion of one unit of donor's blood preoperatively for immunomodulation is no longer practiced. Use of leuco-reduced products has shown decreasing trends of alloimmunization and graft rejection in cases of multiple surgeries related to organ transplants. Worldwide donor and recipient registry programmes are being setup and existing ones are being upgraded. Such a registry system has been opened in India for kidney transplant cases very recently. Due to such registry programmes the dependency on siblings and directed donations have decreased considerably. This review deals with some of the current issues contributing to the successful outcome of mismatched transplants and the changing concepts of transfusion medicine related to it.

  4. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant – Update and review of some current issues

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, R.S.; Philip, J.; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination techniques with immunoadsorption and anti-CD20 antibodies becoming the norm, and spleenectomy fading out. The implications and practices of transfusion medicine in organ transplant are also undergoing drastic changes. The practice of infusion of one unit of donor's blood preoperatively for immunomodulation is no longer practiced. Use of leuco-reduced products has shown decreasing trends of alloimmunization and graft rejection in cases of multiple surgeries related to organ transplants. Worldwide donor and recipient registry programmes are being setup and existing ones are being upgraded. Such a registry system has been opened in India for kidney transplant cases very recently. Due to such registry programmes the dependency on siblings and directed donations have decreased considerably. This review deals with some of the current issues contributing to the successful outcome of mismatched transplants and the changing concepts of transfusion medicine related to it. PMID:24600091

  5. Site-selected doping of upconversion luminescent Er3+ into SrTiO3 for visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2 or O2 evolution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinwen; Ye, Jinhua; Ma, Lijing; Ouyang, Shuxin; Jing, Dengwei; Guo, Liejin

    2012-06-11

    A series of upconversion luminescent erbium-doped SrTiO(3) (ABO(3)-type) photocatalysts with different initial molar ratios of Sr/Ti have been prepared by a facile polymerized complex method. Er(3+) ions, which were gradually transferred from the A to the B site with increasing Sr/Ti, enabled the absorption of visible light and the generation of high-energy excited states populated by upconversion processes. The local internal fields arising from the dipole moments of the distorted BO(6) octahedra promoted energy transfer from the high-energy excited states of Er(3+) with B-site occupancy to the host SrTiO(3) and thus enhanced the band-to-band transition of the host SrTiO(3). Consequently, the erbium-doped SrTiO(3) species with B-site occupancy showed higher photocatalytic activity than those with A-site occupancy for visible-light-driven H(2) or O(2) evolution in the presence of the corresponding sacrificial reagents. The results generally suggest that the introduction of upconversion luminescent agents into host semiconductors is a promising approach to simultaneously harnessing low-energy photons and maintaining redox ability for photocatalytic H(2) and O(2) evolution and that the site occupancy of doped elements in ABO(3)-type perovskite oxides greatly determines the photocatalytic activity.

  6. Non-OO blood type influences the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism. A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gándara, Esteban; Kovacs, Michael J; Kahn, Susan R; Wells, Philip S; Anderson, David A; Chagnon, Isabelle; Le Gal, Grégoire; Solymoss, Susan; Crowther, Mark; Carrier, Marc; Langlois, Nicole; Kovacs, Judy; Little Ma, Julian; Carson, Nancy; Ramsay, Tim; Rodger, Marc A

    2013-12-01

    The role of ABO blood type as a risk factor for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with a first unprovoked VTE who complete oral anticoagulation therapy is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if non-OO blood type is a risk factor for recurrent VTE in patients with a first unprovoked VTE who completed 5-7 months of anticoagulant therapy. In an ongoing cohort study of patients with unprovoked VTE who discontinued oral anticoagulation after 5-7 months of therapy, six single nucleotide polymorphisms sites were tested to determine ABO blood type using banked DNA. The main outcome was objectively proven recurrent VTE. Mean follow-up for the cohort was 4.19 years (SD 2.16). During 1,553 patient-years of follow-up, 101 events occurred in 380 non-OO patients (6.5 events per 100 patient years; 95% CI 5.3-7.7) compared to 14 events during 560 patient years of follow-up in 129 OO patients (2.5 per 100 patient years; 95% CI 1.2-3.7), the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.98 (1.2-3.8). In conclusion, non-OO blood type is associated with a statistically significant and clinically relevant increased risk of recurrent VTE following discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy for a first episode of unprovoked VTE.

