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Sample records for program rmiep external

  1. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H. )

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC's PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described.

  2. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC`s PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described.

  3. Analysis of the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Volume 8, Seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.E.; Lappa, D.A.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Chuang, T.Y.; Johnson, J.J.; Campbell, R.D.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Tiong, L.W.; Ravindra, M.K.; Kincaid, R.H.; Sues, R.H.; Putcha, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the methodology used and the results obtained from the application of a simplified seismic risk methodology to the LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station Unit 2. This study is part of the Level I analysis being performed by the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Using the RMIEP developed event and fault trees, the analysis resulted in a seismically induced core damage frequency point estimate of 6.OE-7/yr. This result, combined with the component importance analysis, indicated that system failures were dominated by random events. The dominant components included diesel generator failures (failure to swing, failure to start, failure to run after started), and condensate storage tank.

  4. University External Studies Program. The Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deep, Samuel D.

    In 1972, the University of Pittsburgh initiated the University External Studies Program (UESP). The program emerged from a recognition of the university's responsibility to provide higher education to those previously unable to attend classes because of family or job responsibilities, geographic isolation, or limited mobility. This paper outlines…

  5. Preschool-Based Programs for Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David H.; Brown, Sharice A.; Meagher, Susan; Baker, Courtney N.; Dobbs, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.

    2006-01-01

    Few mental health initiatives for young children have used classroom programs. Preschool-based efforts targeting externalizing behavior could help prevent conduct disorders. Additional benefits may include improved academic achievement and reduced risk for other mental health difficulties. Pro-grams that target multiple developmental domains are…

  6. External Tank Program - Legacy of Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilet, Jeffery C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle; Welzyn, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The largest single element of Space Shuttle is the External Tank (ET), which serves as the structural backbone of the vehicle during ascent and provides liquid propellants to the Orbiter s three Main Engines. The ET absorbs most of the seven million pounds of thrust exerted by the Solid Rocket Boosters and Main Engines. The design evolved through several block changes, reducing weight each time. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. The initial configuration, the standard weight tank, weighed 76,000 pounds and was an aluminum 2219 structure. The light weight tank weighed 66,000 pounds and flew 86 missions. The super light weight tank weighed 58,500 pounds and was primarily an aluminum-lithium structure. The final configuration and low weight enabled system level performance sufficient for assembly of the International Space Station in a high inclination orbit, vital for international cooperation. Another significant challenge was the minimization of ice formation on the cryogenic tanks. This was essential due to the system configuration and the choice of ceramic thermal protection system materials on the Orbiter. Ice would have been a major debris hazard. Spray on foam insulation materials served multiple functions including thermal insulation, conditioning of cryogenic propellants, and thermal protection for the tank structure during ascent and entry. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, and handling, and transportation operations were developed. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir

  7. Conducting an External Review of a Mathematics Program and Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    The Mathematical Association of America Guidelines for Programs and Departments in Undergraduate Mathematical Sciences recommends the use of a periodic external review as an assessment tool to evaluate the mathematics program and the department. However, there is surprisingly little information on how to conduct an external review for a…

  8. External Degree Programs: An Educational Alternative for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmonde, Sue Sommer; Harms, Delores

    Since 1970, external degree programs (programs for adult students who cannot attend on-campus courses on a regular basis) have become an educational alternative for the adult woman returning to or entering an educational setting. These innovative programs are ideal for the woman who must integrate the roles of worker, mother and student. A pilot…

  9. External Tank Program Legacy of Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; Pilet, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    I.Goal: a) Extensive TPS damage caused by extreme hail storm. b) Repair plan required to restore TPS to minimize program manifest impacts. II. Challenges: a) Skeptical technical community - Concerned about interactions of damage with known/unknown failure modes. b) Schedule pressure to accommodate ISS program- Next tank still at MAF c)Limited ET resources. III. How d We Do It?: a) Developed unique engineering requirements and tooling to minimize repairs. b) Performed large amount of performance testing to demonstrate understanding of repairs and residual conditions. c) Effectively communicated results to technical community and management to instill confidence in expected performance.

  10. External Degree Program. Areas of Competency in Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ. Research Corp., NY.

    Syracuse University has devised an external degree program in business administration in which students may take area competency tests that will reflect their knowledge gained from independent study or other outside sources for a bachelor's degree. The areas of competency for the degree are: Financial Information Systems; Environmental Studies;…

  11. Sustaining curricular change at Sherbrooke through external, formative program evaluations.

    PubMed

    Des Marchais, J E; Bordage, G

    1998-05-01

    In this case study, the authors discuss external, formative program evaluation as a means to monitor and sustain ongoing curricular change and to prepare for periodic accreditation reviews. The Faculty of Medicine at Sherbrooke (in Quebec, Canada), following a major curricular reform begun in the mid-1980s, held three external, formative program evaluations in 1988, 1991, and 1994, using expert judgment and "connoisseur" models of evaluation. The authors present the goals of the evaluations (e.g., to evaluate the implementation of intended curricular changes) and the 17-step process used (e.g., "involve as many faculty and students as possible before and during the visit"), and describe the preparation for the evaluations, the selection of the external evaluators (e.g., a chief medical officer from the World Health Organization, a high-profile basic sciences teacher, the chairman of the previous accreditation team, and others), and on-site activities and reporting. Recommendations from the evaluators and the subsequent actions taken (and in a few cases, not taken) by the school are presented and discussed in terms of program planning, curricular content, basic sciences, problem-based learning and tutors' training, assessment of students, resource constraints, clerkships, community orientation, students' self-directedness, and medical humanism. The three evaluations helped guide and support the major curricular undertakings and encouraged continued changed and refinements. They also had a significant effect on the curriculum itself, on the faculty, and on the socioeducational climate of the school. PMID:9609858

  12. Building on Strengths and Addressing Challenges: Enhancing External School Counseling Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Rallis, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper outlines the implications associated with increasing external evaluation within school counseling programs. The authors propose that enhancing external evaluation may help to both strengthen school counseling programs and enhance their legitimacy within increasingly competitive and academically focused school systems. More…

  13. Mortuary Science Programs: Examination of the External Evaluation Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, D. Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the literature on mortuary science accreditation site visit teams. This study used a mixed methodology design to examine: (1) who serves on the American Board of Funeral Service Education accreditation external site visit teams; (2) reasons for involvement in accreditation; (3) perceptions of important site…

  14. External tank program productivity and quality enhancements - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The optimization of the Manned Space Systems productivity and quality enhancement program is described. The guidelines and standards of the program and the roles played in it by various employee groups are addressed. Aspects of the program involving job/organization redefinition, production and planning in automation, and artificial intelligence and robotics are examined.

  15. A quality audit program for external beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, W.F.; Stovall, M.

    1993-12-31

    For more than 25 years, the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center has had a quality audit program using mailed dosimeters to verify radiation therapy machine output. Two programs, one compulsory and one voluntary, presently monitor therapy beams at more than 1000 megavoltage-therapy facilities. A successful program requires two major components: a high-precision thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system and dedicated staff that interact closely with the users to resolve discrepancies. The TLD system, the logistics used, and the human interaction of these programs are described. Examples show that the programs can identify major discrepancies, exceeding 5 %, as well as discrepancies as small as 3%.

  16. The effects of a prelicensure extern program and nurse residency program on new graduate outcomes and retention.

    PubMed

    Friday, Laura; Zoller, James S; Hollerbach, Ann D; Jones, Katherine; Knofczynski, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are looking to new graduate nurses to fill expected staffing shortages over the next decade. Creative and effective onboarding programs will determine the success or failure of these graduates as they transition from student to professional nurse. This longitudinal quantitative study with repeated measures used the Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey to investigate the effects of offering a prelicensure extern program and postlicensure residency program on new graduate nurses and organizational outcomes versus a residency program alone. Compared with the nurse residency program alone, the combination of extern program and nurse residency program improved neither the transition factors most important to new nurse graduates during their first year of practice nor a measure important to organizations, retention rates. The additional cost of providing an extern program should be closely evaluated when making financially responsible decisions. PMID:25993454

  17. External beam pixe programs at the University of California, Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, R.A.

    1983-04-01

    A PIXE system in which large or delicate samples are excited by a low-current external proton beam is described. This system has been used to analyze historical printed books and manuscripts, as well as a large variety of archeological artifacts. The steps used to protect the sample from unnecessary beam current are examined. A recent thorough study of the first volume of the Gutenberg 42-line Bible is described in some detail.

  18. Quality control program for the Hanford External Dosimetry thermoluminescent processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, W.V.; Endres, A.W.; Reese, S.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Program is operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program records official external occupational radiation doses for all Hanford Site employees and visitors in compliance with DOE Order requirements. This report documents the quality control (QC) program for External Dosimetry's thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) processing system. The focus of the External Dosimetry Program has been (1) to accurately calculate personnel radiation doses, and (2) to document the methods used to report doses in order, to meet DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) criteria. The purpose of this report is to describe the QC procedures used for dosimeters and processing equipment. Use of QC procedures allows for the prompt correction of unusual data before it is reported.

  19. Quality control program for the Hanford External Dosimetry thermoluminescent processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, W.V.; Endres, A.W.; Reese, S.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Program is operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program records official external occupational radiation doses for all Hanford Site employees and visitors in compliance with DOE Order requirements. This report documents the quality control (QC) program for External Dosimetry`s thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) processing system. The focus of the External Dosimetry Program has been (1) to accurately calculate personnel radiation doses, and (2) to document the methods used to report doses in order, to meet DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) criteria. The purpose of this report is to describe the QC procedures used for dosimeters and processing equipment. Use of QC procedures allows for the prompt correction of unusual data before it is reported.

  20. Alumni from One External Degree Program: Profile, Perceptions, and Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firenze, Louis

    1983-01-01

    The importance to alumni of a nontraditional program and the negotiability of the degree to the alumni, their employers and peers, and graduate schools was examined. Data indicated that the main reasons for selecting a nontraditional program were a flexible schedule and the need to maintain a regular working day. (Author/MLW)

  1. Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Ramphal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.

    2005-01-01

    The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…

  2. Dormitory Program Review: A Model for External Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Robert C.

    Systematic review of dormitory programs at residential schools for the deaf can alleviate existing problems and prevent new ones. Allegations of sexual misconduct and child abuse, in particular, have raised serious concerns about the adequacy of staff training and experience and the maintenance of appropriate student-staff ratios to provide…

  3. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program, 2007].

    PubMed

    Guna Serrano, María del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción; Pérez, José L

    2008-11-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons drawn from the 2007 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2007 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. A few deviations were observed in some controls, calling for critical reflection. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to complement internal with external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program.

  4. A Study of Training Program Characteristics and Training Program Effectiveness among Organizations Receiving Training Services from External Training Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Jeeyon; Hawley, Joshua D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of training program characteristics on training effectiveness among organizations receiving training services from external training providers. Two surveys were sent to HRD managers and senior managers per company. The results showed that the operational margin of the programs where private…

  5. A look at a successful perioperative nurse extern-intern program.

    PubMed

    Courney, Thomas J

    2005-03-01

    IN 2000, St Mary-Corwin Medical Center, Pueblo, Colo, launched a perioperative nurse extern-intern program to address the critical nursing shortage the facility's OR was experiencing. THE PROGRAM HAS THREE LEVELS, all of which focus on applying lessons learned in the classroom to the clinical setting. The final level of the program is designed to help participants' transition from being students to being clinical practitioners. ALL STUDENTS who participated in the program passed the National Council Licensure Examination on the first attempt. In addition, the program has improved employee recruitment and retention rates, reduced orientation and training costs, and resulted in positive feedback from participants.

  6. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2012].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2014-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2012 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2012 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  7. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    PubMed

    Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz de; Guna Serrano, M Del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2014 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2014 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of the SEIMC program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  8. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2009].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción; Pérez, José L

    2011-03-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. In this article, the most important conclusions and lessons from the 2009 controls are presented. As a whole, the results obtained in 2009 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests.

  9. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    PubMed

    Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz de; Guna Serrano, M Del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2014 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2014 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of the SEIMC program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests. PMID:27474240

  10. Results of external review Sandia microelectronics and microsystems program (September 2004).

    SciTech Connect

    Peercy, Paul S. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madision, WI); Myers, David R.

    2005-08-01

    The US Department of Energy requires a periodic assessment of the Microsystems Program at Sandia National Laboratories. An external review of this program is held approximately every 18 months to 24 months. The report from the External Review Panel serves as the basis for Sandia's ''self assessment'' and is a specific deliverable of the governance contract between Lockheed Martin and the Department of Energy. The External Review of Microelectronics and Microsystems for Fiscal Year 2004 was held September 27-29, 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The external review panel consisted of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is included as Appendix A of the attached report. The review assessed four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science, technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as ''outstanding''. The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as ''outstanding''. Operation of a major facility was rated as ''outstanding'', and the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as ''outstanding''. Sandia's Microsystems Program thus received an overall rating of ''outstanding'' [the highest possible rating].

  11. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, molecular microbiology and HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral loads. This manuscript presents the analysis of results obtained of the participants from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme, except viral loads controls, that they are summarized in a manuscript abroad. As a whole, the results obtained in 2013 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  12. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, molecular microbiology and HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral loads. This manuscript presents the analysis of results obtained of the participants from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme, except viral loads controls, that they are summarized in a manuscript abroad. As a whole, the results obtained in 2013 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests. PMID:26320989

  13. External Degree Programs in the United States: Research and Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Eugene J., Ed.

    This conference report presents an executive summary of a 1976-77 study on external degree programs conducted by the Bureau of Social Science Research in cooperation with the American Council on Education, the keynote address, summaries of panel commentaries on research implications and policy implications, and a conference summary. The…

  14. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2011 controls. Overall, the results obtained in 2011 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. Nevertheless, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program, in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests.

  15. Results of external review Sandia National Laboratories microelectronics and photonics program (October 2002).

    SciTech Connect

    Peercy, Paul S.; Myers, David R.

    2003-10-01

    The US Department of Energy requires a periodic 'self assessment' of Sandia's Microsystems Program. An external panel review of this program is held approximately every 18 months, and the report from the external review panel serves as the basis for the DOE 'self assessment.' The review for this fiscal year was held on September 30-October 1, 2002 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The panel was comprised of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is shown as Appendix A to the attached report. The review assesses four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as 'outstanding.' The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as 'outstanding.' Operation of a major facility was noted as 'outstanding,' while the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as 'outstanding.' Sandia's Microsystems Program received an overall rating of 'outstanding' [the highest possible rating]. The attached report was prepared by the panel in a format requested by Sandia to conform with the performance criteria for the DOE self assessment.

  16. Effectiveness of a teacher-based indicated prevention program for preschool children with externalizing problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Plueck, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hautmann, Christopher; Hanisch, Charlotte; Jaenen, Nicola; Doepfner, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Externalizing behavior is common in preschool children and shows stability over the lifespan implying that strategies for early intervention and prevention are needed. Improving parenting reduces child behavior problems but it is unproven whether the effects transfer to kindergarten. Strategies implemented directly by teachers in the kindergarten may be a promising approach. The effectiveness of the teacher's module of the Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP-TE) was investigated in a study using a within-subject control group design. Each of the 144 teachers enrolled identified one child with externalizing problem behavior (aged 3-6 years) and rated that child's behavior problems [broadband externalizing, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder] as well as their own behavior (attending skills) and burden by the child. Changes in child symptoms and teacher behavior or burden during the 3-month waiting period (control) and 3-month treatment period were compared. Stability of treatment effects at both 3- and 12-months follow-up after treatment was examined. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that, despite a reduction in externalizing behavior and ADHD scores during the waiting period, all child problem behavior scores decreased during the treatment period compared with the waiting period. The teacher's behavior also improved and their burden decreased. These treatment effects were stable during follow-up for the subsample remaining in the kindergarten for up to 1 year. This study shows that a teacher-based intervention alone is associated with improvements in both the externalizing behavior of preschoolers and teacher behavior and burden. Indications of long-term stability of effects were found.

  17. Effectiveness of a teacher-based indicated prevention program for preschool children with externalizing problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Plueck, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hautmann, Christopher; Hanisch, Charlotte; Jaenen, Nicola; Doepfner, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Externalizing behavior is common in preschool children and shows stability over the lifespan implying that strategies for early intervention and prevention are needed. Improving parenting reduces child behavior problems but it is unproven whether the effects transfer to kindergarten. Strategies implemented directly by teachers in the kindergarten may be a promising approach. The effectiveness of the teacher's module of the Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP-TE) was investigated in a study using a within-subject control group design. Each of the 144 teachers enrolled identified one child with externalizing problem behavior (aged 3-6 years) and rated that child's behavior problems [broadband externalizing, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder] as well as their own behavior (attending skills) and burden by the child. Changes in child symptoms and teacher behavior or burden during the 3-month waiting period (control) and 3-month treatment period were compared. Stability of treatment effects at both 3- and 12-months follow-up after treatment was examined. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that, despite a reduction in externalizing behavior and ADHD scores during the waiting period, all child problem behavior scores decreased during the treatment period compared with the waiting period. The teacher's behavior also improved and their burden decreased. These treatment effects were stable during follow-up for the subsample remaining in the kindergarten for up to 1 year. This study shows that a teacher-based intervention alone is associated with improvements in both the externalizing behavior of preschoolers and teacher behavior and burden. Indications of long-term stability of effects were found. PMID:24752568

  18. The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

  19. Results of external quality-assurance program for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network during 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.H.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    External quality assurance monitoring of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN) was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1985. The monitoring consisted of three primary programs: (1) an intersite comparison program designed to assess the precision and accuracy of onsite pH and specific conductance measurements made by NADP and NTN site operators; (2) a blind audit sample program designed to assess the effect of routine field handling on the precision and bias of NADP and NTN wet deposition data; and (3) an interlaboratory comparison program designed to compare analytical data from the laboratory processing NADP and NTN samples with data produced by other laboratories routinely analyzing wet deposition samples and to provide estimates of individual laboratory precision. An average of 94% of the site operators participated in the four voluntary intersite comparisons during 1985. A larger percentage of participating site operators met the accuracy goal for specific conductance measurements (average, 87%) than for pH measurements (average, 67%). Overall precision was dependent on the actual specific conductance of the test solution and independent of the pH of the test solution. Data for the blind audit sample program indicated slight positive biases resulting from routine field handling for all analytes except specific conductance. These biases were not large enough to be significant for most data users. Data for the blind audit sample program also indicated that decreases in hydrogen ion concentration were accompanied by decreases in specific conductance. Precision estimates derived from the blind audit sample program indicate that the major source of uncertainty in wet deposition data is the routine field handling that each wet deposition sample receives. Results of the interlaboratory comparison program were similar to results of previous years ' evaluations, indicating that the participating laboratories

  20. Design and Implementation of an External Quality Assessment Program for HIV Viral Load Measurements Using Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Prach, Lisa M.; Puren, Adrian; Lippman, Sheri A.; Carmona, Sergio; Stephenson, Sophie; Cutler, Ewalde; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    An external quality assurance program was developed for HIV-1 RNA viral load measurements taken from dried blood spots using a reference panel and field-collected specimens. The program demonstrated that accurate and reproducible quantitation can be obtained from field-collected specimens. Residual proviral DNA may confound interpretation in virologically suppressed subjects. PMID:25520449

  1. Impact of External Technology Funding Programs for Public Libraries: A Study of LSTA, E-Rate, Gates, and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Ryan, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Describes external sources of funding for public libraries to establish and maintain their technology infrastructure, telecommunications services, and network-based resources and services. Highlights include LSTA (Library Services and Technology Act); the E-rate program; and the Bill and Melissa Gates Foundation U.S. Library Program. (LRW)

  2. Thirty Five Years of Viewing Sociology as an External Program Reviewer: A Dean's Perspective on How Administrators View Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohm, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    The author, who has served as an external program reviewer for 17 sociology program reviews, gives his perspective on the views that academic administrators have of sociology. On the plus side, administrators view sociology as a discipline that teaches many students; values and incorporates diversity; produces research aimed at ameliorating…

  3. Preventing adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Gillham, Jane E.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Gallop, Robert J.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Freres, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697) were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention), or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007) reported analyses examining PRP’s effects on average and clinical levels of depression symptoms. We examine PRP’s effects on parent-, teacher-, and self-reports of adolescents’ externalizing and broader internalizing (depression/anxiety, somatic complaints, and social withdrawal) symptoms over three years of follow-up. Relative to no intervention control, PRP reduced parent-reports of adolescents’ internalizing symptoms beginning at the first assessment after the intervention and persisting for most of the follow-up assessments. PRP also reduced parent-reported conduct problems relative to no-intervention. There was no evidence that the PRP program produced an effect on teacher- or self-report of adolescents’ symptoms. Overall, PRP did not reduce symptoms relative to the alternate intervention, although there is a suggestion of a delayed effect for conduct problems. These findings are discussed with attention to developmental trajectories and the importance of interventions that address common risk factors for diverse forms of negative outcomes. PMID:24634897

  4. Anatomy and history of an external quality assessment program for interpretative comments in clinical biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Vasikaran, Samuel D

    2015-05-01

    The provision of clinical interpretation of results, either verbally or in the printed report, may be considered an integral part of clinical biochemistry diagnostic service. Proficiency testing or external quality assessment (EQA) of such activity may be useful in education, training, continuing professional development and ensuring the quality of such service. Details of the Patient Report Comments Program (RPCProgram) developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) Chemical Pathology Quality Assurance Programs Pty Ltd (QAP) is described in this review. The program is aimed at pathologists, clinical scientists and trainees. Registered participants are provided a report with case details and a set of clinical biochemistry results at monthly intervals and submit an interpretative comment for the report. Comments received are broken up into components that are translated into common key phrases. An expert panel evaluates the key phrases, classifies them according to appropriateness and drafts a suggested comment, a case summary and a rationale, which are included in a summary report returned to participants. There is considerable diversity in the quality of interpretative comments received from participants of the PRCProgram. The primary purpose of EQA of interpretative commenting is educational self-assessment, and they are recognized as a continuing professional development activity. Whilst there is some evidence for the utility of interpretative comments in improving patient outcomes, evidence for the utility of EQA in improving quality of comments is awaited.

  5. Cycle Five: Recommendations of the External Evaluators. Redesigned Programs for Teachers & Educational Leaders. K-12 Baccalaureate Degrees, Post-Baccalaureate Degrees, and Alternate Certification Degrees/Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Honore; Harris, Mary; Jennings, Clara; O'Neill, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    The Board of Regents (BoR) and State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (SBESE) selected four external consultants to review and evaluate redesigned graduate programs for educational leaders and teachers. In addition, personnel from the Louisiana Department of Education reviewed all K-12 undergraduate teacher preparation programs and…

  6. Cycle Six: Recommendations of the External Evaluators. Redesigned Programs for Teachers & Educational Leaders. K-12 Baccalaureate Degrees, Post-Baccalaureate Degrees, and Alternative Certification Degrees/Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Honore; Harris, Mary; Jennings, Clara; O'Neill, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    The Board of Regents (BoR) and State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) selected four external consultants to review and evaluate redesigned graduate programs for educational leaders and teachers. In addition, personnel from the Louisiana Department of Education reviewed all K-12 undergraduate teacher preparation programs and…

  7. A Structural Design for an Externally Blown Flap (EBF) Medium STOL Research Aircraft. [development of computer program for structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A computer program to predict, by reference to structural drawings, the dynamic response of a high lift STOL wing with externally blown flaps was developed. Structural data for the computer program are presented in the form of sketches, weight and dynamic loads information graphs, and tables for an external blown, triple-slotted flap, high lift STOL transport wing. Weight, mass distribution, and moment of inertia data are summarized in table form and presented pictorially by drawing layout. The methods used for obtaining weight data were: (1) actual know, weight of components, (2) preliminary stress sizing, and (3) statistical weight estimating methods.

  8. FORTRAN programs to process Magsat data for lithospheric, external field, and residual core components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Vonfrese, Ralph R. B.

    1994-01-01

    The FORTRAN programs supplied in this document provide a complete processing package for statistically extracting residual core, external field and lithospheric components in Magsat observations. To process the individual passes: (1) orbits are separated into dawn and dusk local times and by altitude, (2) passes are selected based on the variance of the magnetic field observations after a least-squares fit of the core field is removed from each pass over the study area, and (3) spatially adjacent passes are processed with a Fourier correlation coefficient filter to separate coherent and non-coherent features between neighboring tracks. In the second state of map processing: (1) data from the passes are normalized to a common altitude and gridded into dawn and dusk maps with least squares collocation, (2) dawn and dusk maps are correlated with a Fourier correlation efficient filter to separate coherent and non-coherent features; the coherent features are averaged to produce a total field grid, (3) total field grids from all altitudes are continued to a common altitude, correlation filtered for coherent anomaly features, and subsequently averaged to produce the final total field grid for the study region, and (4) the total field map is differentially reduced to the pole.

