Science.gov

Sample records for program 3-d inelastic

  1. On 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components (base program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Bak, M. J.; Nakazawa, S.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-D Inelastic Analysis Method program is described. This program consists of a series of new computer codes embodying a progression of mathematical models (mechanics of materials, special finite element, boundary element) for streamlined analysis of: (1) combustor liners, (2) turbine blades, and (3) turbine vanes. These models address the effects of high temperatures and thermal/mechanical loadings on the local (stress/strain)and global (dynamics, buckling) structural behavior of the three selected components. Three computer codes, referred to as MOMM (Mechanics of Materials Model), MHOST (Marc-Hot Section Technology), and BEST (Boundary Element Stress Technology), have been developed and are briefly described in this report.

  2. The MHOST finite element program: 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 3: Systems' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, Shohei

    1989-01-01

    The internal structure is discussed of the MHOST finite element program designed for 3-D inelastic analysis of gas turbine hot section components. The computer code is the first implementation of the mixed iterative solution strategy for improved efficiency and accuracy over the conventional finite element method. The control structure of the program is covered along with the data storage scheme and the memory allocation procedure and the file handling facilities including the read and/or write sequences.

  3. The MHOST finite element program: 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, Shohei

    1989-01-01

    The user options available for running the MHOST finite element analysis package is described. MHOST is a solid and structural analysis program based on the mixed finite element technology, and is specifically designed for 3-D inelastic analysis. A family of 2- and 3-D continuum elements along with beam and shell structural elements can be utilized, many options are available in the constitutive equation library, the solution algorithms and the analysis capabilities. The outline of solution algorithms is discussed along with the data input and output, analysis options including the user subroutines and the definition of the finite elements implemented in the program package.

  4. 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components (base program). [turbine blades, turbine vanes, and combustor liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Bak, M. J.; Nakazawa, S.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    A 3-D inelastic analysis methods program consists of a series of computer codes embodying a progression of mathematical models (mechanics of materials, special finite element, boundary element) for streamlined analysis of combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. These models address the effects of high temperatures and thermal/mechanical loadings on the local (stress/strain) and global (dynamics, buckling) structural behavior of the three selected components. These models are used to solve 3-D inelastic problems using linear approximations in the sense that stresses/strains and temperatures in generic modeling regions are linear functions of the spatial coordinates, and solution increments for load, temperature and/or time are extrapolated linearly from previous information. Three linear formulation computer codes, referred to as MOMM (Mechanics of Materials Model), MHOST (MARC-Hot Section Technology), and BEST (Boundary Element Stress Technology), were developed and are described.

  5. The 3-D inelastic analyses for computational structural mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The 3-D inelastic analysis method is a focused program with the objective to develop computationally effective analysis methods and attendant computer codes for three-dimensional, nonlinear time and temperature dependent problems present in the hot section of turbojet engine structures. Development of these methods was a major part of the Hot Section Technology (HOST) program over the past five years at Lewis Research Center.

  6. The MHOST finite element program: 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 1: Theoretical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, Shohei

    1991-01-01

    Formulations and algorithms implemented in the MHOST finite element program are discussed. The code uses a novel concept of the mixed iterative solution technique for the efficient 3-D computations of turbine engine hot section components. The general framework of variational formulation and solution algorithms are discussed which were derived from the mixed three field Hu-Washizu principle. This formulation enables the use of nodal interpolation for coordinates, displacements, strains, and stresses. Algorithmic description of the mixed iterative method includes variations for the quasi static, transient dynamic and buckling analyses. The global-local analysis procedure referred to as the subelement refinement is developed in the framework of the mixed iterative solution, of which the detail is presented. The numerically integrated isoparametric elements implemented in the framework is discussed. Methods to filter certain parts of strain and project the element discontinuous quantities to the nodes are developed for a family of linear elements. Integration algorithms are described for linear and nonlinear equations included in MHOST program.

  7. The 3D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

    1992-01-01

    A two-year program to develop advanced 3D inelastic structural stress analysis methods and solution strategies for more accurate and cost effective analysis of combustors, turbine blades, and vanes is described. The approach was to develop a matrix of formulation elements and constitutive models. Three constitutive models were developed in conjunction with optimized iterating techniques, accelerators, and convergence criteria within a framework of dynamic time incrementing. Three formulation models were developed: an eight-noded midsurface shell element; a nine-noded midsurface shell element; and a twenty-noded isoparametric solid element. A separate computer program has been developed for each combination of constitutive model-formulation model. Each program provides a functional stand alone capability for performing cyclic nonlinear structural analysis. In addition, the analysis capabilities incorporated into each program can be abstracted in subroutine form for incorporation into other codes or to form new combinations.

  8. On 3D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Chen, P. C.; Dame, L. T.; Holt, R. V.; Huang, H.; Hartle, M.; Gellin, S.; Allen, D. H.; Haisler, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the 2-year program, to develop advanced 3-D inelastic structural stress analysis methods and solution strategies for more accurate and cost effective analysis of combustors, turbine blades and vanes. The approach was to develop a matrix of formulation elements and constitutive models. Three constitutive models were developed in conjunction with optimized iterating techniques, accelerators, and convergence criteria within a framework of dynamic time incrementing. Three formulations models were developed; an eight-noded mid-surface shell element, a nine-noded mid-surface shell element and a twenty-noded isoparametric solid element. A separate computer program was developed for each combination of constitutive model-formulation model. Each program provides a functional stand alone capability for performing cyclic nonlinear structural analysis. In addition, the analysis capabilities incorporated into each program can be abstracted in subroutine form for incorporation into other codes or to form new combinations.

  9. The 3D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Mcknight, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an analytical tool capable of economically evaluating the cyclic time dependent plasticity which occurs in hot section engine components in areas of strain concentration resulting from the combination of both mechanical and thermal stresses. The techniques developed must be capable of accommodating large excursions in temperatures with the associated variations in material properties including plasticity and creep. The overall objective of this proposed program is to develop advanced 3-D inelastic structural/stress analysis methods and solution strategies for more accurate and yet more cost effective analysis of combustors, turbine blades, and vanes. The approach will be to develop four different theories, one linear and three higher order with increasing complexities including embedded singularities.

  10. The 3D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. L.; Mcknight, R. L.; Dame, L. T.; Chen, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced 3-D inelastic structural/stress analysis methods and solution strategies for more accurate and yet more cost-effective analysis of combustors, turbine blades, and vanes are being developed. The approach is to develop four different theories, one linear and three higher order with increasing complexities including embedded singularities. Progress in each area is reported.

  11. On 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this program is to produce a series of new computer codes that permit more accurate and efficient three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis of combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. Each code embodies a progression of mathematical models for increasingly comprehensive representation of the geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of nonlinear material response that distinguish these three groups of hot section components.

  12. 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 2: Advanced special functions models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    This Annual Status Report presents the results of work performed during the third year of the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Sections Components program (NASA Contract NAS3-23697). The objective of the program is to produce a series of computer codes that permit more accurate and efficient three-dimensional analyses of selected hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The computer codes embody a progression of mathematical models and are streamlined to take advantage of geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of material response that distinguish each group of selected components.

  13. Three-dimensional inelastic analysis for hot section components, BEST 3D code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Raymond B.; Banerjee, Prasanta K.

    1987-01-01

    The goal is the development of an alternative stress analysis tool, distinct from the finite element method, applicable to the engineering analysis of gas turbine engine structures. The boundary element method was selected for this development effort on the basis of its already demonstrated applicability to a variety of geometries and problem types characteristic of gas turbine engine components. Major features of the BEST3D computer program are described, and some of the significant developments carried out as part of the Inelastic Methods Contract are outlined.

  14. On 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 1: Special finite element models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, S.

    1988-01-01

    This annual status report presents the results of work performed during the fourth year of the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components program (NASA Contract NAS3-23697). The objective of the program is to produce a series of new computer codes permitting more accurate and efficient 3-D analysis of selected hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades and turbine vanes. The computer codes embody a progression of math models and are streamlined to take advantage of geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of material response that distinguish each group of selected components. Volume 1 of this report discusses the special finite element models developed during the fourth year of the contract.

  15. 3D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Chen, P. C.; Hartle, M. S.; Huang, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop analytical tools capable of economically evaluating the cyclic time dependent plasticity which occurs in hot section engine components in areas of strain concentration resulting from the combination of both mechanical and thermal stresses. Three models were developed. A simple model performs time dependent inelastic analysis using the power law creep equation. The second model is the classical model of Professors Walter Haisler and David Allen of Texas A and M University. The third model is the unified model of Bodner, Partom, et al. All models were customized for linear variation of loads and temperatures with all material properties and constitutive models being temperature dependent.

  16. On 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 1: Special finite element models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, S.

    1987-01-01

    This Annual Status Report presents the results of work performed during the third year of the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components program (NASA Contract NAS3-23697). The objective of the program is to produce a series of new computer codes that permit more accurate and efficient three-dimensional analysis of selected hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The computer codes embody a progression of mathematical models and are streamlined to take advantage of geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of material response that distinguish each group of selected components. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 describes effort performed under Task 4B, Special Finite Element Special Function Models, while Volume 2 concentrates on Task 4C, Advanced Special Functions Models.

  17. Dynamics of electronically inelastic collisions from 3D Doppler measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Suits, A.G.; de Pujo, P.; Sublemontier, O.; Visticot, J.; Berlande, J.; Cuvellier, J.; Gustavsson, T.; Mestdagh, J.; Meynadier, P. ); Lee, Y.T. )

    1991-11-25

    Flux-velocity contour maps were obtained for the inelastic collision process Ba({sup 1}{ital P}{sub 1})+O{sub 2}N{sub 2}{r arrow}Ba({sup 3}{ital P}{sub 2})+O{sub 2}N{sub 2} from Doppler scans of scattered Ba({sup 3}{ital P}{sub 2}) taken over a range of probe laser directions in a crossed-beam experiment. Collision with O{sub 2} resulted in sharply forward scattered Ba({sup 3}{ital P}{sub 2}), with efficient conversion of inital electronic energy into O{sub 2} internal energy and little momentum transfer. Collision with N{sub 2} was dominated by wide-angle scattering with most of the available electronic energy appearing in product translation. The results suggest the importance of large-impact-parameter collisions and a near-resonant energy transfer in the case of O{sub 2}, while for N{sub 2} close collisions dominate despite the presence of an analogous near-resonant channel. The results represent the first direct experimental demonstration of a near-resonant quenching process.

  18. Use of 3D metaphor in programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, John F.; Fishwick, Paul A.

    2000-06-01

    The use of metaphor in programming can be a powerful aid to the programmer, inasmuch as it provides concrete properties to abstract ideas. In turn, these concrete properties can aid recognition of, and reasoning about, programming problems. Another potential benefit of the use of metaphor in programming is the improvement of mental retention of facts and solutions to programming problems. Traditionally, programs have been produced in a textual medium. However, a textual medium may be inferior to a 3D medium in the development and use of metaphor, as the concrete properties that metaphors provide are real-world phenomena, which are naturally 3D. An example of the use of 3D metaphors in programming was created. This consisted of a mock operating system task scheduler, along with some associated hardware devices, developed in a VRML environment using VRML PROTO nodes. These nodes were designed as objects based on real- world metaphors. The issues, problems, and novelties involved in programming in this manner were explored.

  19. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  20. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  1. Glnemo2: Interactive Visualization 3D Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Jean-Charles

    2011-10-01

    Glnemo2 is an interactive 3D visualization program developed in C++ using the OpenGL library and Nokia QT 4.X API. It displays in 3D the particles positions of the different components of an nbody snapshot. It quickly gives a lot of information about the data (shape, density area, formation of structures such as spirals, bars, or peanuts). It allows for in/out zooms, rotations, changes of scale, translations, selection of different groups of particles and plots in different blending colors. It can color particles according to their density or temperature, play with the density threshold, trace orbits, display different time steps, take automatic screenshots to make movies, select particles using the mouse, and fly over a simulation using a given camera path. All these features are accessible from a very intuitive graphic user interface. Glnemo2 supports a wide range of input file formats (Nemo, Gadget 1 and 2, phiGrape, Ramses, list of files, realtime gyrfalcON simulation) which are automatically detected at loading time without user intervention. Glnemo2 uses a plugin mechanism to load the data, so that it is easy to add a new file reader. It's powered by a 3D engine which uses the latest OpenGL technology, such as shaders (glsl), vertex buffer object, frame buffer object, and takes in account the power of the graphic card used in order to accelerate the rendering. With a fast GPU, millions of particles can be rendered in real time. Glnemo2 runs on Linux, Windows (using minGW compiler), and MaxOSX, thanks to the QT4API.

  2. Solution-adaptive program SADAP3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. J.; Deiwert, George S.

    1991-01-01

    A generic solution-adaptive grid program based on an error equi-distribution concept has been developed for use in complex multidimensional flows. The capability of a generic, user-friendly, multidimensional algorithm is demonstrated using several complex 3D flows in high-speed regimes. A simple scheme enforces the continuity of grid spacing along each currently adapted grid line as the computation proceeds. Calculation of normal vectors at each point of a grid plane is enhanced. The grid movement is automatically controlled by reinstating grid-spacing continuity locally in the mainstream of the unidirectional computation. It is concluded that the scheme can be readily coupled with many flow solvers to enhance accuracy and efficiency of solutions.

  3. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  4. Programmed synthesis of 3D tissues

    PubMed Central

    Todhunter, Michael E; Jee, Noel Y; Hughes, Alex J; Coyle, Maxwell C; Cerchiari, Alec; Farlow, Justin; Garbe, James C; LaBarge, Mark A; Desai, Tejal A; Gartner, Zev J

    2015-01-01

    Reconstituting tissues from their cellular building blocks facilitates the modeling of morphogenesis, homeostasis, and disease in vitro. Here, we describe DNA Programmed Assembly of Cells (DPAC) to reconstitute the multicellular organization of tissues having programmed size, shape, composition, and spatial heterogeneity. DPAC uses dissociated cells that are chemically functionalized with degradable oligonucleotide “velcro,” allowing rapid, specific, and reversible cell adhesion to other surfaces coated with complementary DNA sequences. DNA-patterned substrates function as removable and adhesive templates, and layer-by-layer DNA-programmed assembly builds arrays of tissues into the third dimension above the template. DNase releases completed arrays of microtissues from the template concomitant with full embedding in a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) gels. DPAC positions subpopulations of cells with single-cell spatial resolution and generates cultures several centimeters long. We used DPAC to explore the impact of ECM composition, heterotypic cell-cell interactions, and patterns of signaling heterogeneity on collective cell behaviors. PMID:26322836

  5. The 3D Elevation Program: summary of program direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2012-01-01

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative responds to a growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation's natural and constructed features. The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), which was completed in 2011, clearly documented this need within government and industry sectors. The results of the NEEA indicated that enhanced elevation data have the potential to generate $13 billion in new benefits annually. The benefits apply to food risk management, agriculture, water supply, homeland security, renewable energy, aviation safety, and other areas. The 3DEP initiative was recommended by the National Digital Elevation Program and its 12 Federal member agencies and was endorsed by the National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC) and the National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC).

  6. VPython: Writing Real-time 3D Physics Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabay, Ruth

    2001-06-01

    VPython (http://cil.andrew.cmu.edu/projects/visual) combines the Python programming language with an innovative 3D graphics module called Visual, developed by David Scherer. Designed to make 3D physics simulations accessible to novice programmers, VPython allows the programmer to write a purely computational program without any graphics code, and produces an interactive realtime 3D graphical display. In a program 3D objects are created and their positions modified by computational algorithms. Running in a separate thread, the Visual module monitors the positions of these objects and renders them many times per second. Using the mouse, one can zoom and rotate to navigate through the scene. After one hour of instruction, students in an introductory physics course at Carnegie Mellon University, including those who have never programmed before, write programs in VPython to model the behavior of physical systems and to visualize fields in 3D. The Numeric array processing module allows the construction of more sophisticated simulations and models as well. VPython is free and open source. The Visual module is based on OpenGL, and runs on Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  7. RELAP5-3D Developer Guidelines and Programming Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2014-03-01

    Our ultimate goal is to create and maintain RELAP5-3D as the best software tool available to analyze nuclear power plants. This begins with writing excellent programming and requires thorough testing. This document covers development of RELAP5-3D software, the behavior of the RELAP5-3D program that must be maintained, and code testing. RELAP5-3D must perform in a manner consistent with previous code versions with backward compatibility for the sake of the users. Thus file operations, code termination, input and output must remain consistent in form and content while adding appropriate new files, input and output as new features are developed. As computer hardware, operating systems, and other software change, RELAP5-3D must adapt and maintain performance. The code must be thoroughly tested to ensure that it continues to perform robustly on the supported platforms. The coding must be written in a consistent manner that makes the program easy to read to reduce the time and cost of development, maintenance and error resolution. The programming guidelines presented her are intended to institutionalize a consistent way of writing FORTRAN code for the RELAP5-3D computer program that will minimize errors and rework. A common format and organization of program units creates a unifying look and feel to the code. This in turn increases readability and reduces time required for maintenance, development and debugging. It also aids new programmers in reading and understanding the program. Therefore, when undertaking development of the RELAP5-3D computer program, the programmer must write computer code that follows these guidelines. This set of programming guidelines creates a framework of good programming practices, such as initialization, structured programming, and vector-friendly coding. It sets out formatting rules for lines of code, such as indentation, capitalization, spacing, etc. It creates limits on program units, such as subprograms, functions, and modules. It

  8. Parallelization of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dana P.; Korte, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the parallelization of the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST3D). POST3D uses a gradient-based optimization algorithm that reaches an optimum design point by moving from one design point to the next. The gradient calculations required to complete the optimization process, dominate the computational time and have been parallelized using a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) on a distributed memory NUMA (non-uniform memory access) architecture. The Origin2000 was used for the tests presented.

  9. Programming standards for effective S-3D game development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Neil; Matveev, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    When a video game is in development, more often than not it is being rendered in three dimensions - complete with volumetric depth. It's the PC monitor that is taking this three-dimensional information, and artificially displaying it in a flat, two-dimensional format. Stereoscopic drivers take the three-dimensional information captured from DirectX and OpenGL calls and properly display it with a unique left and right sided view for each eye so a proper stereoscopic 3D image can be seen by the gamer. The two-dimensional limitation of how information is displayed on screen has encouraged programming short-cuts and work-arounds that stifle this stereoscopic 3D effect, and the purpose of this guide is to outline techniques to get the best of both worlds. While the programming requirements do not significantly add to the game development time, following these guidelines will greatly enhance your customer's stereoscopic 3D experience, increase your likelihood of earning Meant to be Seen certification, and give you instant cost-free access to the industry's most valued consumer base. While this outline is mostly based on NVIDIA's programming guide and iZ3D resources, it is designed to work with all stereoscopic 3D hardware solutions and is not proprietary in any way.

  10. CH5M3D: an HTML5 program for creating 3D molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Earley, Clarke W

    2013-11-18

    While a number of programs and web-based applications are available for the interactive display of 3-dimensional molecular structures, few of these provide the ability to edit these structures. For this reason, we have developed a library written in JavaScript to allow for the simple creation of web-based applications that should run on any browser capable of rendering HTML5 web pages. While our primary interest in developing this application was for educational use, it may also prove useful to researchers who want a light-weight application for viewing and editing small molecular structures. Molecular compounds are drawn on the HTML5 Canvas element, with the JavaScript code making use of standard techniques to allow display of three-dimensional structures on a two-dimensional canvas. Information about the structure (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) can be obtained using a mouse or other pointing device. Both atoms and bonds can be added or deleted, and rotation about bonds is allowed. Routines are provided to read structures either from the web server or from the user's computer, and creation of galleries of structures can be accomplished with only a few lines of code. Documentation and examples are provided to demonstrate how users can access all of the molecular information for creation of web pages with more advanced features. A light-weight (≈ 75 kb) JavaScript library has been made available that allows for the simple creation of web pages containing interactive 3-dimensional molecular structures. Although this library is designed to create web pages, a web server is not required. Installation on a web server is straightforward and does not require any server-side modules or special permissions. The ch5m3d.js library has been released under the GNU GPL version 3 open-source license and is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ch5m3d/.

  11. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Coordination by SDMI and AMEC avoids duplication of effort and ensures a unified approach to consistent, statewide data acquisition; the enhancement of existing data; and support for emerging applications. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program and America's infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-11-07

    Infrastructure—the physical framework of transportation, energy, communications, water supply, and other systems—and construction management—the overall planning, coordination, and control of a project from beginning to end—are critical to the Nation’s prosperity. The American Society of Civil Engineers has warned that, despite the importance of the Nation’s infrastructure, it is in fair to poor condition and needs sizable and urgent investments to maintain and modernize it, and to ensure that it is sustainable and resilient. Three-dimensional (3D) light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data provide valuable productivity, safety, and cost-saving benefits to infrastructure improvement projects and associated construction management. By providing data to users, the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data. The size and breadth of improvements for the Nation’s infrastructure and construction management needs call for an efficient, systematic approach to acquiring foundational 3D elevation data. The 3DEP approach to national data coverage will yield large cost savings over individual project-by-project acquisitions and will ensure that data are accessible for other critical applications.

  13. CH5M3D: an HTML5 program for creating 3D molecular structures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While a number of programs and web-based applications are available for the interactive display of 3-dimensional molecular structures, few of these provide the ability to edit these structures. For this reason, we have developed a library written in JavaScript to allow for the simple creation of web-based applications that should run on any browser capable of rendering HTML5 web pages. While our primary interest in developing this application was for educational use, it may also prove useful to researchers who want a light-weight application for viewing and editing small molecular structures. Results Molecular compounds are drawn on the HTML5 Canvas element, with the JavaScript code making use of standard techniques to allow display of three-dimensional structures on a two-dimensional canvas. Information about the structure (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) can be obtained using a mouse or other pointing device. Both atoms and bonds can be added or deleted, and rotation about bonds is allowed. Routines are provided to read structures either from the web server or from the user’s computer, and creation of galleries of structures can be accomplished with only a few lines of code. Documentation and examples are provided to demonstrate how users can access all of the molecular information for creation of web pages with more advanced features. Conclusions A light-weight (≈ 75 kb) JavaScript library has been made available that allows for the simple creation of web pages containing interactive 3-dimensional molecular structures. Although this library is designed to create web pages, a web server is not required. Installation on a web server is straightforward and does not require any server-side modules or special permissions. The ch5m3d.js library has been released under the GNU GPL version 3 open-source license and is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ch5m3d/. PMID:24246004

  14. Clinical Experience With A Portable 3-D Reconstruction Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holshouser, Barbara A.; Christiansen, Edwin L.; Thompson, Joseph R.; Reynolds, R. Anthony; Goldwasser, Samuel M.

    1988-06-01

    Clinical experience with a computer program for reconstructing and visualizing three-dimensional (3-D) structures is reported. Applications to the study of soft-tissue and skeletal structures, such as the temporomandibular joint and craniofacial anatomy, using computed tomography (CT) data are described. Several features specific to the computer algorithm are demonstrated and evaluated. These include: (1) manipulation of density windows to selectively visualize bone or soft tissue structures; (2) the efficacy of gradient shading algorithms in revealing fine surface detail; and (3) the rapid generation of cut-away views revealing details of internal structures. Also demonstrated is the importance of high resolution data as input to the 3-D program. The implementation of the program (VoxelView-32) described here, is on a MASSCOMP computer running UNIX. Data were collected with General Electric or Siemens CT scanners and transferred to the MASSCOMP for off-line 3-D recon-struction, via magnetic tape or Ethernet. An interactive graphics facility on the MASSCOMP allows viewing of 2-D slices, subregioning, and selection of lower and upper density thresholds for segmentation. The software then enters a pre-processing phase during which a volume representation of the segmented object (soft tissue or bone) is automatically created. This is followed by a rendering phase during which multiple views of the segmented object are automatically generated. The pre-processing phase typically takes 4 to 8 minutes (although very large datasets may require as much as 30 minutes) and the rendering phase typically takes 1 to 2 minutes for each 3-D view. Volume representation and rendering techniques are used at all stages of the processing, and gradient shading is used for enhanced surface detail.