  7. [Exploration on human blood type case in teaching practice of genetics].

    PubMed

    Pi, Yan; Li, Xiao-Ying; Huai, Cong; Wang, Shi-Ming; Qiao, Shou-Yi; Lu, Da-Ru

    2013-08-01

    Blood type, which harbors abundant genetics meaning, is one of the most common phenotypes in human life. With the development of science and technology, its significance is unceasingly updated and new finding is increasingly emerging, which constantly attracts people to decipher the heredity mechanism of blood type. In addition to four main associated contents, i.e., Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, gene mutations, and chromosome abnormalities, the blood type case also covers many other aspects of the genetics knowledge. Based on the genetic knowledge context, we can interest the students and improve the teaching output in genetic teaching practice by combining with explaining ABO blood type case and heredity mechanism, expanding leucocyte groups, and introducing infrequent blood type such as Bombay blood, Rh and MN. By carrying out the related experimental teaching, we could drive the student to integrate theory with practice. In genetic experimental teaching, 80% of the students chose this optional experiment, molecular identification of ABO blood type, and it greatly interested them. Using appropriate blood type case in teaching related knowledge, organizing PPT exhi-bition and the debating discussion activities, it could provide opportunities for student to propose their own opinions, guide the student to thinking deeply, and develop their abilities to analyze and solve problem. Afterwards, students will gain in-depth comprehension about the fundamental knowledge of genetics.

  8. SHOT conference report 2016: serious hazards of transfusion - human factors continue to cause most transfusion-related incidents.

    PubMed

    Bolton-Maggs, P H B

    2016-12-01

    The Annual SHOT Report for incidents reported in 2015 was published on 7 July at the SHOT symposium. Once again, the majority of reports (77·7%) were associated with mistakes ('human factors'). Pressures and stress in the hospital environment contributed to several error reports. There were 26 deaths where transfusion played a part, one due to haemolysis from anti-Wr(a) (units issued electronically). The incidence of haemolysis due to this antibody has increased in recent years. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload is the most common contributor to death and major morbidity. Reports of delays to transfusion have increased, some caused by the failure of correct patient identification. There were seven ABO-incompatible red cell transfusions (one death) with an additional six to allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Near-miss reporting and analysis is useful and demonstrated nearly 300 instances of wrong blood in tube, which could have resulted in ABO-incompatible transfusion had the error not been detected. Errors with anti-D immunoglobulin continue, and preliminary data from the new survey of new anti-D found in pregnancy has shown that sensitisation occurs in some women even with apparently 'ideal' care. For the first time, the SHOT report now incorporates a chapter on donor events.

  9. Measurement of RBC agglutination with microscopic cell image analysis in a microchannel chip.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Kim, Ju Yeon; Nyeck, Agnes E; Lim, Chae Seung; Hur, Dae Sung; Chung, Chanil; Chang, Jun Keun; An, Seong Soo A; Shin, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Since Landsteiner's discovery of ABO blood groups, RBC agglutination has been one of the most important immunohematologic techniques for ABO and RhD blood groupings. The conventional RBC agglutination grading system for RhD blood typings relies on macroscopic reading, followed by the assignment of a grade ranging from (-) to (4+) to the degree of red blood cells clumping. However, with the new scoring method introduced in this report, microscopically captured cell images of agglutinated RBCs, placed in a microchannel chip, are used for analysis. Indeed, the cell images' pixel number first allows the differentiation of agglutinated and non-agglutinated red blood cells. Finally, the ratio of agglutinated RBCs per total RBC counts (CRAT) from 90 captured images is then calculated. During the trial, it was observed that the agglutinated group's CRAT was significantly higher (3.77-0.003) than that of the normal control (0). Based on these facts, it was established that the microchannel method was more suitable for the discrimination between agglutinated RBCs and non-agglutinated RhD negative, and thus more reliable for the grading of RBCs agglutination than the conventional method.