  9. External High School Diploma Program Evaluation Project. Final Report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980. Part II: Testing Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, Wanda Clements; Seggerson, Sharon Corcoran

    The purposes of this study were (1) to determine achievement levels of External High School Diploma Program (EHSDP) graduates at Waukesha County (Wisconsin) Technical Institute on the General Educational Development Test (GED) or other standardized tests nationally normed on high school students, and (2) to measure the basic skills level of…

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL PACING ON LEARNING FROM PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 2--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, INDIVIDUALIZING GROUP INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; KRESS, GERARD C., JR.

    THE EFFECTS OF VARIATIONS IN EXTERNALLY DIRECTED TEMPO (OPPOSITE OF SELF-PACING) ON PROGRAMED LEARNING PERFORMANCE WERE INVESTIGATED. THIS REPRESENTED THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF THREE STUDIES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACING MODE AND BEHAVIOR. (REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 199, ED 003 201, AND ED 003 202 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON…

  11. Programs for Prevention of Externalizing Problems in Children: Limited Evidence for Effect beyond 6 Months Post Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Hjern, Anders; Wiklund, Stefan; Anttila, Sten; Pettersson, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preventing externalizing problems in children is a major societal concern, and a great number of intervention programs have been developed to this aim. To evaluate their preventive effects, well-controlled trials including follow-up assessments are necessary. Methods: This is a systematic review of the effect of prevention programs…

  12. External Quality Assurance Programs Managed by the U.S. Geological Survey in Support of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latysh, Natalie E.; Wetherbee, Gregory A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Branch of Quality Systems operates external quality assurance programs for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN). Beginning in 2004, three programs have been implemented: the system blank program, the interlaboratory comparison program, and the blind audit program. Each program was designed to measure error contributed by specific components in the data-collection process. The system blank program assesses contamination that may result from sampling equipment, field exposure, and routine handling and processing of the wet-deposition samples. The interlaboratory comparison program evaluates bias and precision of analytical results produced by the Mercury Analytical Laboratory (HAL) for the NADP/MDN, operated by Frontier GeoSciences, Inc. The HAL's performance is compared with the performance of five other laboratories. The blind audit program assesses bias and variability of MDN data produced by the HAL using solutions disguised as environmental samples to ascertain true laboratory performance. This report documents the implementation of quality assurance procedures for the NADP/MDN and the operating procedures for each of the external quality assurance programs conducted by the USGS. The USGS quality assurance information provides a measure of confidence to NADP/MDN data users that measurement variability is distinguished from environmental signals.

  13. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: the roles of response programming and external attention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Cooke, Andrew; Ring, Christopher; Wilson, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Quiet eye training expedites skill learning and facilitates anxiety-resistant performance. Changes in response programming and external focus of attention may explain such benefits. We examined the effects of quiet eye training on golf-putting performance, quiet eye duration, kinematics (clubhead acceleration), and physiological (heart rate, muscle activity) responses. Forty participants were assigned to a quiet eye or technical trained group and completed 420 baseline, training, retention, and pressure putts. The quiet eye group performed more accurately and displayed more effective gaze control, lower clubhead acceleration, greater heart rate deceleration, and reduced muscle activity than the technical trained group during retention and pressure tests. Thus, quiet eye training was linked to indirect measures of improved response programming and an external focus. Mediation analyses partially endorsed a response programming explanation. PMID:22564009

  14. External task force review of the U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Water Program, August 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This Task Force review is the first external review of the Federal-State Cooperative Water Program through its more than 100-year history. The purpose of the Task Force is to gather information, assess the effectiveness of the program, and recommend improvements. This report describes the process used by the Task Force to review the Cooperative Water Program and presents the findings and recommendations resulting from the review. This report provides information about Task Force structure and meetings, the information collected and analyzed, and the decision-making process used to arrive at the findings and recommendations.

  15. External quality-assurance programs managed by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latysh, Natalie E.; Wetherbee, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Quality Systems, operates the external quality-assurance programs for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Beginning in 1978, six different programs have been implemented?the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the sample-handling evaluation program, the field-audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. Each program was designed to measure error contributed by specific components in the data-collection process. The intersite-comparison program, which was discontinued in 2004, was designed to assess the accuracy and reliability of field pH and specific-conductance measurements made by site operators. The blind-audit and sample-handling evaluation programs, which also were discontinued in 2002 and 2004, respectively, assessed contamination that may result from sampling equipment and routine handling and processing of the wet-deposition samples. The field-audit program assesses the effects of sample handling, processing, and field exposure. The interlaboratory-comparison program evaluates bias and precision of analytical results produced by the contract laboratory for NADP, the Illinois State Water Survey, Central Analytical Laboratory, and compares its performance with the performance of international laboratories. The collocated-sampler program assesses the overall precision of wet-deposition data collected by NADP/NTN. This report documents historical operations and the operating procedures for each of these external quality-assurance programs. USGS quality-assurance information allows NADP/NTN data users to discern between actual environmental trends and inherent measurement variability.

  16. Cycle Seven: Recommendations of the External Evaluators. Redesigned Programs for Teachers & Educational Leaders. Baccalaureate Degrees, Post-Baccalaureate Degrees, and Alternate Certification Degrees/Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Honore; Harris, Mary; Jennings, Clara; O'Neill, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The Board of Regents (BoR) and State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (SBESE) selected external consultants who possessed knowledge of current research and effective practices to review and evaluate redesigned programs for educational leaders and teachers. In addition, personnel from the Louisiana Department of Education reviewed all…

  17. "Inexpedient and Unwise": The First American External Degree Programs, 1876-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Von V.

    2007-01-01

    The first round of attempts to extend the access of working people to higher education began in 1873 with an imitation of the University of London on the prairies of Illinois. For all practical purposes, it ended in the legislature of the State of New York in 1892, although it took more than a decade to formally close all of the external degree…

  18. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... External Power Supplies: Small Business Consumer Subgroup Table V-10 Battery Chargers: Small Business... Table VI-1 Estimated Capital Conservation Costs for a Typical Small Business (2010$ million) Table VI-2 Estimated Product Conversion Costs for a Typical Small Business (2010$ million) Table VI-3 Estimated...

  19. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... FR 69681 (Dec. 30, 1993), if DOE determines that a test procedure amendment is warranted, it must.... 6295(u)(1)(A)) DOE complied with this requirement by publishing a test procedure final rule, 71 FR... Framework Document for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies on June 4, 2009. 74 FR 26816. DOE...

  20. Implementation lessons: the importance of assessing organizational "fit" and external factors when implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity.

  1. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  2. Preventing Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutuli, J. J.; Gillham, Jane E.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Gallop, Robert J.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Freres, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697) were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention), or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007) reported analyses…

  3. Student Outcomes Using a Cross-Sectional Design for Nursing External Degree Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melburg, Valerie; Hanner, Mary Beth

    Regents College of the University of the State of New York (USNY) offers nursing degree programs that are self-paced and accessible for adult learners. Students receive guided independent study in the form of advisement and degree planning, but learning course content is the responsibility of the student. An evaluation of the program was conducted…

  4. California Academic Partnership Program. External Evaluator's Cumulative Report--1987-90. Volume II. Individual Project Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    The California Academic Partnership Program (CAPP) is a state-established and state-funded program involving public schools and both public and private colleges. CAPP funds curriculum development and diagnostic testing partnerships in accordance with its goal of developing cooperative efforts to improve the academic quality of public secondary…

  5. External High School Diploma Program Evaluation Project. Final Report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980. Part I: Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, Wanda Clements; Seggerson, Sharon Corcoran

    The purposes of this project were (1) to conduct a follow-up study of the first fifty graduates of the External High School Diploma Program at Waukesha County (Wisconsin) Technical Institute in order to ascertain program strengths, weaknesses and impact; (2) to conduct a follow-up study of program terminations and identify reasons for…

  6. External Review for Sandia National Laboratory Microelectronics and Photonics Program 1998 Review

    SciTech Connect

    MCWHORTER, PAUL J.; ROMIG JR., ALTON D.

    1999-02-01

    The committee regards Sandia's Microelectronics and Photonics Program as a vital and strategic resource for the nation. The Microsystems (MEMS) and Chem Lab programs were assessed as unique and best-in-class for the development of significant application areas. They contribute directly to the Sandia mission and impact the development of new commercial areas. The continued development and integration of Radiation hard silicon integrated circuits, micromechanical systems, sensors, and optical communications is essential to the national security mission. The quality of the programs is excellent to outstanding overall. MEMS and Chem Lab activities are examples of outstanding programs. The committee was pleased to see the relationship of the microelectronics development programs to applications in the mission. In a future review the committee would like to see Sandia's research programs and a vision for connectivity to potential national security needs. (This review may be based on analysis and assumptions about the strategic needs of the nation.) In summary, the Microelectronics and Photonics capability affords Sandia the opportunity to deliver exceptional service in the national interest across broad technology areas. The presentations were excellent and well integrated. We received ample pre-reading materials, expectations were well set and the documents were high quality. The committee was provided an agenda with sufficient time among us and some selected one-on-one time with the researchers. The composition of the committee held representation from industry, universities and government. Committee contributions were well balanced and worked as a team. However, the committee was disappointed that no member of Sandia executive management was able to be present for the readout and final debriefing. (A late, higher priority conflict developed.) The members of the EST Program and the committee put substantial effort into the review but a written report like this one is

  7. Dosage-dependent hedgehog signals integrated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulate external genitalia formation as an appendicular program

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Moon, Anne; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Inoue, Chie; Harada, Masayo; Nakahara, Chiaki; Suzuki, Kentaro; Matsumaru, Daisuke; Kaneko, Takehito; Matsuo, Isao; Yang, Lei; Taketo, Makoto M.; Iguchi, Taisen; Evans, Sylvia M.; Yamada, Gen

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic appendicular structures, such as the limb buds and the developing external genitalia, are suitable models with which to analyze the reciprocal interactions of growth factors in the regulation of outgrowth. Although several studies have evaluated the individual functions of different growth factors in appendicular growth, the coordinated function and integration of input from multiple signaling cascades is poorly understood. We demonstrate that a novel signaling cascade governs formation of the embryonic external genitalia [genital tubercle (GT)]. We show that the dosage of Shh signal is tightly associated with subsequent levels of Wnt/β-catenin activity and the extent of external genitalia outgrowth. In Shh-null mouse embryos, both expression of Wnt ligands and Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity are downregulated. β-catenin gain-of-function mutation rescues defective GT outgrowth and Fgf8 expression in Shh-null embryos. These data indicate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the distal urethral epithelium acts downstream of Shh signaling during GT outgrowth. The current data also suggest that Wnt/β-catenin regulates Fgf8 expression via Lef/Tcf binding sites in a 3′ conserved enhancer. Fgf8 induces phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell proliferation in the GT mesenchyme in vitro, yet Fgf4/8 compound-mutant phenotypes indicate dispensable functions of Fgf4/8 and the possibility of redundancy among multiple Fgfs in GT development. Our results provide new insights into the integration of growth factor signaling in the appendicular developmental programs that regulate external genitalia development. PMID:19906864

  8. External Performance Evaluation Program Participation at Fluor Hanford (FH) 222S Lab

    SciTech Connect

    CLARK, G.A.

    2002-06-01

    Fluor Hanford operates the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 2224 Laboratory on the Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington State. 222-S Laboratory recently celebrated its 50th anniversary of providing laboratory services to DOE and DOE contractors on the Hanford Site. The laboratory operated for many years as a production support analytical laboratory, but in the last two decades has supported the Hanford Site cleanup mission. The laboratory performs radioanalytical, inorganic, and organic characterization analyses on highly radioactive liquid and solid tank waste that will eventually be vitrified for long-term storage and or disposal. It is essential that the laboratory report defensible, highly credible data in its role as a service provider to DOE and DOE contractors. Among other things, the participation in a number of performance evaluation (PE) programs helps to ensure the credibility of the laboratory. The laboratory currently participates in Environmental Resource Associates' Water Pollution (WP) Studies and the DOE Environmental Management Laboratory (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP). DOE has mandated participation of the laboratory in the EML QAP. This EML program evaluates the competence of laboratories performing environmental radioanalytical measurements for DOE, and is the most comprehensive and well-established PE program in the DOE community for radiochemical laboratories. Samples are received and analyzed for radionuclides in air filter, soil, vegetation, and water matrices on a semiannual basis. The 222-S Laboratory has performed well in this program over the years as evidenced by the scores in the chart below.

  9. Summary of external quality assurance programs and results for the NADP/NTN

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.D.; Nilles, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey utilizes several programs to document and improve the quality of NADP/NTN data. The contribution of sample collection and shipping container surfaces to wet deposition sample chemistry and routine sample handling effects are evaluated with a blind audit program. The results of the blind audit program indicate that the median amount of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} contamination attributable to handling and container contact has decreased from 0.04 mg/L in 1992 to 0.01 mg/L in 1995. Median percent bias in laboratory hydrogen ion concentration measurements due to handling and container contamination decreased from -9.76 {mu}eq/L in 1992 to -0.10 {mu}/L in 1995. An intersite comparison program evaluates onsite pH and specific conductance determinations. The median percent difference between the reported and expected pH value approximated 0% in every intersite comparison study, an indication that onsite pH measurements have consistently been unbiased. An interlaboratory comparison program compares the results from the NADP/NTN contract laboratory with results from other North American laboratories routinely analyzing wet deposition samples. The interlaboratory comparison program results in 1994-95 indicate cation precision estimates at the 50{sup th} percentile were quite similar between laboratories, with median absolute differences less than or equal to 0.004 mg/L. Anion precision estimates at the 50{sup th} percentile exhibited greater variability, but the median absolute differences were less than or equal to 0.014 mg/L. Network precision is estimated by the typical random error associated with differences between the existing and collocated collection equipment. For SOP{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, random error in network measurements has consistently been less than 7%.

  10. A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Jae-Hak; Hong, Ju; Choi, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment.

  11. Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs. Technical Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Rampal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.

    2005-01-01

    The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…

  12. 77 FR 22472 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J... April 9, 2012. Kathleen B. Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10...

  13. Adaptation of Different Computerized Methods of Distance Learning to an External PharmD Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Irene Petzinger; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A distance education course in drug information, scholarly literature evaluation, and biostatistics, offered as part of a doctoral pharmacy program, incorporates teleconferencing and online critiquing of pharmacy journal literature. Structure of the class, software and hardware, student performance, and student response to the teaching methods are…

  14. Effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids Parenting Program on Children's Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele; Burkhart, Kimberly; Howe, Tasha

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-seven parents and primary caregivers of children aged 10 years or younger participated in a study examining the effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids program on children's behavior. It was hypothesized that children of caregivers who complete ACT-RSK would demonstrate reduced behavior problems compared to children of caregivers in a…

  15. Looking Forward by Looking Back: Determining the Value of External Program Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Diane E.; Burgess, Susan; Nesbit, Tom

    2010-01-01

    As Canadian universities are pressured to exhibit a range of organizational accountabilities, their various academic, administrative, and support units are required to adopt more integrated and inclusive approaches to assessment and planning. Within the purview of university continuing education units, individual program areas are expected to not…

  16. "Keep on Truckin'" Literacy Program [for Adults]: Performance Report; Teacher's Handbook; Final External Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Hills Community Coll., Ottumwa, IA.

    This document is composed of a performance report, a teacher's handbook, and an evaluation report of a workplace literacy program to prepare drivers for the Commercial Drivers' License examination. The performance report addresses actual accomplishments of five objectives. It identifies the number and characteristics of project participants who…

  17. Using Internal and External Evaluation to Shape Teacher Preparation Curriculum: A Model for Continuous Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Patricia J.; Sherwood, Sara A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The same high stakes accountability measures that have shaped the K-12 educational context over the past decade have become part of the university teacher preparation landscape. National accrediting organizations have created more rigorous, outcomes-based accountability measures for teacher preparation programs. Educational stakeholders offer…

  18. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    Six external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) External Quality-Assurance (QA) Project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2002 through 2003. Each program measured specific components of the overall error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assessed the variability and bias of pH and specific conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators twice per year with respect to accuracy goals. The percentage of site operators that met the pH accuracy goals decreased from 92.0 percent in spring 2002 to 86.3 percent in spring 2003. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, the percentage of site operators that met the accuracy goals for specific conductance ranged from 94.4 to 97.5 percent. The blind-audit program and the sample-handling evaluation (SHE) program evaluated the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly NADP/NTN samples. The blind-audit program data indicated that the variability introduced by sample handling might be environmentally significant to data users for sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ion concentrations during 2002. In 2003, the blind-audit program was modified and replaced by the SHE program. The SHE program was designed to control the effects of laboratory-analysis variability. The 2003 SHE data had less overall variability than the 2002 blind-audit data. The SHE data indicated that sample handling buffers the pH of the precipitation samples and, in turn, results in slightly lower conductivity. Otherwise, the SHE data provided error estimates that were not environmentally significant to data users. The field-audit program was designed to evaluate the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. Field-audit results indicated that exposure of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples

  19. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network during 1988. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    See, R.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1978 as a national monitoring network to investigate acid deposition. The National Trends Network (NTN) was established in 1982 to expand the NADP effort into areas not previously sampled. Most sites in the NADP were incorporated into the NTN operation. Data collected as part of the NADP/NTN programs are used to monitor spatial and temporal trends in the chemical composition of natural wet deposition and to provide accurate data to individual scientists or agencies involved in research on the effects of acid deposition. The report describes the results of the external quality-assurance programs operated by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1988. These programs: (1) Assess the precision and accuracy of onsite determinations of pH and specific conductance; (2) evaluate the effects of onsite and laboratory protocols on the bias and precision of NADP/NTN analyte determinations; (3) determine the comparability, bias, and precision of analytical results obtained by separate laboratories when portions of a common sample were analyzed; and (4) estimate the precision of the entire sampling system.

  20. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network during 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    See, Randolph B.; Schroder, LeRoy J.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    1988-01-01

    During 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey operated three programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network. An intersite-comparison program was used to assess the accuracy of onsite pH and specific-conductance determinations at quarterly intervals. The blind-audit program was used to assess the effect of routine sample handling on the precision and bias of program and network wet-deposition data. Analytical results from four laboratories, which routinely analyze wet-deposition samples, were examined to determine if differences existed between laboratory analytical results and to provide estimates of the analytical precision of each laboratory. An average of 78 and 89 percent of the site operators participating in the intersite-comparison met the network goals for pH and specific conductance. A comparison of analytical values versus actual values for samples submitted as part of the blind-audit program indicated that analytical values were slightly but significantly (a = 0.01) larger than actual values for pH, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate; analytical values for specific conductance were slightly less than actual values. The decreased precision in the analyses of blind-audit samples when compared to interlaboratory studies indicates that a large amount of uncertainty in network deposition data may be a result of routine field operations. The results of the interlaboratory comparison study indicated that the magnitude of the difference between laboratory analyses was small for all analytes. Analyses of deionized, distilled water blanks by participating laboratories indicated that the laboratories had difficulty measuring analyte concentrations near their reported detection limits. (USGS)

  1. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network during 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilles, M.A.; Gordon, J.D.; Schroder, L.J.; Paulin, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey used four programs in 1991 to provide external quality assurance for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). An intersite-comparison program was used to evaluate onsite pH and specific-conductance determinations. The effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping of wet-deposition samples on analyte determinations and an estimated precision of analyte values and concentrations were evaluated in the blind-audit program. Differences between analytical results and an estimate of the analytical precision of four laboratories routinely measuring wet deposition were determined by an interlaboratory-comparison program. Overall precision estimates for the precipitation-monitoring system were determined for selected sites by a collocated-sampler program. Results of the intersite-comparison program indicated that 93 and 86 percent of the site operators met the NADP/NTN accuracy goal for pH determinations during the two intersite-comparison studies completed during 1991. The results also indicated that 96 and 97 percent of the site operators met the NADP/NTN accuracy goal for specific-conductance determinations during the two 1991 studies. The effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping, determined in the blind-audit program indicated significant positive bias (a=.O 1) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate. Significant negative bias (or=.01) was determined for hydrogen ion and specific conductance. Only ammonium determinations were not biased. A Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that there were no significant (*3t=.01) differences in analytical results from the four laboratories participating in the interlaboratory-comparison program. Results from the collocated-sampler program indicated the median relative error for cation concentration and deposition exceeded eight percent at most sites, whereas the median relative error for sample volume

  2. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Greene, Shannon M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used five programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and two programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the NADP/Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN) during 2004. An intersite-comparison program was used to estimate accuracy and precision of field-measured pH and specific-conductance. The variability and bias of NADP/NTN data attributed to field exposure, sample handling and shipping, and laboratory chemical analysis were estimated using the sample-handling evaluation (SHE), field-audit, and interlaboratory-comparison programs. Overall variability of NADP/NTN data was estimated using a collocated-sampler program. Variability and bias of NADP/MDN data attributed to field exposure, sample handling and shipping, and laboratory chemical analysis were estimated using a system-blank program and an interlaboratory-comparison program. In two intersite-comparison studies, approximately 89 percent of NADP/NTN site operators met the pH measurement accuracy goals, and 94.7 to 97.1 percent of NADP/NTN site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. Field chemistry measurements were discontinued by NADP at the end of 2004. As a result, the USGS intersite-comparison program also was discontinued at the end of 2004. Variability and bias in NADP/NTN data due to sample handling and shipping were estimated from paired-sample concentration differences and specific conductance differences obtained for the SHE program. Median absolute errors (MAEs) equal to less than 3 percent were indicated for all measured analytes except potassium and hydrogen ion. Positive bias was indicated for most of the measured analytes except for calcium, hydrogen ion and specific conductance. Negative bias for hydrogen ion and specific conductance indicated loss of hydrogen ion and decreased specific conductance from contact of the sample with

  3. "Superheroes in the Resource Room": A Study Examining Implementation of the Superhero Social Skills Program by a Resource Teacher with Students with Externalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Benjamin James

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Superhero Social Skills program in increasing the social engagement skills and decreasing the aggressive behavior of students with externalizing behavior problems as implemented by a resource teacher. There have been no empirical evaluations of the Superhero Social Skills program as implemented…

  4. Chromosome microarray proficiency testing and analysis of quality metric data trends through an external quality assessment program for Australasian laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wright, D C; Adayapalam, N; Bain, N; Bain, S M; Brown, A; Buzzacott, N; Carey, L; Cross, J; Dun, K; Joy, C; McCarthy, C; Moore, S; Murch, A R; O'Malley, F; Parker, E; Watt, J; Wilkin, H; Fagan, K; Pertile, M D; Peters, G B

    2016-10-01

    Chromosome microarrays are an essential tool for investigation of copy number changes in children with congenital anomalies and intellectual deficit. Attempts to standardise microarray testing have focused on establishing technical and clinical quality criteria, however external quality assessment programs are still needed. We report on a microarray proficiency testing program for Australasian laboratories. Quality metrics evaluated included analytical accuracy, result interpretation, report completeness, and laboratory performance data: sample numbers, success and abnormality rate and reporting times. Between 2009 and 2014 nine samples were dispatched with variable results for analytical accuracy (30-100%), correct interpretation (32-96%), and report completeness (30-92%). Laboratory performance data (2007-2014) showed an overall mean success rate of 99.2% and abnormality rate of 23.6%. Reporting times decreased from >90 days to <30 days for normal results and from >102 days to <35 days for abnormal results. Data trends showed a positive correlation with improvement for all these quality metrics, however only 'report completeness' and reporting times reached statistical significance. Whether the overall improvement in laboratory performance was due to participation in this program, or from accumulated laboratory experience over time, is not clear. Either way, the outcome is likely to assist referring clinicians and improve patient care.

  5. Chromosome microarray proficiency testing and analysis of quality metric data trends through an external quality assessment program for Australasian laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wright, D C; Adayapalam, N; Bain, N; Bain, S M; Brown, A; Buzzacott, N; Carey, L; Cross, J; Dun, K; Joy, C; McCarthy, C; Moore, S; Murch, A R; O'Malley, F; Parker, E; Watt, J; Wilkin, H; Fagan, K; Pertile, M D; Peters, G B

    2016-10-01

    Chromosome microarrays are an essential tool for investigation of copy number changes in children with congenital anomalies and intellectual deficit. Attempts to standardise microarray testing have focused on establishing technical and clinical quality criteria, however external quality assessment programs are still needed. We report on a microarray proficiency testing program for Australasian laboratories. Quality metrics evaluated included analytical accuracy, result interpretation, report completeness, and laboratory performance data: sample numbers, success and abnormality rate and reporting times. Between 2009 and 2014 nine samples were dispatched with variable results for analytical accuracy (30-100%), correct interpretation (32-96%), and report completeness (30-92%). Laboratory performance data (2007-2014) showed an overall mean success rate of 99.2% and abnormality rate of 23.6%. Reporting times decreased from >90 days to <30 days for normal results and from >102 days to <35 days for abnormal results. Data trends showed a positive correlation with improvement for all these quality metrics, however only 'report completeness' and reporting times reached statistical significance. Whether the overall improvement in laboratory performance was due to participation in this program, or from accumulated laboratory experience over time, is not clear. Either way, the outcome is likely to assist referring clinicians and improve patient care. PMID:27575971

  6. High sensitivity and specificity of clinical microscopy in rural health facilities in western Kenya under an external quality assurance program.