  15. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  16. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  17. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA; Dewberry, 2011) evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  19. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  20. The 3D Elevation Program: Summary for New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  1. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  3. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  4. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation's natural and constructed features.

  5. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  6. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  7. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  8. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  9. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  10. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  11. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  13. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the OMB Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  14. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA; Dewberry, 2011) evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  15. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  16. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA; Dewberry, 2011) evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the use community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  17. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  19. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  20. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A-16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  1. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  3. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 (table 1) for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data (table 1) for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  4. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation's natural and constructed features.

  5. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  6. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  7. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  8. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  9. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  10. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  11. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  13. Status of the 3D Elevation Program, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Eldridge, Diane F.; Jason, Allyson L.; Lukas, Vicki; Saghy, David L.; Stoker, Jason M.; Thunen, Diana R.

    2017-01-18

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) is a cooperative activity to collect light detection and ranging (lidar) data for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and U.S. territories; and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) elevation data for Alaska during an 8-year period. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partner organizations acquire high-quality three-dimensional elevation data for the United States and its territories that support requirements beyond what could be realized if agencies independently pursued lidar and IfSAR data collection activities. Data collection rates have been increasing as a growing number of State and Federal agencies participate in cooperative data acquisition projects. USGS and partner agencies expanded data collection, completed the initial product delivery systems and implemented changes to the program governance to include a restructuring of the 3DEP working group and formalizing the relationship to the Federal Geographic Data Committee during the final year (2015) of program preparation.

  14. The 3D Elevation Program initiative: a call for action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Constance, Eric W.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Jason, Allyson L.; Lukas, Vicki; Saghy, David L.; Stoker, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative is accelerating the rate of three-dimensional (3D) elevation data collection in response to a call for action to address a wide range of urgent needs nationwide. It began in 2012 with the recommendation to collect (1) high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data for the conterminous United States (CONUS), Hawaii, and the U.S. territories and (2) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska. Specifications were created for collecting 3D elevation data, and the data management and delivery systems are being modernized. The National Elevation Dataset (NED) will be completely refreshed with new elevation data products and services. The call for action requires broad support from a large partnership community committed to the achievement of national 3D elevation data coverage. The initiative is being led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and includes many partners—Federal agencies and State, Tribal, and local governments—who will work together to build on existing programs to complete the national collection of 3D elevation data in 8 years. Private sector firms, under contract to the Government, will continue to collect the data and provide essential technology solutions for the Government to manage and deliver these data and services. The 3DEP governance structure includes (1) an executive forum established in May 2013 to have oversight functions and (2) a multiagency coordinating committee based upon the committee structure already in place under the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP). The 3DEP initiative is based on the results of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) that was funded by NDEP agencies and completed in 2011. The study, led by the USGS, identified more than 600 requirements for enhanced (3D) elevation data to address mission-critical information requirements of 34 Federal agencies, all 50 States, and a sample of private sector companies and Tribal and local

  15. Spectral Change in 3d-4f Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Ce Intermetallics Across the Transition between Kondo Singlet and Localized-Spin State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasabe, Norimasa; Tonai, Hironori; Uozumi, Takayuki

    2017-09-01

    The spectral change in the 3d resonant X-ray inelastic scattering (RIXS) induced by the spin-state transition between Kondo singlet (KS) and localized spin (LS) state is theoretically investigated for γ-like Ce intermetallics by means of a single impurity Anderson model. The basis configurations with an electron-hole pair are included in the calculation within the configuration interaction scheme, in addition to the intra-atomic full multiplet coupling of the Ce impurity. A distinct spectral change is found across the KS-LS transition in the RIXS excited at the charge-transfer satellite of the 3d X-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) under a polarized geometry. In contrast, the 3d XAS and RIXS spectra under a depolarized geometry are rather insensitive to the spin-state transition.

  16. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation's natural and constructed features. The Michigan Statewide Authoritative Imagery and Lidar (MiSAIL) program provides statewide lidar coordination with local, State, and national groups in support of 3DEP for Michigan.

  17. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2016-02-03

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, scientific research, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, landslide mitigation, natural resources conservation, sea level rise and subsidence, coastal zone management, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, U.S. territorial, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and selected U.S. territories, and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data for Alaska, all with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle, provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A‒16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional (3D) representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Hawaii, elevation data are critical for infrastructure and construction management, flood risk management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, natural resources conservation, coastal zone management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, U.S. territorial, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and selected U.S. territories, and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data for Alaska, all with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle, provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional (3D) representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  19. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Texas, elevation data are critical for natural resources conservation; wildfire management, planning, and response; flood risk management; agriculture and precision farming; infrastructure and construction management; water supply and quality; and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the source for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  20. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Idaho, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, infrastructure and construction management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, flood risk management, forest resources management, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features. The Idaho LiDAR Consortium provides statewide collaboration and data sharing mechanisms that can be used as a resource by State and Federal partners implementing the 3DEP initiative.

  1. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Wisconsin, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, water supply and quality, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Minnesota, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, water supply and quality, coastal zone management, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  3. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of California, elevation data are critical for infrastructure and construction management; natural resources conservation; flood risk management; wildfire management, planning, and response; agriculture and precision farming; geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation; and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  4. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Virginia, elevation data are critical for urban and regional planning, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, agriculture and precision farming, resource mining, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  5. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Rhode Island, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, natural resources conservation, coastal zone management, sea level rise and subsidence, agriculture and precision farming, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative (Snyder, 2012a,b), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  6. Tensor3D: A computer graphics program to simulate 3D real-time deformation and visualization of geometric bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallozzi Lavorante, Luca; Dirk Ebert, Hans

    2008-07-01

    Tensor3D is a geometric modeling program with the capacity to simulate and visualize in real-time the deformation, specified through a tensor matrix and applied to triangulated models representing geological bodies. 3D visualization allows the study of deformational processes that are traditionally conducted in 2D, such as simple and pure shears. Besides geometric objects that are immediately available in the program window, the program can read other models from disk, thus being able to import objects created with different open-source or proprietary programs. A strain ellipsoid and a bounding box are simultaneously shown and instantly deformed with the main object. The principal axes of strain are visualized as well to provide graphical information about the orientation of the tensor's normal components. The deformed models can also be saved, retrieved later and deformed again, in order to study different steps of progressive strain, or to make this data available to other programs. The shape of stress ellipsoids and the corresponding Mohr circles defined by any stress tensor can also be represented. The application was written using the Visualization ToolKit, a powerful scientific visualization library in the public domain. This development choice, allied to the use of the Tcl/Tk programming language, which is independent on the host computational platform, makes the program a useful tool for the study of geometric deformations directly in three dimensions in teaching as well as research activities.

  7. MHOST: An efficient finite element program for inelastic analysis of solids and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, S.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient finite element program for 3-D inelastic analysis of gas turbine hot section components was constructed and validated. A novel mixed iterative solution strategy is derived from the augmented Hu-Washizu variational principle in order to nodally interpolate coordinates, displacements, deformation, strains, stresses and material properties. A series of increasingly sophisticated material models incorporated in MHOST include elasticity, secant plasticity, infinitesimal and finite deformation plasticity, creep and unified viscoplastic constitutive model proposed by Walker. A library of high performance elements is built into this computer program utilizing the concepts of selective reduced integrations and independent strain interpolations. A family of efficient solution algorithms is implemented in MHOST for linear and nonlinear equation solution including the classical Newton-Raphson, modified, quasi and secant Newton methods with optional line search and the conjugate gradient method.

  8. SRB-3D Solid Rocket Booster performance prediction program. Volume 3: Programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The programmer's manual for the Modified Solid Rocket Booster Performance Prediction Program (SRB-3D) describes the major control routines of SRB-3D, followed by a super index listing of the program and a cross-reference of the program variables.

  9. High Performance Programming Using Explicit Shared Memory Model on the Cray T3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Cray T3D is the first-phase system in Cray Research Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing program. In this report we describe the architecture of the T3D, as well as the CRAFT (Cray Research Adaptive Fortran) programming model, and contrast it with PVM, which is also supported on the T3D We present some performance data based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks to illustrate both architectural and software features of the T3D.

  10. surf3d: A 3-D finite-element program for the analysis of surface and corner cracks in solids subjected to mode-1 loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A computer program, surf3d, that uses the 3D finite-element method to calculate the stress-intensity factors for surface, corner, and embedded cracks in finite-thickness plates with and without circular holes, was developed. The cracks are assumed to be either elliptic or part eliptic in shape. The computer program uses eight-noded hexahedral elements to model the solid. The program uses a skyline storage and solver. The stress-intensity factors are evaluated using the force method, the crack-opening displacement method, and the 3-D virtual crack closure methods. In the manual the input to and the output of the surf3d program are described. This manual also demonstrates the use of the program and describes the calculation of the stress-intensity factors. Several examples with sample data files are included with the manual. To facilitate modeling of the user's crack configuration and loading, a companion program (a preprocessor program) that generates the data for the surf3d called gensurf was also developed. The gensurf program is a three dimensional mesh generator program that requires minimal input and that builds a complete data file for surf3d. The program surf3d is operational on Unix machines such as CRAY Y-MP, CRAY-2, and Convex C-220.

  11. December 1993 National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month: Program Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This program planner's kit is based on the experiences of the first 12 years of the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month program and provides practical advice to help readers plan activities for this year's campaign. Included in the kit is a background and resource guide that explains the background and goals of the program and…

  12. Programming self assembly by designing the 3D shape of floating objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poty, Martin; Lagubeau, Guillaume; Lumay, Geoffroy; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Self-assembly of floating particles driven by capillary forces at some liquid-air interface leads to the formation of two-dimensionnal structures. Using a 3d printer, milimeter scale objets are produced. Their 3d shape is chosen in order to create capillary multipoles. The capillary interactions between these components can be either attractive or repulsive depending on the interface local deformations along the liquid-air interface. In order to understand how the shape of an object deforms the interface, we developed an original profilometry method. The measurements show that specific structures can be programmed by selecting the 3d branched shapes.

  13. TRICE - A program for reconstructing 3D reciprocal space and determining unit-cell parameters.

    PubMed

    Zou, X D Xiaodong; Hovmöller, Anders; Hovmöller, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A program system-Trice-for reconstructing the 3D reciprocal lattice from an electron diffraction tilt series is described. The unit-cell parameters can be determined from electron diffraction patterns directly by Trice. The unit cell can be checked and the lattice type and crystal system can be determined from the 3D reciprocal lattice. Trice can be applied to all crystal systems and lattice types.

  14. HEMP 3D -- a finite difference program for calculating elastic-plastic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1993-05-26

    The HEMP 3D program can be used to solve problems in solid mechanics involving dynamic plasticity and time dependent material behavior and problems in gas dynamics. The equations of motion, the conservation equations, and the constitutive relations are solved by finite difference methods following the format of the HEMP computer simulation program formulated in two space dimensions and time. Presented here is an update of the 1975 report on the HEMP 3D numerical technique. The present report includes the sliding surface routines programmed by Robert Gulliford.

  15. M3D (Media 3D): a new programming language for web-based virtual reality in E-Learning and Edutainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakaveh, Sepideh; Skaley, Detlef; Laine, Patricia; Haeger, Ralf; Maad, Soha

    2003-01-01

    Today, interactive multimedia educational systems are well established, as they prove useful instruments to enhance one's learning capabilities. Hitherto, the main difficulty with almost all E-Learning systems was latent in the rich media implementation techniques. This meant that each and every system should be created individually as reapplying the media, be it only a part, or the whole content was not directly possible, as everything must be applied mechanically i.e. by hand. Consequently making E-learning systems exceedingly expensive to generate, both in time and money terms. Media-3D or M3D is a new platform independent programming language, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute Media Communication to enable visualisation and simulation of E-Learning multimedia content. M3D is an XML-based language, which is capable of distinguishing between the3D models from that of the 3D scenes, as well as handling provisions for animations, within the programme. Here we give a technical account of M3D programming language and briefly describe two specific application scenarios where M3D is applied to create virtual reality E-Learning content for training of technical personnel.

  16. Introduction of the ASP3D Computer Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP3D code is the result of a decade of developmental work on improvements to the small perturbation formulation, performed while the author was employed as a Senior Research Scientist in the Configuration Aerodynamics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The ASP3D code is a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art for transonic aeroelastic analyses over the CAP-TSD code (Computational Aeroelasticity Program Transonic Small Disturbance), which was developed principally by the author in the mid-1980s. The author is in a unique position as the developer of both computer programs to compare, contrast, and ultimately make conclusions regarding the underlying formulations and utility of each code. The paper describes the salient features of the ASP3D code including the rationale for improvements in comparison with CAP-TSD. Numerous results are presented to demonstrate the ASP3D capability. The general conclusion is that the new ASP3D capability is superior to the older CAP-TSD code because of the myriad improvements developed and incorporated.

  17. Application of the ASP3D Computer Program to Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    2006-01-01

    A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The paper presents unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic applications of ASP3D to assess the time dependent capability and demonstrate various features of the code.

  18. The IROC Houston Quality Assurance Program: Potential benefits of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Followill, D. S.; Molineu, H. A.; Lafratta, R.; Ibbott, G. S.

    2017-05-01

    The IROC Houston QA Center has provided QA core support for NCI clinical trials by ensuring that radiation doses delivered to trial patients are accurate and comparable between participating institutions. Within its QA program, IROC Houston uses anthropomorphic QA phantoms to credential sites. It is these phantoms that have the highest potential to benefit from the use of 3D dosimeters. Credentialing is performed to verify that institutions that are using advanced technologies to deliver complex treatment plans that conform to targets. This makes it increasingly difficult to assure the intended calculated dose is being delivered correctly using current techniques that are 2D-based. A 3D dosimeter such as PRESAGE® is able to provide a complete 3D measured dosimetry dataset with one treatment plan delivery. In our preliminary studies, the 3D dosimeters in our H&N and spine phantoms were found to be appropriate for remote dosimetry for relative dose measurements. To implement 3D dosimetry in IROC Houston’s phantoms, the benefit of this significant change to its current infrastructure would have to be assessed and further work would be needed before bringing 3D dosimeters into the phantom dosimetry program.

  19. An interactive program to conceptualize the anatomy of the internal brainstem in 3D.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kelly; Wilson, Timothy D; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is a complex sub-discipline of anatomy requiring abstract visualization and strong spatial reasoning. Traditional methods of learning neuroanatomy include investigation using dissection, light microscopy and histology. Often, this pedagogical approach requires students to formulate three-dimensional (3D) mental images from sequential two-dimensional (2D) cross-sections, which can be difficult for many students to conceptualize. The goal of this study is to develop an interactive 3D learning tool of the internal brainstem anatomy and assess its efficacy on student learning against the classical methods of learning neuroanatomy. Results reveal that students the amount of learning was equal between both experimental groups. Qualitative results show that students enjoyed interactive learning and warmly welcomed the 3D program. Future neuroanatomy laboratories may include a 3D component to aid in student conceptualization of internal brainstem anatomy.

  20. Non-Iterative Rigid 2D/3D Point-Set Registration Using Semidefinite Programming.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Yuehaw; Kapoor, Ankur

    2016-07-01

    We describe a convex programming framework for pose estimation in 2D/3D point-set registration with unknown point correspondences. We give two mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) formulations of the 2D/3D registration problem when there are multiple 2D images, and propose convex relaxations for both the MINLPs to semidefinite programs that can be solved efficiently by interior point methods. Our approach to the 2D/3D registration problem is non-iterative in nature as we jointly solve for pose and correspondence. Furthermore, these convex programs can readily incorporate feature descriptors of points to enhance registration results. We prove that the convex programs exactly recover the solution to the MINLPs under certain noiseless condition. We apply these formulations to the registration of 3D models of coronary vessels to their 2D projections obtained from multiple intra-operative fluoroscopic images. For this application, we experimentally corroborate the exact recovery property in the absence of noise and further demonstrate robustness of the convex programs in the presence of noise.

  1. Benchmark and comparisons of FEL simulation programs TDA3D and GENESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.-C.; Milton, S.V.

    1999-09-11

    A low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This line will initially be used to demonstrate a free-electron laser (FEL) based on the self-amplified spontaneous-emission (SASE) process. The FEL simulation programs, TDA3D and GENESIS, together with several other codes have been used for the LEUTL project. In order to increase the confidence on the simulation results, we attempted to benchmark two programs TDA3D and GENESIS. The results are reported here.

  2. High Performance Programming Using Explicit Shared Memory Model on Cray T3D1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Horst D.; Saini, Subhash; Grassi, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The Cray T3D system is the first-phase system in Cray Research, Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing (MPP) program. This system features a heterogeneous architecture that closely couples DEC's Alpha microprocessors and CRI's parallel-vector technology, i.e., the Cray Y-MP and Cray C90. An overview of the Cray T3D hardware and available programming models is presented. Under Cray Research adaptive Fortran (CRAFT) model four programming methods (data parallel, work sharing, message-passing using PVM, and explicit shared memory model) are available to the users. However, at this time data parallel and work sharing programming models are not available to the user community. The differences between standard PVM and CRI's PVM are highlighted with performance measurements such as latencies and communication bandwidths. We have found that the performance of neither standard PVM nor CRI s PVM exploits the hardware capabilities of the T3D. The reasons for the bad performance of PVM as a native message-passing library are presented. This is illustrated by the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) programmed in explicit shared memory model on Cray T3D. In general, the performance of standard PVM is about 4 to 5 times less than obtained by using explicit shared memory model. This degradation in performance is also seen on CM-5 where the performance of applications using native message-passing library CMMD on CM-5 is also about 4 to 5 times less than using data parallel methods. The issues involved (such as barriers, synchronization, invalidating data cache, aligning data cache etc.) while programming in explicit shared memory model are discussed. Comparative performance of NPB using explicit shared memory programming model on the Cray T3D and other highly parallel systems such as the TMC CM-5, Intel Paragon, Cray C90, IBM-SP1, etc. is presented.

  3. High Performance Programming Using Explicit Shared Memory Model on Cray T3D1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Horst D.; Saini, Subhash; Grassi, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The Cray T3D system is the first-phase system in Cray Research, Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing (MPP) program. This system features a heterogeneous architecture that closely couples DEC's Alpha microprocessors and CRI's parallel-vector technology, i.e., the Cray Y-MP and Cray C90. An overview of the Cray T3D hardware and available programming models is presented. Under Cray Research adaptive Fortran (CRAFT) model four programming methods (data parallel, work sharing, message-passing using PVM, and explicit shared memory model) are available to the users. However, at this time data parallel and work sharing programming models are not available to the user community. The differences between standard PVM and CRI's PVM are highlighted with performance measurements such as latencies and communication bandwidths. We have found that the performance of neither standard PVM nor CRI s PVM exploits the hardware capabilities of the T3D. The reasons for the bad performance of PVM as a native message-passing library are presented. This is illustrated by the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) programmed in explicit shared memory model on Cray T3D. In general, the performance of standard PVM is about 4 to 5 times less than obtained by using explicit shared memory model. This degradation in performance is also seen on CM-5 where the performance of applications using native message-passing library CMMD on CM-5 is also about 4 to 5 times less than using data parallel methods. The issues involved (such as barriers, synchronization, invalidating data cache, aligning data cache etc.) while programming in explicit shared memory model are discussed. Comparative performance of NPB using explicit shared memory programming model on the Cray T3D and other highly parallel systems such as the TMC CM-5, Intel Paragon, Cray C90, IBM-SP1, etc. is presented.

  4. On the Dynamic Programming Approach for the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Manca, Luigi

    2008-06-15

    The dynamic programming approach for the control of a 3D flow governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid in a bounded domain is studied. By a compactness argument, existence of solutions for the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is proved. Finally, existence of an optimal control through the feedback formula and of an optimal state is discussed.

  5. Qualitative Assessment of a 3D Simulation Program: Faculty, Students, and Bio-Organic Reaction Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günersel, Adalet B.; Fleming, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that computer-based simulations and animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry where concepts are abstract and cannot be directly observed. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA) is a freely available 3D visualization software program developed to help students understand the chemistry of biomolecular events.…

  6. Superpose3D: A Local Structural Comparison Program That Allows for User-Defined Structure Representations

    PubMed Central

    Gherardini, Pier Federico; Ausiello, Gabriele; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Local structural comparison methods can be used to find structural similarities involving functional protein patches such as enzyme active sites and ligand binding sites. The outcome of such analyses is critically dependent on the representation used to describe the structure. Indeed different categories of functional sites may require the comparison program to focus on different characteristics of the protein residues. We have therefore developed superpose3D, a novel structural comparison software that lets users specify, with a powerful and flexible syntax, the structure description most suited to the requirements of their analysis. Input proteins are processed according to the user's directives and the program identifies sets of residues (or groups of atoms) that have a similar 3D position in the two structures. The advantages of using such a general purpose program are demonstrated with several examples. These test cases show that no single representation is appropriate for every analysis, hence the usefulness of having a flexible program that can be tailored to different needs. Moreover we also discuss how to interpret the results of a database screening where a known structural motif is searched against a large ensemble of structures. The software is written in C++ and is released under the open source GPL license. Superpose3D does not require any external library, runs on Linux, Mac OSX, Windows and is available at http://cbm.bio.uniroma2.it/superpose3D. PMID:20700534

  7. Qualitative Assessment of a 3D Simulation Program: Faculty, Students, and Bio-Organic Reaction Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günersel, Adalet B.; Fleming, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that computer-based simulations and animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry where concepts are abstract and cannot be directly observed. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA) is a freely available 3D visualization software program developed to help students understand the chemistry of biomolecular events.…

  8. Playable Stories: Making Programming and 3D Role-Playing Game Design Personally and Socially Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially…

  9. Playable Stories: Making Programming and 3D Role-Playing Game Design Personally and Socially Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially…

  10. TBIEM3D: A Computer Program for Predicting Ducted Fan Engine Noise. Version 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the usage of the ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D (Thin duct - Boundary Integral Equation Method - 3 Dimensional). A scattering approach is adopted in which the acoustic pressure field is split into known incident and unknown scattered parts. The scattering of fan-generated noise by a finite length circular cylinder in a uniform flow field is considered. The fan noise is modeled by a collection of spinning point thrust dipoles. The program, based on a Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM), calculates circumferential modal coefficients of the acoustic pressure at user-specified field locations. The duct interior can be of the hard wall type or lined. The duct liner is axisymmetric, locally reactive, and can be uniform or axially segmented. TBIEM3D is written in the FORTRAN programming language. Input to TBIEM3D is minimal and consists of geometric and kinematic parameters. Discretization and numerical parameters are determined automatically by the code. Several examples are presented to demonstrate TBIEM3D capabilities.

  11. The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.

  12. 2D/3D Program work summary report, [January 1988--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P. S.; Simons, J. W.

    1993-06-01

    The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants.

  13. User's Manual for DuctE3D: A Program for 3D Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis of Ducted Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1997-01-01

    The program DuctE3D is used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of ducted fans. This guide describes the input data required and the output files generated, in using DuctE3D. The analysis solves three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations to obtain the aerodynamic forces. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either the time domain or the frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis and aeroelastic analysis of an isolated fan row.

  14. SRB-3D Solid Rocket Booster performance prediction program. Volume 1: Engineering description/users information manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The modified Solid Rocket Booster Performance Evaluation Model (SRB-3D) was developed as an extension to the internal ballistics module of the SRB-2 performance program. This manual contains the engineering description of SRB-3D which describes the approach used to develop the 3D concept and an explanation of the modifications which were necessary to implement these concepts.

  15. SALE-3D: a simplified ALE computer program for calculating three-dimensional fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Amsden, A.A.; Ruppel, H.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents a simplified numerical fluid-dynamics computing technique for calculating time-dependent flows in three dimensions. An implicit treatment of the pressure equation permits calculation of flows far subsonic without stringent constraints on the time step. In addition, the grid vertices may be moved with the fluid in Lagrangian fashion or held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or moved in some prescribed manner to give a continuous rezoning capability. This report describes the combination of Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) to form the ICEd-ALE technique in the framework of the Simplified-ALE (SALE-3D) computer program, for which a general flow diagram and complete FORTRAN listing are included. Sample problems show how to modify the code for a variety of applications. SALE-3D is patterned as closely as possible on the previously reported two-dimensional SALE program.