  10. Low-frequency and common genetic variation in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rainer; Traylor, Matthew; Pulit, Sara L.; Bevan, Steve; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Zhao, Wei; Abrantes, Patricia; Amouyel, Philippe; Attia, John R.; Battey, Thomas W.K.; Berger, Klaus; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B.; Chauhan, Ganesh; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Wei-Min; Clarke, Robert; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Debette, Stephanie; Falcone, Guido J.; Ferro, Jose M.; Gamble, Dale M.; Ilinca, Andreea; Kittner, Steven J.; Kourkoulis, Christina E.; Lemmens, Robin; Levi, Christopher R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindgren, Arne; Liu, Jingmin; Meschia, James F.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Oliveira, Sofia A.; Pera, Joana; Reiner, Alex P.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Sudlow, Cathie L.M.; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Thijs, Vincent; Vicente, Astrid M.; Woo, Daniel; Seshadri, Sudha; Saleheen, Danish; Rosand, Jonathan; Markus, Hugh S.; Worrall, Bradford B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of common and low-frequency genetic variants on the risk of ischemic stroke (all IS) and etiologic stroke subtypes. Methods: We meta-analyzed 12 individual genome-wide association studies comprising 10,307 cases and 19,326 controls imputed to the 1000 Genomes (1 KG) phase I reference panel. We selected variants showing the highest degree of association (p < 1E-5) in the discovery phase for replication in Caucasian (13,435 cases and 29,269 controls) and South Asian (2,385 cases and 5,193 controls) samples followed by a transethnic meta-analysis. We further investigated the p value distribution for different bins of allele frequencies for all IS and stroke subtypes. Results: We showed genome-wide significance for 4 loci: ABO for all IS, HDAC9 for large vessel disease (LVD), and both PITX2 and ZFHX3 for cardioembolic stroke (CE). We further refined the association peaks for ABO and PITX2. Analyzing different allele frequency bins, we showed significant enrichment in low-frequency variants (allele frequency <5%) for both LVD and small vessel disease, and an enrichment of higher frequency variants (allele frequency 10% and 30%) for CE (all p < 1E-5). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the missing heritability in IS subtypes can in part be attributed to low-frequency and rare variants. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify the variants associated with all IS and stroke subtypes. PMID:26935894

  11. A dye-assisted paper-based point-of-care assay for fast and reliable blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Qiu, Xiaopei; Zou, Yurui; Ye, Yanyao; Qi, Chao; Zou, Lingyun; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Yang, Yongjun; Zhou, Yang; Luo, Yang

    2017-03-15

    Fast and simultaneous forward and reverse blood grouping has long remained elusive. Forward blood grouping detects antigens on red blood cells, whereas reverse grouping identifies specific antibodies present in plasma. We developed a paper-based assay using immobilized antibodies and bromocresol green dye for rapid and reliable blood grouping, where dye-assisted color changes corresponding to distinct blood components provide a visual readout. ABO antigens and five major Rhesus antigens could be detected within 30 s, and simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood grouping using small volumes (100 μl) of whole blood was achieved within 2 min through on-chip plasma separation without centrifugation. A machine-learning method was developed to classify the spectral plots corresponding to dye-based color changes, which enabled reproducible automatic grouping. Using optimized operating parameters, the dye-assisted paper assay exhibited comparable accuracy and reproducibility to the classical gel-card assays in grouping 3550 human blood samples. When translated to the assembly line and low-cost manufacturing, the proposed approach may be developed into a cost-effective and robust universal blood-grouping platform.

  12. [Population genetics of the population of the northern European RSFSR. III. Demographic and genetic characteristics of two rural communities of the Pinezhskii District of the Arkhangel'sk Region].

    PubMed

    Revazov, A A; Kazachenko, B N; Tarlycheva, L V; Filippov, I K

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution of genetic markers (systems ABO, Rh, Hp, PTC) and a number of phenotyping traits (folding of arms, hand clasping, tongue rolling, right- and left-handedness, the type of ear lobe, the types of dermatoglyphics patterns) in the inhabitants of 5 villages in the Pinezhsky district of the Arkhangelsky region of the RSFSR. The data presented in this work were obtained in the course of examination of over 900 persons. Among the systems analysed there was a statistically significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equlibrium. It took place in two the least villages. In one case--for ABO blood groups, in another--for Hp system. There are an interesting fact of the excess of heterozygotes 2-1 and some excess of the group 0. Statistically significant differences between villages were shown for four genetic systems. Data on migrations, distribution of gene frequencies and estimated genetic and phenotype distances between villages of the same village community and between two communities suggest, that each village community can be considered as separate subdivided population. Considering the uniformity of the environmental pressure in the region examined, the heterogeneity of the population studied is apparently associated with a random genetic drift.