    PubMed

    Wafula, Rebeccah; Sang, Edna; Cheruiyot, Olympia; Aboto, Angeline; Menya, Diana; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme

    2014-09-01

    Microscopic diagnosis of malaria is a well-established and inexpensive technique that has the potential to provide accurate diagnosis of malaria infection. However, it requires both training and experience. Although it is considered the gold standard in research settings, the sensitivity and specificity of routine microscopy for clinical care in the primary care setting has been reported to be unacceptably low. We established a monthly external quality assurance program to monitor the performance of clinical microscopy in 17 rural health centers in western Kenya. The average sensitivity over the 12-month period was 96% and the average specificity was 88%. We identified specific contextual factors that contributed to inadequate performance. Maintaining high-quality malaria diagnosis in high-volume, resource-constrained health facilities is possible. PMID:24935953

  7. golem95: A numerical program to calculate one-loop tensor integrals with up to six external legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binoth, T.; Guillet, J.-Ph.; Heinrich, G.; Pilon, E.; Reiter, T.

    2009-11-01

    We present a program for the numerical evaluation of form factors entering the calculation of one-loop amplitudes with up to six external legs. The program is written in Fortran95 and performs the reduction to a certain set of basis integrals numerically, using a formalism where inverse Gram determinants can be avoided. It can be used to calculate one-loop amplitudes with massless internal particles in a fast and numerically stable way. Catalogue identifier: AEEO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 50 105 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 241 657 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran95 Computer: Any computer with a Fortran95 compiler Operating system: Linux, Unix RAM: RAM used per form factor is insignificant, even for a rank six six-point form factor Classification: 4.4, 11.1 External routines: Perl programming language (http://www.perl.com/) Nature of problem: Evaluation of one-loop multi-leg tensor integrals occurring in the calculation of next-to-leading order corrections to scattering amplitudes in elementary particle physics. Solution method: Tensor integrals are represented in terms of form factors and a set of basic building blocks ("basis integrals"). The reduction to the basis integrals is

  8. Bridging the gap between research and practice: an assessment of external validity of community-based physical activity programs in Bogotá, Colombia, and Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Sarmiento, Olga L; Barros, Mauro; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-03-01

    For more than a decade, physical activity classes have been offered in public places at no cost to the participants in some Latin American cities, however, internal and external validity evidence of these programs is limited. The goals of this study were to assess, report, and compare the external validity of the Recreovia program (RCP) in Colombia, and the Academia da Cidade program (ACP) in Brazil. Interviews to assess external validity of the RCP and ACP were conducted in 2012. The interview guide was developed based on the RE-AIM framework. Seventeen key informants were selected to participate in the study. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative qualitative method and experts validated common themes. RCP and ACP key informants reported that both programs reach underserved population. There is no information available about effectiveness. Both programs take place in public spaces (e.g., parks and plazas), which are selected for adoption mainly based on community demand. RCP and ACP offer free physical activity classes with educational and cultural components, have a strong organizational structure for implementation, and differ on schedule and content of classes. Funding sources were reported to play an important role on long-term maintenance. Facilitators and barriers were identified. Programs are similar in the reach and adoption elements; the main differences were found on implementation and maintenance, whereas information on effectiveness was not found. Reporting external validity of these programs is useful to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  9. External quality-assurance results for the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Gordon, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2000 through 2001 (study period): the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field-audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. Each program is designed to measure specific components of the total error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assesses the variability and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators with respect to accuracy goals. The accuracy goals are statistically based using the median of all of the measurements obtained for each of four intersite-comparison studies. The percentage of site operators responding on time that met the pH accuracy goals ranged from 84.2 to 90.5 percent. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, 88.9 to 99.0 percent of the site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The blind-audit data for the study period indicate that sample handling introduced a small amount of sulfate contamination and slight changes to hydrogen-ion content of the precipitation samples. The magnitudes of the paired differences are not environmentally significant to NADP/NTN data users. The field-audit program (also known as the 'field-blank program') was designed to measure the effects of field exposure, handling, and processing on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. The results indicate potential low-level contamination of NADP/NTN samples with calcium, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. Less sodium contamination was detected by the field-audit data than in previous years. Statistical analysis of the paired differences shows that contaminant ions

  10. Successes and Short Comings in Four Years of an International External Quality Assurance Program for Animal Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, Erica; Cardona, Carol; Muñoz-Aguayo, Jeannette; Fleming, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The US National institutes of Health-Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance is a research consortium that funds numerous labs worldwide to conduct influenza A surveillance in diverse animal species. There is no harmonization of testing procedures among these labs; therefore an external quality assurance (EQA) program was implemented to evaluate testing accuracy among labs in the program in 2012. Accurate detection of novel influenza A variants is crucial because of the broad host range and potentially high virulence of the virus in diverse species. Two molecular detection sample sets and 2 serology sample sets (one with avian origin isolates, and one with mammalian origin isolates each) were made available at approximately six month intervals. Participating labs tested the material in accordance with their own protocols. During a five year period a total of 41 labs from 23 countries ordered a total of 132 avian molecular, 121 mammalian molecular and 90 serology sample sets. Testing was completed by 111 individuals. Detection of type A influenza by RT-PCR was reliable with a pass rate (80% or greater agreement with expected results) of 86.6% for avian and 86.2% for mammalian origin isolates. However, identification of subtype by RT-PCR was relatively poor with 54.1% and 75.9% accuracy for avian and mammalian influenza isolates respectively. Serological testing had an overall pass rate of 86.9% and 22/23 labs used commercial ELISA kits. Based on the results of this EQA program six labs modified their procedures to improve accuracy and one lab identified an unknown equipment problem. These data represent the successful implementation of an international EQA program for an infectious disease; insights into the logistics and test design are also discussed. PMID:27788155

  11. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1).

  12. Shaping a Cohesive Agenda: Next Steps. National Conference on Adult and External Degree Programs. (7th, Memphis, Tennessee, October 7-10, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance, an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.

    Proceedings of an international conference on adult and external degree programs are presented. Selected papers are drawn from the areas of distance learning, support services, intra-institutional, curriculum, and teaching. They include: "Uses of Distance Education for Graduate Professional Degrees" (Ruth J. Person and Raymond Vondran); "Library…

  13. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  14. Advancing Our National Agenda. Proceedings of the National Conference on Adult and External Degree Programs (8th, Washington, D.C., October 12-14, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    A comprehensive, interactive conference was designed to help improve the quality of external degree programs and adult education. Sixteen papers are presented as follows: (1) "Designing Self-Instructional Print Material for the Adult Learner" (Diane J. Davis); (2) "Degrees by Alternative Delivery for U.S. Soldiers and Sailors" (Clinton L.…

  15. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lindholm, Sandy J.

    2003-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/ National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) during 1997 through 1999: the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field- audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. The intersite-comparison program assesses the accuracy of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators. In two 1997 intersite-comparison studies, 83.7 and 85.8 percent of the pH determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals, whereas 97.3 and 92.4 percent of the specific-conductance determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals. The percentage of pH and specific-conductance determinations that met the accuracy goals in 1998 were, for the most part, higher than in 1997. In two 1998 studies, 90.9 and 90.3 percent of the pH determinations met the accuracy goals compared to 94.7 and 96.0 percent of the specific- conductance measurements meeting the accuracy goals. In one 1999 intersite-comparison study, 89.5 percent and 99.4 percent of pH and specific- conductance determinations, respectively, met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the analytical bias and precision of weekly precipitation samples. A portion of the blind-audit sample subject to the normal onsite handling and processing of a weekly precipitation sample is referred to as the bucket portion, whereas the portion receiving only minimal handling is referred to as the bottle portion. Positive bias in regard to blind-audit results indicates that the bucket portion has a higher concentration than the bottle portion. The paired t-test for the 1997 through 1999 blind- audit data indicates that routine sample handling, processing, and shipping introduced a positive bias (a=0.05) for calcium and chloride and a negative bias (cz=0.05) for

  16. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated four external quality-assurance programs for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) in 1995 and 1996: the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the interlaboratory- comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. The intersite-comparison program assessed the precision and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators. The analytical bias introduced during routine handling, processing, and shipping of wet-deposition samples and precision of analyte values was estimated using a blind-audit program. An interlaboratory-comparison program was used to evaluate differences between analytical results and to estimate the analytical precision of five North American laboratories that routinely analyzed wet deposition. A collocated-sampler program estimated the precision of the overall precipitation collection and analysis system from initial sample collection through final storage of the data. Results of two intersite-comparison studies completed in 1995 indicated 94.6 and 94.4 percent of the onsite pH determinations met the NADP/NTN accuracy goals, whereas 97.2 and 98.3 percent of the specific-conductance determinations were within the established limits. The percentages of onsite determinations that met the accuracy goals in 1996 were slightly less for both pH and specific-conductance than in 1995. In 1996, 93.2 and 87.5 percent of onsite pH determinations met the accuracy goals, whereas the percentage of onsite specific-conductance measurements that met the goals was 93.9 and 94.9 percent.The blind audit program utilizes a paired sample design to evaluate the effects of routine sample handling, processing and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The portion of the blind audit sample subject to all of the normal onsite handling and processing steps of a regular weekly precipitation sample is referred to as the bucket

  17. Effects of after-school programs with at-risk youth on attendance and externalizing behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Kristen P; Maynard, Brandy R; Polanin, Joshua R; Vaughn, Michael G; Sarteschi, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    The popularity, demand, and increased federal and private funding for after-school programs have resulted in a marked increase in after-school programs over the past two decades. After-school programs are used to prevent adverse outcomes, decrease risks, or improve functioning with at-risk youth in several areas, including academic achievement, crime and behavioral problems, socio-emotional functioning, and school engagement and attendance; however, the evidence of effects of after-school programs remains equivocal. This systematic review and meta-analysis, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, examined the effects of after-school programs on externalizing behaviors and school attendance with at-risk students. A systematic search for published and unpublished literature resulted in the inclusion of 24 studies. A total of 64 effect sizes (16 for attendance outcomes; 49 for externalizing behavior outcomes) extracted from 31 reports were included in the meta-analysis using robust variance estimation to handle dependencies among effect sizes. Mean effects were small and non-significant for attendance and externalizing behaviors. A moderate to large amount of heterogeneity was present; however, no moderator variable tested explained the variance between studies. Significant methodological shortcomings were identified across the corpus of studies included in this review. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed. PMID:25416228

  18. Effects of After-School Programs with At-Risk Youth on Attendance and Externalizing Behaviors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The popularity, demand, and increased federal and private funding for after-school programs have resulted in a marked increase in after-school programs over the past two decades. After-school programs are used to prevent adverse outcomes, decrease risks, or improve functioning with at-risk youth in several areas, including academic achievement, crime and behavioral problems, socio-emotional functioning, and school engagement and attendance; however, the evidence of effects of after-school programs remains equivocal. This systematic review and meta-analysis, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, examined the effects of after-school programs on externalizing behaviors and school attendance with at-risk students. A systematic search for published and unpublished literature resulted in the inclusion of 24 studies. A total of 64 effect sizes (16 for attendance outcomes; 49 for externalizing behavior outcomes) extracted from 31 reports were included in the meta-analysis using robust variance estimation to handle dependencies among effect sizes. Mean effects were small and non-significant for attendance and externalizing behaviors. A moderate to large amount of heterogeneity was present; however, no moderator variable tested explained the variance between studies. Significant methodological shortcomings were identified across the corpus of studies included in this review. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed. PMID:25416228

  19. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program

    PubMed Central

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. Methods: A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Results: Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs’ over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Conclusion: Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs. PMID:25279381

  20. Effects of a contrast training program without external load on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Latorre-Román, Pedro A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week contrast training (CT) program (isometric + plyometric), with no external loads, on the vertical jump, kicking speed, sprinting, and agility skills of young soccer players. Thirty young soccer players (age, 15.9 ± 1.43 years; weight, 65.4 ± 10.84 kg; height, 171.0 ± 0.06 cm) were randomized in a control group (n = 13) and an experimental group (n = 17). The CT program was included in the experimental group's training sessions, who undertook it twice a week as a part of their usual weekly training regime. This program included 3 exercises: 1 isometric and 2 plyometric, without external loads. These exercises progressed in volume throughout the training program. Performance in countermovement jump (CMJ), Balsom agility test (BAT), 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint, and soccer kick were assessed before and after the training program. A 2-factor (group and time) analysis of variance revealed significant improvements (p < 0.001) in CMJ, BAT, and kicking speed in the experimental group players. Control group remained unchanged in these variables. Both groups significantly reduced sprint times over 5, 10, 20, and 30 m (p ≤ 0.05). A significant correlation (r = 0.492, p < 0.001) was revealed between ΔBAT and Δaverage kicking speed. Results suggest that a specific CT program without external loads is effective for improving soccer-specific skills such as vertical jump, sprint, agility, and kicking speed in young soccer players.

  1. External High School Diploma Program Evaluation Project. Final Report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980. Part III: Competency Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, Wanda Clements; Seggerson, Sharon Corcoran

    The purpose of this portion of a project was to compare External High School Diploma (EHSDP) competencies at Waukesha County (Wisconsin) Technical Institute with minimum high school competency requirements in (1) local school districts and (2) selected states. Testing focused on basic skills of mathematics, reading, and writing. Minimum competency…

  2. The Guiding Effects of a Critical Reading Program on the Use of External Reading Strategies When Confronting an Ironical Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabay, Aysegul

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a sample of 60 pre-service teachers to examine the guiding effects of understanding critical reading theories on using external reading strategies such as note-taking and underlining when confronting an ironical literary text. The study broke down the teachers into one control group of 30 teachers and one experimental group of…

  3. The Role of Organizational Context and External Influences in the Implementation of Evidence-Based Programs. Report III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Allison; Burkhauser, Mary; Collins, Ashleigh; Bandy, Tawana

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of programs and practices that reflect the best available research and evaluation is a new and very promising development in the out-of-school time field. However, successfully implementing a new, evidence-based program or practice is a major challenge for practitioners. This challenge is due, in large part, to a lack of…

  4. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  5. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civilian Space Program. Volume 2; External Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Day, Dwayne A. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The documents selected for inclusion in this volume are presented in three chapters, each covering a particular aspect of the evolution of U.S. space exploration. These chapters address (1) the relations between the civilian space program of the United States and the space activities of other countries, (2) the relations between the U.S. civilian space program and the space efforts of national security organizations and the military, and (3) NASA's relations with industry and academic institutions.

  6. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  7. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1 and HCV viral load of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2009].

    PubMed

    Orta Mira, Nieves; del Remedio Guna Serrano, María; Martínez, José-Carlos Latorre; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; de Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz; Pérez, José L; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers in the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the results obtained from the SEIMC's External Quality Control Program for HIV-1 and HCV viral loads in 2009. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log(10) copies/mL; two of these standards were identical, aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (21.5% on average) obtained values outside the accepted range (mean ± 0.2 log(10) copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 95 % of laboratories reporting results within the accepted limits (Δ<0.5 log10 copies/mL). Post-analytical errors due to mistranscription of the results were detected for HIV-1. The HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants (79.7%) obtained results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log(10) UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to marked interlaboratory variability, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable.

  8. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].

    PubMed

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, María del Remedio; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers in the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the results of the 2011 SEIMC External Quality Control Program for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; to determine repeatability, two of these standards were identical. A significant proportion of the laboratories (52.1% on average) obtained values outside the accepted range (mean ± 0,25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 94.9% of laboratories reporting results within the accepted range (Δ<0,5 log10 copies/ mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. In most of the participating laboratories (90% in the case of HCV and 86% in that of HBV), all the results were within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to the marked interlaboratory variability found, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable.

  9. An external evaluation of the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Laura M; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; LeFevre, Amnesty; Black, Robert E; Walker, Christa L Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Background To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program was carried out from 2011–2013 in Gujarat and from 2011–2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. Methods We conducted cross–sectional household surveys in program districts at baseline and endline and constructed state–specific logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to assess changes in ORS and zinc treatment during the program period. Results Between baseline and endline, zinc coverage increased from 2.5% to 22.4% in Gujarat and from 3.1% to 7.0% in UP; ORS coverage increased from 15.3% to 39.6% in Gujarat but did not change in UP. In comparison to baseline, children with diarrhea in the two–weeks preceding the endline survey had higher odds of receiving zinc treatment in both Gujarat (odds ratio, OR = 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.4–19.3) and UP (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4–3.9), but the odds of receiving ORS only increased in Gujarat (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 2.7–4.8; UP OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.7–1.2). Seeking care outside the home, especially from a public sector source, was associated with higher odds of receiving ORS and zinc. Conclusions During the duration of the DAZT program, there were modest improvements in the treatment of diarrhea among young children. Future programs should build upon and accelerate this trend with continued investment in public and private sector provider training and supply chain sustainability, in addition to targeted caregiver demand generation activities. PMID:26682045

  10. External quality-assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn; Rhodes, Mark F.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2009–2010. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples; a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) and Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL). The blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in total Hg concentration data produced by the HAL. The co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and precipitation collectors that use optical sensors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the United States. Results also suggest that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new precipitation collectors could cause –8 to +14 percent shifts in NADP annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations and total deposition values for ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and larger shifts (+13 to +74 percent) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The prototype N-CON Systems bucket collector is more efficient in the catch of precipitation in winter than Aerochem Metrics Model 301 collector, especially for light snowfall.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey external quality-assurance project report to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2007-08. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples, and a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL), and 12 other participating laboratories. A blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in HAL total Hg concentration data. A co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and prototype precipitation collectors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the U.S. NADP data-quality objectives continued to be achieved during 2007-08. Results also indicate that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new E-gages is not likely to create step-function type shifts in NADP precipitation-depth records, except for sites where annual precipitation depth is dominated by snow because the E-gages tend to catch more snow than the original NADP rain gages. Evaluation of prototype precipitation collectors revealed no difference in sample volumes and analyte concentrations between the original NADP collectors and modified, deep-bucket collectors, but the Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc. (YES) collector obtained samples of significantly higher volumes and analyte concentrations than the standard NADP collector.

  12. Implications of Climate Change for State Bioassessment Programs and Approaches to Account for Effects (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report uses biological data collected by four states in wadeable rivers and streams to examine the components of state and tribal bioassessment and biomonitoring programs that may be vulnerable to climate change. The study investigates the potential to identify biologi...

  13. STAN5: A program for numerical computation of two-dimensional internal and external boundary layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, M. E.; Kays, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    A large variety of two dimensional flows can be accommodated by the program, including boundary layers on a flat plate, flow inside nozzles and diffusers (for a prescribed potential flow distribution), flow over axisymmetric bodies, and developing and fully developed flow inside circular pipes and flat ducts. The flows may be laminar or turbulent, and provision is made to handle transition.

  14. ACCOMMODATING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES DURING EXTERNALLY PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 3--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, INDIVIDUALIZING GROUP INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; KRESS, GERALD C., JR.

    THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATE APPROACHES TOWARD INDIVIDUALIZATION OF FIXED-PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WAS ASSESSED. THIS REPRESENTED THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF THREE STUDIES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACING MODE AND BEHAVIOR. (REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 199, ED 003 200, AND ED 003 202 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THIS…

  15. Vulnerability Assessments in Support of the Climate Ready Estuaries Program: A Novel Approach Using Expert Judgement, Volume II: Results for the Massachusetts Bays Program (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Climate Ready Estuaries (CRE) program, the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a report exploring a new methodology fo...

  16. Effect of a Reading Program, Consisting of Corrective Reading and the Support of an External Consultative Agency, on Achievement Scores of Students Served through an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Sandy D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) if the reading program adopted by Sally D. Meadows enhanced the achievement of students placed in the Early Intervention Program (EIP); (b) if the students' reading achievement scores increased more after the second year of implementation than they did after the first year of implementation; and (c)…

  17. Entering the 90's: Reflections on the Past, Directions for the Future. National Conference on Adult and External Degree Programs (9th, Tampa, Florida, October 11-13, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance, an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.

    This report of a conference on distance learning/adult education programs contains the following papers: "Adult Learners, Distance Education, and Technology: It's the Future, but Can We Get There from Here?" (Gulliver, Wright); "Minority Student Response to External Adult Degree Program Education" (Gillett, Sutphin); "Methods in Project…

  18. [Standardization of measurement of catalytic activity concentration of enzymes--current situation regarding the external quality assessment program provided by the Japan Medical Association].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been standardized using a traceability chain, consisting a reference measurement system for enzyme catalytic activity and reference standard-JSCC enzyme. The Japan Medical Association (JMA) has provided an external quality assessment (EQA) survey program for clinical laboratory testing. More than 3,100 clinical laboratories participated in 2008. The EQA program indicated that standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been completed for AST, ALT, LD, ALP, gammaGT, and CK in more than 90% laboratories, and for Amy and ChE in nearly 80% of laboratories. Because such a large survey program must use artificial specimens, a matrix effect cannot be avoided, especially in dry chemistry. However, the bias produced by a matrix effect usually has a predictable tendency: it can be corrected. Next, after standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes, we should develop and use common reference intervals. On completing the standardization, we can make standard medical decisions using reference measurement systems and rules.

  19. Trends in differences between births and surviving infants reported for immunization program planning and external data sources in Eastern and Southern Africa 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Reinhard; Chakauya, Jethro M; Shibeshi, Messeret E

    2016-02-24

    To inform our WHO team's support for immunization programs in Member States in Eastern and Southern Africa, we compared annual trends from 2000 to 2013 in target populations reported by Member States through the WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form with United Nations (UN) population projections and modeled infant mortality estimates from the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Our findings indicated a tendency of underestimating births and surviving infants used by Member States as denominators for administrative immunization coverage rates, resulting in or contributing to overestimation of coverage. The difference with UN estimates appeared to be more pronounced for surviving infants than births. Measures of central tendency for individual country differences indicated that those differences decreased over time. Comparing trends of births and surviving infants with external sources can help monitoring progress in efforts to provide accurate and reliable target population estimates and sampling frames.

  20. Best practices for a successful MNCH partnership that an external evaluation could never find: experiences from the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Koki; Caiola, Nancy; Gibson, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Partnerships for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) are increasingly prevalent, yet little has been published about the possible reasons for their success or failure. In this commentary, we assess the presence of four principles for a successful collaborative partnership-clear goals, clear roles, trust, and commitment-within the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), an MNCH partnership among eight implementing organizations that was funded by USAID from 2008 to 2014. MCHIP made substantial strides in developing clear goals and partner roles, and despite external constraints, to develop the trust and commitment needed to work in an interdependent manner. Future collaborative MNCH partnerships should pursue a shared understanding of these four principles as early and often as possible to ensure success.

  1. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    PubMed

    Medina González, Rafael; Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, María Del Remedio; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz de; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the results obtained from the 2014 SEIMC (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of 5 standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining 4 contained plasma from 3 different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; 2 of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (30.8% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 95.8% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ < 0.5 log10 copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of 2 standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 83.7% in the case of HCV and 87.9% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 standard deviations log10 IU/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up.

  2. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2012].

    PubMed

    Guna Serrano, María del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2012 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.3% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean±0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ < 0.5 log10 copias/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 84% in the case of HCV and 88% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean±1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up.

  3. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    PubMed

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, María; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (25% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (D < 0.5 log10 copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 82% in the case of HCV and 78% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up.