  16. Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q.

    1996-12-31

    Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

  17. Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. )

    1996-01-01

    Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

  18. User's guide to the NOZL3D and NOZLIC computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    Complete FORTRAN listings and running instructions are given for a set of computer programs that perform an implicit numerical solution to the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations to predict the flow characteristics and performance of nonaxisymmetric nozzles. The set includes the NOZL3D program, which performs the flow computations; the NOZLIC program, which sets up the flow field initial conditions for general nozzle configurations, and also generates the computational grid for simple two dimensional and axisymmetric configurations; and the RGRIDD program, which generates the computational grid for complicated three dimensional configurations. The programs are designed specifically for the NASA-Langley CYBER 175 computer, and employ auxiliary disk files for primary data storage. Input instructions and computed results are given for four test cases that include two dimensional, three dimensional, and axisymmetric configurations.

  19. Interim results from a neural network 3-D automatic target recognition program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoet, William; Rainey, Timothy G.; Slutz, Lee A.; Weingard, Fred

    1992-09-01

    Recent results from the Artificial Neural VIsion Learning (ANVIL) program are presented. The focus of the ANVIL program is to apply neural network technologies to the air-to-surface 3D automatic target recognition (ATR) problem. The 3D Multiple Object Detection and Location System (MODALS) neural network was developed under the ANVIL program to simultaneously detect, locate, segment, and identify multiple targets. The performance results show a very high identification accuracy, a high detection rate, and low false alarm rate, even for areas with high clutter and shadowing. The results are shown as detection/false alarm curves and identification/false alarm curves. In addition, positional detection accuracy is shown for various scale sizes. To provide data for the program, visible terrain board imagery was collected under a variety of background and lighting conditions. Tests were made on over 500 targets of five types and two classes. These targets varied in scale by up to -25%, varied in azimuth by up to 120 degrees, and varied in elevation by up to 10 degrees. The performance results are shown for targets with resolution ranging from 9 to 700 pixels on target. This work is being performed under contract to Wright Laboratory AAAT-1.

  20. Influence of intrinsic and extrinsic forces on 3D stress distribution using CUDA programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    In order to have a better understanding of the influence of buoyancy (intrinsic) and boundary (extrinsic) forces in a nonlinear rheology due to a power law fluid, some basics needs to be explored through 3D numerical calculation. As first approach, the already studied Stokes setup of a rising sphere will be used to calibrate the 3D model. Far field horizontal tectonic stress is applied to the sphere, which generates a vertical acceleration, buoyancy driven. This simple and known setup allows some benchmarking performed through systematic runs. The relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic forces producing the wide variety of rates and styles of deformation, including absence of deformation and generating 3D stress patterns, will be determined. Relation between vertical motion and power law exponent will also be explored. The goal of these investigations will be to run models having topography and density structure from geophysical imaging as input, and 3D stress field as output. The stress distribution in Swiss Alps and Plateau and its implication for risk analysis is one of the perspective for this research. In fact, proximity of the stress to the failure is fundamental for risk assessment. Sensitivity of this to the accurate topography representation can then be evaluated. The developed 3D numerical codes, tuned for mid-sized cluster, need to be optimized, especially while running good resolution in full 3D. Therefor, two largely used computing platforms, MATLAB and FORTRAN 90 are explored. Starting with an easy adaptable and as short as possible MATLAB code, which is then upgraded in order to reach higher performance in simulation times and resolution. A significant speedup using the rising NVIDIA CUDA technology and resources is also possible. Programming in C-CUDA, creating some synchronization feature, and comparing the results with previous runs, helps us to investigate the new speedup possibilities allowed through GPU parallel computing. These codes

  1. Development of computer program NAS3D using Vector processing for geometric nonlinear analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalgiri, P. D.; Prabhakaran, R.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for vectorized computation of stiffness matrices of an 8 noded isoparametric hexahedron element for geometric nonlinear analysis was developed. This was used in conjunction with the earlier 2-D program GAMNAS to develop the new program NAS3D for geometric nonlinear analysis. A conventional, modified Newton-Raphson process is used for the nonlinear analysis. New schemes for the computation of stiffness and strain energy release rates is presented. The organization the program is explained and some results on four sample problems are given. The study of CPU times showed that savings by a factor of 11 to 13 were achieved when vectorized computation was used for the stiffness instead of the conventional scalar one. Finally, the scheme of inputting data is explained.

  2. Playable stories: Making programming and 3D role-playing game design personally and socially relevant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially relevant narratives. This first study was successful in that students learned to program a narrative game, and they viewed the social problem framing for the practices as an interesting aspect of the experience. The second study provided illustrative examples of how providing less general structure up-front, afforded players the opportunity to produce the necessary structures as needed for their particular design, and therefore had a richer understanding of what those structures represented. This study demonstrates that not only were participants able to use computational thinking skills such as Boolean and conditional logic, planning, modeling, abstraction, and encapsulation, they were able to bridge these skills to social domains they cared about. In particular, participants created stories about socially relevant topics without to explicit pushes by the instructors. The findings also suggest that the rapid uptake, and successful creation of personally and socially relevant narratives may have been facilitated by close alignment between the conceptual tools represented in the platform, and the domain of 3D role-playing games.

  3. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D Program. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Simons, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated.

  4. The development of laser-plasma interaction program LAP3D on thousands of processors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaoyan Hao, Liang; Liu, Zhanjun; Zheng, Chunyang; Li, Bin Guo, Hong

    2015-08-15

    Modeling laser-plasma interaction (LPI) processes in real-size experiments scale is recognized as a challenging task. For explorering the influence of various instabilities in LPI processes, a three-dimensional laser and plasma code (LAP3D) has been developed, which includes filamentation, stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS), stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS), non-local heat transport and plasmas flow computation modules. In this program, a second-order upwind scheme is applied to solve the plasma equations which are represented by an Euler fluid model. Operator splitting method is used for solving the equations of the light wave propagation, where the Fast Fourier translation (FFT) is applied to compute the diffraction operator and the coordinate translations is used to solve the acoustic wave equation. The coupled terms of the different physics processes are computed by the second-order interpolations algorithm. In order to simulate the LPI processes in massively parallel computers well, several parallel techniques are used, such as the coupled parallel algorithm of FFT and fluid numerical computation, the load balance algorithm, and the data transfer algorithm. Now the phenomena of filamentation, SBS and SRS have been studied in low-density plasma successfully with LAP3D. Scalability of the program is demonstrated with a parallel efficiency above 50% on about ten thousand of processors.

  5. The 3D elevation program - Precision agriculture and other farm practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-12-27

    The agriculture industry, including farmers who rely on advanced technologies, increasingly use light detection and ranging (lidar) data for crop management to enhance agricultural productivity. Annually, the combination of greater yields and reduced crop losses is estimated to increase revenue by \\$2 billion for America's farmers when terrain data derived from lidar are available for croplands. Additionally, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates that the value of improved services for farmers, through its farm assistance program, would be \\$79 million annually if lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) are made available to the public.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply superior, lidar-derived terrain data to the agriculture industry, which would allow farms to refine agricultural practices and produce crops more efficiently. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks, allowing them to concentrate on mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards and specifications, and (4) most importantly, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  6. Evaluation of single photon and Geiger mode Lidar for the 3D Elevation Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Jason M.; Abdullah, Qassim; Nayegandhi, Amar; Winehouse, Jayna

    2016-01-01

    Data acquired by Harris Corporation’s (Melbourne, FL, USA) Geiger-mode IntelliEarth™ sensor and Sigma Space Corporation’s (Lanham-Seabrook, MD, USA) Single Photon HRQLS sensor were evaluated and compared to accepted 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data and survey ground control to assess the suitability of these new technologies for the 3DEP. While not able to collect data currently to meet USGS lidar base specification, this is partially due to the fact that the specification was written for linear-mode systems specifically. With little effort on part of the manufacturers of the new lidar systems and the USGS Lidar specifications team, data from these systems could soon serve the 3DEP program and its users. Many of the shortcomings noted in this study have been reported to have been corrected or improved upon in the next generation sensors.

  7. A Kosloff/Basal method, 3D migration program implemented on the CYBER 205 supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, L. D.; Wheat, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional finite difference migration has relied on approximations to the acoustic wave equation which allow energy to propagate only downwards. Although generally reliable, such approaches usually do not yield an accurate migration for geological structures with strong lateral velocity variations or with steeply dipping reflectors. An earlier study by D. Kosloff and E. Baysal (Migration with the Full Acoustic Wave Equation) examined an alternative approach based on the full acoustic wave equation. The 2D, Fourier type algorithm which was developed was tested by Kosloff and Baysal against synthetic data and against physical model data. The results indicated that such a scheme gives accurate migration for complicated structures. This paper describes the development and testing of a vectorized, 3D migration program for the CYBER 205 using the Kosloff/Baysal method. The program can accept as many as 65,536 zero offset (stacked) traces.

  8. The JLAB 3D program at 12 GeV (TMDs + GPDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Pisano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab CEBAF accelerator is undergoing an upgrade that will increase the beam energy up to 12 GeV. The three experimental Halls operating in the 6-GeV era are upgrading their detectors to adapt their performances to the new available kinematics, and a new Hall (D) is being built. The investigation of the three-dimensional nucleon structure both in the coordinate and in the momentum space represents an essential part of the 12-GeV physics program, and several proposals aiming at the extraction of related observables have been already approved in Hall A, B and C. In this proceedings, the focus of the JLab 3D program will be described, and a selection of proposals will be discussed.

  9. NOAA WP-3D instrumentation and flight operations on AGASP-II. [Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, R. C.; Watson, T. B.; Bodhaine, B. A.

    1989-01-01

    One component of the second Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program conducted in March and April 1986 was supported with an instrumented NOAA WP-3D atmospheric research aircraft, which was used to conduct measurements of wind, temperature, ozone, water vapor, the concentration of condensation nuclei, and aerosol scattering extinction coefficient in order to determine the locations and properties of haze layers. The WP-3D flights consisted of three missions north of Alaska and three in the Canadian Arctic near Alert. This paper describes the NOAA WP-3D aircraft; the meteorological, gas, and aerosol sampling systems utilized; and the flight operations of the six WP-3D flights.

  10. Segmentation of Whole Cells and Cell Nuclei From 3-D Optical Microscope Images Using Dynamic Programming

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Dean P.; Gudla, Prabhakar R.; Harris, Bradley S.; Collins, Jason A.; Meaburn, Karen J.; Nakaya, Masa-Aki; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Misteli, Tom; Lockett, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Communications between cells in large part drive tissue development and function, as well as disease-related processes such as tumorigenesis. Understanding the mechanistic bases of these processes necessitates quantifying specific molecules in adjacent cells or cell nuclei of intact tissue. However, a major restriction on such analyses is the lack of an efficient method that correctly segments each object (cell or nucleus) from 3-D images of an intact tissue specimen. We report a highly reliable and accurate semi-automatic algorithmic method for segmenting fluorescence-labeled cells or nuclei from 3-D tissue images. Segmentation begins with semi-automatic, 2-D object delineation in a user-selected plane, using dynamic programming (DP) to locate the border with an accumulated intensity per unit length greater that any other possible border around the same object. Then the two surfaces of the object in planes above and below the selected plane are found using an algorithm that combines DP and combinatorial searching. Following segmentation, any perceived errors can be interactively corrected. Segmentation accuracy is not significantly affected by intermittent labeling of object surfaces, diffuse surfaces, or spurious signals away from surfaces. The unique strength of the segmentation method was demonstrated on a variety of biological tissue samples where all cells, including irregularly shaped cells, were accurately segmented based on visual inspection. PMID:18450544

  11. Fabrication of 3-D Reconstituted Organoid Arrays by DNA-Programmed Assembly of Cells (DPAC).

    PubMed

    Todhunter, Michael E; Weber, Robert J; Farlow, Justin; Jee, Noel Y; Cerchiari, Alec E; Gartner, Zev J

    2016-09-13

    Tissues are the organizational units of function in metazoan organisms. Tissues comprise an assortment of cellular building blocks, soluble factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) composed into specific three-dimensional (3-D) structures. The capacity to reconstitute tissues in vitro with the structural complexity observed in vivo is key to understanding processes such as morphogenesis, homeostasis, and disease. In this article, we describe DNA-programmed assembly of cells (DPAC), a method to fabricate viable, functional arrays of organoid-like tissues within 3-D ECM gels. In DPAC, dissociated cells are chemically functionalized with degradable oligonucleotide "Velcro," allowing rapid, specific, and reversible cell adhesion to a two-dimensional (2-D) template patterned with complementary DNA. An iterative assembly process builds up organoids, layer-by-layer, from this initial 2-D template and into the third dimension. Cleavage of the DNA releases the completed array of tissues that are captured and fully embedded in ECM gels for culture and observation. DPAC controls the size, shape, composition, and spatial heterogeneity of organoids and permits positioning of constituent cells with single-cell resolution even within cultures several centimeters long. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Fabrication of 3D Reconstituted Organoid Arrays by DNA-programmed Assembly of Cells (DPAC)

    PubMed Central

    Todhunter, Michael E; Weber, Robert J; Farlow, Justin; Jee, Noel Y; Cerchiari, Alec E; Gartner, Zev J

    2016-01-01

    Tissues are the organizational units of function in metazoan organisms. Tissues comprise an assortment of cellular building blocks, soluble factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) that are composed into specific three dimensional (3D) structures. The capacity to reconstitute tissues in vitro with the structural complexity observed in vivo is key to understanding processes such as morphogenesis, homeostasis, and disease. In this unit, we describe DNA-programmed Assembly of Cells (DPAC), a method to fabricate viable, functional arrays of organoid-like tissues within 3D ECM gels. In DPAC, dissociated cells are chemically functionalized with degradable oligonucleotide “velcro,” allowing rapid, specific, and reversible cell adhesion to a two-dimensional (2D) template patterned with complementary DNA. An iterative assembly process builds up organoids, layer-by-layer, from this initial 2D template and into the third dimension. Cleavage of the DNA releases the completed array of tissues that are captured and fully embedded in ECM gels for culture and observation. DPAC controls the size, shape, composition, and spatial heterogeneity of organoids, and permits positioning constituent cells with single-cell resolution even within cultures several centimeters long. PMID:27622567

  13. HBT-EP Program: MHD Dynamics and Active Control through 3D Fields and Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, G. A.; Abler, M. C.; Bialek, J.; Brooks, J. W.; Byrne, P. J.; Desanto, S.; Hughes, P. E.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Rhodes, D. J.; Hansen, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    The HBT-EP active mode control research program aims to: (i) advance understanding of the effects of 3D shaping on advanced tokamak fusion performance, (ii) resolve important MHD issues associated with disruptions, and (iii) measure and mitigate the effects of 3D scrape-off layer (SOL) currents through active and passive control of the plasma edge and conducting boundary structures. A GPU-based low latency control system uses 96 inputs and 64 outputs to control the plasma boundary. An in-vessel adjustable ferritic wall is used to study ferritic RWMs with increased growth rates, RMP response, and disruptivity. A quasi-linear sharp-boundary model is developed to study effects of toroidal curvature and plasma shaping on beta limits with resistive plasmas and walls. Measurement of currents between vessel sections reveals currents running from the plasma to the wall during wall-touching kink modes and disruptions. Asymmetries in plasma current are observed using segmented Rogowski coils. Biased electrodes in the plasma are used to control rotation of external kinks and drive currents in the SOL. An extensive array of SOL current monitors and edge drive electrodes will be installed for pioneering studies of helical edge current control. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  14. Segmentation of whole cells and cell nuclei from 3-D optical microscope images using dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    McCullough, D P; Gudla, P R; Harris, B S; Collins, J A; Meaburn, K J; Nakaya, M A; Yamaguchi, T P; Misteli, T; Lockett, S J

    2008-05-01

    Communications between cells in large part drive tissue development and function, as well as disease-related processes such as tumorigenesis. Understanding the mechanistic bases of these processes necessitates quantifying specific molecules in adjacent cells or cell nuclei of intact tissue. However, a major restriction on such analyses is the lack of an efficient method that correctly segments each object (cell or nucleus) from 3-D images of an intact tissue specimen. We report a highly reliable and accurate semi-automatic algorithmic method for segmenting fluorescence-labeled cells or nuclei from 3-D tissue images. Segmentation begins with semi-automatic, 2-D object delineation in a user-selected plane, using dynamic programming (DP) to locate the border with an accumulated intensity per unit length greater that any other possible border around the same object. Then the two surfaces of the object in planes above and below the selected plane are found using an algorithm that combines DP and combinatorial searching. Following segmentation, any perceived errors can be interactively corrected. Segmentation accuracy is not significantly affected by intermittent labeling of object surfaces, diffuse surfaces, or spurious signals away from surfaces. The unique strength of the segmentation method was demonstrated on a variety of biological tissue samples where all cells, including irregularly shaped cells, were accurately segmented based on visual inspection.

  15. Numerical nonlinear inelastic analysis of stiffened shells of revolution. Volume 1: Theory manual for STARS-2P digital computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalbonas, V.; Levine, H.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical analysis background for the STARS-2P nonlinear inelastic program is discussed. The theory involved is amenable for the analysis of large deflection inelastic behavior in axisymmetric shells of revolution subjected to axisymmetric loadings. The analysis is capable of considering such effects as those involved in nonproportional and cyclic loading conditions. The following are also discussed: orthotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening theory; shell wall cross sections and discrete ring stiffeners; the coupled axisymmetric large deflection elasto-plastic torsion problem; and the provision for the inelastic treatment of smeared stiffeners, isogrid, and waffle wall constructions.

  16. Status report for the 3D Elevation Program, 2013-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Eldridge, Diane F.; Jason, Allyson L.; Saghy, David L.; Steigerwald, Pamela R.; Stoker, Jason M.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Thunen, Diana R.

    2015-09-25

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) goal is to acquire, manage, and distribute enhanced three-dimensional elevation data for the Nation and U.S. territories by 2023. This status report covers implementation activities during 2013–2014 to include meeting funding objectives, developing a management structure, modernizing systems, and collecting and producing initial 3DEP data and products. The Nation will not have complete coverage of 3DEP quality data until 2023 assuming that sufficient funding is available. In spite of the overall condition of government budgets, the 3DEP initiative has gained widespread support and had incremental budget success to include supplemental funding resulting from natural disasters. The 3DEP Executive Forum and a wide range of professional organizations are actively working to maintain support for the program. The systems that have been developed to support increasing acquisition and processing levels are largely in place. The first 3DEP quality datasets were released to the public in late 2014. In addition, light detection and ranging (lidar), interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar), and digital elevation models (DEMs) acquired before 2014 are all supported within the new infrastructure and available for download. Research is ongoing to expand the suite of products and services, and to increase overall throughput and data management efficiency. Emerging technologies may result in lower acquisition costs in the future. Elevation data acquired by 3DEP partnerships will be available through The National Map representing one of the largest and most comprehensive databases publicly available for the United States. 

  17. Semi-automatic 3D lung nodule segmentation in CT using dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Dustin; Park, Sun Young

    2017-02-01

    We present a method for semi-automatic segmentation of lung nodules in chest CT that can be extended to general lesion segmentation in multiple modalities. Most semi-automatic algorithms for lesion segmentation or similar tasks use region-growing or edge-based contour finding methods such as level-set. However, lung nodules and other lesions are often connected to surrounding tissues, which makes these algorithms prone to growing the nodule boundary into the surrounding tissue. To solve this problem, we apply a 3D extension of the 2D edge linking method with dynamic programming to find a closed surface in a spherical representation of the nodule ROI. The algorithm requires a user to draw a maximal diameter across the nodule in the slice in which the nodule cross section is the largest. We report the lesion volume estimation accuracy of our algorithm on the FDA lung phantom dataset, and the RECIST diameter estimation accuracy on the lung nodule dataset from the SPIE 2016 lung nodule classification challenge. The phantom results in particular demonstrate that our algorithm has the potential to mitigate the disparity in measurements performed by different radiologists on the same lesions, which could improve the accuracy of disease progression tracking.

  18. Linear programming approach to optimize 3D data obtained from multiple view angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Peter B.; Xu, Jinhui; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Singh, Vikas; Schafer, Sebastian; Walczak, Alan M.

    2007-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) vessel data from CTA or MRA are not always available prior to or during endovascular interventional procedures, whereas multiple 2D projection angiograms often are. Unfortunately, patient movement, table movement, and gantry sag during angiographic procedures can lead to large errors in gantry-based imaging geometries and thereby incorrect 3D. Therefore, we are developing methods for combining vessel data from multiple 2D angiographic views obtained during interventional procedures to provide 3D vessel data during these procedures. Multiple 2D projection views of carotid vessels are obtained, and the vessel centerlines are indicated. For each pair of views, endpoints of the 3D centerlines are reconstructed using triangulation based on the provided gantry geometry. Previous investigations indicated that translation errors were the primary source of error in the reconstructed 3D. Therefore, the errors in the translations relating the imaging systems are corrected by minimizing the L1 distance between the reconstructed endpoints, after which the 3D centerlines are reconstructed using epipolar constraints for every pair of views. Evaluations were performed using simulations, phantom data, and clinical cases. In simulation and phantom studies, the RMS error decreased from 6.0 mm obtained with biplane approaches to 0.5 mm with our technique. Centerlines in clinical cases are smoother and more consistent than those calculated from individual biplane pairs. The 3D centerlines are calculated in about 2 seconds. These results indicate that reliable 3D vessel data can be generated for treatment planning or revision during interventional procedures.

  19. Programmer's Guide for Subroutine PRNT3D. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. PRNT3D is a subroutine package which generates a variety of printed plot displays. The displays…

  20. Improving Social Understanding of Individuals of Intellectual and Developmental disabilities through a 3D-Facial Expression Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yufang; Chen, Shuhui

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have specific difficulties in cognitive social-emotional capability, which affect numerous aspects of social competence. This study evaluated the learning effects of using 3D-emotion system intervention program for individuals with IDD in learning socially based-emotions capability…

  1. User's Guide for Subroutine PLOT3D. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. PLOT3D is a subroutine package which generates a variety of three dimensional hidden…

  2. Programmer's Guide for Subroutine PLOT3D. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. PLOT3D is a subroutine package which generates a variety of three-dimensional hidden…

  3. User's Guide for Subroutine PRNT3D. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Larry

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. PRNT3D is a subroutine package which generates a variety of printer plot displays. The displays…

  4. Improving Social Understanding of Individuals of Intellectual and Developmental disabilities through a 3D-Facial Expression Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yufang; Chen, Shuhui

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have specific difficulties in cognitive social-emotional capability, which affect numerous aspects of social competence. This study evaluated the learning effects of using 3D-emotion system intervention program for individuals with IDD in learning socially based-emotions capability…

  5. Enhanced genome annotation using structural profiles in the program 3D-PSSM.

    PubMed

    Kelley, L A; MacCallum, R M; Sternberg, M J

    2000-06-02

    A method (three-dimensional position-specific scoring matrix, 3D-PSSM) to recognise remote protein sequence homologues is described. The method combines the power of multiple sequence profiles with knowledge of protein structure to provide enhanced recognition and thus functional assignment of newly sequenced genomes. The method uses structural alignments of homologous proteins of similar three-dimensional structure in the structural classification of proteins (SCOP) database to obtain a structural equivalence of residues. These equivalences are used to extend multiply aligned sequences obtained by standard sequence searches. The resulting large superfamily-based multiple alignment is converted into a PSSM. Combined with secondary structure matching and solvation potentials, 3D-PSSM can recognise structural and functional relationships beyond state-of-the-art sequence methods. In a cross-validated benchmark on 136 homologous relationships unambiguously undetectable by position-specific iterated basic local alignment search tool (PSI-Blast), 3D-PSSM can confidently assign 18 %. The method was applied to the remaining unassigned regions of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome and an additional 13 regions were assigned with 95 % confidence. 3D-PSSM is available to the community as a web server: http://www.bmm.icnet.uk/servers/3dpssm

  6. NewVision: a program for interactive navigation and analysis of multiple 3-D data sets using coordinated virtual cameras.