  13. USP38, FREM3, SDC1, DDC, and LOC727982 Gene Polymorphisms and Differential Susceptibility to Severe Malaria in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manjurano, Alphaxard; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Wangai, Hannah; Maxwell, Caroline; Olomi, Raimos; Reyburn, Hugh; Drakeley, Christopher J; Riley, Eleanor M; Clark, Taane G

    2015-10-01

    Populations exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection develop genetic mechanisms of protection against severe malarial disease. Despite decades of genetic epidemiological research, the sickle cell trait (HbAS) sickle cell polymorphism, ABO blood group, and other hemoglobinopathies remain the few major determinants in severe malaria to be replicated across different African populations and study designs. Within a case-control study in a region of high transmission in Tanzania (n = 983), we investigated the role of 40 new loci identified in recent genome-wide studies. In 32 loci passing quality control procedures, we found polymorphisms in USP38, FREM3, SDC1, DDC, and LOC727982 genes to be putatively associated with differential susceptibility to severe malaria. Established candidates explained 7.4% of variation in severe malaria risk (HbAS polymorphism, 6.3%; α-thalassemia, 0.3%; ABO group, 0.3%; and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 0.5%) and the new polymorphisms, another 4.3%. The regions encompassing the loci identified are promising targets for the design of future treatment and control interventions.

  14. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    PubMed

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  15. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreak with a Secretor-independent Susceptibility Pattern, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Johan; Kindberg, Elin; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Matussek, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis among adults. Susceptibility to disease has been associated with histo-blood group antigens and secretor status; nonsecretors are almost completely resistant to disease. We report a foodborne outbreak of GI.3 NoV gastroenteritis that affected 33/83 (40%) persons. Symptomatic disease was as likely to develop in nonsecretors as in secretors (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46–4.36 vs. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.23–2.18, p = 0.57). Moreover, no statistical difference in susceptibility was found between persons of different Lewis or ABO phenotypes. The capsid gene of the outbreak strain shares high amino acid homology with the Kashiwa645 GI.3 strain, previously shown to recognize nonsecretor saliva, as well as synthetic Lewis a. This norovirus outbreak affected persons regardless of secretor status or Lewis or ABO phenotypes. PMID:20031047

  16. Evaluation of neonatal jaundice in the Makkah region.

    PubMed

    Alkhotani, Abdulaziz; Eldin, Essam Eldin Mohamed Nour; Zaghloul, Amal; Mujahid, Shakil

    2014-04-25

    The aims of this study were to detect the frequency at which the different types of neonatal jaundice occur in Makkah and to estimate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 239 neonates with neonatal jaundice, 20 anemic neonates and 21 healthy neonates. ABO incompatibility was observed in 31.6% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, in 14.3% of those with early onset jaundice, in 9.5% of those with persistent jaundice, in 8.5% of those with physiological jaundice, in 5% of anemic neonates and in 12% of all neonates. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was observed in 10.5% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, in 3.9% of those with physiological jaundice, in 11.1% of those with direct hyperbilirubinemia, in 12% of those with persistent jaundice, in 10% of anemic neonates and in 6.6% of all neonates. Rh incompatibility and polycythemia were found in 2.6% of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and in 0.4% of all neonates. In comparison to control group, MDA was significantly higher in all groups except for the anemic group. In conclusion, ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency frequently result in neonatal jaundice in Makkah, whereas Rh incompatibility and polycythemia are rare. The MDA level may serve as an indicator of oxidative stress.

  17. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation between spouses.

    PubMed

    Haberal, M; Gulay, H; Tokyay, R; Oner, Z; Enunlu, T; Bilgin, N

    1992-01-01

    From November 3, 1975 to November 3, 1990, 874 kidney transplants were performed at out centers. Of these, 675 (77.2%) were from living donors and 199 (22.8%) were from cadaver donors. Five hundred eighty (66.4%) of the living donors were first degree related while 99 (11.3%) were unrelated or second degree related donors, 29 of which were spouses. All donor recipient pairs were ABO-compatible, with the exception of one pair. Donor recipient relations were wife to husband in 25 cases and husband to wife in 4 cases. All were first grafts and started functioning during surgery. In this series, the follow-up for the recipients was 4 to 64 months (mean 33.5 +/- 4.5 months). One-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 81.9%, respectively. Two-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 78.2%, respectively. The single ABO-incompatible case is also doing well, 21 months postoperatively. This study demonstrates that the interspouse kidney transplantation may be used when cadaver organ shortage is a problem. While providing the couple with a better quality of life, interspouse kidney transplantation also enables the couple to share the joy of giving and receiving the "gift of life" from one another.