  4. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    PubMed

    Medina González, Rafael; Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, María Del Remedio; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz de; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the results obtained from the 2014 SEIMC (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of 5 standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining 4 contained plasma from 3 different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; 2 of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (30.8% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 95.8% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ < 0.5 log10 copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of 2 standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 83.7% in the case of HCV and 87.9% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 standard deviations log10 IU/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up. PMID:27474241

  5. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    PubMed

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, María; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (25% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (D < 0.5 log10 copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 82% in the case of HCV and 78% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up. PMID:26320990

  6. External Quality Assessment (EQA) program for the preanalytical and analytical immunohistochemical determination of HER2 in breast cancer: an experience on a regional scale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An External Quality Assessment (EQA) program was developed to investigate the state of the art of HER2 immunohistochemical determination in breast cancer (BC) in 16 Pathology Departments in the Lazio Region (Italy). This program was implemented through two specific steps to evaluate HER2 staining (step 1) and interpretation (step 2) reproducibility among participants. Methods The management activities of this EQA program were assigned to the Coordinating Center (CC), the Revising Centers (RCs) and the Participating Centers (PCs). In step 1, 4 BC sections, selected by RCs, were stained by each PC using their own procedures. In step 2, each PC interpreted HER2 score in 10 BC sections stained by the CC. The concordance pattern was evaluated by using the kappa category-specific statistic and/or the weighted kappa statistic with the corresponding 95% Jackknife confidence interval. Results In step 1, a substantial/almost perfect agreement was reached between the PCs for scores 0 and 3+ whereas a moderate and fair agreement was observed for scores 1+ and 2+, respectively. In step 2, a fully satisfactory agreement was observed for 6 out of the 16 PCs and a quite satisfactory agreement was obtained for the remaining 10 PCs. Conclusions Our findings highlight that in the whole HER2 evaluation process the two intermediate categories, scores 1+ and 2+, are less reproducible than scores 0 and 3+. These findings are relevant in clinical practice where the choice of treatment is based on HER2 positivity, suggesting the need to share evaluation procedures within laboratories and implement educational programs. PMID:23965490

  7. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  8. Impact Testing on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Flat Panels With BX-265 and PDL-1034 External Tank Foam for the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, Michael J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Orbiter Columbia (STS-107) on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the space shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) along with ice and foam debris materials, which could shed on ascent and impact the orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: Level 1-fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic constitutive model properties of materials of interest, Level 2-subcomponent impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and Level 3-full-scale orbiter leading-edge impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This report discusses the Level 2 test program conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Ballistic Impact Laboratory with external tank foam impact tests on flat RCC panels, and presents the data observed. The Level 2 testing consisted of 54 impact tests in the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Laboratory on 6- by 6-in. and 6- by 12-in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated two types of debris projectiles: BX-265 and PDL-1034 external tank foam. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile and validated the use of the foam and RCC models for use in LS-DYNA.

  9. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  10. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  11. External Quality Assessment for KRAS Testing Is Needed: Setup of a European Program and Report of the First Joined Regional Quality Assessment Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, Ellen; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.L.; Tejpar, Sabine; Cox, Karen; de Hertogh, Gert; de Stricker, Karin; Edsjö, Anders; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Höfler, Gerald; Jung, Andreas; Kotsinas, Athanassios; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; López-Ríos, Fernando; Hansen, Tine Plato; Rouleau, Etienne; Vandenberghe, Peter; van Krieken, Johan J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of epidermal growth factor receptor–targeting antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer has been restricted to patients with wild-type KRAS tumors by the European Medicines Agency since 2008, based on data showing a lack of efficacy and potential harm in patients with mutant KRAS tumors. In an effort to ensure optimal, uniform, and reliable community-based KRAS testing throughout Europe, a KRAS external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was set up. The first large assessment round included 59 laboratories from eight different European countries. For each country, one regional scheme organizer prepared and distributed the samples for the participants of their own country. The samples included unstained sections of 10 invasive colorectal carcinomas with known KRAS mutation status. The samples were centrally validated by one of two reference laboratories. The laboratories were allowed to use their own preferred method for histological evaluation, DNA isolation, and mutation analysis. In this study, we analyze the setup of the KRAS scheme. We analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the regional scheme organization by analyzing the outcome of genotyping results, analysis of tumor percentage, and written reports. We conclude that only 70% of laboratories correctly identified the KRAS mutational status in all samples. Both the false-positive and false-negative results observed negatively affect patient care. Reports of the KRAS test results often lacked essential information. We aim to further expand this program to more laboratories to provide a robust estimate of the quality of KRAS testing in Europe, and provide the basis for remedial measures and harmonization. PMID:21441573

  12. The transportation external coordination working group

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    In an effort to improve coordinated interactions between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and external groups interested in transportation activities, DOE established the Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC/WG). Membership includes representatives from State, Tribal and local governments, industry, and professional organizations. All DOE programs with significant transportation programs participate.

  13. Final rules under the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; technical amendment to external review for multi-state plan program. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2013-11-13

    This document contains final rule implementing the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, which requires parity between mental health or substance use disorder benefits and medical/surgical benefits with respect to financial requirements and treatment limitations under group health plans and group and individual health insurance coverage. This document also contains a technical amendment relating to external review with respect to the multi-state plan program administered by the Office of Personnel Management.

  14. Examining the Impact of a Positive Behavior Support Program and Direct Instruction of Social and Emotional Learning Skills on the Externalizing Behaviors of Disruptive Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darla Renee

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent disruptive youth in Pennsylvania are removed from traditional school settings for externalizing behaviors including aggression, defying authority, poor relationships with peers and adults, disruptive behaviors, and bullying. Post-school outcomes of adolescent disruptive youth remain dismal, and these students are the most…

  15. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

  16. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  17. The Role of Organizational Context and External Influences in the Implementation of Evidence-Based Programs: An Exploratory Study. Report IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ashleigh; Burkhauser, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of high-quality evidence-based practices cannot occur without facilitative administration, systems-level partnerships, and decision-support data systems. The authors believe that understanding "what works" in program "implementation" is just as important as understanding "what works" in a program "model." Recently, researchers…

  18. Vulnerability Assessments in Support of the Climate Ready Estuaries Program: A Novel Approach Using Expert Judgment, Volume I: Results for the San Francisco Estuary Partnership (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Climate Ready Estuaries (CRE) program, the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared this draft report exploring a new metho...

  19. Regents External Degrees. College Proficiency Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on both Regents External Degrees and the College Proficiency Examination Programs for the State of New York is presented in a single catalog. Part One on the Regents External Degrees covers general information on accreditation, degrees offered, enrollment, credit, grading, status reports and transcripts, costs, counseling, and the…

  20. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  1. The Hillman Rotation: An External Clinic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Joan M.; Veith, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Describes the external optometric education program at the Sidney Hillman Health Centre (Chicago, Illinois). Discusses the history of the clinic, its administrative and educational philosophy, and its affiliation with two prominent hospitals and the Illinois College of Optometry. (DB)

  2. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  3. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads].

    PubMed

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, María del Remedio Guna; Martínez, José-Carlos Latorre; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; de Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers for the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained in the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads and HCV genotyping. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 3-5 log(10) copies/mL; two of these standards were identical, with the aim of determining repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.6% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.2 log(10)copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 95% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ<0.5 log(10)copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 86.1% in the case of HCV and 87.1% in HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log(10)UI/mL). Post-analytical errors due to mistranscription of the results were detected in these controls. Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to interlaboratory variability, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable.

  4. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  5. Effects of After-School Programs on Attendance and Externalizing Behaviors with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the number and types of after-school programs (ASPs) have increased substantially as a result of increased federal and private spending and because ASPs are perceived to provide wide-ranging and far-reaching benefits to students, families, schools and the public. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is…

  6. Experience-Based Career Education in Charleston, West Virginia: An Anthropological Perspective. External Evaluator's Final Report on the Experience-Based Career Education Programs, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shel; Drucker, Charles B.

    The Experience-Based Career Education (EBCE) program was designed to provide on-site vocational experiences for high school youth in order to promote career development skills and knowledge, and knowledge of one's own interests, abilities, and values. The following skills were also emphasized: reading, problem solving, oral communication, writing,…

  7. Experience-Based Career Education in Oakland, California: An Anthropological Perspective. External Evaluator's Final Report on the Experience-Based Career Education Programs, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shel; Drucker, Charles B.

    The Experience-Based Career Education (EBCE) program was designed to provide on-site vocational experiences for high school youth in order to promote: (1) career development skills and knowledge; (2) self-knowledge--interests, abilities, and values; (3) reading skills; (4) problem solving skills; (5) oral communication; (6) writing skills; (7)…

  8. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  9. QADATA user's manual; an interactive computer program for the retrieval and analysis of the results from the external blind sample quality- assurance project of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucey, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts an external blind sample quality assurance project for its National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, based on the analysis of reference water samples. Reference samples containing selected inorganic and nutrient constituents are disguised as environmental samples at the Survey 's office in Ocala, Florida, and are sent periodically through other Survey offices to the laboratory. The results of this blind sample project indicate the quality of analytical data produced by the laboratory. This report provides instructions on the use of QADATA, an interactive, menu-driven program that allows users to retrieve the results of the blind sample quality- assurance project. The QADATA program, which is available on the U.S. Geological Survey 's national computer network, accesses a blind sample data base that contains more than 50,000 determinations from the last five water years for approximately 40 constituents at various concentrations. The data can be retrieved from the database for any user- defined time period and for any or all available constituents. After the user defines the retrieval, the program prepares statistical tables, control charts, and precision plots and generates a report which can be transferred to the user 's office through the computer network. A discussion of the interpretation of the program output is also included. This quality assurance information will permit users to document the quality of the analytical results received from the laboratory. The blind sample data is entered into the database within weeks after being produced by the laboratory and can be retrieved to meet the needs of specific projects or programs. (USGS)

  10. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  11. External Cargo Integration Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gueera, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the system integration efforts for external cargo for the International Space Station (ISS). The role and responsibility of the External Carriers Ofice is reviewed. The presentation also reviews the application of the office to the Commercial Cargo Services contract.

  12. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  17. [Implementation of quality standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17043 in the External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    PubMed

    Poveda Gabaldón, Marta; Ovies, María Rosario; Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Avila, Javier; Giménez, Alicia; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The quality standard "UNE-EN-ISO 17043: 2010. Conformity assessment. General requirements for proficiency testing" applies to centers that organize intercomparisons in all areas. In the case of clinical microbiology laboratories, these intercomparisons must meet the management and technical standards required to achieve maximum quality in the performance of microbiological analysis and the preparation of test items (sample, product, data or other information used in the proficiency test) to enable them to be accredited. Once accredited, these laboratories can operate as a tool for quality control laboratories and competency assessment. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body [Entidad Nacional de Acreditación (ENAC)]. The objective of this review is to explain how to apply the requirements of the standard to laboratories providing intercomparisons in the field of clinical microbiology (the organization responsible for all the tasks related to the development and operation of a proficiency testing program). This requires defining the scope and specifying the technical requirements (personnel management, control of equipment, facilities and environment, the design of the proficiency testing and data analysis for performance evaluation, communication with participants and confidentiality) and management requirements (document control, purchasing control, monitoring of complaints / claims, non-compliance, internal audits and management reviews). PMID:22305673

  18. [Implementation of quality standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17043 in the External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    PubMed

    Poveda Gabaldón, Marta; Ovies, María Rosario; Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Avila, Javier; Giménez, Alicia; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The quality standard "UNE-EN-ISO 17043: 2010. Conformity assessment. General requirements for proficiency testing" applies to centers that organize intercomparisons in all areas. In the case of clinical microbiology laboratories, these intercomparisons must meet the management and technical standards required to achieve maximum quality in the performance of microbiological analysis and the preparation of test items (sample, product, data or other information used in the proficiency test) to enable them to be accredited. Once accredited, these laboratories can operate as a tool for quality control laboratories and competency assessment. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body [Entidad Nacional de Acreditación (ENAC)]. The objective of this review is to explain how to apply the requirements of the standard to laboratories providing intercomparisons in the field of clinical microbiology (the organization responsible for all the tasks related to the development and operation of a proficiency testing program). This requires defining the scope and specifying the technical requirements (personnel management, control of equipment, facilities and environment, the design of the proficiency testing and data analysis for performance evaluation, communication with participants and confidentiality) and management requirements (document control, purchasing control, monitoring of complaints / claims, non-compliance, internal audits and management reviews).

  19. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  20. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    PubMed

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  1. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  2. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  3. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  4. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  5. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  7. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  8. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  9. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  10. 1970 External Summer Youth Opportunity Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Highway Administration exceeded its goal of 50,000 jobs in its 1970 External Summer Youth Opportunity Campaign by providing 57,646 jobs. Of the jobs available, a large majority were filled by disadvantaged youth. Various Federal and private agencies were involved in making the program work. This pamphlet describes the national youth…

  11. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Explores a case study of a class of 10th grade students whose learning of genetics involved activities using BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). Findings indicate that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but…

  12. Competitive Skills Project (CSP). External Evaluator's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    An external evaluation was made of the Competitive Skills Project, a National Workplace Literacy Program carried out in partnership between El Camino College and BP Chemicals. Among the problems identified were the following: (1) because the original director and his successor left the project, the original evaluation design could not be…

  13. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  14. An external drag measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Mordechai; Levin, Daniel; Seginer, Arnan

    The accurate measurement of the axial-force component acting on small wind-tunnel models has traditionally made use of integral string balances, which eliminated many accuracy problems, such as friction and hysteresis, but also introduced interactions between the various force and moment sensing elements due to nonlinear elastic phenomena. The reduction of these interactions usually calls for complicated designs, expensive manufacturing, hard-to-handle calibration processes, and cumbersome data reduction programs. An approach is presented that is based on an external axial-force-measuring element and avoids the ill-conditioned design problems of integral balances. Other difficulties that are encountered, such as friction, misalignment, and relative motion between metric elements are considered, and their solution is examined. Calibration and test results show that the new approach duplicates and surpasses the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances.

  15. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  16. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  17. Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's proposed method of conducting periodic comprehensive evaluations of the quality and potential of its academic programs has five components. First, a self-study is conducted by the faculty and administrators of the program being reviewed, in a year-long comprehensive examination of the program. Second, an external consultant, with…

  18. Sponsored Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University Business Administration, 1980

    1980-01-01

    General administrative principles and procedures applicable to any type of program sponsored by external funds, including the federal government, are examined. Contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements are the devices for authorizing sponsored programs. Since the institutions assume full legal responsibility for the programs and for fulfilling…

  19. The Impact of External Degree Opportunities on Community College Transfer Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Russell; Murphy, Lawrence R.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of graduates of Black Hawk College who transferred to Western Illinois University and those who entered the external Board of Governors degree program show significant differences in age, marital status, and employment. Few transfers considered the external degree program; few external degree enrollees considered transferring.…

  20. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  1. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  2. Membranebioreactor with external membranes.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, C; Carrette, R; De Lathouwer, J; Thoeye, C

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of less expensive and more performant ultrafiltration membranes has generated a new concept in biological treatment known as membrane bioreactors (MBR). In the field of wastewater treatment, the MBR process is used as a modification of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process, where the clarifier is replaced by a membrane module for the separation of the solid and the liquid phase. Membrane technology can, amongst others, be applied for the fast retrofit of relatively high loaded activated sludge systems to nutrient removal. In the last year Aquafin has built up extensive experience with submerged membrane systems. The research presented here was aimed at evaluating a particular external tubular membrane unit for MBR. More specifically it was evaluated whether higher stable flux levels could compensate the higher energy consumption, typical for external membrane systems. Both (1) treatment performance and (2) possible operational drawbacks were tested on a 5 m3/h activated sludge pilot-scale. The membrane bioreactor was tested in parallel with a conventional activated sludge system.

  3. External Tank Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  5. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  6. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, M. C.; Wilmoth, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAF2, developed to calculate high Reynolds number internal/external flows is described. The program solves the two dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. Turbulence is modeled with either a mixing length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented.

  7. ISS External Payload Accommodations (EXPRESS pallet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Harvey L.

    1996-01-01

    The 'expedite the process of experiments to Space Station' (EXPRESS) pallet which is attached to the DS3 truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS) via the payload attach structure is illustrated. The EXPRESS pallet constitutes the primary ISS external payload carrier. Each pallet carries six robotically replaceable payload adapters which are capable of containing one or more payloads. The following aspects of the EXPRESS program and pallet are illustrated: the concept drivers; the physical integration; the installation and in-orbit replacement; and the experiments to be implemented. The program status is summarized.

  8. Space Shuttle External Tank Project status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The External Tank Project is reviewed with emphasis on the DDT&E and production phases and the lightweight tank development. It is noted that the DDT&E phase is progressing well with the structural and ground vibration test article programs complete, the propulsion test article program progressing well, and the component qualification and verification testing 92% complete. New tools and facilities are being brought on line to support the increased build rate for the production phase. The lightweight tank, which will provide additional payload in orbit, is progressing to schedule with first delivery in early 1982.

  9. External Strategic Planning Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA. Office of Research and Planning.

    In response to a community reputation that has grown increasingly negative, the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) devised a strategic plan in 1998 to improve its programs and services and assure the educational success of its students. The planning process involved several steps: (1) revisiting the district mission statement; (2)…

  10. External Tank - The Structure Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Kenneth; Pilet, Jeffrey C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The External Tank forms the structural backbone of the Space Shuttle in the launch configuration. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. Choice of lightweight materials both for structure and thermal conditioning was necessary. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, handling, and transportation operations were required. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes, to reduce weight. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir welding was a substantial technology development incorporated during the Program. Automated thermal protection system application processes were developed for the majority of the tank surface. Material obsolescence was an issue throughout the 40 year program. The final configuration and tank weight enabled international space station assembly in a high inclination orbit allowing international cooperation with the Russian Federal Space Agency. Numerous process controls were implemented to assure product quality, and innovative proof testing was accomplished prior to delivery. Process controls were implemented to assure cleanliness in the production environment, to control contaminants, and to preclude corrosion. Each tank was accepted via rigorous inspections, including non-destructive evaluation techniques, proof testing, and all systems testing. In the post STS-107 era, the project focused on ascent debris risk reduction. This was accomplished via stringent process controls, post flight assessment using substantially improved imagery, and selective redesigns. These efforts were supported with a number of test programs to

  11. External auditory osteoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Peter N; Nelson, Brenda L

    2012-06-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) osteomas are rare, benign bony neoplasms that occur in wide range of patients. While chronic irritation and inflammation have been suggested as causal factors in several cases, significant data is lacking to support these suspicions. Symptoms are rare and can include hearing loss, vertigo, pain and tinnitus. Diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical history and examination, radiographic imaging, and histopathology. Osteomas of the EAC are usually found incidentally and are unilateral and solitary. Computed tomography reveals a hyperdense, pedunculated mass arising from the tympanosquamous suture and lateral of the isthmus. Histopathologically, EAC osteomas are covered with periosteum and squamous epithelium, and consist of lamalleted bone surrounding fibrovascular channels with minimal osteocysts. Osteomas have historically been compared and contrasted with exostoses of the EAC. While they share similarities, more often than not it is possible to distinguish the two bony neoplasms based on clinical history and radiographic studies. Debate remains in the medical literature as to whether basic histopathology can distinguish osteomas of the EAC from exostoses. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for EAC osteomas, however close observation is considered acceptable in asymptomatic patients.

  12. The Mechanics of External Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rozbruch, S. Robert

    2006-01-01

    External fixation has evolved from being used primarily as a last resort fixation method to becoming a main stream technique used to treat a myriad of bone and soft tissue pathologies. Techniques in limb reconstruction continue to advance largely as a result of the use of these external devices. A thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles of external fixation is useful for all orthopedic surgeons as most will have to occasionally mount a fixator throughout their career. In this review, various types of external fixators and their common clinical applications are described with a focus on unilateral and circular frames. The biomechanical principles that govern bony and fixator stability are reviewed as well as the recommended techniques for applying external fixators to maximize stability. Additionally, we have illustrated methods for managing patients while they are in the external frames to facilitate function and shorten treatment duration. PMID:18751766

  13. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  14. Load control system. [for space shuttle external tank ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosse, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The load control system developed for the shuttle external structural tests is described. The system consists of a load programming/display module, and a load control module along with the following hydraulic system components: servo valves, dump valves, hydraulic system components, and servo valve manifold blocks. One load programming/display subsystem can support multiple load control subsystem modules.

  15. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  16. Changing Systems of External Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjorn; Brandt, Ellen; Solum, Nils Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and identify changes in systems of external examinations in Denmark, the UK and Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Comparative analysis of studies, reviews and documents concerning the purpose and functioning of systems of external examination in three selected countries. Findings: The paper…

  17. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  18. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  19. Externalizing behaviors of Ukrainian children: The role of parenting.

    PubMed

    Burlaka, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9-16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern, and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and attention problems. Results revealed that positive parenting, child monitoring, and avoidance of corporal punishment were associated with fewer child externalizing symptoms. Results also indicated that child male gender and single parenting had significant and positive association with child externalizing behaviors. This study extends international psychosocial knowledge on children and families. These findings can be used to design programs and foster dialogs about the role of family and social environments in the development of externalizing disorder among researchers, representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and mass media that work with child abuse prevention in Ukraine.

  20. The School Administrator's Publicity Handbook, with 74 Story Ideas in Handy Checkoff Format. Internal and External PR for Maximum Media Exposure and an Orderly System for Setting Up the Program. Operations Notebook 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This booklet presents brief, detailed guidelines intended to aid school administrators in developing and managing a publicity program for schools. Primary emphasis of the discussion is on generating publicity and media exposure; only cursory attention is devoted to the other facets of a complete public relations program. Major topics of discussion…

  1. Mitigating Negative Externalities Affecting Access and Equity of Education in Low-Resource Countries: A Study Exploring Social Marketing as a Potential Strategy for Planning School Food Programs in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magreta-Nyongani, Martha

    2012-01-01

    School feeding programs enhance the efficiency of the education system by improving enrollment, reducing dropouts and increasing perseverance. They also have the potential to reach the poor, directly making them an effective social safety net. In many low-resource countries, school feeding programs are designed to protect children from the effects…

  2. Has Clinton made externalities extraneous

    SciTech Connect

    Haites, E.

    1993-08-01

    Over the past several years state utility regulators have become increasingly concerned with the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation. Currently, 26 states have requirements in place, although these vary considerably in scope and complexity. The vast majority apply only to the selection of new resources; the most detailed specify a monetary value for each discharge to the environment. Regulatory concern with environmental externalities stems from the desire to minimize the cost of electricity service to society. Externalities requirements focus on the residual discharges after environmental regulations are complied with. Ignoring externalities leads to inefficient use of resources and environmental damage beyond with may be called a [open quotes]socially optimal[close quotes] level of pollution. Adjusting to the cost options for environmental externalities should lead utilities to select a combination of resources that is closer to the socially optimal mix. President Bill Clinton's recent announcement that the United States will limit its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) to 1990 levels by 2000 may make externalities regulation superfluous. National limits on sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]), and CO[sub 2] emissions by utilities will likely be in effect by 2000. It will not be possible to comply with emissions limits solely through changes to the mix of resource additions, even though consideration of environmental externalities in resource addition decisions can reduce incremental emissions. Other strategies to reduce the emissions of existing generating stations, as well as new sources, will be needed.

  3. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  4. External Quality Assessment Schemes in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Migliarino, Gabriel Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    As professionals of the clinical laboratory we must generate clinically useful results, products and services for the patients' health care. Laboratories must participate in one or more proficiency testing (PT) or external quality assessment (EQA) programs as part of routine quality assurance. Nevertheless participating per se is not enough. There are critical factors to take into consideration when selecting a PT or EQA providers. In most cases the survey's providers offer assigned values obtained from consensus of results provided by the participants for comparison, it is critical to evaluate consistency of the comparison group before interpretation and decision-making. PMID:27683496

  5. External Quality Assessment Schemes in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As professionals of the clinical laboratory we must generate clinically useful results, products and services for the patients’ health care. Laboratories must participate in one or more proficiency testing (PT) or external quality assessment (EQA) programs as part of routine quality assurance. Nevertheless participating per se is not enough. There are critical factors to take into consideration when selecting a PT or EQA providers. In most cases the survey’s providers offer assigned values obtained from consensus of results provided by the participants for comparison, it is critical to evaluate consistency of the comparison group before interpretation and decision-making.

  6. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    PubMed

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  7. [Contact sensitization to external agents].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, S M; Merk, H-F

    2003-04-01

    The following review describes contact sensitization to topically applied medications--especially topical dermatological agents--and to external agents in the broadest sense. Particularly skin care products constitute a special source for sensitization due to their widespread use. Especially fragrances and preservatives in cosmetics play an important global role in eliciting contact allergies. Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups.

  8. External dacryocystorhinostomy: Tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.; Honavar, Santosh G.

    2012-01-01

    Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR. PMID:23440476

  9. External Studies, 1984. Second Annual Report. Part 1, General Information and Part 2, Statistical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Australia Post Secondary Education Commission, Nedlands.