    PubMed

    Pixton, J L; Belmont, A S

    1996-01-01

    We describe "NewVision", a program designed for rapid interactive display, sectioning, and comparison of multiple large three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions. User tools for navigating within large 3-D data sets and selecting local subvolumes for display, combined with view caching, fast integer interpolation, and background tasking, provide highly interactive viewing of arbitrarily sized data sets on Silicon Graphics systems ranging from simple workstations to supercomputers. Multiple windows, each showing different views of the same 3-D data set, are coordinated through mapping of local coordinate systems to a single global world coordinate system. Mapping to a world coordinate system allows quantitative measurements from any open window as well as creation of linked windows in which operations such as panning, zooming, and 3-D rotations of the viewing perspective in any one window are mirrored by corresponding transformations in the views shown in other linked windows. The specific example of tracing 3-D fiber trajectories is used to demonstrate the potential of the linked window concept. A global overview of NewVision's design and organization is provided, and future development directions are briefly discussed.

  7. Two stages of programming eye gaze shifts in 3-D space.

    PubMed

    Pérez Zapata, L; Aznar-Casanova, J A; Supèr, H

    2013-06-28

    Accurate saccadic and vergence eye movements towards selected visual targets are fundamental to perceive the 3-D environment. Despite this importance, shifts in eye gaze are not always perfect given that they are frequently followed by small corrective eye movements. The oculomotor system receives distinct information from various visual cues that may cause incongruity in the planning of a gaze shift. To test this idea, we analyzed eye movements in humans performing a saccade task in a 3-D setting. We show that saccades and vergence movements towards peripheral targets are guided by monocular (perceptual) cues. Approximately 200ms after the start of fixation at the perceived target, a fixational saccade corrected the eye positions to the physical target location. Our findings suggest that shifts in eye gaze occur in two phases; a large eye movement toward the perceived target location followed by a corrective saccade that directs the eyes to the physical target location. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FPCAS3D User's guide: A three dimensional full potential aeroelastic program, version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.

    1995-01-01

    The FPCAS3D computer code has been developed for aeroelastic stability analysis of bladed disks such as those in fans, compressors, turbines, propellers, or propfans. The aerodynamic analysis used in this code is based on the unsteady three-dimensional full potential equation which is solved for a blade row. The structural analysis is based on a finite-element model for each blade. Detailed explanations of the aerodynamic analysis, the numerical algorithms, and the aeroelastic analysis are not given in this report. This guide can be used to assist in the preparation of the input data required by the FPCAS3D code. A complete description of the input data is provided in this report. In addition, six examples, including inputs and outputs, are provided.

  9. Measuring surface topography with scanning electron microscopy. I. EZEImage: a program to obtain 3D surface data.

    PubMed

    Ponz, Ezequiel; Ladaga, Juan Luis; Bonetto, Rita Dominga

    2006-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used in the science of materials and different parameters were developed to characterize the surface roughness. In a previous work, we studied the surface topography with fractal dimension at low scale and two parameters at high scale by using the variogram, that is, variance vs. step log-log graph, of a SEM image. Those studies were carried out with the FERImage program, previously developed by us. To verify the previously accepted hypothesis by working with only an image, it is indispensable to have reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface data. In this work, a new program (EZEImage) to characterize 3D surface topography in SEM has been developed. It uses fast cross correlation and dynamic programming to obtain reliable dense height maps in a few seconds which can be displayed as an image where each gray level represents a height value. This image can be used for the FERImage program or any other software to obtain surface topography characteristics. EZEImage also generates anaglyph images as well as characterizes 3D surface topography by means of a parameter set to describe amplitude properties and three functional indices for characterizing bearing and fluid properties.

  10. Enhancement of protein modeling by human intervention in applying the automatic programs 3D-JIGSAW and 3D-PSSM.

    PubMed

    Bates, P A; Kelley, L A; MacCallum, R M; Sternberg, M J

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen models were constructed and analyzed for the comparative modeling section of Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP4). Sequence identity between each target and the best possible parent(s) ranged between 55 and 13%, and the root-mean-square deviation between model and target was from 0.8 to 17.9 A. In the fold recognition section, 10 of the 11 remote homologues were recognized. The modeling protocols are a combination of automated computer algorithms, 3D-JIGSAW (for comparative modeling) and 3D-PSSM (for fold recognition), with human intervention at certain critical stages. In particular, intervention is required to check superfamily assignment, best possible parents from which to model, sequence alignments to those parents and take-off regions for modeling variable regions. There now is a convergence of algorithms for comparative modeling and fold recognition, particularly in the region of remote homology.

  11. THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ingber, M.S.

    1994-02-01

    The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.

  12. Programming Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of 3D Hydrogel Cellular Microcultures via Direct Ink Writing.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Joselle M; Badea, Adina; Kandel, Mikhail E; Gladman, A Sydney; Wetzel, David J; Popescu, Gabriel; Lewis, Jennifer A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2016-05-01

    3D hydrogel scaffolds are widely used in cellular microcultures and tissue engineering. Using direct ink writing, microperiodic poly(2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate) (pHEMA) scaffolds are created that are then printed, cured, and modified by absorbing 30 kDa protein poly-l-lysine (PLL) to render them biocompliant in model NIH/3T3 fibroblast and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cell cultures. Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) live cell imaging studies are carried out to quantify cellular motilities for each cell type, substrate, and surface treatment of interest. 3D scaffold mechanics is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), while their absorption kinetics are determined by confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) for a series of hydrated hydrogel films prepared from prepolymers with different homopolymer-to-monomer (Mr ) ratios. The observations reveal that the inks with higher Mr values yield relatively more open-mesh gels due to a lower degree of entanglement. The biocompatibility of printed hydrogel scaffolds can be controlled by both PLL content and hydrogel mesh properties.

  13. A linear programming approach to reconstructing subcellular structures from confocal images for automated generation of representative 3D cellular models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Scott T; Dean, Brian C; Dean, Delphine

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel computer vision algorithm to analyze 3D stacks of confocal images of fluorescently stained single cells. The goal of the algorithm is to create representative in silico model structures that can be imported into finite element analysis software for mechanical characterization. Segmentation of cell and nucleus boundaries is accomplished via standard thresholding methods. Using novel linear programming methods, a representative actin stress fiber network is generated by computing a linear superposition of fibers having minimum discrepancy compared with an experimental 3D confocal image. Qualitative validation is performed through analysis of seven 3D confocal image stacks of adherent vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) grown in 2D culture. The presented method is able to automatically generate 3D geometries of the cell's boundary, nucleus, and representative F-actin network based on standard cell microscopy data. These geometries can be used for direct importation and implementation in structural finite element models for analysis of the mechanics of a single cell to potentially speed discoveries in the fields of regenerative medicine, mechanobiology, and drug discovery.

  14. PROP3D: A Program for 3D Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Propellers. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1996-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.

  15. Development of a patient-specific 3D dose evaluation program for QA in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suk; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Cao, Yuan Jie; Shim, Jang Bo; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Chul Yong

    2015-03-01

    We present preliminary results for a 3-dimensional dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient-specific 3-dimensional dose real evaluation system). Scanned computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using dosimetry were transferred to the radiation treatment planning system (ECLIPSE, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) where the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) nasopharynx plan was designed. We used a 10 MV photon beam (CLiX, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) to deliver the nasopharynx treatment plan. After irradiation, the TENOMAG dosimeter was scanned using a VISTA ™ scanner. The scanned data were reconstructed using VistaRecon software to obtain a 3D dose distribution of the optical density. An optical-CT scanner was used to readout the dose distribution in the gel dosimeter. Moreover, we developed the P DRESS by using Flatform, which were developed by our group, to display the 3D dose distribution by loading the DICOM RT data which are exported from the radiotherapy treatment plan (RTP) and the optical-CT reconstructed VFF file, into the independent P DRESS with an ioniz ation chamber and EBT film was used to compare the dose distribution calculated from the RTP with that measured by using a gel dosimeter. The agreement between the normalized EBT, the gel dosimeter and RTP data was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods, such as the isodose distribution, dose difference, point value, and profile. The profiles showed good agreement between the RTP data and the gel dosimeter data, and the precision of the dose distribution was within ±3%. The results from this study showed significantly discrepancies between the dose distribution calculated from the treatment plan and the dose distribution measured by a TENOMAG gel and by scanning with an optical CT scanner. The 3D dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient specific dose real evaluation system), which were developed in this study evaluates the accuracies of the three-dimensional dose

  16. Micro3D: computer program for three-dimensional reconstruction visualization, and analysis of neuronal populations and barin regions.

    PubMed

    Bjaalie, Jan G; Leergaard, Trygve B; Pettersen, Christian

    2006-04-01

    This article presents a computer program, Micro3D, designed for 3-D reconstruction, visualization, and analysis of coordinate-data (points and lines) recorded from serial sections. The software has primarily been used for studying shapes and dimension of brain regions (contour line data) and distributions of cellular elements such as neuronal cell bodies or axonal terminal fields labeled with tract-tracing techniques (point data). The tissue elements recorded could equally well be labeled with use of other techniques, the only requirement being that the data collected are saved as x,y,z coordinates. Data are typically imported from image-combining computerized microscopy systems or image analysis systems, such as Neurolucida (MicroBrightField, Colchester, VT) or analySIS (Soft Imaging System, Gmbh, Münster, Germany). System requirements are a PC running LINUX. Reconstructions in Micro3D may be rotated and zoomed in real-time, and submitted to perspective viewing and stereo-imaging. Surfaces are re-synthesized on the basis of stacks of contour lines. Clipping is used for defining section-independent subdivisions of the reconstruction. Flattening of curved sheets of points layers (e.g., neurons in a layer) facilitates inspection of complicated distribution patterns. Micro3D computes color-coded density maps. Opportunities for translation of data from different reconstructions into common coordinate systems are also provided. This article demonstrates the use of Micro3D for visualization of complex neuronal distribution patterns in somatosensory and auditory systems. The software is available for download on conditions posted at the NeSys home pages (http://www.nesys.uio.no/) and at The Rodent Brain Workbench (http://www.rbwb.org/).

  17. 3-D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problems with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sofronov, I.D.; Voronin, B.L.; Butnev, O.I.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work performed is to develop a 3D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problem with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS), satisfying the condition of numerical result independence from the number of processors involved. Two basically different approaches to the structure of massive parallel computations have been developed. The first approach uses the 3D data matrix decomposition reconstructed at temporal cycle and is a development of parallelization algorithms for multiprocessor CS with shareable memory. The second approach is based on using a 3D data matrix decomposition not reconstructed during a temporal cycle. The program was developed on 8-processor CS MP-3 made in VNIIEF and was adapted to a massive parallel CS Meiko-2 in LLNL by joint efforts of VNIIEF and LLNL staffs. A large number of numerical experiments has been carried out with different number of processors up to 256 and the efficiency of parallelization has been evaluated in dependence on processor number and their parameters.

  18. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  19. NEUREC - a program package for 3D-reconstruction from serial sections using a microcomputer.

    PubMed

    Gras, H; Killmann, F

    1983-01-01

    A software package is described to reconstruct three-dimensional pictures in true perspective from a series of parallel sections using a low-cost computer system (Apple II plus). Data sampling via a graphic tablet and graphical output on the monitor screen or a digital plotter are assigned to different programs under control of a menu program. The number of data representing the object under study is unlimited. Originally written in BASIC, the programs were translated to machine language. As an application of the package, reconstructions of an identified large interneuron of the locust brain are presented.

  20. ZIP3D: An elastic and elastic-plastic finite-element analysis program for cracked bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    ZIP3D is an elastic and an elastic-plastic finite element program to analyze cracks in three dimensional solids. The program may also be used to analyze uncracked bodies or multi-body problems involving contacting surfaces. For crack problems, the program has several unique features including the calculation of mixed-mode strain energy release rates using the three dimensional virtual crack closure technique, the calculation of the J integral using the equivalent domain integral method, the capability to extend the crack front under monotonic or cyclic loading, and the capability to close or open the crack surfaces during cyclic loading. The theories behind the various aspects of the program are explained briefly. Line-by-line data preparation is presented. Input data and results for an elastic analysis of a surface crack in a plate and for an elastic-plastic analysis of a single-edge-crack-tension specimen are also presented.

  1. BEST3D user's manual: Boundary Element Solution Technology, 3-Dimensional Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical basis and programming strategy utilized in the construction of the computer program BEST3D (boundary element solution technology - three dimensional) and detailed input instructions are provided for the use of the program. An extensive set of test cases and sample problems is included in the manual and is also available for distribution with the program. The BEST3D program was developed under the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components contract (NAS3-23697). The overall objective of this program was the development of new computer programs allowing more accurate and efficient three-dimensional thermal and stress analysis of hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The BEST3D program allows both linear and nonlinear analysis of static and quasi-static elastic problems and transient dynamic analysis for elastic problems. Calculation of elastic natural frequencies and mode shapes is also provided.

  2. SU-E-T-192: Commissioning of a Commercial 3D Dose Calculation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, K; Guerrero, M; Xu, H; Zhou, J; Zhang, B; Chen, S; Killefer, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To commission a commercial software package (CSP) that is used as secondary dose calculation check. The CSP uses an independent golden data beam model. However, some parameters can be modified to generate a customer specific model. Plan comparisons and point dose measurements were performed to test if and to what extent the beam model needed adjustment to optimize results. Methods: Beam parameter configurations were compared between the CSP and both TPS. Twelve phantom test plans ranging from simple to complex were generated in two treatment planning systems (TPS). Tests included small field, off axis, EDW, IMRT and VMAT plans. For each plan a point dose was measured to establish ground truth. Lastly, patient plans were compared for both TPS systems and the CSP. Results: Beam parameters agreed within 2%. The output factors for small fields were changed for the 15 MV beam by 2 and 1.5 % for the 1 cm and 2 cm field sizes, respectively. For the 6 MV beam output factors were adjusted by 3−0.8% for field sizes ranging from 1 to 5 cm. The MLC dynamic leaf gap was adjusted by 1.5 mm for 18 MV beam. Differences between the CSP and the TPS were noted in the built-up region. These differences affected the gamma pass rate in the surface region, however this effect is reduced with increasing number of beam angles and does not affect point dose calculations at depth. All IMRT and VMAT plans agreed with the CSP using a gamma pass rate of 95% (3%, 3mm). Conclusion: The CSP is used to verify point doses for all 3D plans generated in our clinic for the last 6 months. No point dose mismatches were encountered since the CSP was implemented. Next, the CSP will be adapted for secondary checks of all IMRT plans. KL had a beta tester agreement with Mobius Medical for an in-kind equipment and software loan.

  3. LDRD final report: Automated planning and programming of assembly of fully 3D mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of assembly planning research under the LDRD. The assembly planning problem is that of finding a sequence of assembly operations, starting from individual parts, that will result in complete assembly of a device specified as a CAD model. The automated assembly programming problem is that of automatically producing a robot program that will carry out a given assembly sequence. Given solutions to both of these problems, it is possible to automatically program a robot to assemble a mechanical device given as a CAD data file. This report describes the current state of our solutions to both of these problems, and a software system called Archimedes 2 we have constructed to automate these solutions. Because Archimedes 2 can input CAD data in several standard formats, we have been able to test it on a number of industrial assembly models more complex than any before attempted by automated assembly planning systems, some having over 100 parts. A complete path from a CAD model to an automatically generated robot program for assembling the device represented by the CAD model has also been demonstrated.

  4. The 3D structure of the hadrons: recents results and experimental program at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz Camacho, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    The understanding of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at large distances still remains one of the main outstanding problems of nuclear physics. Studying the internal structure of hadrons provides a way to probe QCD in the non-perturbative domain and can help us unravel the internal structure of the most elementary blocks of matter. Jefferson Lab (JLab) has already delivered results on how elementary quarks and gluons create nucleon structure and properties. The upgrade of JLab to 12 GeV will allow the full exploration of the valence-quark structure of nucleons and the extraction of real threedimensional pictures. I will present recent results and review the future experimental program at JLab.

  5. Using Fuzzy Gaussian Inference and Genetic Programming to Classify 3D Human Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Mehdi; Liu, Honghai

    This research introduces and builds on the concept of Fuzzy Gaussian Inference (FGI) (Khoury and Liu in Proceedings of UKCI, 2008 and IEEE Workshop on Robotic Intelligence in Informationally Structured Space (RiiSS 2009), 2009) as a novel way to build Fuzzy Membership Functions that map to hidden Probability Distributions underlying human motions. This method is now combined with a Genetic Programming Fuzzy rule-based system in order to classify boxing moves from natural human Motion Capture data. In this experiment, FGI alone is able to recognise seven different boxing stances simultaneously with an accuracy superior to a GMM-based classifier. Results seem to indicate that adding an evolutionary Fuzzy Inference Engine on top of FGI improves the accuracy of the classifier in a consistent way.

  6. 3D-geological structures with digital elevation models using GPU programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo Lázaro, Jesús; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; García Gil, Alejandro; Edo Romero, Vanesa

    2014-09-01

    We present an application that visualises three-dimensional geological structures with digital terrain models. The three-dimensional structures are displayed as their intersections with two-dimensional surfaces that may be defined analytically (e.g., sections) or with grid meshes in the case of irregular surfaces such as the digital terrain models. The process begins with classic techniques of terrain visualisation using hypsometric shading with textures. Then, geometric transformations that are easily conceived and programmed are added, thus representing the three-dimensional structures with their location and orientation. Functions of three variables are used to define the geological structures, and data from digital terrain models are used as one of the variables. This provides a simple source code and results in a short calculation time. Additionally, the process of generating new textures can be performed by a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), thereby making real-time processing very effective and providing the possibility of displaying the simulation of geological structures in motion.

  7. GENSHELL: A genesis database 2D to 3D shell transformation program

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, G.D.

    1993-07-01

    GENSHELL is a three-dimensional shell mesh generation program. The three-dimensional shell mesh is generated by mapping a two-dimensional quadrilateral mesh into three dimensions according to one of several types of transformations: translation, mapping onto a spherical, ellipsoidal, or cylindrical surface, and mapping onto a user-defined spline surface. The generated three-dimensional mesh can then be reoriented by offsetting, reflecting about an axis, revolving about an axis, and scaling the coordinates. GENSHELL can be used to mesh complex three-dimensional geometries composed of several sections when the sections can be defined in terms of transformations of two-dimensional geometries. The code GJOIN is then used to join the separate sections into a single body. GENSHELL updates the EXODUS quality assurance and information records to help track the codes and files used to generate the mesh. GENSHELL reads and writes two-dimensional and three-dimensional mesh databases in the GENESIS database format; therefore, it is compatible with the preprocessing, postprocessing, and analysis codes in the Sandia National Laboratories Engineering Analysis Code Access System (SEACAS).

  8. RT 3D TEE: Characteristics of Mitral Valve in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Evaluated by MVQ Program

    PubMed Central

    Kovalova, Sylva; Necas, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the changes of mitral valve (MV) in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) using Mitral Valve Quantification (MVQ) program. Methods We examined 46 patients (18 women) with IMR aged 45-86 and a control group of 33 healthy individuals (14 women) aged 18-88. Following parameters were assessed: Area of minimal surface spanning annulus (A3), annulus height (h), tenting height (Th), exposed area of anterior (AL), posterior (PL) and both leaflets (BL), ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LV EF), regurgitation volume (RV) and BL/A3, AL/A3, PL/A3 ratios. The normal range of BL/A3 ratio was defined as the average ± 2SD of control group. The study group was separated into subgroup 1 with BL/A3 ratio within normal values and subgroup 2 with pathological BL/A3 ratio. Corresponding parameters of IMR group were compared to the controls and both subgroups were compared to each other using Student t-test. Results In IMR group, as compared to the controls, A3, AL, PL, BL as well as BL/A3, AL/A3, PL/A3 ratios and Th were significantly increased, conversely, h and LV EF was significantly decreased. In the subgroup 2 as compared to the subgroup 1 there was significant increase of Th, BL, AL and PL, while EF LV was significantly decreased. There was no significant difference between these subgroups in A3, h and RV. Conclusion In ischemic MV remodeling two stages were identified without relation to the severity of IMR. The first stage was mainly influenced by the LV dilatation while LV remodeling was more important in the second stage.

  9. Hybrid 3-D rocket trajectory program. Part 1: Formulation and analysis. Part 2: Computer programming and user's instruction. [computerized simulation using three dimensional motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, L. C. P.; Cook, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Models utilizing various sub-sets of the six degrees of freedom are used in trajectory simulation. A 3-D model with only linear degrees of freedom is especially attractive, since the coefficients for the angular degrees of freedom are the most difficult to determine and the angular equations are the most time consuming for the computer to evaluate. A computer program is developed that uses three separate subsections to predict trajectories. A launch rail subsection is used until the rocket has left its launcher. The program then switches to a special 3-D section which computes motions in two linear and one angular degrees of freedom. When the rocket trims out, the program switches to the standard, three linear degrees of freedom model.

  10. Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

  11. DVR3D: a program suite for the calculation of rotation-vibration spectra of triatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Kostin, Maxim A.; Barletta, Paolo; Harris, Gregory J.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Ramanlal, Jayesh; Zobov, Nikolai F.

    2004-11-01

    The DVR3D program suite calculates energy levels, wavefunctions, and where appropriate dipole transition moments, for rotating and vibrating triatomic molecules. Potential energy and, where necessary, dipole surfaces must be provided. Expectation values of geometrically defined functions can be calculated, a feature which is particularly useful for fitting potential energy surfaces. The programs use an exact (within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) Hamiltonian and offer a choice of Jacobi or Radau internal coordinates and several body-fixed axes. Rotationally excited states are treated using an efficient two-step algorithm. The programs uses a Discrete Variable Representation (DVR) based on Gauss-Jacobi and Gauss-Laguerre quadrature for all 3 internal coordinates and thus yields a fully point-wise representation of the wavefunctions. The vibrational step uses successive diagonalisation and truncation which is implemented for a number of possible coordinate orderings. The rotational, expectation value and transition dipole programs exploit the savings offered by performing integrals on a DVR grid. The new version has been rewritten in FORTRAN 90 to exploit the dynamic array allocations and the algorithm for dipole and spectra calculations have been substantially improved. New modules allow the z-axis to be embedded perpendicular to the plane of the molecule and for the calculation of expectation values. Program summaryTitle of the program: DVR3D suite Catalogue number: ADTI Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTI Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Programming language: Fortran 90 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 61 574 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 972 404 Distribution format: tar.gz New version summaryTitle of program: DVR3DRJZ Catalogue number: ADTB Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTB Program obtainable

  12. Evaluating integration of inland bathymetry in the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller-Corbett, Cynthia

    2016-09-01

    Inland bathymetry survey collections, survey data types, features, sources, availability, and the effort required to integrate inland bathymetric data into the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program are assessed to help determine the feasibility of integrating three-dimensional water feature elevation data into The National Map. Available data from wading, acoustic, light detection and ranging, and combined technique surveys are provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other sources. Inland bathymetric data accessed through Web-hosted resources or contacts provide useful baseline parameters for evaluating survey types and techniques used for collection and processing, and serve as a basis for comparing survey methods and the quality of results. Historically, boat-mounted acoustic surveys have provided most inland bathymetry data. Light detection and ranging techniques that are beneficial in areas hard to reach by boat, that can collect dense data in shallow water to provide comprehensive coverage, and that can be cost effective for surveying large areas with good water clarity are becoming more common; however, optimal conditions and techniques for collecting and processing light detection and ranging inland bathymetry surveys are not yet well defined.Assessment of site condition parameters important for understanding inland bathymetry survey issues and results, and an evaluation of existing inland bathymetry survey coverage are proposed as steps to develop criteria for implementing a useful and successful inland bathymetry survey plan in the 3D Elevation Program. These survey parameters would also serve as input for an inland bathymetry survey data baseline. Integration and interpolation techniques are important factors to consider in developing a robust plan; however, available survey data are usually in a triangulated irregular network format or other format compatible with

  13. StrainModeler: A MATHEMATICA™-based program for 3D analysis of finite and progressive strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobillo-Ares, Nilo C.; Aller, Jesús; Bastida, Fernando; Menéndez, Omar; Lisle, Richard J.