  18. Genotyping of the c.1423C>T (p.P475S) polymorphism in the ADAMTS13 gene by APLP and HRM assays: Northeastern Asian origin of the mutant.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayumi; Matsusue, Aya; Umetsu, Kazuo; Iino, Morio; Ishikawa, Takaki; Yuasa, Isao

    2016-07-01

    ADAMTS13 is a von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease. The mutant types of p.P475S (c.1423C>T) polymorphism in ADAMTS13 have a reduced activity in comparison with the wild type. In the present study, we investigated the frequency of the C-to-T substitution in 2584 genomic DNA samples from 25 Asian, European, and African populations using APLP (amplified product length polymorphism) and/or HRM (high-resolution melting) assays. Allele T (ADAMTS13(∗)T) was detected only in Asian populations and its frequency was observed to decrease gradually from north to south in 24 East Asian populations. Almost all ADAMTS13(∗)T were associated with ABO(∗)O. These results suggested that ADAMTS13(∗)T had occurred on a chromosome with ABO(∗)O in a northern part of East Asia. This SNP is useful as an ancestry-informative marker, and the present genotyping techniques are applicable to the investigation of an association between this SNP and aortic dissection (Kobayashi et al., 2012).

  19. Identification of unknown body using DNA analysis and dental characteristics in chest X-ray photograph.

    PubMed

    Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Sayaka; Kasahara, Iku; Nohira, Chizuru; Hanaoka, Yoichi; Tsai, Tohkai; Kiriyama, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2005-11-01

    An unknown skeletonized body was identified by DNA analysis and dental information. The body had already been cremated when a candidate for the unknown body was proposed. Therefore, for DNA analysis we used teeth that had been kept for a long time after use for serological examination. We also used a chest X-ray photograph of the candidate and photographs of dentition, as well as dental X-ray photographs taken when the unknown body was found. Because DNA obtained from teeth was highly degraded, we amplified three PCR fragments to determine the 766 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence including HV1 and HV2. Polymorphism of the ABO locus was also analyzed using small PCR fragments. Although the isolated DNA was contaminated, probably with DNA from a different individual, DNA polymorphisms of mtDNA and the ABO locus could be analyzed. We discuss the reliability of our conclusions from the point of view of the necessity of constructing an accurate mtDNA database. Although a dentist who had treated the teeth of the unknown body could not be found, a chest X-ray photograph for medical diagnosis was very useful in comparing dental characteristics, as it included an image of the frontal part of the lower jaw and upper teeth.

  20. Red cell alloimmunization in RhD positive pregnant women and neonatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Sankaralingam, Prabakaran; Jain, Ashish; Bagga, Rashmi; Kumar, Praveen; Marwaha, Neelam

    2016-08-01

    The frequency of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in RhD positive pregnant women is not known in our population. We planned to determine its frequency and correlation with neonatal outcome. We included 1000 RhD positive pregnant women: 500 had 'normal pregnancy' (Group I) and another 500 had 'high risk pregnancy' (Group II). ABO and extended Rh phenotyping were done by tube technique, antibody screening and identification by gel technique. For alloimmunized women, the paternal and neonatal ABO and extended Rh typing were done. Neonatal direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was also done and their clinical outcome observed. The frequency of RBC alloimmunization was 0.7% (7/1000) and all these women were from group II (p = 0.015). The alloantibodies were anti-E (85.7%), anti-c (71.4%), anti-Cw (14.3%) and anti-S (14.3%). Also, 6 women had history of transfusion (p < 0.01). Of the 7 neonates born to alloimmunized mothers, 4 (57.14%) had a positive DAT. The mean duration of phototherapy was higher in the DAT positive neonates (p < 0.01) and 2 (50%) required exchange transfusion. Thus, the frequency of alloimmunization was 0.7% in RhD positive pregnant women. High risk pregnancies and antenatal patients having a history of blood transfusion should be considered for regular antibody screening.