    The use of telecommunications and satellite technology in external studies programs at colleges and universities in Western Australia is described, and statistics on programs and courses available in the external mode are provided. Reports on new teaching developments are provided for the following institutions: Murdoch University; the University…

  10. International labor migration and external debt.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  11. International labor migration and external debt.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  12. Community lay rescuer automated external defibrillation programs: key state legislative components and implementation strategies: a summary of a decade of experience for healthcare providers, policymakers, legislators, employers, and community leaders from the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, and Office of State Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Tom; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Nichol, Graham; Steffens, Suzanne Smith; Buroker, Andrew; McCune, Robin; Stapleton, Edward; Nadkarni, Vinay; Potts, Jerry; Ramirez, Raymond R; Eigel, Brian; Epstein, Andrew; Sayre, Michael; Halperin, Henry; Cummins, Richard O

    2006-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death for adults > or =40 years of age. The American Heart Association (AHA) estimates that sudden cardiac arrest is responsible for about 250,000 out-of-hospital deaths annually in the United States. Since the early 1990s, the AHA has called for innovative approaches to reduce time to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation and improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest. In the mid-1990s, the AHA launched a public health initiative to promote early CPR and early use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) by trained lay responders in community (lay rescuer) AED programs. Between 1995 and 2000, all 50 states passed laws and regulations concerning lay rescuer AED programs. In addition, the Cardiac Arrest Survival Act (CASA, Public Law 106-505) was passed and signed into federal law in 2000. The variations in state and federal legislation and regulations have complicated efforts to promote lay rescuer AED programs and in some cases have created impediments to such programs. Since 2000, most states have reexamined lay rescuer AED statutes, and many have passed legislation to remove impediments and encourage the development of lay rescuer AED programs. The purpose of this statement is to help policymakers develop new legislation or revise existing legislation to remove barriers to effective community lay rescuer AED programs. Important areas that should be considered in state legislation and regulations are highlighted, and sample legislation sections are included. Potential sources of controversy and the rationale for proposed legislative components are noted. This statement will not address legislation to support home AED programs. Such recommendations may be made after the conclusion of a large study of home AED use.

  13. Pentagon chain in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, György; Gulácsi, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    We consider a pentagon chain described by a Hubbard type of model considered under periodic boundary conditions. The system (i) is placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the cells, and (ii) is in a site-selective manner under the action of an external electric potential. In these conditions, we show in an exact manner that the physical properties of the system can be qualitatively changed. The changes cause first strong modifications of the band structure of the system created by the one-particle part of the Hamiltonian, and second, produce marked changes of the phase diagram. We exemplify this by deducing ferromagnetic ground states in the presence of external fields in two different domains of the parameter space.

  14. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  15. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing problems are multidetermined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who are at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research have established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. This article presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as 2 adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  16. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  17. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  18. Report of the Programme and External Relations Commission. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document presents a summary of the activities of the Program and External Relations Commission of the United Nations in one session. The topics considered by the Commission in this paper include: (1) the possibility of the establishment of an International University; (2) possible international regulation on education for international…

  19. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  20. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    PubMed

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  1. Preceptor doctors' assessment of the clinical skills of chiropractic externs

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Roger J.R.; Callender, Alana K.; Hynes, Rachelle A.; Gran, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study surveyed preceptor doctors' opinions of student competence before and after a chiropractic preceptorship. Methods: The qualitative and quantitative survey asked doctors about the competence of externs in various skills and asked opened-ended questions about the strengths and weaknesses of the externs. The survey was conducted using a common Web-based platform called SurveyMonkey. Results: A total of 125 doctors responded to the survey. The doctors tended to agree that they saw a positive change in the skills of the externs over time. Externs presented to the preceptors lacking in confidence and office management skills. The preceptors reported an increase from 2.7 to 3.9 on a 5.0 Likert scale in the students' confidence in adjusting skills during the preceptorship. The preceptor doctors were split on students' preparedness in chiropractic adjusting technique, reporting it as both the strongest and the weakest presenting skill. Conclusion: Preceptor doctors perceived that their student externs were academically qualified but were weaker in the clinical application of procedures. Results from this survey suggest that the preceptor program can improve the confidence levels and practice management knowledge of chiropractic externs. PMID:26600271

  2. External Fixation: Principles and Applications.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Mir, Hassan R

    2015-11-01

    The modularity and ease of application of modern external fixation has expanded its potential use in the management of fractures and other musculoskeletal conditions. In fracture care, it can be used for provisional and definitive fixation. Short-term provisional applications include "damage control" and periarticular fracture fixation. The risk:benefit ratio of added stability needs to be assessed with each fixator. Soft-tissue management is critical during pin insertion to lessen the risk of loosening and infection. Although provisional fixation is safe for early conversion to definitive fixation, several factors affect the timing of definitive surgery, including the initial injury, external fixator stability, infection, and the physiologic state of the patient. PMID:26306568

  3. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  4. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  5. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Planetary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J; Harbeck, D; Lloyd, J

    2005-07-06

    We describe a plan to study the radial velocity of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using a combination of interferometry and multichannel dispersive spectroscopy, Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI). The EDI technology allows implementation of precision velocimetry and spectroscopy on existing moderate-resolution echelle or linear grating spectrograph over their full and simultaneous bandwidth. We intend to add EDI to the new Cornell TripleSpec infrared simultaneous JHK-band spectrograph at the Palomar Observatory 200'' telescope for a science-demonstration program that will allow a unique Doppler-search for planets orbiting low mass faint M, L and T type stars. The throughput advantage of EDI with a moderate resolution spectrograph is critical to achieving the requisite sensitivity for the low luminosity late L and T dwarfs.

  6. Discovery External Tank Connection Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Ken Strite, NASA Quality Control, inspects the connection between Space Shuttle Discovery and the external tank that will be used to launch mission STS-103 in early December. This 10 day mission is designed to replace aging parts on the nine year old Hubble Space Telescope and to upgrade some of its functioning systems. During the flight, the astronaut crew will replace all six of the observatory's gyroscopes, a fine guidance sensor, its main computer, and other equipment.

  7. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy. PMID:27516051

  8. An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds is reported. A FORTRAN computer program was written for the computation of the thermal performance of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds. Arrays constructed from two example solar thermal collectors are computated. Typical external manifold sizes and thermal insulations are presented graphically and are compared with the thermal performance of the collector alone.

  9. Methods and procedures for external radiation dosimetry at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupton, E.D.

    1981-09-01

    Procedures, methods, materials, records, and reports used for accomplishing the personnel, external radiation monitoring program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described for the purpose of documenting what is done now for future reference. This document provides a description of the methods and procedures for external radiation metering, monitoring, dosimetry, and records which are in effect at ORNL July 1, 1981. This document does not include procedures for nuclear accident dosimetry except insofar as routine techniques may apply also to nuclear accident dosimetry capability.

  10. Mapper of FORTRAN Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, Clayton J.

    1988-01-01

    SUPERMAP computer program designed to produce map of all components and attributes of FORTRAN program. Maps usage of all variables and all COMMONs used in FORTRAN program. Maps alignment of subprograms CALLed with the arguments and dummy arguments of the CALLed subprogram. Tallies externals called by each module. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  11. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  12. Geography Undergraduate Program Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Brown, Brock J.; Caldwell, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of geography undergraduate programs, which incorporate external reviews and concomitant departmental self-studies, attempt to assure pedagogical excellence within uncompromising commitments to successful student learning outcomes, currency of the knowledge and skills imparted, and continuous programmatic improvement. Programmatic…

  13. Preliminary perspectives gaines from individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE) seismic and fire submittal review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.T.; Connell, E.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-02-01

    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, every operating nuclear power reactor in the United States has performed an assessment of severe accident due to external events. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary insights gained through the review of 24 IPEEE submittals.

  14. Estimating Location without External Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system. PMID:25356642

  15. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  16. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  17. Application of External Axis in Robot-Assisted Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Sihao; Fang, Dandan; Cai, Zhenhua; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain

    2012-12-01

    Currently, industrial robots are widely used in the process of thermal spraying because of their high efficiency, security, and repeatability. Although robots are found suitable for use in industrial productions, they have some natural disadvantages because of their six-axis mechanical linkages. When a robot performs a series of stages of production, it could be hard to move from one to another because a few axes reach their limit value. For this reason, an external axis should be added to the robot system to extend the reachable space of the robots. This article concerns the application of external axis on ABB robots in thermal spraying and the different methods of off-line programming with external axis in the virtual environment. The developed software toolkit was applied to coat real workpiece with a complex geometry in atmospheric plasma spraying).

  18. Scars and the stability of crystalline shells under external pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Duanduan; Bowick, Mark; Sknepnek, Rastko

    2015-03-01

    While continuum elastic theory predicts the mechanical properties of ideal spherical shells under external pressure, on microscopic scale the response of shells to pressure may be affected by their crystalline order and defect structure. Here we compare the stability, under external pressure, of shells with a minimal set of topologically-required defects to shells with extended defect arrays (grain boundary ``scars''). In particular, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to compare how shells with and without scars deform quasi-statically under external hydrostatic pressure. We find that the critical pressure at which shells collapse is lowered when the scar distribution breaks icosahedral symmetry and raised when symmetry is preserved. The particular shapes resulting from collapses which break icosahedral symmetry depend crucially on the Föppl-von Kármán number. We thank the Soft Matter Program of Syracuse University for support.

  19. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  20. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  1. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  2. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  3. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  4. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a lightweight, portable device ... AED? Non-medical personnel such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay ...

  5. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  6. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  7. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  8. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  9. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  10. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  11. Teaching Externally: Lecturers' Viewpoints. Occasional Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, David, Ed.

    Perspectives of academic staff who have been involved in teaching externally are presented in three papers. In "Teaching Students Externally: The First Twelve Years," Frank Molloy examines three aspects of teaching by the external mode: preparing materials, making assignments, and providing educational experiences for students at the residential…

  12. Prevention Services for Externalizing and Anxiety Symptoms in Low-Income Children: the Role of Parent Preferences in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Mian, Nicholas D; Godoy, Leandra; Eisenhower, Abbey S; Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of prevention programs targeting young children is impeded by challenges with parent engagement. Matching program characteristics to parent preferences is associated with increased retention in clinical/intervention settings, but little is known about the types of prevention programs that interest parents. The objectives of this study were to better understand parents' preferences for services designed to prevent externalizing and anxiety disorders and to identify factors associated with preferences. Ethnically diverse, low-income caregivers (n = 485) of young children (11-60 months) completed surveys on child anxiety and externalizing symptoms, parental worry about their children, parent anxiety symptoms, and preferences for prevention group topics. Parents were more likely to prefer a group targeting externalizing behaviors compared to anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of children: low symptoms, moderate anxiety-low externalizing, moderate externalizing-low anxiety, and high anxiety and externalizing. Parents' preferences varied according to co-occurrence of child anxiety and externalizing symptoms; interest in a program targeting externalizing problems was associated with elevated externalizing problems (regardless of anxiety symptom level), parent anxiety symptoms, and parent worry about their child. Only parent anxiety symptoms predicted parents' interest in an anxiety-focused program, and preference for an anxiety-focused program was actually reduced if children had co-occurring anxiety and externalizing symptoms versus only anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that parents' interest in a program to prevent externalizing problems was well-aligned with the presenting problem, whereas preferences for anxiety programming suggest a more complex interplay among factors. Parent preferences for targeted programming are discussed within a broader framework of parent engagement.

  13. Nonbridging external fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Matthew D; Shin, Eon K

    2010-08-01

    Surgical management of distal radius fractures continues to evolve because of their high incidence in an increasingly active elderly population. Traditional radiocarpal external fixation relies on ligamentotaxis for fracture reduction but has several drawbacks. Nonbridging external fixation has evolved to provide early wrist mobility in the setting of anatomic fracture reduction. Several studies of the nonbridging technique have demonstrated satisfactory results in isolated nonbridging external fixation series and in comparison with traditional spanning external fixation. Nonbridging external fixation for surgical treatment of distal radius fractures can be technically demanding and requires at least 1 cm of intact volar cortex in the distal fracture fragment for successful implementation.

  14. Method of Modeling and Simulation of Shaped External Occulters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G. (Inventor); Clampin, Mark (Inventor); Petrone, Peter, III (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to modeling an external occulter including: providing at least one processor executing program code to implement a simulation system, the program code including: providing an external occulter having a plurality of petals, the occulter being coupled to a telescope; and propagating light from the occulter to a telescope aperture of the telescope by scalar Fresnel propagation, by: obtaining an incident field strength at a predetermined wavelength at an occulter surface; obtaining a field propagation from the occulter to the telescope aperture using a Fresnel integral; modeling a celestial object at differing field angles by shifting a location of a shadow cast by the occulter on the telescope aperture; calculating an intensity of the occulter shadow on the telescope aperture; and applying a telescope aperture mask to a field of the occulter shadow, and propagating the light to a focal plane of the telescope via FFT techniques.

  15. External Versus Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Grob, Seanna R; Campbell, Ashley; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Yoon, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    DCR is the treatment of choice for NLDO. External DCR has remained the standard approach since the 1890s. With advances in technique and technology, and more otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists performing endoscopic DCR, more studies have been conducted, some with equivalent success rates between the 2 approaches. Endoscopic endonasal DCR offers the advantages of avoiding a skin incision with similar success rates with experienced surgeons. However, the technique necessitates more surgical equipment, and has a steep learning curve. Both approaches have low complication rates and serious complications are very rare. The decision for the type of approach to use depends on the surgeon’s experience, the patient’s preference or concerns, and the resources available within a particular health system.

  16. Parenting and Child Externalizing Behaviors: Are the Associations Specific or Diffuse?

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Laura; Colletti, Christina; Rakow, Aaron; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the link between inadequate parenting and child noncompliance, aggression, and oppositionality, behavioral parent training has been identified as a well-established treatment for externalizing problems in children. Much less empirical attention has been devoted to examining whether inadequate parenting and, in turn, behavioral parent training programs, have specific effects on child externalizing problems or more diffuse effects on both internalizing and externalizing problems. As an initial attempt to examine the specificity of parenting and childhood externalizing problems, this review examines prior research on the association of three parenting behaviors (parental warmth, hostility, and control) with child externalizing versus internalizing problems. Notably, findings revealed relatively little evidence for the specificity of parenting and child externalizing behaviors in the general parenting literature or in the family context of parent depression. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19122818

  17. The origin of external oxygen in Jupiter and Saturn's environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, T.; Lellouch, E.; Hartogh, P.; Moreno, R.; Billebaud, F.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Cassidy, T.; Courtin, R.; Crovisier, J.; Dobrijevic, M.; Feuchtgruber, H.; González, A.; Greathouse, T.; Jarchow, C.; Kidger, M.; Lara, L. M.; Rengel, M.; Orton, G.; Sagawa, H.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the recent findings of the Herschel Solar System Observations Key Program (Hartogh et al. 2009), as well as ground-based supporting observations, regarding the origin of external oxygen in the environments of Jupiter and Saturn. Herschel-HIFI and PACS observations have been used to shown that the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet is the source of Jupiter's stratospheric water, and that Enceladus (and its geysers) are most probably the source of water for Saturn and Titan.

  18. External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E-DISH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, J. W.; Introne, Steve; Bedell, Lisa; Credle, Ben; Holp, Graham; Ly, Siao; Tait, Terry

    1994-01-01

    A Mars habitat transport system was designed as part of the NASA Mars exploration program. The transport system, the External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E - DISH), will be used to transport Mars habitats from their landing sites to the colony base and will be detached after unloading. The system requirements for Mars were calculated and scaled for model purposes. Specific model materials are commonly found and recommendations for materials for the Mars design are included.

  19. AED (Automated External Defibrillator) Programs: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... care is outlined in the law, and those operating within these guidelines are protected under these laws. These same guidelines pertain to the personnel in your EMS system. If they are not trained and licensed MFRs , ...

  20. Leadership development: an external-internal coaching partnership.

    PubMed

    McNally, Kimberly; Lukens, Rosemary

    2006-03-01

    Professional coaching is a leadership development strategy that has the potential to improve individual and organizational performance, retain leadership talent, support succession planning, and help healthcare leaders meet professional and personal goals. The authors describe the development and benefits of a partnership between an external and an internal coach who joined forces to provide individual and group coaching to 64 clinical leaders in a health system. Program evaluation demonstrated an excellent return on investment. Recommendations for implementing professional coaching programs in other healthcare organizations are provided.

  1. External Influences on School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberg, H. Jerome; Knight, Stephanie

    In response to education reform mandates, rewards and incentives such as career ladder and master teacher programs are being designed to break lock-step salary schedules and to retain competent teachers. While these "pay-for-performance" plans seem acceptable to taxpayers, few realize that such approaches have already been tried and proved…

  2. Externally fired combined cycle demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, N.J.; Young, S.; LaHaye, P.G.; Strom-Olsen, J.; Seger, J.L.; Pickup, H.

    1995-11-01

    Externally Fired Combined Cycles (EFCCs) can increase the amount of electricity produced from ash bearing fuels up to 40%, with overall powerplant efficiencies in excess of 45%. Achieving such high efficiencies requires high temperature-high pressure air heaters capable of driving modern gas turbines from gas streams containing the products of coal combustion. A pilot plant has been constructed in Kennebunk, Maine to provide proof of concept and evaluation of system components. Tests using pulverized Western Pennsylvania bituminous coal have been carried out since April, 1995. The ceramic air heater extracts energy from the products of coal combustion to power a gas turbine. This air heater has operated at gas inlet temperatures over 1,095 C and pressures over 7.0 atm without damage to the ceramic tube string components. Stable gas turbine operation has been achieved with energy input from the air heater and a supplementary gas fired combustor. Efforts are underway to fire the cycle on coal only, and to increase the duration of the test runs. Air heater improvements are being implemented and evaluated. These improvements include installation of a second pass of ceramic tubes and evaluation of corrosion resistant coatings on the ceramic tubes.

  3. High Speed Research - External Vision System (EVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Imagine flying a supersonic passenger jet (like the Concorde) at 1500 mph with no front windows in the cockpit - it may one day be a reality, as seen in this animation still. NASA engineers are working to develop technology that would replace the forward cockpit windows in future supersonic passenger jets with large sensor displays. These displays would use video images, enhanced by computer-generated graphics, to take the place of the view out the front windows. The envisioned eXternal Visibility System (XVS) would guide pilots to an airport, warn them of other aircraft near their path, and provide additional visual aides for airport approaches, landings and takeoffs. Currently, supersonic transports like the Anglo-French Concorde droop the front of the jet (the 'nose') downward to allow the pilots to see forward during takeoffs and landings. By enhancing the pilots' vision with high-resolution video displays, future supersonic transport designers could eliminate the heavy and expensive, mechanically-drooped nose. A future U.S. supersonic passenger jet, as envisioned by NASA's High-Speed Research (HSR) program, would carry 300 passengers more than 5000 nautical miles per hour more than 1500 miles per hour (more than twice the speed of sound). Traveling from Los Angeles to Tokyo would take only four hours, with an anticipated fare increase of only 20 percent over current ticket prices for substantially slower subsonic flights. Animation by Joey Ponthieux, Computer Sciences Corporation, Inc.

  4. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  5. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. 3d.; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-11-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of External Genitalia Development

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    External genitalia development occurs through a combination of hormone independent, hormone dependent, and endocrine pathways. Perturbation of these pathways can lead to abnormal external genitalia development. We review human and animal mechanisms of normal and abnormal external genitalia development, and we evaluate abnormal mechanisms that lead to hypospadias. We also discuss recent laboratory findings that further our understanding of animal models of hypospadias. PMID:22790208

  7. [Hidradenoma of the external acoustic meatus: ceruminoma].

    PubMed

    Gianotti, R

    1990-02-01

    Benign tumour originating from the ceruminous glands of the external auditory meatus are quite rare and present similar histological features to sweat gland tumours elsewhere. The paper reports the case of a nodule in the external auditory meatus diagnosed as a myoepitheliomatous-type hidradenoma . Three histological forms of benign ceruminous gland tumours are recognised: the myoepitheliomatous, cribriform and mixed salivary type. Currently, the term hidradenoma of the external ear is preferred.

  8. Extermophylic microorganisms: issue of interplanetary transfer on external spacecraft surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, N.; Deshevaya, E.; Polykarpov, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Grigoriev, A.

    Interplanetary transfer of terrestrial microbes capable of surviving in extreme environments and planetary protection from accidental biocontamination by them are the issues of major practical rather than hypothetical value The natural resistance of microbes to extreme environments and a possibility of their transfer beyond geographical barriers of Earth on external spacecraft surfaces have brought forward a need in profound research into the likelihood of their survival in outer space Hardware and a program have been developed at the State Scientific Research Center of the Russian Federation -- Institute for Biomedical Problems with the goal of carrying out a space experiment Biorisk The experiment was aimed at assessing the possibility of long-term comparable with the duration of the Martian flight survival of microorganisms in outer space on materials used in space industry Samples of materials were contaminated with test cultures of bacteria Bacillus and fungi Aspergillus Penicillium Cladosporium known to be common residents of various environments on Earth and resistant to multiple alternation of high and low temperatures Materials used in the construction of external spacecraft surfaces such as steel aluminium alloy heat-insulating coating were chosen as test samples for the experiment Containers with materials and test microorganisms were placed on the external side of the Russian segment of the ISS Unique data have been accumulated after a 204 day exposure on the external side of the ISS which have proved that

  9. Control of External Kink Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Gerald

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.

  10. The relationship between the genetic and environmental influences on common externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John M; Keyes, Corey L M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.

  11. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-08-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise.

  12. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise. PMID:2502036

  13. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  14. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  15. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  16. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  17. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  18. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  19. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  20. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  1. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  2. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  3. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  4. Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.

  5. External Communities of Practice and Relational Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Frank W.; Navarro, Juan G. Cegarra

    2004-01-01

    External communities of practice are groups formed by company clients and employees based on common interests, commitment, mutual trust and collaboration whose members regularly share knowledge and learning. This paper examines how external communities of practice contribute to the creation of relational capital through an empirical investigation…

  6. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  7. 47 CFR 95.669 - External controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External controls. 95.669 Section 95.669... controls. (a) Only the following external transmitter controls, connections or devices will normally be... power to transmitter. This switch may be combined with receiver controls such as the receiver...

  8. 47 CFR 95.669 - External controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External controls. 95.669 Section 95.669... controls. (a) Only the following external transmitter controls, connections or devices will normally be... power to transmitter. This switch may be combined with receiver controls such as the receiver...

  9. 47 CFR 95.669 - External controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External controls. 95.669 Section 95.669... controls. (a) Only the following external transmitter controls, connections or devices will normally be... power to transmitter. This switch may be combined with receiver controls such as the receiver...

  10. 47 CFR 95.669 - External controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External controls. 95.669 Section 95.669... controls. (a) Only the following external transmitter controls, connections or devices will normally be... power to transmitter. This switch may be combined with receiver controls such as the receiver...

  11. External Fund Raising. SPEC Kit 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Responses to a 1978 telephone survey of selected Association of Research Libraries (ARL) directors indicated a movement toward the use of endowed funds for collection development and toward external funding for special collections. Other needs for which libraries were seeking external monies included technological improvements, publications,…

  12. On the externalization of auditory images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durlach, N. I.; Rigopulos, A.; Pang, X. D.; Woods, W. S.; Kulkarni, A.; Colburn, H. S.; Wenzel, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    An acoustic image is said to be 'externalized' if the sound source appears to the listener to lie outside the head. The purpose of the note is to put the phenomenon of externalization of auditory images in proper perspective. It points out that the listener's pinnae (the so-called 'pinna factor') is only one of many factors that determine the extent to which a sound image is externalized and that the relative importance of these factors is not yet clear. The note begins with some general comments on externalization. It then considers the effect of reverberation. It examines head movements, visual effects, and other factors. It concludes with remarks on externalization's relation to head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the pinna factor, and improved experimental instrumentation.

  13. The analysis of the transient pressure response of the shuttle EPS-ECS cryogenic tanks with external pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. E.; Patterson, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of transient pressures in externally pressurized cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen tanks was conducted and the effects of design variables on pressure response determined. The analysis was conducted with a computer program which solves the compressible viscous flow equations in two-dimensional regions representing the tank and external loop. The external loop volume, thermal mass, and heat leak were the dominant design variables affecting the system pressure response. No significant temperature stratification occurred in the fluid contained in the tank.