    2015-05-01

    StrainModeler is a program constructed in the MATHEMATICA™ environment that performs 3D progressive strain calculations for lines and planes undergoing any sequence of homogeneous deformations. The main inputs to the system define the initial line or plane to be deformed and the deformation sequence to be applied, including combinations of simple shear, pure shear and volume change. For the deformation of lines, the output of the program is the change of attitude of the initial line, which can be represented by graphics or plotted in an equal-area projection. For the deformation of planes, the program has several outputs: (i) change of attitude of the initial plane; (ii) magnitudes and ratio of the semi-axes of the strain ellipse on the deformed plane; (iii) orientation of the major and minor axes of the strain ellipse on the deformed plane; (iv) orientations of the axial planes of the folds formed on the deformed plane, and (v) area change on the deformed plane. The variation of any of these parameters can be shown against a linear parameter only linked to the number of steps involved in the deformation, as a kind of "time" line, or it can be shown against the variation of a parameter of the strain ellipsoid (e. g.: major axis/minor axis ratio). A sequence of directions can be also visualized as a curve in an equal-area plot. Three applications of the program are presented. In the first, the deformation by simple shear of a plane with any orientation is analyzed. In the second, we explore the formation of recumbent folds in layers with different initial orientations for simple shear and pure shear deformations. In the third, we use StrainModeler to analyze the deformation of a set of folds located in a ductile shear zone in the Variscan Belt of NW Spain.

  14. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  15. Field Trial Results of a 14-channel GPR Integrated with a U.S. Program for 3-D Utility Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspach, James H.

    2013-04-01

    utilities were mostly undetectable. Through a ground-truthing program of test holes to expose utilities, the depth values derived from the enhanced GPR were fairly consistent and within 15 cm of actual depth. The incomplete underground picture determined by the enhanced GPR reinforces previous studies that show that the mapping of existing underground utilities is a multi-tool effort that takes highly trained and skilled field technicians and data interpreters. The addition of a new GPR tool is valuable in determining continuous depth profiles of imaged utilities. A second and significant benefit is the interpretation of other geotechnical data that benefit project designers. This might include showing geometry, location, intensity, and depths of either areas of anomalies, or of known structures, such as paving thickness, substrate thickness, voids, water table, soil lenses, boulders, bedrock, and so forth. The Florida Department of Transportation has decided to take advantage of this new technology and has entered into an experimental contract with Cardno TBE to incorporate several enhanced GPR arrays with traditional utility detection tools. The goal of this contract will be to provide a 3-D model of existing underground utilities for use in automated construction. The GPR 3-D data model will be melded with conventional subsurface utility engineering and mapping practices and will be required to follow the ASCE 38 standard for utility data reliability.

  16. SANTOS - a two-dimensional finite element program for the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  17. Impact of 3-D seismic data on the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture development drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Quam, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture has been acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over its concessions since 1984. To date, 1700 km[sup 2] have been recorded and processed at a cumulative cost of US $39 million. During 1991 - 1992, 20 development wells were drilled based directly on new 3-D seismic interpretations. These wells have added 148 million bbl of oil in new recoverable reserves, and to date have added 37,000 bbl/day to the joint venture's production. In addition, the 3-D interpretations have resulted in a sizable inventory of wells for future development drilling. The new 3-D interpretations provided more accurate pictures of fault patterns, fluid contacts, channel trends, stratigraphic continuity, and velocity/amplitude anomalies. In addition, the 3-D data were invaluable in designing low risk, directional well trajectories to tap relatively thin oil legs under large gas caps. Wells often were programmed to hit several objectives at their respective gas/oil contacts, resulting in maximized net oil sand pays and reducing the risk of gas production. In order to do this, directional [open quotes]sharpshooting,[close quotes] accurate depth conversion of the seismic time maps, was critical. By using the 3-D seismic, checkshot, and sonic data to develop a variable velocity space, well-top prognoses within 50 ft at depths of 6,000-10,000 ft were possible, and were key to the success of the program. As the joint venture acreage becomes more mature, development wells will be drilled for smaller numbers of stacked objectives, and sometimes for single sands. Highly accurate 3-D interpretations and depth conversions will become even more critical in order to tap thinner pay zones in a cost-effect manner.

  18. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  19. Application of the CAL 3-D CVS program to evaluate the equilibrium position of an Euler-jointed Alderson Part572

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The adaptation of the Cal 3-D crash victim simulation program in its version 20A form to a Vax 11/780 computer is described. The effectiveness of the modifications is demonstrated by using the program to seat a Euler-jointed Alderson Part 572 dummy with the equilibrium subroutine. The resulting segment linear acceleration values of .09 g or better indicate that the dummy can be considered to be in equilibrium.

  20. Development of a common 3D pharmacophore for δ-opioid recognition from peptides and non-peptides using a novel computer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Kim, Susan; Loew, Gilda

    1997-01-01

    A unified three-dimensional (3D) pharmacophore for recognition of the δ-opioid receptorby families of structurally diverse δ-opioid ligands, including peptides and non-peptides,has been determined. An additional structural feature required for δ-selectivity was alsocharacterized using a subset of these ligands that are highly selective for the δ-opioidreceptor. To obtain these pharmacophores, we have used a recently developed computerprogram that performs systematic and automated comparisons of molecules to determinewhether any common 3D relationships exist among candidate recognition moieties in high-affinity analogs. All the low-energy conformations of each ligand are included in thesecomparisons. The program developed should be applicable in general to molecular super-imposition problems in rational drug design and to develop both 3D recognition and activationpharmacophores for any receptor for which high- and low-affinity analogs and agonists andantagonists have been identified.

  1. FEMFLOW3D; a finite-element program for the simulation of three-dimensional aquifers; version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Bond, Linda D.

    1998-01-01

    This document also includes model validation, source code, and example input and output files. Model validation was performed using four test problems. For each test problem, the results of a model simulation with FEMFLOW3D were compared with either an analytic solution or the results of an independent numerical approach. The source code, written in the ANSI x3.9-1978 FORTRAN standard, and the complete input and output of an example problem are listed in the appendixes.

  2. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  3. A western gray whale mitigation and monitoring program for a 3-D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Richardson, W J; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Gailey, G; Jenkerson, M R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Perlov, A S; Rutenko, S A; Würsig, B; Martin, C R; Egging, D E

    2007-11-01

    The introduction of anthropogenic sounds into the marine environment can impact some marine mammals. Impacts can be greatly reduced if appropriate mitigation measures and monitoring are implemented. This paper concerns such measures undertaken by Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 Consortium, during the Odoptu 3-D seismic survey conducted during 17 August-9 September 2001. The key environmental issue was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which feeds in summer and fall primarily in the Piltun feeding area off northeast Sakhalin Island. Existing mitigation and monitoring practices for seismic surveys in other jurisdictions were evaluated to identify best practices for reducing impacts on feeding activity by western gray whales. Two buffer zones were established to protect whales from physical injury or undue disturbance during feeding. A 1 km buffer protected all whales from exposure to levels of sound energy potentially capable of producing physical injury. A 4-5 km buffer was established to avoid displacing western gray whales from feeding areas. Trained Marine Mammal Observers (MMOs) on the seismic ship Nordic Explorer had the authority to shut down the air guns if whales were sighted within these buffers. Additional mitigation measures were also incorporated: Temporal mitigation was provided by rescheduling the program from June-August to August-September to avoid interference with spring arrival of migrating gray whales. The survey area was reduced by 19% to avoid certain waters <20 m deep where feeding whales concentrated and where seismic acquisition was a lower priority. The number of air guns and total volume of the air guns were reduced by about half (from 28 to 14 air guns and from 3,390 in(3) to 1,640 in(3)) relative to initial plans. "Ramp-up" (="soft-start") procedures were implemented. Monitoring activities were conducted as needed to implement some mitigation measures, and to assess

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  8. A New Approach to Improve Cognition, Muscle Strength, and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Elderly with a 3-D Virtual Reality Kayak Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Junhyuck; Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied with deterioration of physical abilities, such as muscular strength, sensory sensitivity, and functional capacity. Recently, intervention methods with virtual reality have been introduced, providing an enjoyable therapy for elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 3-D virtual reality kayak program could improve the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of community-dwelling elderly. Importantly, kayaking involves most of the upper body musculature and needs the balance control. Seventy-two participants were randomly allocated into the kayak program group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 36). The two groups were well matched with respect to general characteristics at baseline. The participants in both groups performed a conventional exercise program for 30 min, and then the 3-D virtual reality kayak program was performed in the kayak program group for 20 min, two times a week for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Muscle strength was measured using the arm curl and handgrip strength tests. Standing and sitting balance was measured using the Good Balance system. The post-test was performed in the same manner as the pre-test; the overall outcomes such as cognitive function (p < 0.05), muscle strength (p < 0.05), and balance (standing and sitting balance, p < 0.05) were significantly improved in kayak program group compared to the control group. We propose that the 3-D virtual reality kayak program is a promising intervention method for improving the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of elderly.

  9. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  10. UmUTracker: A versatile MATLAB program for automated particle tracking of 2D light microscopy or 3D digital holography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanqing; Stangner, Tim; Wiklund, Krister; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Andersson, Magnus

    2017-10-01

    We present a versatile and fast MATLAB program (UmUTracker) that automatically detects and tracks particles by analyzing video sequences acquired by either light microscopy or digital in-line holographic microscopy. Our program detects the 2D lateral positions of particles with an algorithm based on the isosceles triangle transform, and reconstructs their 3D axial positions by a fast implementation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld model using a radial intensity profile. To validate the accuracy and performance of our program, we first track the 2D position of polystyrene particles using bright field and digital holographic microscopy. Second, we determine the 3D particle position by analyzing synthetic and experimentally acquired holograms. Finally, to highlight the full program features, we profile the microfluidic flow in a 100 μm high flow chamber. This result agrees with computational fluid dynamic simulations. On a regular desktop computer UmUTracker can detect, analyze, and track multiple particles at 5 frames per second for a template size of 201 ×201 in a 1024 × 1024 image. To enhance usability and to make it easy to implement new functions we used object-oriented programming. UmUTracker is suitable for studies related to: particle dynamics, cell localization, colloids and microfluidic flow measurement. Program Files doi : http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/fkprs4s6xp.1 Licensing provisions : Creative Commons by 4.0 (CC by 4.0) Programming language : MATLAB Nature of problem: 3D multi-particle tracking is a common technique in physics, chemistry and biology. However, in terms of accuracy, reliable particle tracking is a challenging task since results depend on sample illumination, particle overlap, motion blur and noise from recording sensors. Additionally, the computational performance is also an issue if, for example, a computationally expensive process is executed, such as axial particle position reconstruction from digital holographic microscopy data. Versatile

  11. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. A MATLAB®-based program for 3D visualization of stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins: example application to the Vienna Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, 3D visualization of sedimentary basins has become increasingly popular. Stratigraphic and structural mapping is highly important to understand the internal setting of sedimentary basins. And subsequent subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. This study focused on developing a simple and user-friendly program which allows geologists to analyze and model sedimentary basin data. The developed program is aimed at stratigraphic and subsidence modelling of sedimentary basins from wells or stratigraphic profile data. This program is mainly based on two numerical methods; surface interpolation and subsidence analysis. For surface visualization four different interpolation techniques (Linear, Natural, Cubic Spline, and Thin-Plate Spline) are provided in this program. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. The numerical methods are computed in MATLAB® which is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment used extensively in academic, research, and industrial fields. This program consists of five main processing steps; 1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), 2) loading of well data, 3) stratigraphic modelling (depth distribution and isopach plots), 4) subsidence parameter input, and 5) subsidence modelling (subsided depth and subsidence rate plots). The graphical user interface intuitively guides users through all process stages and provides tools to analyse and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the visualization results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. All functions of this program are illustrated with a case study of Miocene sediments in the Vienna Basin. The basin is an ideal place to test this program, because sufficient data is

  14. A 3d-3d appetizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-01

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 "Lens space theory" T [ L( p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L( p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S 3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[ L( p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[ L( p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere S b 3 . This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G ℂ complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  15. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 2: User's manual and program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. T.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D, was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  16. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  17. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  18. GRID3D-v2: An updated version of the GRID2D/3D computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped three-dimensional spatial domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, E.; Shih, T. I-P.; Roelke, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to generate good quality systems for complicated three-dimensional spatial domains, the grid-generation method used must be able to exert rather precise controls over grid-point distributions. Several techniques are presented that enhance control of grid-point distribution for a class of algebraic grid-generation methods known as the two-, four-, and six-boundary methods. These techniques include variable stretching functions from bilinear interpolation, interpolating functions based on tension splines, and normalized K-factors. The techniques developed in this study were incorporated into a new version of GRID3D called GRID3D-v2. The usefulness of GRID3D-v2 was demonstrated by using it to generate a three-dimensional grid system in the coolent passage of a radial turbine blade with serpentine channels and pin fins.

  19. Hip2Norm: an object-oriented cross-platform program for 3D analysis of hip joint morphology using 2D pelvic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G; Tannast, M; Anderegg, C; Siebenrock, K A; Langlotz, F

    2007-07-01

    We developed an object-oriented cross-platform program to perform three-dimensional (3D) analysis of hip joint morphology using two-dimensional (2D) anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs. Landmarks extracted from 2D AP pelvic radiographs and optionally an additional lateral pelvic X-ray were combined with a cone beam projection model to reconstruct 3D hip joints. Since individual pelvic orientation can vary considerably, a method for standardizing pelvic orientation was implemented to determine the absolute tilt/rotation. The evaluation of anatomically morphologic differences was achieved by reconstructing the projected acetabular rim and the measured hip parameters as if obtained in a standardized neutral orientation. The program had been successfully used to interactively objectify acetabular version in hips with femoro-acetabular impingement or developmental dysplasia. Hip(2)Norm is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway) for graphical user interface (GUI) and is transportable to any platform.

  20. Mathematical modelling of physical and chemical processes of coal combustion in chamber furnaces of boiler aggregates based on the package of applied programs FIRE 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A. V.; Starchenko, A. V.

    2012-09-01

    The furnace processes of the combustion of poly-fraction high-ashes Ekibastuz coal in the furnace chamber of the boiler aggregate PK-39 and of the combustion of highly humid brown Berezov's coal in the furnace of the BKZ-210-140 boiler are investigated by mathematical modeling using the package of applied programs FIRE 3D [1-3]. Results of the numerical modeling of the processes of aerodynamics, heat exchange, and combustion in the furnace volume and their comparison with the results of nature tests are presented.

  1. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  2. Development of Computer Program TWTVA for Calculation of 3-D Electron Trajectories in Coupled-Cavity TWTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-10

    ferrule corner radius, which is typically not more than about 20). The radial mesh numbers are denoted NQR for the rf vector potential and Njyro for...the magnetic vector poten- tial matrices. Allowing for tne guard rows, the matrices run from -1 to NQR + 1, and -1 to Nj^ + 1. When the program...CR * 5» an(^ only one row ^or NCR up to 10, which covers most cases; as stated ir. the introduction, we do not expect NQR ever to exceed 20. For n

  3. CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    We present sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. We deal with the classical spin models; the Ising model, the q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model. As for the lattice, both the 2D (square) lattice and the 3D (simple cubic) lattice are treated. We already reported the idea of the GPU implementation for 2D models (Komura and Okabe, 2012). We here explain the details of sample programs, and discuss the performance of the present GPU implementation for the 3D Ising and XY models. We also show the calculated results of the moment ratio for these models, and discuss phase transitions. Catalogue identifier: AERM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5632 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14688 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, CUDA. Computer: System with an NVIDIA CUDA enabled GPU. Operating system: System with an NVIDIA CUDA enabled GPU. Classification: 23. External routines: NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit 3.0 or newer Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation of classical spin systems. Ising, q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model are treated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices. Solution method: GPU-based Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip Monte Carlo method. The CUDA implementation for the cluster-labeling is based on the work by Hawick et al. [1] and that by Kalentev et al. [2]. Restrictions: The system size is limited depending on the memory of a GPU. Running time: For the parameters used in the sample programs, it takes about a minute for each program. Of course, it depends on the system size, the number of Monte Carlo steps, etc. References: [1] K

  4. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; van Loon, Mark

    2017-04-01

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N = 2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N = 2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N = 2∗ theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-'t Hooft loops in the 4d N = 2∗ theory. In the presence of a mass parameter cfor the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  5. A 3d-3d appetizer

    DOE PAGES

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us tomore » see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.« less

  6. A 3d-3d appetizer

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  7. KT3D_H2O: a program for kriging water level data using hydrologic drift terms.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Marinko; Tonkin, Matthew; Wilson, David

    2009-01-01

    It is often necessary to estimate the zone of contribution to, or the capture zone developed by, pumped wells: for example, when evaluating pump-and-treat remedies and when developing wellhead protection areas for supply wells. Tonkin and Larson (2002) and Brochu and Marcotte (2003) describe a mapping-based method for estimating the capture zone of pumped wells, developed by combining universal kriging (kriging with a trend) with analytical expressions that describe the response of the potentiometric surface to certain applied stresses. This Methods Note describes (a) expansions to the technique described by Tonkin and Larson (2002); (b) the concept of the capture frequency map (CFM), a technique that combines information from multiple capture zone maps into a single depiction of capture; (c) the development of a graphical user interface to facilitate the use of the methods described; and (d) the integration of these programs within the MapWindow geographic information system environment. An example application is presented that illustrates ground water level contours, capture zones, and a CFM prepared using the methods and software described.

  8. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  9. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  10. Diamond in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-20

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called Diamond Jenness was taken after NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. 3D glasses are necessary.

  11. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  12. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. Determining the Architecture of a Protein-DNA Complex by Combining FeBABE Cleavage Analyses, 3-D Printed Structures, and the ICM Molsoft Program.

    PubMed

    James, Tamara; Hsieh, Meng-Lun; Knipling, Leslie; Hinton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Determining the structure of a protein-DNA complex can be difficult, particularly if the protein does not bind tightly to the DNA, if there are no homologous proteins from which the DNA binding can be inferred, and/or if only portions of the protein can be crystallized. If the protein comprises just a part of a large multi-subunit complex, other complications can arise such as the complex being too large for NMR studies, or it is not possible to obtain the amounts of protein and nucleic acids needed for crystallographic analyses. Here, we describe a technique we used to map the position of an activator protein relative to the DNA within a large transcription complex. We determined the position of the activator on the DNA from data generated using activator proteins that had been conjugated at specific residues with the chemical cleaving reagent, iron bromoacetamidobenzyl-EDTA (FeBABE). These analyses were combined with 3-D models of the available structures of portions of the activator protein and B-form DNA to obtain a 3-D picture of the protein relative to the DNA. Finally, the Molsoft program was used to refine the position, revealing the architecture of the protein-DNA within the transcription complex.

  14. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  15. 3D Plasmon Ruler

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

  16. Prominent Rocks - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  17. 3D Laser System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-16

    NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel 3D Laser System used for digitizing ice shapes created in the wind tunnel. The ice shapes are later utilized for characterization, analysis, and software development.

  18. WE-G-BRB-02: The Role of Program Project Grants in Study of 3D Conformal Therapy, Dose Escalation and Motion Management

    SciTech Connect

    Fraass, B.

    2015-06-15

    Over the past 20 years the NIH has funded individual grants, program projects grants, and clinical trials which have been instrumental in advancing patient care. The ways that each grant mechanism lends itself to the different phases of translating research into clinical practice will be described. Major technological innovations, such as IMRT and proton therapy, have been advanced with R01-type and P01-type funding and will be discussed. Similarly, the role of program project grants in identifying and addressing key hypotheses on the potential of 3D conformal therapy, normal tissue-guided dose escalation and motion management will be described. An overview will be provided regarding how these technological innovations have been applied to multi-institutional NIH-sponsored trials. Finally, the panel will discuss regarding which research questions should be funded by the NIH to inspire the next advances in radiation therapy. Learning Objectives: Understand the different funding mechanisms of the NIH Learn about research advances that have led to innovation in delivery Review achievements due to NIH-funded program project grants in radiotherapy over the past 20 years Understand example advances achieved with multi-institutional clinical trials NIH.

  19. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  20. ProtDCal: A program to compute general-purpose-numerical descriptors for sequences and 3D-structures of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Paz, Waldo; Green, James; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani

    2015-05-16

    The exponential growth of protein structural and sequence databases is enabling multifaceted approaches to understanding the long sought sequence-structure-function relationship. Advances in computation now make it possible to apply well-established data mining and pattern recognition techniques to these data to learn models that effectively relate structure and function. However, extracting meaningful numerical descriptors of protein sequence and structure is a key issue that requires an efficient and widely available solution. We here introduce ProtDCal, a new computational software suite capable of generating tens of thousands of features considering both sequence-based and 3D-structural descriptors. We demonstrate, by means of principle component analysis and Shannon entropy tests, how ProtDCal's sequence-based descriptors provide new and more relevant information not encoded by currently available servers for sequence-based protein feature generation. The wide diversity of the 3D-structure-based features generated by ProtDCal is shown to provide additional complementary information and effectively completes its general protein encoding capability. As demonstration of the utility of ProtDCal's features, prediction models of N-linked glycosylation sites are trained and evaluated. Classification performance compares favourably with that of contemporary predictors of N-linked glycosylation sites, in spite of not using domain-specific features as input information. ProtDCal provides a friendly and cross-platform graphical user interface, developed in the Java programming language and is freely available at: http://bioinf.sce.carleton.ca/ProtDCal/ . ProtDCal introduces local and group-based encoding which enhances the diversity of the information captured by the computed features. Furthermore, we have shown that adding structure-based descriptors contributes non-redundant additional information to the features-based characterization of polypeptide systems. This

  1. General design method for 3-dimensional, potential flow fields. Part 2: Computer program DIN3D1 for simple, unbranched ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanitz, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The general design method for three-dimensional, potential, incompressible or subsonic-compressible flow developed in part 1 of this report is applied to the design of simple, unbranched ducts. A computer program, DIN3D1, is developed and five numerical examples are presented: a nozzle, two elbows, an S-duct, and the preliminary design of a side inlet for turbomachines. The two major inputs to the program are the upstream boundary shape and the lateral velocity distribution on the duct wall. As a result of these inputs, boundary conditions are overprescribed and the problem is ill posed. However, it appears that there are degrees of compatibility between these two major inputs and that, for reasonably compatible inputs, satisfactory solutions can be obtained. By not prescribing the shape of the upstream boundary, the problem presumably becomes well posed, but it is not clear how to formulate a practical design method under this circumstance. Nor does it appear desirable, because the designer usually needs to retain control over the upstream (or downstream) boundary shape. The problem is further complicated by the fact that, unlike the two-dimensional case, and irrespective of the upstream boundary shape, some prescribed lateral velocity distributions do not have proper solutions.

  2. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  3. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  4. GeoGebra 3D from the Perspectives of Elementary Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers Who Are Familiar with a Number of Software Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaci, Serdal; Yildiz, Avni

    2015-01-01

    Each new version of the GeoGebra dynamic mathematics software goes through updates and innovations. One of these innovations is the GeoGebra 5.0 version. This version aims to facilitate 3D instruction by offering opportunities for students to analyze 3D objects. While scanning the previous studies of GeoGebra 3D, it is seen that they mainly focus…

  5. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  6. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  7. Medical 3-D Printing.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional printing is used in the manufacturing industry, medical and pharmaceutical research, drug production, clinical medicine, and dentistry, with implications for precision and personalized medicine. This technology is advancing the development of patient-specific prosthetics, stents, splints, and fixation devices and is changing medical education, treatment decision making, and surgical planning. Diagnostic imaging modalities play a fundamental role in the creation of 3-D printed models. Although most 3-D printed objects are rigid, flexible soft-tissue-like prosthetics also can be produced. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  8. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  9. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  10. 3-D Grab!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Modern technologies in imaging greatly extend the potential to present visual information. With recently developed software tools, the perception of the third dimension can not only dramatically enhance presentation, but also allow spatial data to be better encoded. 3-D images can be taken for many subjects with only one camera, carefully moved to generate a stereo pair. Color anaglyph viewing now can be very effective using computer screens, and active filter technologies can enhance visual effects with ever-decreasing cost. We will present various novel results of 3-D imaging, including those from the auroral observations of the new twinned Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories.; Single camera stereo image for viewing with red/cyan glasses.