  14. Optimization approaches for planning external beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozbasi, Halil Ozan

    Cancer begins when cells grow out of control as a result of damage to their DNA. These abnormal cells can invade healthy tissue and form tumors in various parts of the body. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy are the most common treatment methods for cancer. According to American Cancer Society about half of the cancer patients receive a form of radiation therapy at some stage. External beam radiotherapy is delivered from outside the body and aimed at cancer cells to damage their DNA making them unable to divide and reproduce. The beams travel through the body and may damage nearby healthy tissue unless carefully planned. Therefore, the goal of treatment plan optimization is to find the best system parameters to deliver sufficient dose to target structures while avoiding damage to healthy tissue. This thesis investigates optimization approaches for two external beam radiation therapy techniques: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). We develop automated treatment planning technology for IMRT that produces several high-quality treatment plans satisfying provided clinical requirements in a single invocation and without human guidance. A novel bi-criteria scoring based beam selection algorithm is part of the planning system and produces better plans compared to those produced using a well-known scoring-based algorithm. Our algorithm is very efficient and finds the beam configuration at least ten times faster than an exact integer programming approach. Solution times range from 2 minutes to 15 minutes which is clinically acceptable. With certain cancers, especially lung cancer, a patient's anatomy changes during treatment. These anatomical changes need to be considered in treatment planning. Fortunately, recent advances in imaging technology can provide multiple images of the treatment region taken at different points of the breathing cycle, and deformable image registration algorithms can

  15. Generating AN Optimum Treatment Plan for External Beam Radiation Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabus, Irwin

    1990-01-01

    The application of linear programming to the generation of an optimum external beam radiation treatment plan is investigated. MPSX, an IBM linear programming software package was used. All data originated from the CAT scan of an actual patient who was treated for a pancreatic malignant tumor before this study began. An examination of several alternatives for representing the cross section of the patient showed that it was sufficient to use a set of strategically placed points in the vital organs and tumor and a grid of points spaced about one half inch apart for the healthy tissue. Optimum treatment plans were generated from objective functions representing various treatment philosophies. The optimum plans were based on allowing for 216 external radiation beams which accounted for wedges of any size. A beam reduction scheme then reduced the number of beams in the optimum plan to a number of beams small enough for implementation. Regardless of the objective function, the linear programming treatment plan preserved about 95% of the patient's right kidney vs. 59% for the plan the hospital actually administered to the patient. The clinician, on the case, found most of the linear programming treatment plans to be superior to the hospital plan. An investigation was made, using parametric linear programming, concerning any possible benefits derived from generating treatment plans based on objective functions made up of convex combinations of two objective functions, however, this proved to have only limited value. This study also found, through dual variable analysis, that there was no benefit gained from relaxing some of the constraints on the healthy regions of the anatomy. This conclusion was supported by the clinician. Finally several schemes were found that, under certain conditions, can further reduce the number of beams in the final linear programming treatment plan.

  16. Congenital cholesteatoma of external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Quantin, Laura; Carrera Fernández, Sandra; Moretti, Jorge

    2002-02-01

    A 7-month-old male child is reported with congenital cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal. We describe the clinical features, computed tomography finding and surgical treatment. Congenital cholesteatomas can occur within the temporal bone. There are six places of location: (1) petrous apex, (2) mastoid, (3) middle ear, (4) both middle ear and mastoid, (5) external ear canal and (6) within the squamous portion of the temporal bone. Congenital cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is rare. Generally, it appears in the canal floor without lesions in the tympanic membrane. Computed tomography completes the study. Treatment consists of excision of the mass.

  17. Electronic considerations for externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Landis, D. A.; Goulding, F. S.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Malone, D. F.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The dominant background source for germanium gamma ray detector spectrometers used for some astrophysics observations is internal beta decay. Externally segmented germanium gamma ray coaxial detectors can identify beta decay by localizing the event. Energetic gamma rays interact in the germanium detector by multiple Compton interactions while beta decay is a local process. In order to recognize the difference between gamma rays and beta decay events, the external electrode (outside of detector) is electrically partitioned. The instrumentation of these external segments and the consequence with respect to the spectrometer energy signal is examined.

  18. Assembly of Superparamagnetic Filaments in External Field.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiachen; Song, Fan; Dobnikar, Jure

    2016-09-13

    We present a theoretical and simulation study of anchored magneto-elastic filaments in external magnetic field. The filaments are composed of a mixture of superparamagnetic and nonmagnetic colloidal beads interlinked with elastic springs. We explore the steady-state structures of filaments with various composition and bending rigidity subject to external magnetic field parallel to the surface. The interplay of elastic and induced magnetic interactions results in a rich phase behavior with morphologies reminiscent of macromolecular folding: bent filaments, loops, sheets, helicoids, and other collapsed structures. Our results provide new insights into the design of hierarchically assembled supramolecular structures with controlled response to external stimuli. PMID:27536958

  19. Issues with external occultation of a coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayanna, A. Raja; Mathew, Shibu K.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Singh, J.; Prasad, B. R.

    2011-04-01

    This paper addresses some of the issues related to externally occulted solar coronagraph; vignetting and achievable resolution due to an external occulter. The analytical expression by Evans (J Opt Soc Am 38:1083-1085, 1948) is used to perform the initial calculations. An expression for the vignetting for a given external occulter and field angle is derived. The values obtained with the derived expression are verified with those obtained by ZEMAX an Optical design software. The degradation in angular resolution of the system due to vignetting is also presented and an empirical relation to calculate the normalized resolution for a given amount of vignetting is obtained.

  20. 75 FR 70015 - External Defibrillators; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... (CDC) to develop a multi-city AED registry that will link with the CDC-funded Cardiac Arrest Registry.... What factors or criteria should be considered when designing external defibrillators for use...

  1. Externality, environment, and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Stager, S F

    1981-07-01

    On the assumption that external responsiveness and environmental characteristics jointly determine whether a child will achieve an excessive weight gain, perpetuating and maintaining obesity, probability hierarchy was hypothesized and tested. Ss of the study were 24 obese and 24 average-weight, white boys, mean age 9 years, 5 months. An auditory distraction task and Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures Test were used to measure auditory and visual responsivity to external cues, respectively. Socioeconomic status was used as an indicator of the childhood environment. As predicted, the greatest percentages of obese children were observed in the lower-socioeconomic, external group, followed by the lower-socioeconomic, internal group and middle-socioeconomic, external group. The smallest percentage of obese children was observed in the middle-socioeconomic, internal group.

  2. Osteoma of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, I; Aikawa, T; Honda, M; Ouchi, J

    1984-01-01

    A case of osteoma of the external auditory canal in a 19-year-old male patient was reported. The differentiation between osteoma and exostosis was discussed clinically, histopathologically and scanning electron microscopically.

  3. External Fixation of Open Humerus Factures

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, JL; Mahoney, Craig R; Steinbronn, Dave

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen patients with open shaft of humerus fractures were treated with a monolateral external fixator. Nine patients presented with nerve palsies. Two radial nerves were disrupted and required grafting. Of the seven others, six spontaneously recovered and one brachial plexus partially improved. All fractures healed. The average duration of external fixation was 21 weeks. Four patients required additional procedures prior to healing (external fixator reapplication - 2, plating and bone grafting - 2). Two of these four experienced breakage of 4.5 mm external fixation pins. Eight patients developed pin tract infections, which all resolved with local care and antibiotics. Thirteen patients were contacted at an average of 63 months after injury. Eleven reported they were satisfied with their result, nine had no functional limits, and eight reported no pain. PMID:10847515

  4. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  5. Numerical study of external burning flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, Robert D.; Mcclinton, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the successful application of CFD to modeling an external burning flowfield. The study used the 2D, 3D, and PNS versions of the SPARK code. Various grids, boundary conditions, and ignition methodologies have been employed. Flameholding was achieved through the use of a subsonic outflow condition and a hot block located behind the step to ignite the fuel. Since the resulting burning produces a large subsonic region downstream of the cowl, this entire surface can be pressurized to the level of the back pressure. An evaluation of interactions between the ramjet exhaust and the external burning products demonstrate the complexity of this design issue. Ths code is now capable of evaluating the external burning effectiveness for flight vehicles using simple injector schemes, and the methodology can be readily applied to other external burning designs.

  6. Tuning in to teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Harley, Ann E

    2015-07-01

    Parent emotion socialization plays an important role in shaping emotional and behavioral development during adolescence. The Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program aims to improve parents' responses to young people's emotions with a focus on teaching emotion coaching. This study examined the efficacy of the TINT program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Self-report data was collected from parents and youth during the young person's final year of elementary school and again in their first year of secondary school. Multilevel analyses showed significant improvements in parent's impulse control difficulties and emotion socialization, as well as significant reductions in family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. This study provides support for the TINT program in reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

  7. Tuning in to teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Harley, Ann E

    2015-07-01

    Parent emotion socialization plays an important role in shaping emotional and behavioral development during adolescence. The Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program aims to improve parents' responses to young people's emotions with a focus on teaching emotion coaching. This study examined the efficacy of the TINT program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Self-report data was collected from parents and youth during the young person's final year of elementary school and again in their first year of secondary school. Multilevel analyses showed significant improvements in parent's impulse control difficulties and emotion socialization, as well as significant reductions in family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. This study provides support for the TINT program in reducing youth externalizing behavior problems. PMID:26005933

  8. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  9. Progress for the Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Early Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Coleman, Justin; Ryan, Emerald; Bhandari, Bishwo; Sludern, Daniel; Pope, Chad; Sampath, Ram

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current progress and status related to the Industry Application #2 focusing on External Hazards. For this industry application within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) R&D Pathway, we will create the Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) approach to represent meaningful (i.e., realistic facility representation) event scenarios and consequences by using an advanced 3D facility representation that will evaluate external hazards such as flooding and earthquakes in order to identify, model and analyze the appropriate physics that needs to be included to determine plant vulnerabilities related to external events; manage the communication and interactions between different physics modeling and analysis technologies; and develop the computational infrastructure through tools related to plant representation, scenario depiction, and physics prediction. One of the unique aspects of the RISMC approach is how it couples probabilistic approaches (the scenario) with mechanistic phenomena representation (the physics) through simulation. This simulation-based modeling allows decision makers to focus on a variety of safety, performance, or economic metrics. In this report, we describe the evaluation of various physics toolkits related to flooding representation. Ultimately, we will be coupling the flooding representation with other events such as earthquakes in order to provide coupled physics analysis for scenarios where interactions exist.

  10. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  11. The ventilatory effect of external oscillation.

    PubMed

    Isabey, D; Piquet, J

    1989-01-01

    High frequency ventilation (HFV) may be achieved by external oscillation (external HFV) applied around the chest wall (HFCWO) in large animals and humans, or over the entire body (HFBSO) in small animals, instead of being applied via the trachea (internal HFV). We present a synthesis of the results obtained with external HFV in both normal and bronchoconstricted subjects. Whereas external and internal HFV were found to be equivalent in terms of gas exchange in normal rats, external HFV was found to have a beneficial effect in bronchoconstricted rabbits, but internal HFV did not. From the frequency-oscillatory tidal volume relationship determined in normocapnic rabbits, HFBSO at 5 Hz was found to be the optimal frequency at which to ventilate with tidal volumes close to the dead space volume, and which was also shown to be the optimal volume to obtain normocapnia. Moreover, 5 Hz oscillations (HFCWO) at 20 ml and 40 ml superimposed on tidal breathing accelerated nitrogen washout, i.e., gas exchange in normal humans. Unfortunately, only oscillations with much smaller volumes (5-10 ml) were obtainable in COPD patients. Nevertheless, they produced a clear change in breathing pattern associated with a slight improvement in gas exchange and a potentially positive effect on inspiratory muscle fatigue. These results support the concept that non-invasive external HFV technique may be of use in assisting ventilation in bronchoconstricted subjects and may possibly replace conventional controlled ventilation, at least in subjects with high lung compliance, such as babies, neonates and normal adults.

  12. COS FUV External Spectroscopic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavamian, Parviz; Froning, Cynthia; Osterman, Steven; Keyes, Charles D.; Sahnow, Dave

    2010-09-01

    We have performed an analysis of the spectral and spatial resolution of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in its far-ultraviolet channel using spectra acquired during the SM4 Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) and during the Cycle 17 FUV sensitvity monitoring program. As described in ISR 2009-01(v1), our results indicate that the on-orbit FUV spectral resolution is reduced compared to values obtained in ground testing due to the redistribution of light from the core of the line spread function (LSF) into the wings. The wings are caused by mid-frequency wavefront errors (MFWFEs) that are produced by zonal (polishing) errors on the HST OTA. Here we compare the effective resolving power obtained from our models of the COS LSF, for cases where the MFWFEs are included and excluded. The spectral resolving power obtained when MFWFEs are included is 16,000-20,000 for G130M and G160M and 2300-3500 for G140L (λ > 1250 Å). On the other hand, our analysis of the on-orbit spatial resolution perpendicular to dispersion shows that it depends strongly on both wavelength and central wavelength (CENWAVE) setting. This dependence is primarily caused by the known astigmatism introduced by the COS FUV gratings. Over most of its spectral range, the spatial resolution of the FUV channel (as defined by the full width half maximum of a point source spectrum perpendicular to dispersion) meets or exceeds the values measured in ground testing, for both segments of the detector. Across the full range of CENWAVE settings, we obtain a spatial resolution of 0.5" to 1.8" for the G130M grating, 0.3" - 0.6" for G160M and 0.4"- 2.0" for the G140L grating. The corresponding spatial resolution for the BOA aperture is 0.5" - 1.5" for G130M, 0.4" - 0.9" for G160M and 0.7" - 1.5" for G140L. Note that the real values for these gratings will be ~ 15% larger (i.e., slightly lower spatial resolution than quoted) due to our use of a single component fit to the strongly asymmetric BOA

  13. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia. [Including external environmental costs

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions.

  14. Relationship of external fish condition to pathogen prevalence and out-migration survival in juvenile steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetter, N.J.; Evans, A.F.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.; Hawbecker, M.; Sandford, B.P.; Thompson, D.E.; Loge, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the external condition of juvenile salmonids is associated with internal measures of health and subsequent out-migration survival can be valuable for population monitoring programs. This study investigated the use of a rapid, nonlethal, external examination to assess the condition of run-of-the-river juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss migrating from the Snake River to the Pacific Ocean. We compared the external condition (e.g., body injuries, descaling, external signs of disease, fin damage, and ectoparasite infestations) with (1) the internal condition of a steelhead as measured by the presence of selected pathogens detected by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction analysis and (2) out-migration survival through the Snake and Columbia rivers as determined by passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag technology. The results from steelhead captured and euthanized (n = 222) at Lower Monumental Dam on the lower Snake River in 2008 indicated that external condition was significantly correlated with selected measures of internal condition. The odds of testing positive for a pathogen were 39.2, 24.3, and 5.6 times greater for steelhead with severe or moderate external signs of disease or more than 20% descaling, respectively. Capture-recapture models of 22,451 PIT-tagged steelhead released at Lower Monumental Dam in 2007-2009 indicated that external condition was significantly correlated with juvenile survival. The odds of outmigration survival for steelhead with moderate or severe external signs of disease, more than 20% descaling, or severe fin damage were 5.7, 4.9, 1.6, and 1.3 times lower, respectively, than those for steelhead without these external conditions. This study effectively demonstrated that specific measures of external condition were associated with both the internal condition and out-migration survival of juvenile steelhead. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  15. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  16. Relations Among Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms and Drinking Frequency During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Jin; Sacco, Paul; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Camlin, Elizabeth A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In adolescence, internalizing (e.g., anxious, depressive, and withdrawn) and externalizing (e.g., aggressive, oppositional, delinquent, and hyper-active) symptoms are related with alcohol use. However, the directionality among internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and alcohol use during adolescence is equivocal. Moreover, gender differences and similarities among these behaviors are not definitive in existing literature. Objectives This study examined longitudinal relationships between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and past-month alcohol use among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Using longitudinal survey data from a study of community-dwelling adolescents (n = 724), we estimated cross-lagged structural equation models to test relations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms (as measured by the Youth Self Report, YSR [Achenbach, 1991]) and self-report alcohol use in the past month among adolescents. Gender differences were tested in a multiple group structural equation model. Results Alcohol use at age 12 was a predictor of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at age 15 for both boys and girls. With regard to gender differences, girls demonstrated an association between internalizing symptoms and drinking at age 12, whereas boys showed a stronger association between externalizing symptoms and drinking at age 18. Conclusions/Importance Early alcohol use is problematic for youth, and results of this study lend support to prevention programs for youth. Preventing or curbing early drinking may offset later externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as ongoing alcohol use, regardless of gender. PMID:26646723

  17. Effects of external radio transmitters on fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J.; McCormick, J.H.

    1981-04-01

    Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were studied to determine the effects of externally attached radio transmitter tags. Perch that had been tagged with dummy radio tags were more susceptible to predation and more sensitive to environmental stress than were controls. Feeding and respiration rates were similar among dummy tagged and control groups of perch over a 6-week period. The feeding rate of dummy tagged largemouth bass was lower than that of untagged fish over a 3,5-week period. On the basis of these studies, we conclude that weights of external transmitters in water should be less than 1.5% of the fish weight. Design considerations should include streamlining components and an anterior attachment wire at the extreme leading edge of an external transmitter to prevent entanglement of the tag in surrounding vegetation.

  18. Embolomycotic Aneurysm of External Iliac Artery

    PubMed Central

    Terán, Nemesio A.; Gonzalez, Nerio M.; García, Luis; Gonzalez, Freddy E.; Rivera, Humberto E.

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of embolomycotic aneurysm of the right iliac artery secondary to bacterial endocarditis. The patient, a 33-year-old woman, presented with unilateral hydronephrosis and lower extremity edema caused by aneurysmal compression of the ipsilateral ureter and the external iliac vein. She was treated with ligation and an extraperitoneal left-external-iliac-artery to right-femoral-artery bypass using a knitted Dacron prosthesis. Since her surgery, our patient has been well except for persistence of moderate leg edema. To the best of our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st case of embolomycotic external-iliac-artery aneurysm secondary to bacterial endocarditis and resulting in hydronephrosis and venous insufficiency. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1989;16:51-55) Images PMID:15227238

  19. Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Marvin

    This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

  20. 23 CFR 230.309 - Program format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Program format. 230.309 Section 230.309 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Programs § 230.309 Program format. It is essential that a...

  1. 23 CFR 230.309 - Program format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program format. 230.309 Section 230.309 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Programs § 230.309 Program format. It is essential that a...

  2. 23 CFR 230.309 - Program format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Program format. 230.309 Section 230.309 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Programs § 230.309 Program format. It is essential that a...

  3. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies. PMID:26471269

  4. Giant cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Sapçi, T; Uğur, G; Karavus, A; Ağrali, N; Akbulut, U G

    1997-06-01

    Cholesteatomas are found almost exclusively in the middle ear and mastoid. Occasionally this disease is seen in the external auditory canal. Cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is a rare condition. Severe pain and profuse discharge associated with a normal eardrum and normal hearing are essential clinical features. In addition, we found facial paresis and conductive hearing loss in our case. Smaller cholesteatomas can be managed by frequent debridement in the office; larger lesions require surgical intervention. Surgery is successful in resolving otorrhea and relieving pain. In addition, our own experience has shown that surgery is successful in relieving facial paresis.

  5. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies.

  6. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  7. External cardiovascular resuscitation of the anesthetized pony.

    PubMed

    Frauenfelder, H C; Fessler, J F; Latshaw, H S; Moore, A B; Bottoms, G D

    1981-10-01

    External cardiac massage and concomitant respiratory support were used successfully 6 of 8 anesthetized ponies sustaining unexpected cardiac arrest while being used in a study of shock. Approximately 20 thoracic compressions/min maintained systolic and diastolic aortic blood pressures in excess of 50% of the corresponding base-line values in 5 ponies. The high success rate was attributed to early recognition of the problem, the small size of the patient, and the relatively short duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (average, 2.9 minutes). It was concluded that external cardiac message can be effective for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in selected equine patients that have sustained cardiac arrest.

  8. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  9. Internalizing problems as a predictor of change in externalizing problems in at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew; Siddiqui, Salma; Lochman, John; Qu, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Intervention and prevention programs for children with externalizing problems frequently involve children with co-occurring internalizing problems. Little is known about how these co-occurring internalizing problems predict outcomes, particularly for programs involving cognitive-behavioral strategies. The current study examined how a set of child-related risk factors (including anxiety and depressive symptoms) predicted change in parent- and teacher-reported externalizing problems following a school-based preventative intervention for children at risk for externalizing problems. Participants included 112 preadolescent children (ages 9-12) who participated in a study designed to evaluate the efficacy of the Coping Power Program (Lochman & Wells, 2004 ). Participants included 81 boys (68%) who were primarily African American (69%) or Caucasian (30%). Regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of change in parent- and teacher-reported externalizing problems on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992 ). Results indicated that greater child depression symptoms (as reported by parent or teacher) were associated with a larger reduction in externalizing behavior problems based on parent or teacher report. This effect was found in both the parent and teacher models and held after controlling for a number of child-oriented baseline variables including baseline aggression. Future research studies should examine whether co-occurring symptoms of depression relate to enhanced changes in externalizing problems following intervention for externalizing problems, particularly when cognitive-behavioral interventions are utilized. In addition, it will be important for studies to examine such effects relative to a control group and/or alternative treatment conditions and to further explore possible mechanisms of change. PMID:23402743

  10. Nonpoint sources as external threats to coastal water quality: lessons from Park Service experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burroughs, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Program design for nonpoint source control was considered through an analogous problem, external threats to national parks. Nonpoint sources are diffuse land activities that degrade water quality, and recent federal legislation seeks to limit them in coastal areas. External threats occur outside a park boundary but affect the purposes for, or resources within, a park. They have been subject to federal management for many decades. Nonpoint sources are a class of external threat. Therefore, programs to limit them should consider techniques used in part protection. These park techniques include 'hard approaches', which rely on power, usually through legal devices, and 'soft approaches', which utilize shared values and objectives. A linked approach, as exemplified at the Cape Cod National Seashore, appears most promising. In a linked approach, if a soft approach fails, the manager of the protected unit is empowered to take an alternative hard action to protect the resource.

  11. Cost of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in bone infection

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Khaled Mohamed; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; Ghafar, Khaled Abd EL

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the cost benefit of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in treatment of bone infection by segment transfer. METHODS: Out of 71 patients with infected nonunion tibia treated between 2003 and 2006, 50 patients fitted the inclusion criteria (26 patients were treated by external fixation only, and 24 patients were treated by external fixation early removal after segment transfer and replacement by internal fixation). Cost of inpatient treatment, total cost of inpatient and outpatient treatment till full healing, and the weeks of absence from school or work were calculated and compared between both groups. RESULTS: The cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of external fixation only was 22.6 ± 3.3 while the cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of early external fixation removal and replacement by intramedullary nail was 26.0 ± 3.2. The difference was statistically significant regarding the cost of hospital stay and surgery in favor of the group of external fixation only. The total cost of medical care (surgery, hospital stay, treatment outside the hospital including medications, dressing, physical therapy, outpatient laboratory work, etc.) in group of external fixation only was 63.3 ± 15.1, and total absence from work was 38.6 ± 6.6 wk. While the group of early removal of external fixation and replacement by IM nail, total cost of medical care was 38.3 ± 6.4 and total absence from work or school was 22.7 ± 4.1. The difference was statistically significant regarding the total cost and absence from work in favor of the group of early removal and replacement by IM nail. CONCLUSION: Early removal of external fixation and replacement by intramedullary nail in treatment of infected nonunion showed more cost effectiveness. Orthopaedic society needs to show the cost effectiveness of different procedures to the community, insurance, and health authorities. PMID:25621219

  12. External quality assessment scheme and laboratory accreditation in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Timan, Ina S; Aulia, Diana; Santoso, Witono

    2002-02-01

    The National Program on External Quality Assessment Scheme (NEQAS) in Indonesia was first started in 1979, organized by the Indonesian Ministry of Health collaborating with professional bodies. The first trial was for clinical chemistry test with 2 cycles per year, followed by the hematology NEQAS in 1986 in collaboration with WHO-Royal Post Graduate Medical School London. After that, the schemes for serology, microbiology and parasitology were also organized. Around 500-600 laboratories throughout Indonesia participated each year in these quality control schemes, 2-4 cycles per year. Samples would be sent to participants and results will be given back to each laboratory. Poor performers should participate in the workshop or training course conducted by the Central Health Laboratory to improve their results. Participation in this NEQAS is mandatory for obtaining the laboratory license, and the Ministry of Health uses these schemes as one of the means for monitoring and coordinating the performance of laboratories throughout Indonesia. There are also some other EQAS (External Quality Assessment Scheme) programs conducted by professional bodies, such as for hemostasis, clinical chemistry and serology. During the course of conducting these schemes, it could be observed that manual methods were gradually changed to the automatic methods, especially for the clinical chemistry and hematology laboratories, which counts also for improvements of their results. Since the last 6 years, the Ministry of Health also began to conduct the Accreditation System evaluation for hospitals, including the laboratory departments. There are 7 standards that were evaluated, such as the aspect of the organization, administration and management, staffing, facilities and equipment, standard operating procedures, research and developments and quality control. This accreditation program is still in progress for all public and private hospital laboratories.