  11. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2017-05-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+-TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+-TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+-TFT admits a topological boundary condition, one can combine the above two statements to obtain a Turaev-Viro-like construction of Pin+-TFTs. As an application of these ideas, we construct a large class of Pin+-SPT phases.

  12. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  13. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  14. Initial experience with a tailor-made simulation and navigation program using a 3-D printer model of kidney transplantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, M; Sugimoto, M; Fukami, N; Sasaki, H; Takenaka, M; Anraku, T; Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Shiroki, R; Hoshinaga, K

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) printing systems allow for the creation of surgical models mimicking real tissue. We developed a kidney graft and pelvic cavity replica as a patient-specific 3-D model using a 3-D printing system with simultaneous jetting of different materials and subsequently evaluated the usefulness of surgical simulation and navigation of living kidney transplantation. After generating a stereolithographic file of the organ surface based on multidetector computed tomographic data, we created a 3-D organ model using an inkjet 3-D printer and manufactured a pelvic cavity replica using patient-specific data. The patients' individual 3-D printed models were used to plan and guide the surgical procedures for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation surgery. The 3-D organ replicas obtained using transparent materials allowed for the creation of models that showed the visceral organs, blood vessels, and other details, thereby overcoming the limitations of conventional image-guided navigation. Our pelvic replicas can be made according to each patient's specific anatomical data, thus representing personalized surgical procedures. This level of detail of the anatomy enables the surgeons and trainees to virtually treat various pelvic conditions before they perform the surgical procedure. The use of these replicas may also reduce the length of the operation and provide better anatomical reference tools for tailor-made simulation and navigation of kidney transplantation surgery, consequently helping to improve training for the operating room staff, students, and trainees. We believe that our sophisticated personalized donor graft and pelvic replications obtained using a 3-D printing system are advantageous for kidney transplantation surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Historical Data from the NOAA WP-3D Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP) Flights: 1983, 1986, 1989 and 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R. C.; Sheridan, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    A NOAA WP-3D instrumented for gas, aerosol and radiation measurements was flown 400 research hours over four periods (March-April: 1983, 1986, 1989 and 1992) covering large areas of the Arctic Basin from Alaska to Norway studying Arctic Haze and air chemistry. In 1986 the program included aircraft from the University of Washington; AES, Canada; and NILU, Norway. Profiles were conducted above the Barrow, Alert and Ny Alesund atmospheric baseline stations, and numerous profiles across the low level inversion layer over the ice cap to put surface, boundary layer and free troposphere measurements into perspective. Highlights from AGASP include observations of up to 6 stacked layers of air pollution >5,000 km from the nearest possible source regions; layers of air pollution containing high concentrations of black carbon and anthropogenic gases; photochemical ozone depletion in the Arctic boundary layer; intrusions of stratospheric air injecting stratospheric gases and aerosols deep into the Arctic troposphere; haze optical depths of up to 0.5; and data showing that heat and moisture from open leads in the Arctic ice pack can breach the boundary layer inversion and rise to near the tropopause. In most profiles,aerosol light scattering, and ozone, black carbon and condensation nucleus concentrations were much reduced beneath boundary layer temperature inversion (~1 km above the ice). Since most of the AGASP and related publications pre-date current easy electronic access, a file listing the titles and sources of 185 papers published in journals, books, and NOAA Technical Memos is available at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop/schnell/.

  16. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  17. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  19. Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

    2014-07-05

    A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems.

  20. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  1. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  2. Analysis of linear measurements on 3D surface models using CBCT data segmentation obtained by automatic standard pre-set thresholds in two segmentation software programs: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Poleti, Marcelo Lupion; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Pagin, Otávio; Moretti, Marcela Rodrigues; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of linear measurements on three-dimensional (3D) surface models obtained by standard pre-set thresholds in two segmentation software programs. Ten mandibles with 17 silica markers were scanned for 0.3-mm voxels in the i-CAT Classic (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA). Twenty linear measurements were carried out by two observers two times on the 3D surface models: the Dolphin Imaging 11.5 (Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA), using two filters(Translucent and Solid-1), and in the InVesalius 3.0.0 (Centre for Information Technology Renato Archer, Campinas, SP, Brazil). The physical measurements were made by another observer two times using a digital caliper on the dry mandibles. Excellent intra- and inter-observer reliability for the markers, physical measurements, and 3D surface models were found (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's r ≥ 0.91). The linear measurements on 3D surface models by Dolphin and InVesalius software programs were accurate (Dolphin Solid-1 > InVesalius > Dolphin Translucent). The highest absolute and percentage errors were obtained for the variable R1-R1 (1.37 mm) and MF-AC (2.53 %) in the Dolphin Translucent and InVesalius software, respectively. Linear measurements on 3D surface models obtained by standard pre-set thresholds in the Dolphin and InVesalius software programs are reliable and accurate compared with physical measurements. Studies that evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the 3D models are necessary to ensure error predictability and to establish diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis in a more realistic way.

  3. Cost Reduction through the Use of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management Technologies to Enhance the Navy’s Maintenance Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-30

    Intermediate Level Military and Civilian Medium Medium Depot Level Civilian High High D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AM, more commonly known as 3D...eutectic metals, edible materials Granular Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Most metal alloys Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys ...Selective laser melting (SLM) Titanium alloys , cobalt chrome alloys , stainless steel, aluminum Selective heat sintering (SHS) Thermoplastic powder

  4. Wireless Rover Meets 3D Design and Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III; Hsiung, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Today there are a number of 3D printing technologies that are low cost and within the budgets of middle and high school programs. Educational technology companies offer a variety of 3D printing technologies and parallel curriculum materials to enable technology and engineering teachers to easily add 3D learning activities to their programs.…

  5. Wireless Rover Meets 3D Design and Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III; Hsiung, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Today there are a number of 3D printing technologies that are low cost and within the budgets of middle and high school programs. Educational technology companies offer a variety of 3D printing technologies and parallel curriculum materials to enable technology and engineering teachers to easily add 3D learning activities to their programs.…

  6. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  7. Numerical nonlinear inelastic analysis of stiffened shells of revolution. Volume 2: User's manual for STARS-2P digital computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalbonas, V.; Levine, H.

    1975-01-01

    The information necessary for application of the STARS-2P (shell theory automated for rotational structures-2(plasticity)) program is presented. This addition to the STARS system of programs retains the basic fractures characteristic of the system. For vol. 1, see N75-27419.

  8. Pluto in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-23

    Global stereo mapping of Pluto surface is now possible, as images taken from multiple directions are downlinked from NASA New Horizons spacecraft. Stereo images will eventually provide an accurate topographic map of most of the hemisphere of Pluto seen by New Horizons during the July 14 flyby, which will be key to understanding Pluto's geological history. This example, which requires red/blue stereo glasses for viewing, shows a region 180 miles (300 kilometers) across, centered near longitude 130 E, latitude 20 N (the red square in the global context image). North is to the upper left. The image shows an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto, dotted with low hills and cut by deep fractures, which indicate extension of Pluto's crust. Analysis of these stereo images shows that the steep fracture in the upper left of the image is about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) deep, and the craters in the lower right part of the image are up to 1.3 miles (2.1 km) deep. Smallest visible details are about 0.4 miles (0.6 kilometers) across. You will need 3D glasses to view this image showing an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20032

  9. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  10. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  11. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  12. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics. PMID:28952542

  13. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  14. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  15. 3D PMN Flextensional Stave Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-13

    WEIDLINGER ASSOCIATES, INC. 3D PMN Flextensional Stave Modeling** Greg Wojcik, John Mould, Paul Reynolds, Roger Richards* Weidlinger Associates Inc...2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D PMN Flextensional Stave Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...broadband • To address general needs of Navy Consider PMN-driven projector • Staves of butted Class IV flextensional shells • Array composed of

  16. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  19. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  1. Cost Reduction Through the Use of Additive Manufacturing (3d Printing) and Collaborative Product Life Cycle Management Technologies to Enhance the Navy’s Maintenance Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Level Military and Civilian Medium Medium Depot Level Civilian High High D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AM, more commonly known as 3D printing, is a...Thermoplastics (e.g., PLA, ABS), HDPE, eutectic metals, edible materials Granular Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Most metal alloys ...Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys Selective laser melting (SLM) Titanium alloys , cobalt chrome alloys , stainless steel, aluminum Selective heat

  2. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  3. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  4. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  5. Surface Plasmons in 3D Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogar, Anshul; Vig, Sean; Cho, Gil; Thaler, Alexander; Xiao, Yiran; Hughes, Taylor; Wong, Man-Hong; Chiang, Tai-Chang; MacDougall, Greg; Abbamonte, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Most studies of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators have concentrated on their one-electron properties as exhibited by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) or by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Many-body interactions are often neglected in the treatment of models of topological insulators, such as in the Kane-Mele and Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang models. Using angle-resolved inelastic electron scattering from the surface, I will present data on the collective mode that owes its existence to the presence of many-body interactions, the surface plasmon (SP), in two known 3D topological insulators, Bi2Se3 and Bi0.5Sb1.5Se1 . 5 + xTe1 . 5 - x. Surprisingly, the SP was prominent even after depressing the Fermi energy into the bulk band gap. Having studied the SP as a function of doping, momentum transfer and its aging properties, I will present evidence to suggest that bulk-surface coupling is crucial in explaining many of its properties. A simple model with dynamic bulk screening will be presented showing qualitative agreement with the observations. Lastly, the relation of the observed surface plasmon to the predicted spin-plasmon mode and to the kinks seen in the electronic dispersion as measured by ARPES will be discussed. The work was supported as part of the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  6. 3D Application Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Griffiss AFB NY 13441-5700 PROGRAM PROJECT TASK iWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO. 62702F 5581 QC 03...Code) Beeches Technical Campus Route 26 North Griffiss AFE NY 13441-5700 Rome NY 13440-2069 Ba. NAME OF FUNDING /SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9...separation at the source (requiring the viewer to wear passive polarized spectacles) represents the most mature technology and is commercially available for

  7. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  8. Cellular Microcultures: Programming Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of 3D Hydrogel Cellular Microcultures via Direct Ink Writing (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 9/2016).

    PubMed

    McCracken, Joselle M; Badea, Adina; Kandel, Mikhail E; Gladman, A Sydney; Wetzel, David J; Popescu, Gabriel; Lewis, Jennifer A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2016-05-01

    R. Nuzzo and co-workers show on page 1025 how compositional differences in hydrogels are used to tune their cellular compliance by controlling their polymer mesh properties and subsequent uptake of the protein poly-l-lysine (green spheres in circled inset). The cover image shows pyramid micro-scaffolds prepared using direct ink writing (DIW) that differentially direct fibroblast and preosteoblast growth in 3D, depending on cell motility and surface treatment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    , and scout ticket data were integrated with the 3D interpretations to evaluate drilling opportunities resulting in an initial three well drilling program. Thousands of miles of signed bit data exist. Much of this data was processed during a time when software and hardware capabilities were either incapable or cost prohibitive to glean the full potential of the data. In fact in some circles signed bit gained an undeserved reputation for being less than optimum. As a consequence much of the older signed bit data sits on the shelf long forgotten or overlooked. With the high cost of new acquisition and permitting it might behoove other exploration companies to reconsider resurrecting perfectly viable existing volumes and have them reprocessed at a fraction of the cost of new acquisition.

  10. Interatomic inelastic current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Tim; Solomon, Gemma C.; Hansen, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    In order to identify the location of an inelastic event and to distinguish between situations that are before or after this event, we derive equations for the interatomic inelastic transmission as a perturbation series in the electron-phonon interaction. This series contains both even and odd ordered corrections, and while the even ordered corrections can be thought as a Dyson's expansion of the interatomic elastic transmission in the electron-phonon self-energy, the odd ordered corrections represent something new. We explicitly derive expressions for the interatomic inelastic transmission up to second order and the 1st order correction represents the lowest order term of this new family of terms. We apply this to three model systems and are able to distinguish between situations before and after the inelastic event as steps in the 2nd order transmission. We also see that when the transmission is evaluated between atoms that are coupled by the electron-phonon interaction, the 1st and 2nd order terms must be added together to form a meaningful transmission. Within the limited scope of the models considered here, the 1st order term appears to be the signature of the inelastic event.

  11. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  12. What Is an Attractive Body? Using an Interactive 3D Program to Create the Ideal Body for You and Your Partner

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Kara L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Tovée, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    What is the ideal body size and shape that we want for ourselves and our partners? What are the important physical features in this ideal? And do both genders agree on what is an attractive body? To answer these questions we used a 3D interactive software system which allows our participants to produce a photorealistic, virtual male or female body. Forty female and forty male heterosexual Caucasian observers (females mean age 19.10 years, s.d. 1.01; 40 males mean age 19.84, s.d. 1.66) set their own ideal size and shape, and the size and shape of their ideal partner using the DAZ studio image manipulation programme. In this programme the shape and size of a 3D body can be altered along 94 independent dimensions, allowing each participant to create the exact size and shape of the body they want. The volume (and thus the weight assuming a standard density) and the circumference of the bust, waist and hips of these 3D models can then be measured. The ideal female body set by women (BMI = 18.9, WHR = 0.70, WCR = 0.67) was very similar to the ideal partner set by men, particularly in their BMI (BMI = 18.8, WHR = 0.73, WCR = 0.69). This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of 39 of the 40 women. The ideal male body set by the men (BMI = 25.9, WHR = 0.87, WCR = 0.74) was very similar to the ideal partner set by the women (BMI = 24.5, WHR = 0.86, WCR = 0.77). This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of roughly half of the men and a higher BMI than the other half. The results suggest a consistent preference for an ideal male and female body size and shape across both genders. The results also suggest that both BMI and torso shape are important components for the creation of the ideal body. PMID:23209791

  13. What is an attractive body? Using an interactive 3D program to create the ideal body for you and your partner.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Kara L; Cornelissen, Piers L; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    What is the ideal body size and shape that we want for ourselves and our partners? What are the important physical features in this ideal? And do both genders agree on what is an attractive body? To answer these questions we used a 3D interactive software system which allows our participants to produce a photorealistic, virtual male or female body. Forty female and forty male heterosexual Caucasian observers (females mean age 19.10 years, s.d. 1.01; 40 males mean age 19.84, s.d. 1.66) set their own ideal size and shape, and the size and shape of their ideal partner using the DAZ studio image manipulation programme. In this programme the shape and size of a 3D body can be altered along 94 independent dimensions, allowing each participant to create the exact size and shape of the body they want. The volume (and thus the weight assuming a standard density) and the circumference of the bust, waist and hips of these 3D models can then be measured. The ideal female body set by women (BMI = 18.9, WHR = 0.70, WCR = 0.67) was very similar to the ideal partner set by men, particularly in their BMI (BMI = 18.8, WHR = 0.73, WCR = 0.69). This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of 39 of the 40 women. The ideal male body set by the men (BMI = 25.9, WHR = 0.87, WCR = 0.74) was very similar to the ideal partner set by the women (BMI = 24.5, WHR = 0.86, WCR = 0.77). This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of roughly half of the men and a higher BMI than the other half. The results suggest a consistent preference for an ideal male and female body size and shape across both genders. The results also suggest that both BMI and torso shape are important components for the creation of the ideal body.

  14. HipMatch: an object-oriented cross-platform program for accurate determination of cup orientation using 2D-3D registration of single standard X-ray radiograph and a CT volume.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz

    2009-09-01

    The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform.

  15. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  16. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  17. Documentation of a computer program to simulate lake-aquifer interaction using the MODFLOW ground water flow model and the MOC3D solute-transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, Michael L.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    2000-01-01

    Heads and flow patterns in surficial aquifers can be strongly influenced by the presence of stationary surface-water bodies (lakes) that are in direct contact, vertically and laterally, with the aquifer. Conversely, lake stages can be significantly affected by the volume of water that seeps through the lakebed that separates the lake from the aquifer. For these reasons, a set of computer subroutines called the Lake Package (LAK3) was developed to represent lake/aquifer interaction in numerical simulations using the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional, finite-difference, modular ground-water flow model MODFLOW and the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional method-of-characteristics solute-transport model MOC3D. In the Lake Package described in this report, a lake is represented as a volume of space within the model grid which consists of inactive cells extending downward from the upper surface of the grid. Active model grid cells bordering this space, representing the adjacent aquifer, exchange water with the lake at a rate determined by the relative heads and by conductances that are based on grid cell dimensions, hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer material, and user-specified leakance distributions that represent the resistance to flow through the material of the lakebed. Parts of the lake may become ?dry? as upper layers of the model are dewatered, with a concomitant reduction in lake surface area, and may subsequently rewet when aquifer heads rise. An empirical approximation has been encoded to simulate the rewetting of a lake that becomes completely dry. The variations of lake stages are determined by independent water budgets computed for each lake in the model grid. This lake budget process makes the package a simulator of the response of lake stage to hydraulic stresses applied to the aquifer. Implementation of a lake water budget requires input of parameters including those representing the rate of lake atmospheric recharge and evaporation

  18. Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…

  19. Deep inelastic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    Nucleon structure as seen in the context of deep inelastic scattering is discussed. The lectures begin with consideration of the quark-parton model. The model forms the basis of understanding lepton-nucleon inelastic scattering. As improved data in lepton-nucleon scattering at high energies became available, the quark-parton model failed to explain some crucial features of these data. At approximately the same time a candidate theory of strong interactions based on a SU(3) gauge theory of color was being discussed in the literature, and new ideas on the explanation of inelastic scattering data became popular. A new theory of strong interactions, now called quantum chromodynamics provides a new framework for understanding the data, with a much stronger theoretical foundation, and seems to explain well the features of the data. The lectures conclude with a look at some recent experiments which provide new data at very high energies. These lectures are concerned primarily with charged lepton inelastic scattering and to a lesser extent with neutrino results. Furthermore, due to time and space limitations, topics such as final state hadron studies, and multi-muon production are omitted here. The lectures concentrate on the more central issues: the quark-parton model and concepts of scaling, scale breaking and the ideas of quantum chromodynamics, the Q/sup 2/ dependence of structure function, moments, and the important parameter R.

  20. Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…

  1. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  2. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  3. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  4. Perception of 3D spatial relations for 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.

    2004-05-01

    We test perception of 3D spatial relations in 3D images rendered by a 3D display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. 3D images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our 3D display is a device that renders a 3D image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of 3D objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.

  5. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  6. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  7. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  8. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  9. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  10. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server.

    PubMed

    Cannone, Jamie J; Sweeney, Blake A; Petrov, Anton I; Gutell, Robin R; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-07-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa.

  11. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-01-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  12. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  14. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. Numerical nonlinear inelastic analysis of stiffened shells of revolution. Volume 3: Engineer's program manual for STARS-2P digital computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalbonas, V.; Levine, H.; Ogilvie, P.

    1975-01-01

    Engineering programming information is presented for the STARS-2P (shell theory automated for rotational structures-2P (plasticity)) digital computer program, and FORTRAN 4 was used in writing the various subroutines. The execution of this program requires the use of thirteen temporary storage units. The program was initially written and debugged on the IBM 370-165 computer and converted to the UNIVAC 1108 computer, where it utilizes approximately 60,000 words of core. Only basic FORTRAN library routines are required by the program: sine, cosine, absolute value, and square root.

  20. Development of visual 3D virtual environment for control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirose, Michitaka; Myoi, Takeshi; Amari, Haruo; Inamura, Kohei; Stark, Lawrence

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environments for software visualization may enable complex programs to be created and maintained. A typical application might be for control of regional electric power systems. As these encompass broader computer networks than ever, construction of such systems becomes very difficult. Conventional text-oriented environments are useful in programming individual processors. However, they are obviously insufficient to program a large and complicated system, that includes large numbers of computers connected to each other; such programming is called 'programming in the large.' As a solution for this problem, the authors are developing a graphic programming environment wherein one can visualize complicated software in virtual 3D world. One of the major features of the environment is the 3D representation of concurrent process. 3D representation is used to supply both network-wide interprocess programming capability (capability for 'programming in the large') and real-time programming capability. The authors' idea is to fuse both the block diagram (which is useful to check relationship among large number of processes or processors) and the time chart (which is useful to check precise timing for synchronization) into a single 3D space. The 3D representation gives us a capability for direct and intuitive planning or understanding of complicated relationship among many concurrent processes. To realize the 3D representation, a technology to enable easy handling of virtual 3D object is a definite necessity. Using a stereo display system and a gesture input device (VPL DataGlove), our prototype of the virtual workstation has been implemented. The workstation can supply the 'sensation' of the virtual 3D space to a programmer. Software for the 3D programming environment is implemented on the workstation. According to preliminary assessments, a 50 percent reduction of programming effort is achieved by using the virtual 3D environment. The authors expect that the 3D

  1. Improved CUDA programs for GPU computing of Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    We present new versions of sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. In this update, we add the method of GPU-based cluster-labeling algorithm without the use of conventional iteration (Komura, 2015) to those programs. For high-precision calculations, we also add a random-number generator in the cuRAND library. Moreover, we fix several bugs and remove the extra usage of shared memory in the kernel functions.

  2. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  3. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  4. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  9. An Exploration of Interrelationships among Presence Indicators of a Community of Inquiry in a 3D Game-Like Environment for High School Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The combination of Open Sim and Scratch4OS can be a worthwhile innovation for introductory programming courses, using a Community of Inquiry (CoI) model as a theoretical instructional design framework. This empirical study had a threefold purpose to present: (a) an instructional design framework for the beneficial formalization of a virtual…

  10. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  11. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  13. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a useful technique for the study of vibrational modes of molecules adsorbed on the surface of oxide layers in a metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction. The technique involves studying the effects of adsorbed molecules on the tunneling spectrum of such junctions. The data give useful information about the structure, bonding, and orientation of adsorbed molecules. One of the major advantages of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is its sensitivity. It is capable of detecting on the order of 10 to the 10th molecules (a fraction of a monolayer) on a 1 sq mm junction. It has been successfully used in studies of catalysis, biology, trace impurity detection, and electronic excitations. Because of its high sensitivity, this technique shows great promise in the area of solid-state electronic chemical sensing.

  17. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1995 Ship Production Symposium. Paper No. 13: 3-D Computerized Measuring Systems for Increased Accuracy and Productivity in Shipbuilding and Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM January, 1995 NSRP 0439...instrument coordinate systems can be defined by the measuring sysstem controller. The process of finding the relationship between coordinate systems and the...automated welding process. This data was required to engineer the final design dimensions of the shell and stiffener plates to meet a desired cubical

  18. ASI/MET - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package ASI/MET is the mast and windsocks at the center of this stereo image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  19. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  20. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  1. [Tridimensional (3D) endoscopic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R

    2007-01-01

    A review and update on 3D endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.

  2. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  3. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  4. bioWeb3D: an online webGL 3D data visualisation tool.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Jean-Baptiste; Marioni, John C

    2013-06-07

    Data visualization is critical for interpreting biological data. However, in practice it can prove to be a bottleneck for non trained researchers; this is especially true for three dimensional (3D) data representation. Whilst existing software can provide all necessary functionalities to represent and manipulate biological 3D datasets, very few are easily accessible (browser based), cross platform and accessible to non-expert users. An online HTML5/WebGL based 3D visualisation tool has been developed to allow biologists to quickly and easily view interactive and customizable three dimensional representations of their data along with multiple layers of information. Using the WebGL library Three.js written in Javascript, bioWeb3D allows the simultaneous visualisation of multiple large datasets inputted via a simple JSON, XML or CSV file, which can be read and analysed locally thanks to HTML5 capabilities. Using basic 3D representation techniques in a technologically innovative context, we provide a program that is not intended to compete with professional 3D representation software, but that instead enables a quick and intuitive representation of reasonably large 3D datasets.