  13. A Model for External Demographic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Barbara Ann

    A data-collection model is presented for the gathering of timely information on population demographic characteristics, as well as economic, educational, environmental, and social trends. First, the paper discusses the importance of anticipating internal and external changes and establishing priorities for resource allocation in the design of a…

  14. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  15. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with inflammatory myopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Pu, Chuanqiang; Shi, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Cong, Lu; Liu, Jiexiao; Luo, Hongyu; Fei, Lingna; Tang, Wei; Yu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia is one of mitochondrial disorders, characterized by ptosis, limitation of eye movement, variably severe bulbar muscle weakness and proximal limb weakness. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia complicated with acquired disease is extremely rare. We report a 44 years old male patient with more than 20 years of chronic progressive bilateral ptosis and limitation of eye movements manifested dysarthria, dysphagia and neck muscle weakness for 3 years. The first muscle biopsy showed red-ragged fibers and cytochrome c oxidase negative fibers as well as inflammatory cells infiltration. Electron microscopy revealed paracrystalline inclusions. Mitochondrial genetic analysis demonstrated a large-scale mtDNA deletion of m.8470_13446del4977. The patient was treated with prednisone. In a three-year follow-up study, the second biopsy was performed. Before the treatment, except bilateral ptosis and external ophthalmopelgia, this patient presented bulbar muscle weakness and neck muscle weakness. After treated with prednisone, the symptoms of dysphagia, dysarthria and neck muscle weakness were significantly improved, and the second biopsy showed only mitochondrial myopathy pathology but the inflammations disappeared. Here, we report a patient with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia complicated with inflammatory myopathy and after treated with prednisone as myositis, he had a significant therapeutic effect. PMID:25674260

  16. Hard thermal loops in static external fields

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, J.; Takahashi, N.; Pereira, S. H.

    2009-04-15

    We examine, in the imaginary-time formalism, the high temperature behavior of n-point thermal loops in static Yang-Mills and gravitational fields. We show that in this regime, any hard thermal loop gives the same leading contribution as the one obtained by evaluating the loop integral at zero external energies and momenta.

  17. External Intervention: Past, Present, and Future Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    Past events, present conditions, and future possibilities provide the context for this examination of the direct or indirect control of college curricula by governmental agencies. The paper first notes that while external management may be resented by educators who are entrenched in the status quo, government intervention into college instruction…

  18. Thoughts on Internal and External Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance of higher education is made up of two parts: internal quality assurance (IQA) and external quality assurance (EQA). Both belong to a union of the coexistence and balance of yin and yang. But in reality there exists a paradox of "confusion of quality assurance (QA) subject consciousness, singularity of social QA and lack of QA…

  19. Evaluating the Evaluators: The External Evaluator's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joe B.

    The question of who evaluates the evaluators is explored through the experiences of an external evaluation team. Some have called evaluating evaluators and their work evaluation auditing, but it could also be viewed as a form of meta-evaluation. At the request of the Director of Research and Evaluation for the "ESU 18" (named for a county…

  20. External audio for IBM-compatible computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous applications benefit from the presentation of computer-generated auditory stimuli at points discontiguous with the computer itself. Modification of an IBM-compatible computer for use of an external speaker is relatively easy but not intuitive. This modification is briefly described.

  1. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  2. How External Misfortunes Shaped Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    The essay makes an attempt to trace the influences that external political and socioeconomic factors like World Wars I, II and Great Depression had on higher education in the U.S. Higher education - autonomous and self - contained system - proved to be one of the center points of main societal developments, at the same time being significantly…

  3. 45 CFR 800.503 - External review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... similar to OPM review of disputed claims under 5 CFR 890.105(e), subject to the standards and timeframes set forth in 45 CFR 147.136(d). (b) Notice. Notices to MSP enrollees regarding external review under paragraph (a) of this section must comply with 45 CFR 147.136(e), and are subject to review and approval...

  4. The Importance of External Advisory Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent Internet discussion among academic deans, the topic was whether departments and other academic units should create external advisory boards. The dean who raised the issue asked his colleagues whether they maintained boards, if they were genuinely beneficial, and what the ideal board would look like. Some administrators are only now…

  5. How External Exit Exams Spur Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Compared with minimum competency tests, curriculum-based external exit exams provide better measures of students' achievement levels. Analysis of Third Mathematics and Science Study data shows that 13 year-olds from exit-exam countries are ahead of nonparticipating countries. Effects on college enrollment, job success, and test scores are…

  6. Career Services in University External Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Seth C. W.; Ledwith, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter will focus on the role of career services in external relations. It will provide the basis for this connection along with best practices in developing and maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship between career centers and on-campus and off-campus partners.

  7. Externalization of Tacit Knowledge in Online Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Jialin

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge, especially tacit knowledge, has gained more and more attention in recent years. The author claims that, with the development of information technology, more knowledge sharing takes place online rather than face-to-face. The purpose of this study is to explore how tacit knowledge is externalized in online environments. To answer this…

  8. Energy Conservation Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document II: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

    Provided are appendices which contain supporting documentation related to an external evaluation of the Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects. Objectives of this program were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservations measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these guidelines as…

  9. Correlates of Externalizing Behavior Symptoms among Youth within Two Impoverished, Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalan, Geetha; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether risk factors associated with child externalizing behavior symptoms differ between two similar low-income, urban communities, using baseline parent data of 154 African American youth (ages 9-15) participating in the Collaborative HIV-Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) family program. Separate…

  10. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Storage Vessels §...

  11. Study Guide for the Regents External Degree Examination in Health Support--Area II (4 Credits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Regents External Degree Program.

    A study guide for the Health Support Area II examination of the University of the State of New York Regents External Degree Program is presented. The examination tests the use of the nursing process to support the health of the client at risk for major health problems throughout the life cycle. Emphasis is placed on nursing actions related to…

  12. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  13. Health insurance and the obesity externality.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    If rational individuals pay the full costs of their decisions about food intake and exercise, economists, policy makers, and public health officials should treat the obesity epidemic as a matter of indifference. In this paper, we show that, as long as insurance premiums are not risk rated for obesity, health insurance coverage systematically shields those covered from the full costs of physical inactivity and overeating. Since the obese consume significantly more medical resources than the non-obese, but pay the same health insurance premiums, they impose a negative externality on normal weight individuals in their insurance pool. To estimate the size of this externality, we develop a model of weight loss and health insurance under two regimes--(1) underwriting on weight is allowed and (2) underwriting on weight is not allowed. We show that under regime (1), there is no obesity externality. Under regime (2), where there is an obesity externality, all plan participants face inefficient incentives to undertake unpleasant dieting and exercise. These reduced incentives lead to inefficient increases in bodyweight, and reduced social welfare. Using data on medical expenditures and bodyweight from the National Health and Interview Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimate that, in a health plan with a coinsurance rate of 17.5%, the obesity externality imposes a welfare cost of about $150 per capita. Our results also indicate that the welfare loss can be reduced by technological change that lowers the pecuniary and non-pecuniary costs of losing weight, and also by increasing the coinsurance rate.

  14. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadel, Ehab

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis Symptoms: Face engorgement • neck swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. Case Report: This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Conclusions: Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present

  15. Guide for School Testing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annie W., Ed.; And Others

    Basically, test directors have four systemwide and building level responsibilities: (1) planning, administration and evaluation of standardized testing programs; (2) application of measurement and evaluation to school problems; (3) classroom testing and evaluation; and (4) external testing programs. In a series of brief memos, measurement and…

  16. Tools for Ensuring Program Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This training document for financial assistance professionals discusses ensuring program integrity in student financial aid and describes some tools for ensuring internal and external program integrity. The training focuses on these tools and resources: (1) the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Schools Portal; (2) the Information for Financial Aid…

  17. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  18. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  19. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  20. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  1. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  3. An externally and internally deformable, programmable lung motion phantom

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Most clinically deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating and tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are based on a rigid exterior and a rigid or a deformable-interior. Such designs do not adequately represent respiration because the thoracic anatomy deforms internally as well as externally. In order to create a closer approximation of respiratory motion, the authors describe the construction and experimental testing of an externally as well as internally deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially available lung phantom (RS-1500, RSD, Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A custom-made insert was designed using a piece of natural latex foam block. A motion platform was programmed with sinusoidal and ten patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam “diaphragm” that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of determining the reproducibility and the external–internal correlation of external and internal marker trajectories extracted from kV x-ray fluoroscopy. Experiments were conducted to illustrate three example applications of the phantom—(i) validating the geometric accuracy of the VisionRT surface photogrammetry system; (ii) validating an image registration tool, NiftyReg; and (iii) quantifying the geometric error due to irregular motion in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Results: The phantom correctly reproduced sinusoidal and patient-derived motion, as well as realistic respiratory motion-related effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0

  4. An externally and internally deformable, programmable lung motion phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Most clinically deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating and tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are based on a rigid exterior and a rigid or a deformable-interior. Such designs do not adequately represent respiration because the thoracic anatomy deforms internally as well as externally. In order to create a closer approximation of respiratory motion, the authors describe the construction and experimental testing of an externally as well as internally deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially available lung phantom (RS-1500, RSD, Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A custom-made insert was designed using a piece of natural latex foam block. A motion platform was programmed with sinusoidal and ten patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam “diaphragm” that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of determining the reproducibility and the external–internal correlation of external and internal marker trajectories extracted from kV x-ray fluoroscopy. Experiments were conducted to illustrate three example applications of the phantom—(i) validating the geometric accuracy of the VisionRT surface photogrammetry system; (ii) validating an image registration tool, NiftyReg; and (iii) quantifying the geometric error due to irregular motion in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Results: The phantom correctly reproduced sinusoidal and patient-derived motion, as well as realistic respiratory motion-related effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0

  5. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  6. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  7. Two decades of external peer review of cancer care in general hospitals; the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Kilsdonk, Melvin J; Siesling, Sabine; Otter, Rene; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-03-01

    External peer review was introduced in general hospitals in the Netherlands in 1994 to assess and improve the multidisciplinary team approach in cancer care. This paper aims to explore the value, perceived impact, and (future) role of external peer review in cancer care. Semistructured interviews were held with clinicians, oncology nurses, and managers from fifteen general hospitals that participated in three rounds of peer review over a period of 16 years. Interviewees reflected on the goals and expectations, experiences, perceived impact, and future role of external peer review. Transcriptions of the interviews were coded to discover recurrent themes. Improving clinical care and organization were the main motives for participation. Positive impact was perceived on multiple aspects of care such as shared responsibilities, internal prioritization of cancer care, improved communication, and a clear structure and position of cancer care within general hospitals. Establishing a direct relationship between the external peer review and organizational or clinical impact proved to be difficult. Criticism was raised on the content of the program being too theoretical and organization-focussed after three rounds. According to most stakeholders, external peer review can improve multidisciplinary team work in cancer care; however, the acceptance is threatened by a perceived disbalance between effort and visible clinical impact. Leaner and more clinically focused programs are needed to keep repeated peer reviews challenging and worthwhile. PMID:26714788

  8. Child abuse history in teen mothers and parent-child risk processes for offspring externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Pasalich, Dave S; Cyr, Maeve; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J; Spieker, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether child abuse history in teen mothers impacts offspring externalizing problems indirectly, through its influence on attachment and maternal hostility. In a longitudinal sample of 112 teen mother-child dyads, mothers reported on their own abuse experiences, attachment and maternal hostility were assessed via direct observations, and externalizing problems were measured using maternal reports. Compared with mothers with no abuse history, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse were more likely to have an insecurely attached infant, which predicted higher externalizing problems in preschool, which in turn predicted subsequent increases in externalizing problems in Grade 3. Furthermore, relative to the no abuse history group, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse showed more hostility toward their child at preschool, which in turn predicted elevated externalizing problems in Grade 3. Mothers' history of either sexual or physical abuse alone did not have significant indirect effects on externalizing problems. Fostering secure attachment and reducing risk for maternal hostility might be important intervention goals for prevention programs involving at-risk mothers with abuse histories. PMID:27174770

  9. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States: Other external events

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1989-02-01

    In support of implementation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Policy, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to ''other external events.'' The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether ''other external events'' (the hazards not covered by previous reports) are among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. The ''other external events'' covered in this report are nearby industrial/military facility accidents, on site hazardous material storage accidents, severe temperature transients, severe weather storms, lightning strikes, external fires, extraterrestrial activity, volcanic activity, earth movement, and abrasive windstorms. The analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. 37 refs., 8 tabs.

  10. Strong CP violation in external magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Millo, R.; Faccioli, P.

    2008-03-15

    We study the response of the QCD vacuum to an external magnetic field, in the presence of strong CP violation. Using chiral perturbation theory and large N{sub c} expansion, we show that the external field would polarize quantum fluctuations and induce an electric dipole moment of the vacuum along the direction of the magnetic field. We estimate the magnitude of this effect in different physical scenarios. In particular, we find that the polarization induced by the magnetic field of a magnetar could accelerate electric charges up to energies of the order {approx}{theta}10{sup 3} TeV. We also suggest a connection with the possible existence of ''hot-spots'' on the surface of neutron stars.

  11. Cleaning MEG artifacts using external cues.

    PubMed

    Tal, I; Abeles, M

    2013-07-15

    Using EEG, ECoG, MEG, and microelectrodes to record brain activity is prone to multiple artifacts. The main power line (mains line), video equipment, mechanical vibrations and activities outside the brain are the most common sources of artifacts. MEG amplitudes are low, and even small artifacts distort recordings. In this study, we show how these artifacts can be efficiently removed by recording external cues during MEG recordings. These external cues are subsequently used to register the precise times or spectra of the artifacts. The results indicate that these procedures preserve both the spectra and the time domain wave-shapes of the neuromagnetic signal, while successfully reducing the contribution of the artifacts to the target signals without reducing the rank of the data.

  12. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  13. Bicondylar tibial fractures: Internal or external fixation?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gunasekaran; Peterson, Nicholas; Narayan, Badri

    2011-03-01

    Bicondylar fractures of the tibia, representing the Schatzker V and VI fractures represent a challenging problem. Any treatment protocol should aim at restoring articular congruity and the metaphyseo-diaphsyeal dissociation (MDD)-both of these are equally important to long-term outcome. Both internal and external fixations have their proponents, and each method of treatment is associated with its unique features and complications. We review the initial and definitive management of these injuries, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method of definitive fixation. We suggest the use of a protocol for definitive management, using either internal or external fixation as deemed appropriate. This protocol is based on the fracture configuration, local soft tissue status and patient condition. In a nutshell, if the fracture pattern and soft tissue status are amenable plate fixation (single or double) is performed, otherwise limited open reduction and articular surface reconstruction with screws and circular frame is performed. PMID:21430865

  14. External control of reactions in microdroplets

    PubMed Central

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-01-01

    Scale reduction of chemical reactions enables novel screening and synthesis approaches that facilitate a highly parallelized and combinatorial exploration of chemical space. Droplet-based microfluidics have evolved as a powerful platform to allow many chemical reactions within small volumes that each can be controlled and manipulated. A significant technical challenge is the ability to change the concentration of reactants inside a droplet. Here we describe a strategy that relies on the use of reactants that are soluble in both oil and water and allow a passive, diffusive exchange of reactants between the oil and aqueous phases to externally control composition of the droplets. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach by externally changing the pH inside microdroplets without the need for physical manipulation or droplet merging. PMID:26135837

  15. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine. PMID:27012882

  16. External control of reactions in microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-07-01

    Scale reduction of chemical reactions enables novel screening and synthesis approaches that facilitate a highly parallelized and combinatorial exploration of chemical space. Droplet-based microfluidics have evolved as a powerful platform to allow many chemical reactions within small volumes that each can be controlled and manipulated. A significant technical challenge is the ability to change the concentration of reactants inside a droplet. Here we describe a strategy that relies on the use of reactants that are soluble in both oil and water and allow a passive, diffusive exchange of reactants between the oil and aqueous phases to externally control composition of the droplets. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach by externally changing the pH inside microdroplets without the need for physical manipulation or droplet merging.

  17. Blue-emitting external cavity laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hong Man; Song, Hong Joo; Park, Jong Hwan; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Jung Ho

    2016-03-01

    An front facet anti-reflection coated solitary laser diode is operated in the external cavity diode laser (ECDL). For wavelength stabilization and narrow spectral width, the diffraction grating is used in a Littrow configuration. At an injection current of 280 mA, a output power of 35mW with a slope efficiency of 0.22 W/A and the bandwidth of 80 pm at a wavelength of 457 nm. In this paper, the tunable external cavity diode laser module is designed with an overall size of 18 mm x 24 mm x 14 mm. ECDL showed excellent wavelength locking behavior without a non-shift of the peak wavelength.

  18. External beam radiation therapy for orthopaedic pathology.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christopher E; Frank, Rachel M; Hsu, Andrew R; Diaz, Aidnag; Gitelis, Steven

    2015-04-01

    External beam radiation therapy is essential in the management of a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions, both benign and malignant, including bony and soft-tissue sarcomas, metastatic tumors, pigmented villonodular synovitis, and heterotopic ossification. Radiation therapy, in combination with surgery, helps reduce the functional loss from cancer resections. Although the field of radiation therapy is firmly rooted in physics and radiation biology, its indications and delivery methods are rapidly evolving. External beam radiation therapy mainly comes in the form of four sources of radiotherapy: protons, photons, electrons, and neutrons. Each type of energy has a unique role in treating various pathologies; however, these energy types also have their own distinctive limitations and morbidities. PMID:25712073

  19. Study of intranasal ostium external dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Linberg, J V; Anderson, R L; Bumsted, R M; Barreras, R

    1982-11-01

    A rigid endoscope was used to directly examine, measure, and photograph the intranasal ostium created by an external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). This technique was used to examine 19 patients who underwent 22 standard external DCRs. All patients had clinically successful results, documented by a positive Jone I dye test following surgery. The dimension of the bony opening created at surgery was measured and averaged 11.84 mm in diameter. The average diameter of the healed intranasal ostium was only 1.80 mm. No statistically valid correlation between the size of the bony opening and the final size of the healed intranasal ostium could be established. Thus, a large surgical anastomosis did not necessarily result in a large healed intranasal ostium. Excellent functional results were obtained even when the intranasal ostium was quite small. Other indications for the use of this technique are discussed.

  20. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal.

    PubMed

    Binnetoglu, Adem; Baglam, Tekin; Tokuc, Gulnur; Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  1. Complications of the external (combination) rhinoplasty approach.

    PubMed

    Burgess, L P; Everton, D M; Quilligan, J J; Charles, G; Lepore, M L; Van Sant, T E; Yim, D W

    1986-10-01

    More rhinoplastic surgeons are using the external (combination) rhinoplasty approach for selected patients. Although several large series report few complications, the initial experience of newcomers may be different. A series of 26 external rhinoplasty approaches was examined, representing the initial experience of supervised residents. The most common complication was incising the anterior margin of the lower lateral cartilage at the juncture of the lateral and medial crura. To prevent this problem, it is recommended that the skin be elevated off the lower lateral cartilages from both a medial direction up over the domes and a lateral direction downward. To repair this complication, a figure-of-eight suture is used to reapproximate the incision.

  2. Implementation of ionoluminescence in the AGLAE scanning external microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to present the implementation of an IBIL imaging system in the scanning external microprobe of the AGLAE facility so as to correlate luminescence and composition maps provided by PIXE, RBS and PIGE. The challenging integration of the optical spectrometer, due to incompatibility of acquisition timings and data formats with the other IBA channels has motivated the development of a specific acquisition system. This article details the IBIL setup and explains the technical solutions retained for the coupling of IBIL with IBA techniques in order to produce fast and large IBIL-IBA maps. The IBIL maps stored in the same format as the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ones can be visualised and compared using the dedicated AGLAEmap program or the PyMCA processing package. An example of such a coupled mapping on Mesoamerican jade is presented to emphasise the interest of performing simultaneously IBA and IBIL large mappings.

  3. Method to predict external store carriage characteristics at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Bruce S.

    1988-01-01

    Development of a computational method for prediction of external store carriage characteristics at transonic speeds is described. The geometric flexibility required for treatment of pylon-mounted stores is achieved by computing finite difference solutions on a five-level embedded grid arrangement. A completely automated grid generation procedure facilitates applications. Store modeling capability consists of bodies of revolution with multiple fore and aft fins. A body-conforming grid improves the accuracy of the computed store body flow field. A nonlinear relaxation scheme developed specifically for modified transonic small disturbance flow equations enhances the method's numerical stability and accuracy. As a result, treatment of lower aspect ratio, more highly swept and tapered wings is possible. A limited supersonic freestream capability is also provided. Pressure, load distribution, and force/moment correlations show good agreement with experimental data for several test cases. A detailed computer program description for the Transonic Store Carriage Loads Prediction (TSCLP) Code is included.

  4. Space Shuttle external tank: Today - DDT & E: Tomorrow - Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, A. M.; Tanner, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The External Tank (ET) is the structural backbone of the Space Shuttle. The ET is discussed relative to its role; its design as a highly efficient Shuttle element; the liquid oxygen tank - a thin shelled monocoque; the intertank - the forward structural connection; the liquid hydrogen tank structure - the connection with the Orbiter; the ET structural verification; the propulsion system - a variety of functions; the electrical subsystem; electrical subsystem qualification; the thermal protection system; and other related problems. To date the qualification programs have been extremely successful and are almost complete, and the first flight tank has been delivered. Tomorrow's objectives will concentrate on establishing the facilities, tools and processes to achieve a production rate of 24 ETs/year.

  5. FSW Implementation on the Space Shuttle's External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Paula J.; Hartley, David E.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Friction Stir Welding process developed by The Welding Institute (TWI) has found application throughout the transportation industry. This technique has proven to be a viable joining process for aluminum alloys, producing virtually defect free welds with improved mechanical properties as compared to conventional fusion welding. Lockheed Martin Space Systems - Michoud Operations has been developing this technology for application on aluminum 2219 and 2195 cryogenic tankage since 1995. This effort will come to fruition with implementation on the longitudinal welds of the External Fuel Tank (ET) of the Shuttle. To this end, sub-and full-scale demonstration programs coupled with process development and optimization have been complete. Full size ET tool has been designed, fabricated and are being installed at the Michoud Assembly Facility. Upon completion of the tooling certification and materials allowables testing, production will commence. This implementation will result in increased reliability and safety of flight for the Shuttle.

  6. Charting Multidisciplinary Team External Dynamics Using a Systems Thinking Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Waszak, Martin R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Using the formalism provided by the Systems Thinking approach, the dynamics present when operating multidisciplinary teams are examined in the context of the NASA Langley Research and Technology Group, an R&D organization organized along functional lines. The paper focuses on external dynamics and examines how an organization creates and nurtures the teams and how it disseminates and retains the lessons and expertise created by the multidisciplinary activities. Key variables are selected and the causal relationships between the variables are identified. Five "stories" are told, each of which touches on a different aspect of the dynamics. The Systems Thinking Approach provides recommendations as to interventions that will facilitate the introduction of multidisciplinary teams and that therefore will increase the likelihood of performing successful multidisciplinary developments. These interventions can be carried out either by individual researchers, line management or program management.

  7. Subsurface barrier feasibility evaluation: External review meeting report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S.L.; Rouse, J.K.

    1994-12-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company -- Tank Waste Remediation System Division (TWRS) Program is evaluating subsurface barrier technologies for potential use in supporting remediation of the Hanford Tank Farms for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). An External Review Team (ERT) was assembled to perform an independent technical review of the work performed to-date supporting the evaluation process. A set of draft documents was forwarded to the ERT for their review, and a meeting was held August 10 through 12, 1994, to facilitate comments and resolutions. This document summarizes the meeting, the comments provided by the ERT, and the ongoing work to resolve the comments and support a pending decision by The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office; the Washington State Department of Ecology; and the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  8. Electromagnetic wave scattering by an external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannikov, S. S.

    1995-08-01

    The quantum electrodynamics of bilocal fields is used to calculate the triangular Feynman diagrams describing the elastic scattering of a classical electromagnetic wave by an external Coulomb field. The total contribution of the diagrams is nonzero because of the violation of both the Furry theorem (CP or T symmetries) and the Ward identities. The cross section for this scattering process is found for low and high energies. A comparison with Compton scattering and Euler—Heisenberg scattering is given.

  9. Unilateral vestibular loss impairs external space representation.

    PubMed

    Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss.

  10. Unilateral Vestibular Loss Impairs External Space Representation

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24523916

  11. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany’s leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  12. Holographic Interferometry Applications In External Osteosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, P.; Rastogi, P. K.; Pflug, L.

    1985-08-01

    In order to maintain fragments of fractured bones in a state of immobilization, the use of an external rigid frame has proved to be very advantageous. Confronted by contradictory requirements, the conception of external fixation has, however, been a difficult task. The present paper aims to show, through three examples of varied bearings, the interest of holographic interferometry in external osteosynthesis. The first example deals with the mechanical behavior of a key element of the fixation device the ball joint submitted to realistic loads. The last two examples compare two models of ball joints as to their characteristics of rigidity and of resistance to slipping. Whereas in the former case holographic interferometry primarily fulfills the function of a prelude to the modelization work, in the latter cases it serves to formulate an engineering diagnostic. The findings relate to the remarkable elastic behavior of the ball joint, to the effectiveness of a lightened bowl design, and to the fact that cousin models may behave quite differently as to their resistance to slipping rotations of the bar. In comparison with other experimental methods, holographic interferometry appears to be very competitive and result-oriented and, as such, is expected to multiply applications in similar evaluation tasks.