  5. bioWeb3D: an online webGL 3D data visualisation tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data visualization is critical for interpreting biological data. However, in practice it can prove to be a bottleneck for non trained researchers; this is especially true for three dimensional (3D) data representation. Whilst existing software can provide all necessary functionalities to represent and manipulate biological 3D datasets, very few are easily accessible (browser based), cross platform and accessible to non-expert users. Results An online HTML5/WebGL based 3D visualisation tool has been developed to allow biologists to quickly and easily view interactive and customizable three dimensional representations of their data along with multiple layers of information. Using the WebGL library Three.js written in Javascript, bioWeb3D allows the simultaneous visualisation of multiple large datasets inputted via a simple JSON, XML or CSV file, which can be read and analysed locally thanks to HTML5 capabilities. Conclusions Using basic 3D representation techniques in a technologically innovative context, we provide a program that is not intended to compete with professional 3D representation software, but that instead enables a quick and intuitive representation of reasonably large 3D datasets. PMID:23758781

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  10. A Model for Managing 3D Printing Services in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Sahib, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of 3D printers in university libraries opens many opportunities for advancing outreach, teaching, and research programs. The University of Alabama (UA) Libraries recently adopted 3D printing technology and maintains an open access 3D Printing Studio. The Studio consists of a 3D printer, multiple 3D design workstations, and other…

  11. A Model for Managing 3D Printing Services in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Sahib, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of 3D printers in university libraries opens many opportunities for advancing outreach, teaching, and research programs. The University of Alabama (UA) Libraries recently adopted 3D printing technology and maintains an open access 3D Printing Studio. The Studio consists of a 3D printer, multiple 3D design workstations, and other…

  12. Three-Dimensional Boundary-Layer program (BL3D) for swept subsonic or supersonic wings with application to laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Venkit

    1993-01-01

    The theory, formulation, and solution of three-dimensional, compressible attached laminar flows, applied to swept wings in subsonic or supersonic flow are discussed. Several new features and modifications to an earlier general procedure described in NASA CR 4269, Jan. 1990 are incorporated. Details of interfacing the boundary-layer computation with solution of the inviscid Euler equations are discussed. A description of the computer program, complete with user's manual and example cases, is also included. Comparison of solutions with Navier-Stokes computations with or without boundary-layer suction is given. Output of solution profiles and derivatives required in boundary-layer stability analysis is provided.

  13. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  14. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  15. 3-D threat image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat

  16. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  17. Documentation of program COORDC to generate and coordinate system for 3D corners with or without fillet using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program COORDC generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for corner geometry with or without corner fillets. It is assumed that at any given xi, x remains constant; consequently the only variation is in y and z. It is also assumed that for all xi's in the physical plane the coordinate system in y-z plane is similar. This enables solution of coordinate system for one particular xi = 1 (x for xi = 1 is arbitrarily chosen to be 0.0) and the solution for all other xi plane can be easily specified once the coordinates in the physical plane on the line 1 or = to xi or = to IMAX, eta = 1, zeta = 1 are specified.

  18. Increased Cancer Detection Rate and Variations in the Recall Rate Resulting from Implementation of 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis into a Population-based Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Shambavi; Phillips, Jordana; Dialani, Vandana; Fein-Zachary, Valerie J.; Prakash, Seema; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Mehta, Tejas S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the recall and cancer detection rates (CDRs) at screening with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with those at screening with two-dimensional (2D) mammography and to evaluate variations in the recall rate (RR) according to patient age, risk factors, and breast density and among individual radiologists at a single U.S. academic medical center. Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant prospective study with a retrospective cohort included 85 852 asymptomatic women who presented for breast cancer screening over a 3-year period beginning in 2011. A DBT unit was introduced into the existing 2D mammography screening program, and patients were assigned to the first available machine. Ten breast-subspecialized radiologists interpreted approximately 90% of the examinations. RRs were calculated overall and according to patient age, breast density, and individual radiologist. CDRs were calculated. Single and multiple mixed-effect logistic regression analyses, χ2 tests, and Bonferroni correction were utilized, as appropriate. Results The study included 5703 (6.6%) DBT examinations and 80 149 (93.4%) 2D mammography examinations. The DBT subgroup contained a higher proportion of patients with risk factors for breast cancer and baseline examinations. DBT was used to detect 54.3% more carcinomas (+1.9 per 1000, P < .0018) than 2D mammography. The RR was 7.51% for 2D mammography and 6.10% for DBT (absolute change, 1.41%; relative change, –18.8%; P < .0001). The DBT subgroup demonstrated a significantly lower RR for patients with extremely or heterogeneously dense breasts and for patients in their 5th and 7th decades. Conclusion Implementing DBT into a U.S. breast cancer screening program significantly decreased the screening RR overall and for certain patient subgroups, while significantly increasing the CDR. These findings may encourage more widespread adoption and reimbursement of DBT and facilitate improved patient

  19. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  20. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  1. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  2. Ultra-High sensitivity APD based 3D LADAR sensors: linear mode photon counting LADAR camera for the Ultra-Sensitive Detector program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbrock, J.; Bailey, S.; Baley, D.; Boisvert, J.; Chapman, G.; Crawford, G.; de Lyon, T.; Drafahl, B.; Edwards, J.; Herrin, E.; Hoyt, C.; Jack, M.; Kvaas, R.; Liu, K.; McKeag, W.; Rajavel, R.; Randall, V.; Rengarajan, S.; Riker, J.

    2008-04-01

    Advanced LADAR receivers enable high accuracy identification of targets at ranges beyond standard EOIR sensors. Increased sensitivity of these receivers will enable reductions in laser power, hence more affordable, smaller sensors as well as much longer range of detection. Raytheon has made a recent breakthrough in LADAR architecture by combining very low noise ~ 30 electron front end amplifiers with moderate gain >60 Avalanche Photodiodes. The combination of these enables detection of laser pulse returns containing as few as one photon up to 1000s of photons. Because a lower APD gain is utilized the sensor operation differs dramatically from traditional "Geiger mode APD" LADARs. Linear mode photon counting LADAR offers advantages including: determination of intensity as well as time of arrival, nanosecond recovery times and discrimination between radiation events and signals. In our talk we will present an update of this development work: the basic amplifier and APD component performance, the front end architecture, the demonstration of single photon detection using a simple 4 × 4 SCA and the design and evaluation of critical components of a fully integrated photon counting camera under development in support of the Ultra-Sensitive Detector (USD) program sponsored by AFRL-Kirtland.

  3. HPF Implementation of ARC3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Yan, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    We present an HPF (High Performance Fortran) implementation of ARC3D code along with the profiling and performance data on SGI Origin 2000. Advantages and limitations of HPF as a parallel programming language for CFD applications are discussed. For achieving good performance results we used the data distributions optimized for implementation of implicit and explicit operators of the solver and boundary conditions. We compare the results with MPI and directive based implementations.

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  5. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  6. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  7. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  8. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  11. Exploring DNA Structure with Cn3D

    PubMed Central

    Day, Joseph; McCarty, Richard E.; Shearn, Allen; Shingles, Richard; Fletcher, Linnea; Murphy, Stephanie; Pearlman, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Researchers in the field of bioinformatics have developed a number of analytical programs and databases that are increasingly important for advancing biological research. Because bioinformatics programs are used to analyze, visualize, and/or compare biological data, it is likely that the use of these programs will have a positive impact on biology education. Over the past years, we have been working to help biology instructors introduce bioinformatics activities into their curricula by providing them with instructional materials that use bioinformatics programs and databases as educational tools. In this study, we measured the impact of a set of these materials on student learning. The activities in these materials asked students to use the molecular structure visualization program Cn3D to locate, identify, or analyze diverse features in DNA structures. Both the experimental groups of college and high school students showed significant increases in learning relative to control groups. Further, learning gains by the college students were correlated with the number of activities assigned. We conclude that working with Cn3D was important for improving student understanding of DNA structure. This study is one example of how a bioinformatics program for visualization can be used to support student learning. PMID:17339395

  12. Micro and Nano-mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0701 TITLE: Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...TATRC-funded Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering is a project of the University of Illinois Center for Nanoscale Science and

  13. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  14. Baghdad Sulcus in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-23

    This anaglyph from images captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows a dramatic, 3-D view of one of the deep fractures nicknamed tiger stripes on Saturn moon Enceladus which are located near the moon south pole, spray jets of water ice.

  15. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  16. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  17. Ganges Chasma in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-25

    Ganges Chasma is part of the Valles Marineris trough system that stretches nearly 5,000 kilometers 3,000 miles across the western equatorial region of Mars. This stereo anaglyph is from NASA Mars Global Surveyor. 3D glasses are necessary.

  18. Opportunity Stretches Out 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-02

    This is a three-dimensional stereo anaglyph of an image taken by the front hazard-identification camera onboard NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, showing the rover arm in its extended position. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  19. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  20. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  1. Rosetta Comet in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-21

    A 3D image shows what it would look like to fly over the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The image was generated by data collected by ESA Philae spacecraft during the decent to the spacecraft initial touchdown on the comet Nov. 12, 2014.

  2. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  3. Inelastic and Dynamic Fracture and Stress Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.

    1984-01-01

    Large deformation inelastic stress analysis and inelastic and dynamic crack propagation research work is summarized. The salient topics of interest in engine structure analysis that are discussed herein include: (1) a path-independent integral (T) in inelastic fracture mechanics, (2) analysis of dynamic crack propagation, (3) generalization of constitutive relations of inelasticity for finite deformations , (4) complementary energy approaches in inelastic analyses, and (5) objectivity of time integration schemes in inelastic stress analysis.

  4. 3-D visualization of geologic structures and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflug, R.; Klein, H.; Ramshorn, Ch.; Genter, M.; Stärk, A.

    Interactive 3-D computer graphics techniques are used to visualize geologic structures and simulated geologic processes. Geometric models that serve as input to 3-D viewing programs are generated from contour maps, from serial sections, or directly from simulation program output. Choice of viewing parameters strongly affects the perception of irregular surfaces. An interactive 3-D rendering program and its graphical user interface provide visualization tools for structural geology, seismic interpretation, and visual post-processing of simulations. Dynamic display of transient ground-water simulations and sedimentary process simulations can visualize processes developing through time.

  5. Micro and Nano-mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0701 TITLE: Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM...ANNUAL REPORT 2011-12 Micro and Nano -mediated

  6. Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Final Report Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-07-1-0401 Program...COVERED (From - To) 12/11/2006-12/31/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  7. 3D TRUMP - A GBI launch window tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karels, Steven N.; Hancock, John; Matchett, Gary

    3D TRUMP is a novel GPS and communicatons-link software analysis tool developed for the SDIO's Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI) program. 3D TRUMP uses a computationally efficient analysis tool which provides key GPS-based performance measures for an entire GBI mission's reentry vehicle and interceptor trajectories. Algorithms and sample outputs are presented.

  8. Use of inelastic design for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Heinstein, M.W.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    There is much interest within the radioactive material transportation container design community in the use of inelastic analysis. In other industries where inelastic analysis is used in design there is typically an improved knowledge of the capacity of the structure and a more efficient use of material. This report describes the results of a program in which the incentives for inelastic analysis for radioactive material transport container design were investigated to determine if there are similar benefits. Detailed are the elastic and inelastic analyses of two containers subjected to impacts onto a rigid target following a thirty-foot free fall in end-on, side-on, and center-of-gravity- over-corner orientations.

  9. [Development of a software for 3D virtual phantom design].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lian; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Qi

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a 3D virtual phantom design software, which was developed based on object-oriented programming methodology and dedicated to medical physics research. This software was named Magical Phan tom (MPhantom), which is composed of 3D visual builder module and virtual CT scanner. The users can conveniently construct any complex 3D phantom, and then export the phantom as DICOM 3.0 CT images. MPhantom is a user-friendly and powerful software for 3D phantom configuration, and has passed the real scene's application test. MPhantom will accelerate the Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculation in radiation therapy and X ray imaging reconstruction algorithm research.

  10. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  11. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  12. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  13. 3-D sprag ratcheting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Michael O. (Inventor); Poland, Jr., James W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A ratcheting device comprising a driver head assembly which includes at least two 3-D sprag elements positioned within a first groove within the driver head assembly such that at least one of the 3-D sprag elements may lockingly engage the driver head assembly and a mating hub assembly to allow for rotation of the hub assembly in one direction with respect to the driver head assembly. This arrangement allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction without having to first rotate the ratcheting tool in the direction opposite the direction in which the torque is applied. This arrangement also allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction while in the neutral position.

  14. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  15. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  16. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. Development of 128-directional 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Junichi; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Kikuta, Kengo; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2006-10-01

    We developed a new virtual reality (VR) system that enables direct interaction between a 3D image and a finger without wearing special 3D glasses and without attaching any marker or detector to the finger. Moreover, it frees the user from visual fatigue. The system consists of a 128-directional 3D display, a PC cluster, and a fingertip detection system. The 128-directional display provides a natural 3D image which does not have the accommodation-vergence conflict and has very smooth motion parallax. It differs from conventional multi-view displays in that it precisely reconstructs rays from a 3D object. It contains 128 LCD panels, and the 128 images displayed on them are projected in different horizontal directions with a horizontal angle pitch of 0.23°. The PC cluster consists of 16 PCs. Each PC generates eight video signals. The fingertip detection system employs a stereo infrared (IR) camera. The 3D position of the fingertip is estimated by triangulation. We also made three application programs. The first one enables the fingertip manipulation of a 3D image in VRML format. The second one is a 3D drawing program that allows users to draw lines in the air. The last one enables the rotation of a 3D image of a 360° directional image by the finger.

  19. Use of 3D reconstruction cloacagrams and 3D printing in cloacal malformations.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jennifer J; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie E; Ripley, Beth; Shivaram, Giridhar M; Avansino, Jeffrey R; Merguerian, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    Cloacal anomalies are complex to manage, and the anatomy affects prognosis and management. Assessment historically includes examination under anesthesia, and genitography is often performed, but these do not consistently capture three-dimensional (3D) detail or spatial relationships of the anatomic structures. Three-dimensional reconstruction cloacagrams can provide a high level of detail including channel measurements and the level of the cloaca (<3 cm vs. >3 cm), which typically determines the approach for surgical reconstruction and can impact long-term prognosis. Yet this imaging modality has not yet been directly compared with intra-operative or endoscopic findings. Our objective was to compare 3D reconstruction cloacagrams with endoscopic and intraoperative findings, as well as to describe the use of 3D printing to create models for surgical planning and education. An IRB-approved retrospective review of all cloaca patients seen by our multi-disciplinary program from 2014 to 2016 was performed. All patients underwent examination under anesthesia, endoscopy, 3D reconstruction cloacagram, and subsequent reconstructive surgery at a later date. Patient characteristics, intraoperative details, and measurements from endoscopy and cloacagram were reviewed and compared. One of the 3D cloacagrams was reformatted for 3D printing to create a model for surgical planning. Four patients were included for review, with the Figure illustrating 3D cloacagram results. Measurements of common channel length and urethral length were similar between modalities, particularly with confirming the level of cloaca. No patient experienced any complications or adverse effects from cloacagram or endoscopy. A model was successfully created from cloacagram images with the use of 3D printing technology. Accurate preoperative assessment for cloacal anomalies is important for counseling and surgical planning. Three-dimensional cloacagrams have been shown to yield a high level of anatomic

  20. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton I.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. PMID:23970545

  1. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton I; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access.

  2. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  3. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  4. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  5. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  6. GEN3D Ver. 1.37

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-04

    GEN3D is a three-dimensional mesh generation program. The three-dimensional mesh is generated by mapping a two-dimensional mesh into threedimensions according to one of four types of transformations: translating, rotating, mapping onto a spherical surface, and mapping onto a cylindrical surface. The generated three-dimensional mesh can then be reoriented by offsetting, reflecting about an axis, and revolving about an axis. GEN3D can be used to mesh geometries that are axisymmetric or planar, but, due to three-dimensional loading or boundary conditions, require a three-dimensional finite element mesh and analysis. More importantly, it can be used to mesh complex three-dimensional geometries composed of several sections when the sections can be defined in terms of transformations of two dimensional geometries. The code GJOIN is then used to join the separate sections into a single body. GEN3D reads and writes twodimensional and threedimensional mesh databases in the GENESIS database format; therefore, it is compatible with the preprocessing, postprocessing, and analysis codes used by the Engineering Analysis Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  7. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  8. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  9. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  10. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  11. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  12. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  13. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  14. Restructuring of RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    George Mesina; Joshua Hykes

    2005-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D source code is unstructured with many interwoven logic flow paths. By restructuring the code, it becomes easier to read and understand, which reduces the time and money required for code development, debugging, and maintenance. A structured program is comprised of blocks of code with one entry and exit point and downward logic flow. IF tests and DO loops inherently create structured code, while GOTO statements are the main cause of unstructured code. FOR_STRUCT is a commercial software package that converts unstructured FORTRAN into structured programming; it was used to restructure individual subroutines. Primarily it transforms GOTO statements, ARITHMETIC IF statements, and COMPUTED GOTO statements into IF-ELSEIF-ELSE tests and DO loops. The complexity of RELAP5-3D complicated the task. First, FOR_STRUCT cannot completely restructure all the complex coding contained in RELAP5-3D. An iterative approach of multiple FOR_STRUCT applications gave some additional improvements. Second, FOR_STRUCT cannot restructure FORTRAN 90 coding, and RELAP5-3D is partially written in FORTRAN 90. Unix scripts for pre-processing subroutines into coding that FOR_STRUCT could handle and post-processing it back into FORTRAN 90 were written. Finally, FOR_STRUCT does not have the ability to restructure the RELAP5-3D code which contains pre-compiler directives. Variations of a file were processed with different pre-compiler options switched on or off, ensuring that every block of code was restructured. Then the variations were recombined to create a completely restructured source file. Unix scripts were written to perform these tasks, as well as to make some minor formatting improvements. In total, 447 files comprising some 180,000 lines of FORTRAN code were restructured. These showed significant reduction in the number of logic jumps contained as measured by reduction in the number of GOTO statements and line labels. The average number of GOTO statements per subroutine

  15. Using Computer-Aided Design Software and 3D Printers to Improve Spatial Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsio-Loudis, Petros; Jones, Millie

    2015-01-01

    Many articles have been published on the use of 3D printing technology. From prefabricated homes and outdoor structures to human organs, 3D printing technology has found a niche in many fields, but especially education. With the introduction of AutoCAD technical drawing programs and now 3D printing, learners can use 3D printed models to develop…

  16. Using Computer-Aided Design Software and 3D Printers to Improve Spatial Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsio-Loudis, Petros; Jones, Millie

    2015-01-01

    Many articles have been published on the use of 3D printing technology. From prefabricated homes and outdoor structures to human organs, 3D printing technology has found a niche in many fields, but especially education. With the introduction of AutoCAD technical drawing programs and now 3D printing, learners can use 3D printed models to develop…

  17. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  18. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  19. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  1. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  2. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  3. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  4. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  5. NEW APPROACHES: Deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, J.

    1998-01-01

    Feynman diagrams can be used to explain deep inelastic scattering, but it must be remembered that the emission and absorption of a photon are not independent events - the underlying field is important.

  6. Cooling of 3D Granular Gases: Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, Kirsten; Wegner, Sandra; Trittel, Torsten; Stannarius, Ralf

    Granular gases are ensembles of macroscopic grains, which move randomly and interact through inelastic collisions. This non-equilibrium statistical system is easy to picture, but still insufficiently understood. Numerous theoretical treatments have been performed, favorably with spherical grains and periodic boundaries, starting from a homogeneous state. Experimentally, such a gas in 3D can only be realized with strong external forcing or in microgravity. We have recently demonstrated that the use of elongated grains facilitates the realization of 3D experiments beyond the Knudsen regime (1). Main findings in a sounding rocket experiment were non-Gaussian velocity distributions and a violation of the equipartition of kinetic energy in the steady state. Rotational degrees of freedom are under-excited. When the excitation is stopped, energy is dissipated, the granular gas is ''cooling''. We present the first quantitative study of the cooling of a granular gas, based on a 3D data evaluation, from drop tower experiments. The evolution of the kinetic energy in translational and rotational degrees of freedom is compared to Haff's law and recent numerical studies. Additionally, we analyze velocity and density distributions.(1) K. Harth et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 144102 (2013) This research was funded by German Aerospace Center DLR Grants 50WM1241 and 50WB1344 and by DFG Grant STA-425/34-1.

  7. 3D foveated visualization on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schermann, John; Barron, John L.; Gargantini, Irene A.

    2000-12-01

    Recent developments in Internet technology, combined with the computerization of hospital radiology departments, allow the remote viewing of medical data images. Generally, however, medical images are data intensive and the transmission of such images over a network can consumer large amounts of network resources. Previous work by Liptay et al, presented an interactive, progressive program (implemented in JAVA and requiring a web browser) that allowed the transmission of multi-resolution JPEG image data using various ROI (Region of Interest) strategies in order to minimize Internet bandwidth requirements. This work handles both 2D and 3D image data, but 3D data was treated as a sequence of 2D images, where each 2D image had to be individually requested by the system. The work described in this paper replaces the representation of 3D data as a 2D JPEG image sequence with a single block of lossy 3D image data compressed using wavelets. In a similar fashion, 2D image data is wavelet compressed. Wavelet decomposition has been shown to have consistently better image quality at high compression ratios than other lossy compression methods. We use wavelet compression in a JAVA application program on the server side to construct a lossy low resolution version of the data. As well, high resolution difference sub-blocks of data are also created by the JAVA application; a difference sub-block and the corresponding low resolution lossless data. Transmitting the low resolution image and difference sub-blocks (as requested) only requires a small fraction of the network bandwidth compared to that which would otherwise be needed to transmit the entire lossless data set. The user, via a JAVA applet on the client side, is provided with a number of methods to choose a trajectory (sequence) of regions of interest in the low resolution image. Once the region(s) of interest are chosen, the sub-blocks of image data in the various trajectories are then retrieved and integrated into the low

  8. Atomic collisions, inelastic indeed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercegol, Herve; Ferrando, Gwenael; Lehoucq, Roland

    At the turn of the twentieth century, a hot controversy raged about the ability of Boltzmann's framework to take care of irreversibility. The so-called Loschmidt's paradox progressively faded with time during the last hundred years, due to the predictive efficiency of statistical mechanics. However, one detail at the origin of the controversy - the elasticity of atomic collisions - was not completely challenged. A semi-classical treatment of two atoms interacting with the vacuum zero-point field permits to predict a friction force acting against the rotation of the pair of atoms. By its form and its level, the calculated torque is a candidate as a physical cause for diffusion of energy and angular momentum, and consequently for entropy growth. It opens the way to a revision of the standard vision of irreversibility. This presentation will focus on two points. First we will discuss the recent result in a broader context of electromagnetic interactions during microscopic collisions. The predicted friction phenomenon can be compared to and distinguished from Collision-Induced Emission and other types of inelastic collisions. Second we will investigate the consequences of the friction torque on calculated trajectories of colliding atoms, quantifying the generation of dimers linked by dispersion forces.

  9. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  10. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  11. PLOT3D- DRAWING THREE DIMENSIONAL SURFACES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is a package of programs to draw three-dimensional surfaces of the form z = f(x,y). The function f and the boundary values for x and y are the input to PLOT3D. The surface thus defined may be drawn after arbitrary rotations. However, it is designed to draw only functions in rectangular coordinates expressed explicitly in the above form. It cannot, for example, draw a sphere. Output is by off-line incremental plotter or online microfilm recorder. This package, unlike other packages, will plot any function of the form z = f(x,y) and portrays continuous and bounded functions of two independent variables. With curve fitting; however, it can draw experimental data and pictures which cannot be expressed in the above form. The method used is division into a uniform rectangular grid of the given x and y ranges. The values of the supplied function at the grid points (x, y) are calculated and stored; this defines the surface. The surface is portrayed by connecting successive (y,z) points with straight-line segments for each x value on the grid and, in turn, connecting successive (x,z) points for each fixed y value on the grid. These lines are then projected by parallel projection onto the fixed yz-plane for plotting. This program has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 with on-line CDC microfilm recorder.

  12. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  13. 3D dimeron as a stable topological object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shijie; Liu, Yongkai

    2015-03-01

    Searching for novel topological objects is always an intriguing task for scientists in various fields. We study a new three-dimensional (3D) topological structure called 3D dimeron in the trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. The 3D dimeron differs to the conventional 3D skyrmion for the condensates hosting two interlocked vortex-rings. We demonstrate that the vortex-rings are connected by a singular string and the complexity constitutes a vortex-molecule. The stability is investigated through numerically evolving the Gross-Pitaevskii equations, giving a coherent Rabi coupling between the two components. Alternatively, we find that the stable 3D dimeron can be naturally generated from a vortex-free Gaussian wave packet via incorporating a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential into the condensates. This work is supported by the NSF of China under Grant No. 11374036 and the National 973 program under Grant No. 2012CB821403.

  14. 3-D magnetic field calculations for wiggglers using MAGNUS-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pissanetzky, S.; Tompkins, P.

    1988-01-01

    The recent but steady trend toward increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of wigglers and undulators, of which tapered wigglers, hybrid structures, laced electromagnetic wigglers, magnetic cladding, twisters and magic structures are examples, has caused a need for reliable 3-D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic systems in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D Group of Programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3-D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of Magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, linear or nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors of any shape in space. The magnetic properties of permanent magnets are described by the complete nonlinear demagnetization curve as provided by the manufacturer, or, at the user's choice, by a simpler approximation involving the coercive force, the residual induction and the direction of magnetization. The ferromagnetic materials are described by a magnetization table and an accurate interpolation relation. An internal library with properties of common industrial steels is available. The conductors are independent of the mesh and are described in terms of conductor elements from an internal library.

  15. Advanced 3D visualization in student-centred medical education.

    PubMed

    Silén, Charlotte; Wirell, Staffan; Kvist, Joanna; Nylander, Eva; Smedby, Orjan

    2008-06-01

    Healthcare students have difficulties achieving a conceptual understanding of 3D anatomy and misconceptions about physiological phenomena are persistent and hard to address. 3D visualization has improved the possibilities of facilitating understanding of complex phenomena. A project was carried out in which high quality 3D visualizations using high-resolution CT and MR images from clinical research were developed for educational use. Instead of standard stacks of slices (original or multiplanar reformatted) volume-rendering images in the quicktime VR format that enables students to interact intuitively were included. Based on learning theories underpinning problem based learning, 3D visualizations were implemented in the existing curricula of the medical and physiotherapy programs. The images/films were used in lectures, demonstrations and tutorial sessions. Self-study material was also developed. To support learning efficacy by developing and using 3D datasets in regular health care curricula and enhancing the knowledge about possible educational value of 3D visualizations in learning anatomy and physiology. Questionnaires were used to investigate the medical and physiotherapy students' opinions about the different formats of visualizations and their learning experiences. The 3D images/films stimulated the students will to understand more and helped them to get insights about biological variations and different organs size, space extent and relation to each other. The virtual dissections gave a clearer picture than ordinary dissections and the possibility to turn structures around was instructive. 3D visualizations based on authentic, viable material point out a new dimension of learning material in anatomy, physiology and probably also pathophysiology. It was successful to implement 3D images in already existing themes in the educational programs. The results show that deeper knowledge is required about students' interpretation of images/films in relation to

  16. 3D Visualization of an Invariant Display Strategy for Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    Region of Interest (ROI) in HSV color space model in 3D, and viewing the 2D resultant image. A demonstration application uses Java language...Visualization, X3D, Java Xj3d API 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 106 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY...application uses Java language including Java2D, Xj3D Player, Document Object Model (DOM) Application Program Interfaces (API), and Extensible 3D Language

  17. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  18. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  19. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  20. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  1. Design of 3D simulation engine for oilfield safety training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Ming; Kang, Bao-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aiming at the demand for rapid custom development of 3D simulation system for oilfield safety training, this paper designs and implements a 3D simulation engine based on script-driven method, multi-layer structure, pre-defined entity objects and high-level tools such as scene editor, script editor, program loader. A scripting language been defined to control the system's progress, events and operating results. Training teacher can use this engine to edit 3D virtual scenes, set the properties of entity objects, define the logic script of task, and produce a 3D simulation training system without any skills of programming. Through expanding entity class, this engine can be quickly applied to other virtual training areas.

  2. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  3. Metamaterial 3D Gain Nanostructures Fabricated Using Direct Laser Writing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-11

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0033 Metamaterial 3D Gain Nanostructures Fabricated Using Direct Laser Writing Maria Farsari...abricated Direct Laser Writing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8655-13-1-3048 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Maria Farsari 5d...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18   1 Metamaterial 3D Gain Nanostructures Fabricated Using Direct Laser Writing EOARD

  4. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  5. International "Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" (13RC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An international "Intercomparison of 3-dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" 13RC) has been initiated. It is endorsed by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, and funded jointly by the United States Department of Energy ARM program, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Radiation Sciences program. It is a 3-phase effort that has as its goals to: (1) understand the errors and limits of 3D methods; (2) provide 'baseline' cases for future 3D code development; (3) promote sharing of 3D tools; (4) derive guidelines for 3D tool selection; and (5) improve atmospheric science education in 3D radiation.

  6. 3-D Simulations of Ion Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchenko, Yu. A.; Sudan, R. N.

    1996-11-01

    The FIREX (Field-Reversed Ion Ring Experiment) program is underway at Cornell University to demonstrate an ion ring magnetic field-reversed configuration (IRC) by injecting an intense annular proton beam across a plasma-filled magnetic cusp into a neutral gas immersed in a ramped solenoidal magnetic field. The previous axisymmetric PIC simulations performed with the 21\\over 2-D FIRE code have predicted [1] that strong ion rings (with a self-magnetic field large enough to reverse the applied field on axis) can be produced using this technique. We have constructed a new, parallel, object-oriented (C++), 3-D, hybrid, PIC code, FLAME to study the 3-D aspects of the ion ring formation in strongly magnetized plasmas and stability of ion ring configurations to the toroidal perturbations. These questions are extremely important for the practical realization of the FIREX ideas and are expected to be clarified in the course of investigation of the ion beam injection and ring formation in a toroidally aberrated applied magnetic field. The nonlinear evolution of ion ring tilt and precession modes as well as code testing and performance issues will also be addressed. 1. Yu.A. Omelchenko and R.N. Sudan, Phys. Plasmas, 2773 (1995)

  7. Elastoplastic shell analysis in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulation of the elastoplastic behavior of thin shell structures under transient dynamic loads play an important role in many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, Calif. Often the loads are severe and the structure undergoes plastic (or permanent) deformation. These simulations are effectively performed using DYNA3D, an explicit nonlinear finite element code developed at LLNL for simulating and analyzing the large-deformation dynamic response of solids and structures. It is generally applicable to problems where the loading and response are of short duration and contain significant high-frequency components. Typical problems of this type include the contact of two impacting bodies and the resulting elastoplastic structural behavior. The objective of this investigation was to examine and improve upon the elastoplastic shell modeling capability in DYNA3D. This article summarizes the development of a new four-node quadrilateral finite element shell formulation, the YASE shell, and compares two basic methods (the stress-resultant and the thickness-resultant methods) employed in elastoplastic constitutive algorithms for shell structure modeling.

  8. Terrain and rock 'Yogi' - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The left portion of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3, shows the large rock nicknamed 'Yogi.' 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Portions of a petal and deflated airbag are in the foreground. Yogi has been an object of study for rover Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument. The APXS will help Pathfinder scientists learn more about the chemical composition of that rock. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. Terrain and rock 'Yogi' - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The left portion of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3, shows the large rock nicknamed 'Yogi.' 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Portions of a petal and deflated airbag are in the foreground. Yogi has been an object of study for rover Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument. The APXS will help Pathfinder scientists learn more about the chemical composition of that rock. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  11. A fast numerical method for calculating the 3D proton dose profile in a single-ring wobbling spreading system.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Z; Afarideh, H; Sadighi-Bonabi, R

    2011-09-01

    Based on the determination of protons fluence at the phantom's surface, a 3D dose distribution is calculated inside a water phantom using a fast method. The dose contribution of secondary particles, originating from inelastic nuclear interactions, is also taken into account. This is achieved by assuming that 60% of the energy transferred to secondary particles is locally absorbed. Secondary radiation delivers approximately 16.8% of the total dose in the plateau region of the Bragg curve for monoenergetic protons of energy 190 MeV. The physical dose beyond the Bragg peak is obtained for a proton beam of 190 MeV using a Geant4 simulation. It is found that the dose beyond the Bragg peak is <0.02% of the maximum dose and is mainly delivered by protons produced via reactions of the secondary neutrons. The relative dose profile is also calculated by simulation of the proposed beam line in Geant4 code. The dose profile produced by our method agrees, within 2%, with the results predicted by the Fermi Eyges distribution function and the results of the Geant4 simulation. It is expected that the fast numerical approach proposed herein may be utilised in 3D deterministic treatment planning programs, to model proton propagation in order to analyse the effect of modifying the beam line.

  12. America's National Parks 3d (4)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-11

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 4)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  13. America's National Parks 3d (3)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 3)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  14. America's National Parks 3d (2)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 2)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  15. America's National Parks 3d (1)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 1)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  16. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  17. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  18. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  19. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    modifications to the floor planning stage of the 3-D design flow that are necessary to support our design approach. We strongly recommend that the 3-D EDA ...and we outline problems, challenges, attacks, solutions, and topics for future research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Requirements for automated 3-D IC design tools for the physical layout of components. Since fully automated Electronic Design Automation ( EDA ) for 3-D

  20. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  1. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com...materials Figure 1. (A–C) Schematic illustrating the steps in the laser origami process and (D) a resulting folded out-of-plane 3D structure. that can

  2. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  3. Enhancements to the opera-3d suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Christopher P.

    1997-02-01

    The OPERA-3D suite of programs has been enhanced to include 2 additional 3 dimensional finite element based solvers, with complimentary features in the pre- and postprocessing. SOPRANO computes electromagnetic fields at high frequency including displacement current effects. It has 2 modules—a deterministic solution at a user defined frequency and an eigenvalue solution for modal analysis. It is suitable for designing microwave structures and cavities found in particle accelerators. SCALA computes electrostatic fields in the presence of space charge from charged particle beams. The user may define the emission characteristics of electrodes or plasma surfaces and compute the resultant space charge limited beams, including the presence of magnetic fields. Typical applications in particle accelerators are electron guns and ion sources. Other enhancements to the suite include additional capabilities in TOSCA and ELEKTRA, the static and dynamic solvers.

  4. 3D metamaterials for the thermal infrared.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Wendt, Joel Robert; Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2010-06-01

    Metamaterials form a new class of artificial electromagnetic materials that provides the device designer with the ability to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic energy in ways that are not achievable with naturally occurring materials. However, progress toward practical implementation of metamaterials, particularly at infrared and visible frequencies, has been hampered by a combination of absorptive losses; the narrow band nature of the resonant metamaterial response; and the difficulty in fabricating fully 3-dimensional structures. They describe the progress of a recently initiated program at Sandia National Laboratories directed toward the development of practical 3D metamaterials operating in the thermal infrared. They discuss their analysis of fundamental loss limits for different classes of metamaterials. In addition, they discuss new design approaches that they are pursuing which reduce the reliance on metallic structures in an effort to minimize ohmic losses.

  5. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  6. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  7. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  8. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  9. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  10. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  11. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  12. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  13. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  14. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  15. 3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing

    2014-12-01

    We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.

  16. 3D toroidal physics: Testing the boundaries of symmetry breakinga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Donald A.

    2015-05-01

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to provide the plasma control needed for a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D edge localized mode suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. This motivates the development of physics models that are applicable across the full range of 3D devices. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with the requirements of future fusion reactors.

  17. Construction of programmable interconnected 3D microfluidic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Patrick R.; Wolf, Marc P.; Wang, Xueya; Zhang, Bei; Marsch, Stephan; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B.

    2015-02-01

    Microfluidic systems represent a key-enabling platform for novel diagnostic tools for use at the point-of-care in clinical contexts as well as for evolving single cell diagnostics. The design of 3D microfluidic systems is an active field of development, but construction of true interconnected 3D microfluidic networks is still a challenge, in particular when the goal is rapid prototyping, accurate design and flexibility. We report a novel approach for the construction of programmable 3D microfluidic systems consisting of modular 3D template casting of interconnected threads to allow user-programmable flow paths and examine its structural characteristics and its modular function. To overcome problems with thread template casting reported in the literature, low-surface-energy polymer threads were used, that allow solvent-free production. Connected circular channels with excellent roundness and low diameter variability were created. Variable channel termination allowed programming a flow path on-the-fly, thus rendering the resulting 3D microfluidic systems highly customizable even after production. Thus, construction of programmable/reprogrammable fully 3D microfluidic systems by template casting of a network of interconnecting threads is feasible, leads to high-quality and highly reproducible, complex 3D geometries.

  18. 3D toroidal physics: Testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A.

    2015-05-15

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to provide the plasma control needed for a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D edge localized mode suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. This motivates the development of physics models that are applicable across the full range of 3D devices. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with the requirements of future fusion reactors.

  19. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  20. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  1. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  2. 3D simulation for solitons used in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, F.; Tebeica, C. M.; Schiopu, P.; Vladescu, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper is described 3D simulation for solitions used in optical fibers. In the scientific works is started from nonlinear propagation equation and the solitons represents its solutions. This paper presents the simulation of the fundamental soliton in 3D together with simulation of the second order soliton in 3D. These simulations help in the study of the optical fibers for long distances and in the interactions between the solitons. This study helps the understanding of the nonlinear propagation equation and for nonlinear waves. These 3D simulations are obtained using MATLAB programming language, and we can observe fundamental difference between the soliton and the second order/higher order soliton and in their evolution.

  3. Inelastic diffraction at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2017-03-01

    The relativistic scattering was one of the scientific fields where Academician V.G. Kadyshevsky has made an important and highly cited contribution [1]. In this paper we discuss the high-energy dependencies of diffractive and non-diffractive inelastic cross-sections in view of the recent LHC data which reveal a presence of the reflective scattering mode.

  4. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-03

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  5. KB3D Reference Manual. Version 1.a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Siminiceanu, Radu; Carreno, Victor A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a reference manual describing the implementation of the KB3D conflict detection and resolution algorithm. The algorithm has been implemented in the Java and C++ programming languages. The reference manual gives a short overview of the detection and resolution functions, the structural implementation of the program, inputs and outputs to the program, and describes how the program is used. Inputs to the program can be rectangular coordinates or geodesic coordinates. The reference manual also gives examples of conflict scenarios and the resolution outputs the program produces.

  6. MOM3D/EM-ANIMATE - MOM3D WITH ANIMATION CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeffer, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    MOM3D (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed 3-D perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM3D computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM3D also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix inversion. MOM3D has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM3D may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM3D. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and

  7. MOM3D/EM-ANIMATE - MOM3D WITH ANIMATION CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeffer, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    MOM3D (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed 3-D perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM3D computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM3D also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix inversion. MOM3D has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM3D may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM3D. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and

  8. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  9. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  10. VPython: Python plus Animations in Stereo 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Bruce

    2004-03-01

    Python is a modern object-oriented programming language. VPython (http://vpython.org) is a combination of Python (http://python.org), the Numeric module from LLNL (http://www.pfdubois.com/numpy), and the Visual module created by David Scherer, all of which have been under continuous development as open source projects. VPython makes it easy to write programs that generate real-time, navigable 3D animations. The Visual module includes a set of 3D objects (sphere, cylinder, arrow, etc.), tools for creating other shapes, and support for vector algebra. The 3D renderer runs in a parallel thread, and animations are produced as a side effect of computations, freeing the programmer to concentrate on the physics. Applications include educational and research visualization. In the Fall of 2003 Hugh Fisher at the Australian National University, John Zelle at Wartburg College, and I contributed to a new stereo capability of VPython. By adding a single statement to an existing VPython program, animations can be viewed in true stereo 3D. One can choose several modes: active shutter glasses, passive polarized glasses, or colored glasses (e.g. red-cyan). The talk will demonstrate the new stereo capability and discuss the pros and cons of various schemes for display of stereo 3D for a large audience. Supported in part by NSF grant DUE-0237132.

  11. Automated modeling of RNA 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Rother, Kristian; Rother, Magdalena; Skiba, Pawel; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview over the current methods for automated modeling of RNA structures, with emphasis on template-based methods. The currently used approaches to RNA modeling are presented with a side view on the protein world, where many similar ideas have been used. Two main programs for automated template-based modeling are presented: ModeRNA assembling structures from fragments and MacroMoleculeBuilder performing a simulation to satisfy spatial restraints. Both approaches have in common that they require an alignment of the target sequence to a known RNA structure that is used as a modeling template. As a way to find promising template structures and to align the target and template sequences, we propose a pipeline combining the ParAlign and Infernal programs on RNA family data from Rfam. We also briefly summarize template-free methods for RNA 3D structure prediction. Typically, RNA structures generated by automated modeling methods require local or global optimization. Thus, we also discuss methods that can be used for local or global refinement of RNA structures.

  12. Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Herakovich, C. T.; Pindera, M-J.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model capable of predicting the thermomechanical response of continuously reinforced metal matrix composite laminates subjected to multiaxial loading was developed. A micromechanical model is used in conjunction with nonlinear lamination theory to determine inelastic laminae response. Matrix viscoplasticity, residual stresses, and damage to the fiber/matrix interfacial zone are explicitly included in the model. The representative cell of the micromechanical model is considered to be in a state of generalized plane strain, enabling a quasi two-dimensional analysis to be performed. Constant strain finite elements are formulated with elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. Interfacial debonding is incorporated into the model through interface elements based on the interfacial debonding theory originally presented by Needleman, and modified by Tvergaard. Nonlinear interfacial constitutive equations relate interfacial tractions to displacement discontinuities at the interface. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of an experimental program conducted on silicon carbide/titanium (SiC/Ti) unidirectional, (O4), and angle-ply, (+34)(sub s), tubular specimens. Multiaxial loading included increments of axial tension, compression, torque, and internal pressure. Loadings were chosen in an effort to distinguish inelastic deformation due to damage from matrix plasticity and separate time-dependent effects from time-independent effects. Results show that fiber/matrix debonding is nonuniform throughout the composite and is a major factor in the effective response. Also, significant creep behavior occurs at relatively low applied stress levels at room temperature.

  13. 3D Printer Coupon removal and stowage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-09

    iss042e031282 (12/09/2014) ---US Astronaut Barry (Butch) Wilmore holding a 3D coupon works with the new 3D printer aboard the International Space Station. The 3D Printing experiment in zero gravity demonstrates that a 3D printer works normally in space. In general, a 3D printer extrudes streams of heated plastic, metal or other material, building layer on top of layer to create 3 dimensional objects. Testing a 3D printer using relatively low-temperature plastic feedstock on the International Space Station is the first step towards establishing an on-demand machine shop in space, a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space manufacturing.

  14. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  15. Expedient Gap Definition Using 3D LADAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Research and Development Center (ERDC), ASI has developed an algorithm to reduce the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D ...developed an algorithm to extract from this 3D point cloud any user-defined number of 2D slices. ASI has incorporated this sensor and algorithm into...direction, ASI has developed an algorithm to condense the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D profiles that describe the

  16. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  17. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  18. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  19. Neutron scattering signatures of the 3D hyperhoneycomb Kitaev quantum spin liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A.; Knolle, J.; Kovrizhin, D. L.; Chalker, J. T.; Moessner, R.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent synthesis of the hyperhoneycomb material β -Li2IrO3 , we study the dynamical structure factor (DSF) of the corresponding 3D Kitaev quantum spin-liquid (QSL), whose fractionalized degrees of freedom are Majorana fermions and emergent flux loops. The properties of this 3D model are known to differ in important ways from those of its 2D counterpart—it has a finite-temperature phase transition, as well as distinct features in the Raman response. We show, however, that the qualitative behavior of the DSF is broadly dimension-independent. Characteristics of the 3D DSF include a response gap even in the gapless QSL phase and an energy dependence deriving from the Majorana fermion density of states. Since the majority of the response is from states containing a single Majorana excitation, our results suggest inelastic neutron scattering as the spectroscopy of choice to illuminate the physics of Majorana fermions in Kitaev QSLs.

  20. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  1. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  2. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, T.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  3. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  4. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  5. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  6. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  7. 3-D Printed Ultem 9085 Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Daniel; Christensen, Sean; Fox, Emmet J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the mechanical properties of 3-D printed Ultem 9085. This document will focus on the capabilities, limitations, and complexities of 3D printing in general, and explain the methods by which this material is tested. Because 3-D printing is a relatively new process that offers an innovative means to produce hardware, it is important that the aerospace community understands its current advantages and limitations, so that future endeavors involving 3-D printing may be completely safe. This document encompasses three main sections: a Slosh damage assessment, a destructive test of 3-D printed Ultem 9085 samples, and a test to verify simulation for the 3-D printed SDP (SPHERES Docking Port). Described below, 'Slosh' and 'SDP' refer to two experiments that are built using Ultem 9085 for use with the SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) program onboard the International Space Station (ISS) [16]. The SPHERES Facility is managed out of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in California.

  8. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  9. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  10. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  11. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  12. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  13. Inelastic behavior of structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N.; Khozeimeh, K.; Toridis, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    A more accurate procedure was developed for the determination of the inelastic behavior of structural components. The actual stress-strain curve for the mathematical of the structure was utilized to generate the force-deformation relationships for the structural elements, rather than using simplified models such as elastic-plastic, bilinear and trilinear approximations. relationships were generated for beam elements with various types of cross sections. In the generational of these curves, stress or load reversals, kinematic hardening and hysteretic behavior were taken into account. Intersections between loading and unloading branches were determined through an iterative process. Using the inelastic properties obtained, the plastic static response of some simple structural systems composed of beam elements was computed. Results were compared with known solutions, indicating a considerable improvement over response predictions obtained by means of simplified approximations used in previous investigations.

  14. RNA Structure: Advances and Assessment of 3D Structure Prediction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2017-03-30

    Biological functions of RNA molecules are dependent upon sustained specific three-dimensional (3D) structures of RNA, with or without the help of proteins. Understanding of RNA structure is frequently based on 2D structures, which describe only the Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs. Here, we hierarchically review the structural elements of RNA and how they contribute to RNA 3D structure. We focus our analysis on the non-WC base pairs and on RNA modules. Several computer programs have now been designed to predict RNA modules. We describe the RNA-Puzzles initiative, which is a community-wide, blind assessment of RNA 3D structure prediction programs to determine the capabilities and bottlenecks of current predictions. The assessment metrics used in RNA-Puzzles are briefly described. The detection of RNA 3D modules from sequence data and their automatic implementation belong to the current challenges in RNA 3D structure prediction. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biophysics Volume 46 is May 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  15. FANS-3D Users Guide (ESTEP Project ER 201031)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTEP) Project ER-201-031. Dr. Hamn-Ching Chen and his students and collaborators developed the FANS...Ching Chen and his students and collaborators developed the FANS-3D code over the past 25 years. Programmers use this general- purpose computational

  16. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  17. Communicating Experience of 3D Space: Mathematical and Everyday Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Candia; Alshwaikh, Jehad

    2012-01-01

    In this article we consider data arising from student-teacher-researcher interactions taking place in the context of an experimental teaching program making use of multiple modes of communication and representation to explore three-dimensional (3D) shape. As teachers/researchers attempted to support student use of a logo-like formal language for…

  18. 3D toroidal physics: testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Don

    2014-10-01

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to lead to a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D ELM-suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. There is considerable interest in the development of unified physics models for the full range of 3D effects. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. Fortunately, significant progress is underway in theory, computation and plasma diagnostics on many issues such as magnetic surface quality, plasma screening vs. amplification of 3D perturbations, 3D transport, influence on edge pedestal structures, MHD stability effects, modification of fast ion-driven instabilities, prediction of energetic particle heat loads on plasma-facing materials, effects of 3D fields on turbulence, and magnetic coil design. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with future fusion reactors. The development of models to address 3D physics and progress in these areas will be described. This work is supported both by the US Department of Energy under Contract DE

  19. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  20. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…