  13. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  14. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    PubMed

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  15. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    PubMed

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  16. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  17. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-04-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  18. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2011-04-04

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  19. Intercultural Programs Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Lynne

    The report evaluates the programs of the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools' Office of Intercultural Programs' services. The programs are designed to provide educational equity and serve as a resource for students, parents, community, and staff in a variety of areas, including: a voluntary transfer program; paired and magnet schools; extended day…

  20. External benefits of biomass-e in Spain: an economic valuation.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Mario

    2010-03-01

    This article analyses the willingness to pay for a program that promotes the production of electricity from forest biomass, instead of that based on fossil fuels. The program decreases greenhouse gas emissions, reduces the pressure on non-renewable resources, lowers the risk of summer forest fires, creates employment in rural areas. Results from a choice experiment show that consumers are willing to pay a higher price for electricity in order to obtain the external benefits of the substitution. Respondents attach a higher value to programs that decrease the pressure of non-renewable resources and the risk of forest fires. PMID:19900807

  1. External benefits of biomass-e in Spain: an economic valuation.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Mario

    2010-03-01

    This article analyses the willingness to pay for a program that promotes the production of electricity from forest biomass, instead of that based on fossil fuels. The program decreases greenhouse gas emissions, reduces the pressure on non-renewable resources, lowers the risk of summer forest fires, creates employment in rural areas. Results from a choice experiment show that consumers are willing to pay a higher price for electricity in order to obtain the external benefits of the substitution. Respondents attach a higher value to programs that decrease the pressure of non-renewable resources and the risk of forest fires.

  2. Distinctions among Accreditation Agencies for Business Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Charles P.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, business accreditation has become a growth industry. In 1988, some eleven percent of business programs were accredited by an accrediting body devoted solely to business program accreditation. Today, over forty-two percent boast of such external validation of their programs. Although the three principal accrediting…

  3. A PFD for Your Boating Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The American Red Cross has developed Small Craft Safety, a training program for instructors of boating programs. Describes course specifics, and how current Red Cross instructors, external organization instructors, and members of the general public can become authorized instructors through this program. Sidebars present bridge performance…

  4. Evaluation of the FEL+ Program, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    An external evaluation of the Family English Literacy, Plus (FEL+) program of the Sweetwater Union High School District (California) is presented. Program objectives included: (1) development and implementation of curriculum and activities integrating technology-assisted instruction into the existing literacy program; (2) increasing parent/child…

  5. Continuous Improvement in State Funded Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    State funded preschool programs were constantly faced with the need to change in order to address internal and external demands. As programs engaged in efforts towards change, minimal research was available on how to support continuous improvement efforts within the context unique to state funded preschool programs. Guidance available had…

  6. The Spiral-Interactive Program Evaluation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleel, Ibrahim Adamu

    1988-01-01

    Describes the spiral interactive program evaluation model, which is designed to evaluate vocational-technical education programs in secondary schools in Nigeria. Program evaluation is defined; utility oriented and process oriented models for evaluation are described; and internal and external evaluative factors and variables that define each…

  7. From "Publish or Perish" to "Grant or Perish": Examining Grantsmanship in Communication and the Pressures on Communication Faculty to Procure External Funding for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musambira, George; Collins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Voss, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Although communication program faculty have traditionally not enjoyed large grants for research, administrators are pressuring them to garner external funding. This article examines the success rate of securing external funding that communication administrators reported for their units. Results show that while the pressure has increased on most…

  8. What Works for Acting-Out (Externalizing) Behavior: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Social Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2011-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary; Hamilton, Katie; Ling, Thomson

    2011-01-01

    Preventing and reducing acting-out or externalizing behaviors is a goal often targeted by out-of-school time programs for children and youth. The term "externalizing" refers to disruptive, harmful, or problem behaviors that are directed to persons and/or things. Examples include aggressive behaviors such as getting into fights and bullying;…

  9. 2010 Solar Program Peer Review Report: An Independent Evaluation of Program Activities for FY2009 and FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program's 2010 Program Review meeting, held on May 24?27, 2010, in Washington, D.C.

  10. In vitro test of external Qigong

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Garret; Solfvin, Jerry; Moore, Dan; Schlitz, Marilyn; Reading, Melissa; Aldape, Ken; Qian, Yifang

    2004-01-01

    Background Practitioners of the alternative medical practice 'external Qigong' generally claim the ability to emit or direct "healing energy" to treat patients. We investigated the ability of experienced Qigong practitioners to enhance the healthy growth of cultured human cells in a series of studies, each following a rigorously designed protocol with randomization, blinding and controls for variability. Methods Qigong practitioners directed healing intentionality toward normal brain cell cultures in a basic science laboratory. Qigong treatments were delivered for 20 minutes from a minimum distance of 10 centimeters. Cell proliferation was measured by a standard colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay and a CFE ratio (CFE for treated samples/CFE for sham samples) was the dependent measure for each experiment. Results During a pilot study (8 experiments), a trend of increased cell proliferation in Qigong-treated samples (CFE Qigong/sham ratios > 1.0) was observed (P = 0.162). In a formal study (28 experiments), a similar trend was observed, with Qigong-treated samples showing on average more colony formation than sham samples (P = 0.036). In a replication study (60 experiments), no significant difference between Qigong-treated samples and sham samples was observed (P = 0.465). Conclusion We observed an apparent increase in the proliferation of cultured cells following external Qigong treatment by practitioners under strictly controlled conditions, but we did not observe this effect in a replication study. These results suggest the need for more controlled and thorough investigation of external Qigong before scientific validation is claimed. PMID:15102336

  11. Flow field visualization about external axial corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to visualize the flow field about external axial corners. The investigation was initiated to provide answers to questions about the inviscid flow pattern for continuing numerical investigations. Symmetrical and asymmetrical corner models were tested at a Reynolds number per meter of 60,700,000. Oil-flow and vapor-screen photographs were taken for both models at angle of attack and yaw. The paper presents the results of the investigation in the form of oil-flow photographs and the surrounding shock wave location obtained from the vapor screens.

  12. Broadband External-Cavity Diode Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    A broadband external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) has been invented for use in spectroscopic surveys preparatory to optical detection of gases. Heretofore, commercially available ECDLs have been designed, in conjunction with sophisticated tuning assemblies, for narrow- band (and, typically, single-frequency) operation, as needed for high sensitivity and high spectral resolution in some gas-detection applications. However, for preparatory spectroscopic surveys, high sensitivity and narrow-band operation are not needed; in such cases, the present broadband ECDL offers a simpler, less-expensive, more-compact alternative to a commercial narrowband ECDL.

  13. Migration cost externality and interregional equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Shin, C

    1994-01-01

    "This paper will investigate the characteristics of population allocation between two regions in the presence of migration cost. It will also examine both populations and the non-migration range of the initial population in which migration does not occur, in social optimum and market equilibrium with central government intervention, to reveal migration cost externality, and to propose a remedy for it." The author finds that "migration cost gives the social planner an additional burden of population reallocation, and it has an important effect upon an individual's decisions on migration in a decentralized market mechanism."

  14. Internal entanglement amplification by external interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, Uri; Huang Zhen; Kais, Sabre

    2007-07-15

    We propose a scheme to control the level of entanglement between two fixed spin-1/2 systems by interaction with a third particle. For specific designs, entanglement is shown to be 'pumped' into the system from the surroundings even when the spin-spin interaction within the system is small or nonexistent. The effect of the external particle on the system is introduced by including a dynamic spinor in the Hamiltonian. Controlled amplification of the internal entanglement to its maximum value is demonstrated. The possibility of entangling noninteracting spins in a stationary state is also demonstrated by coupling each one of them to a flying qubit in a quantum wire.

  15. External tank processing from barge to pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Delivery and launch readiness events for the External Tanks (ET) are discussed. The ET is off-loaded at the KSC Barge Turning Basin and towed to the Vertical Assembly Building (VAB), High Bay Transfer Aisle. It is erected vertically and placed in the ET Checkout Area of High Bay 2 or 4 for standalone checkout. At the completion of checkout the ET is transferred to storage or to the Integration Area of High Bay 1 or 3 for SRB and Orbiter Mate. A Systems Integration Test performed with the Orbiter and Solid Rocket Booster is described. Final checkout activities are also described.

  16. [Frey's syndrome of the external auditory canal].

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, J; Kyriafinis, G; Ereliadis, S; Daniilidis, J

    2004-10-01

    Frey's syndrome of the external auditory canal is extremely rare. A 55-year old woman presented with a 6 month history of unilateral gustatory otorrhea. She never complained of hearing impairment, tinnitus, vertigo or otalgia. No trauma or surgical signs were evident near the ear or parotid gland. Examination of the ear showed an intact tympanic membrane without disease. A diagnosis of gustatory sweating syndrome was suggested by the observation of sweat production after chewing and by Minor's starch-iodine test. Symptoms were relieved after tympanic neurectomy. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment options are discussed.

  17. The next decade in external dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Learning from external environments using Soar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Soar, like the previous PRODIGY and Theo, is a problem-solving architecture that attempts to learn from experience; unlike them, it takes a more uniform approach, using a single forward-chaining architecture for planning and execution. Its single learning mechanism, designated 'chunking', is domain-independent. Two developmental approaches have been employed with Soar: the first of these allows the architecture to attempt a problem on its own, while the second involves a degree of external guidance. This learning through guidance is integrated with general problem-solving and autonomous learning, leading to an avoidance of human interaction for simple problems that Soar can solve on its own.

  19. Extremely Intense Magnetospheric Substorms : External Triggering? Preconditioning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Echer, Ezequiel; Hajra, Rajkumar

    2016-07-01

    We study particularly intense substorms using a variety of near-Earth spacecraft data and ground observations. We will relate the solar cycle dependences of events, determine whether the supersubstorms are externally or internally triggered, and their relationship to other factors such as magnetospheric preconditioning. If time permits, we will explore the details of the events and whether they are similar to regular (Akasofu, 1964) substorms or not. These intense substorms are an important feature of space weather since they may be responsible for power outages.

  20. External RNA Controls Consortium Beta Version Update.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hangnoh; Pine, P Scott; McDaniel, Jennifer; Salit, Marc; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Spike-in RNAs are valuable controls for a variety of gene expression measurements. The External RNA Controls Consortium developed test sets that were used in a number of published reports. Here we provide an authoritative table that summarizes, updates, and corrects errors in the test version that ultimately resulted in the certified Standard Reference Material 2374. We have noted existence of anti-sense RNA controls in the material, corrected sub-pool memberships, and commented on control RNAs that displayed inconsistent behavior. PMID:27512518

  1. External RNA Controls Consortium Beta Version Update

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hangnoh; Pine, P. Scott; McDaniel, Jennifer; Salit, Marc; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Spike-in RNAs are valuable controls for a variety of gene expression measurements. The External RNA Controls Consortium developed test sets that were used in a number of published reports. Here we provide an authoritative table that summarizes, updates, and corrects errors in the test version that ultimately resulted in the certified Standard Reference Material 2374. We have noted existence of anti-sense RNA controls in the material, corrected sub-pool memberships, and commented on control RNAs that displayed inconsistent behavior. PMID:27512518

  2. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release.

    PubMed

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell.

  3. Use of automated external defibrillators in a Brazilian airline. A 1-year experience.

    PubMed

    Alves, P M; de Freitas, E J; Mathias, H A; da Motta, A E; Silva, R de C; Müller, M; Almeida, S F; Stapleton, E; Timerman, S; Ramires, J A

    2001-04-01

    After the incorporation of automated external defibrillators by other airlines and the support of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, Varig Airlines began the onboard defibrillation program with the initial purpose of equipping wide-body aircrafts frequently used in international flights and that airplanes use in the Rio - São Paulo route. With all flight attendants trained, the automated external defibrillation devices were incorporated to 34 airplanes of a total fleet of 80 aircrafts. The devices were installed in the baggage compartments secured with velcro straps and 2 pairs of electrodes, one or which pre-connected to the device to minimize application time. Later, a portable monitor was address to the resuscitation kit in the long flights. The expansion of the knowledge of the basic life support fundamentors and the corrected implantation of the survival chain and of the automated external defibrillators will increase the extense of recovery of cardiorespiratory arrest victims in aircrafts.

  4. What to Know about External Beam Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding Radiation Therapy What To Know About External Beam Radiation Therapy “My wife and I made a ... treatment. He also told me that the external beam radiation therapy wouldn’t make me radioactive. I ...

  5. Optimum alcohol taxation: balancing consumption and external costs.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Crowley, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers alternative approaches to the evaluation of the total cost of alcohol consumption in Australia. It calculates the impact of alternative tax rates on beer, wine and spirits separately and the 'consumption cost' of these taxes in terms of the distortion caused to consumption patterns. Two separate analyses are carried out. First optimal taxation is calculated which minimises the total loss from the 'consumption cost' of taxation plus the external cost of alcohol consumption. Secondly, the benefits of life are separated from other benefits and the impact of tax expressed in terms of the cost per life year gained. Conceptualised in this way, the results of this 'tax' program may be expressed in the same way as other health programs, namely as a net cost per life year gained. Alcohol taxation may then be compared with other life saving interventions. The chief conclusion reached is that in Australia there is a very compelling case for a new tax base and for a very significant increase in the rate of alcohol taxation. PMID:8044214

  6. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  7. External Otitis: An Unusual Presentation in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Taheri, Peymaneh; Rostami, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis externa (AOE) is an infection of the external auditory canal, the auricle, and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane. Although AOE is one of the most common otologic conditions encountered in pediatric population, it is known to primarily affect children older than 2 years. We report a case of AOE caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a 23-day-old neonate. A 23-day-old female infant presented to our neonatology clinic with irritability and discharge from the right ear. There were yellow otorrhea, mild erythema, and edema of right external ear canal. There was no sign of otitis media on otoscopy. The results of laboratory tests were insignificant. The discharge culture grew colonies of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. After 48 hours of treatment with intravenous cloxacillin, significant improvement was observed. The present case highlights an unusual presentation of staphylococcal infection in a neonate. This is the first case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus otitis externa in an immunocompetent newborn. PMID:27703821

  8. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-08-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO2 dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  9. Advantages and disadvantages of pinless external fixation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R; Giele, H; Simpson, A H

    2000-12-01

    The AO pinless external fixator (PEF) uses trocar tipped clamps to grip the outer tibial cortex rather than pins to transfix it. Its main advantage is to avoid further contamination of the medullary canal in open tibial fractures where a nail may subsequently be used. We tested the anatomical safety of this device and its effect on plastic surgical procedures compared with a standard unilateral external fixator (UEF).The PEF and UEF were placed on two amputated limbs which were then dissected. Structures at risk were traced on ten cadaver limbs. We found that important anatomical structures were endangered by the PEF and that safe zones could not always be defined. The UEF avoided these structures. Plastic surgical approaches were made more difficult by the PEF which imposed limitations on local flap design and endangered the arterial perforators which supply them. We conclude that safety is compromised by the PEF because margins for error are small. It poses additional problems in soft tissue reconstruction and highlights the need for co-operation between plastic surgical and orthopaedic teams in choice of fixation device.

  10. Light Weight External Tanks in Final Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the final assembly phase of the Space Shuttle light weight external tanks (LWT) 5, 6, and 7 at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the external tank (ET) acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. In separate, internal pressurized tank sections, the ET holds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts which branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. Some 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel are consumed by the main engines each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's ET is the only part of the launch vehicle that currently is not reused. After its 526,000 gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5 minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET

  11. The SNS External Antenna H- Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Stockli, Martin P; Murray Jr, S N; Crisp, Danny W; Carmichael, Justin R; Goulding, Richard Howell; Han, Baoxi; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that we will meet our operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we have developed an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber [1]. This source is expected to be utilized by the SNS for neutron production starting in 2009. This report details the design of the production source which features an AlN plasma chamber, 2-layer external antenna, cooled-multicusp magnet array, Cs2CrO4 cesium system and a Molybdenum plasma ignition gun. Performance of the production source both on the SNS accelerator and SNS test stand is reported. The source has also been designed to accommodate an elemental Cs system with an external reservoir which has demonstrated unanalyzed beam currents up to ~100mA (60Hz, 1ms) on the SNS ion source test stand.

  12. Arthroscopic Treatment for External Snapping Hip

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae Youn; Kwak, Hong Suk; Yoon, Kang Sup; Chang, Jae Suk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic treatment for recalcitrant external snapping hip. Materials and Methods Between September 2011 and June 2013, we evaluated 7 patients (10 cases) with snapping hip who were refractory to conservative treatments for at least 3 months. Two patients (4 cases) were impossible to adduct both knees in 90°of hip flexion. Surgery was done in lateral decubitus position, under spinal anesthesia. We made 2 arthroscopic portals to operate the patients, and used cross-cutting with flap resection technique to treat the lesion. We performed additional gluteal sling release in those 2 patients (4 cases) with adduction difficulty. Average follow-up length was 19 months (range, 12-33 months). Clinical improvement was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS), modified Harris hip score (mHHS), and also investigated for presence of limping or other complications as well. Results The VAS decreased from 6.8 (range, 6-9) preoperatively to 0.2 (range, 0-2) postoperatively, and the mHHS improved from 68.2 to 94.8 after surgery. None of the patients complained of post-operative wound problem or surgical complications. Conclusion The clinical outcome of arthroscopic treatment for recalcitrant external snapping hip was encouraging and all patients were also satisfied with the cosmetic results. PMID:27536576

  13. Plasmonic external cavity laser refractometric sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    Combining the high sensitivity properties of surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensing with a tunable external cavity laser, we demonstrate a plasmonic external cavity laser (ECL) for high resolution refractometric sensing. The plasmonic ECL utilizes a plasmonic crystal with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) as the wavelength-selective element, and achieves single mode lasing at the transmission peak of the EOT resonance. The plasmonic ECL refractometric sensor maintains the high sensitivity of a plasmonic crystal sensor, while simultaneously providing a narrow spectral linewidth through lasing emission, resulting in a record high figure of merit for refractometric sensing with an active or passive optical resonator. We demonstrate single-mode and continuous-wave operation of the electrically-pumped laser system, and show the ability to measure refractive index changes with a 3σ detection limit of 1.79 × 10−6 RIU. The demonstrated approach is a promising path towards label-free optical biosensing with enhanced signal-to-noise ratios for challenging applications in small molecule drug discovery and pathogen sensing. PMID:25321243

  14. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  15. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  16. Plasmonic external cavity laser refractometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-08-25

    Combining the high sensitivity properties of surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensing with a tunable external cavity laser, we demonstrate a plasmonic external cavity laser (ECL) for high resolution refractometric sensing. The plasmonic ECL utilizes a plasmonic crystal with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) as the wavelength-selective element, and achieves single mode lasing at the transmission peak of the EOT resonance. The plasmonic ECL refractometric sensor maintains the high sensitivity of a plasmonic crystal sensor, while simultaneously providing a narrow spectral linewidth through lasing emission, resulting in a record high figure of merit for refractometric sensing with an active or passive optical resonator. We demonstrate single-mode and continuous-wave operation of the electrically-pumped laser system, and show the ability to measure refractive index changes with a 3σ detection limit of 1.79 × 10(-6) RIU. The demonstrated approach is a promising path towards label-free optical biosensing with enhanced signal-to-noise ratios for challenging applications in small molecule drug discovery and pathogen sensing.

  17. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  18. Holographic Interferometry Applied To External Osteosynthesis : Comparative Analysis Of The Performances Of External Fixation Prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Pierre; Rastogi, Pramod K.; Pflug, Leopold

    1983-10-01

    The use of external osteosynthesis in the healing and the management of fractured bones is in rapid progression. The method employs an external rigid frame which is mounted to keep the fractured bones in state of immobilisation by means of percutaneous transfixing pins traversing the bones. In this paper, holographic interferometry is used to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the ball-joint - a central element in the fixation frame - sub-jected to realistic loads. Besides, the work has permitted to compare several models of this piece (of comparable handiness) as to their characteristics of rigidity and of resistance to slipping.

  19. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  20. 46 CFR 154.408 - Cargo tank external pressure load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank external pressure load. 154.408 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.408 Cargo tank external pressure load. For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(2) and (b), the external pressure load must be the difference between...

  1. 46 CFR 154.408 - Cargo tank external pressure load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank external pressure load. 154.408 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.408 Cargo tank external pressure load. For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(2) and (b), the external pressure load must be the difference between...

  2. Externalities and the Coase Theorem: A Diagrammatic Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halteman, James

    2005-01-01

    In intermediate microeconomic textbooks the reciprocal nature of externalities is presented using numerical examples of costs and benefits. This treatment of the Coase theorem obscures the fact that externality costs and benefits are best understood as being on a continuum where costs vary with the degree of intensity of the externality. When…

  3. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source...

  4. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source...

  5. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source...

  6. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source...

  7. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  12. Autism and Externalizing Behaviors: Buffering Effects of Parental Emotion Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Berg, Jessica L.; Zurawski, Megan E.; King, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental emotion coaching and externalizing behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD often exhibit externalizing behaviors, particularly emotionally driven externalizing behaviors, at a higher rate than their typically developing peers. An…

  13. The Experience of External Studies. Occasional Papers No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverina Coll. of Advanced Education, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales (Australia).

    This document brings together four invited papers by external students who have graduated from Riverina College: (1) "The External Student: One Profile" (Christine Del Gigante); (2) "Managing Life as a External Student" (Robert Landow); (3) "The Computerised Student" (John Chant); and (4) "The Right to Study" (Coral Davidson). Topics covered…

  14. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  15. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  16. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  17. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3800 - External aesthetic restoration prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. 878.3800 Section 878.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external aesthetic restoration...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3800 - External aesthetic restoration prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. 878.3800 Section 878.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external aesthetic restoration...

  20. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  1. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  2. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  3. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  4. 21 CFR 882.5810 - External functional neuromuscular stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External functional neuromuscular stimulator. 882.5810 Section 882.5810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External functional neuromuscular stimulator. (a) Identification. An external functional...

  5. 21 CFR 882.5810 - External functional neuromuscular stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External functional neuromuscular stimulator. 882.5810 Section 882.5810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External functional neuromuscular stimulator. (a) Identification. An external functional...

  6. 78 FR 47016 - Submission for Review: Request for External Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... March 11, 2013, 78 FR 15560, which outlined an external review process that would be available to... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for External Review AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Request for External Review. As required...

  7. 30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18... and Design Requirements § 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of the external surfaces of mechanical or electrical components shall not exceed 150 °C. (302 °F.) under...

  8. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-08-04

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected.

  9. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv 94.0%, <2 mSv 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected.

  10. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected. PMID:26239643

  11. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor

  12. External tank project new technology plan. [development of space shuttle external tank system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A production plan for the space shuttle external tank configuration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the thermal protection system, (2) thermal coating application techniques, (3) manufacturing and tooling, (4) propulsion system configurations and components, (5) low temperature rotating and sliding joint seals, (6) lightning protection, and (7) nondestructive testing technology.

  13. Characterizing Observers Using External Noise and Observer Models: Assessing Internal Representations with External Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2008-01-01

    External noise methods and observer models have been widely used to characterize the intrinsic perceptual limitations of human observers and changes of the perceptual limitations associated with cognitive, developmental, and disease processes by highlighting the variance of internal representations. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of…

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: External cavity quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugi, Andreas; Maulini, Richard; Faist, Jérôme

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we review the progress of the development of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) operated in an external cavity configuration. We concentrate on QCLs based on the bound-to-continuum design, since this design is especially suitable for broadband applications. Since they were first demonstrated, these laser-based tunable sources have improved in performance in terms of output power, duty cycle, operation temperature and tuneability. Nowadays they are an interesting alternative to FTIRs for some applications. They operate at room temperature, feature a high spectral resolution while being small in size. They were successfully used in different absorption spectroscopy techniques. Due to their vast potential for applications in industry, medicine, security and research, these sources enjoy increasing interest within the research community as well as in industry.

  15. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-08-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this `photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli.

  16. Elemental analysis with external-beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Teng, P. K.; Huang, Y. M.; Chen, C. Y.

    1992-05-01

    A beamline system and experimental setup has been established for elemental analysis using PIXE with an external beam. Experiments for the study of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese potsherds (the Min and Ching ages) were performed. Continuum X-ray spectra from the samples bombarded by 3 MeV protons have been measured with a Si(Li) detector. From the analysis of PIXE data, the concentration of the main elements (Al, Si, K, and Ca) and of more than ten trace elements in the matrices and glazed surfaces were determined. Results for two different potsherds are presented, and those obtained from the glaze colorants are compared with the results of measurements on a Ching blue-and-white porcelain vase.

  17. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  18. Social externalities, overlap and the poverty trap.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Chul; Loury, Glenn C

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies find that some social groups are stuck in poverty traps because of network effects. However, these studies do not carefully analyze how these groups overcome low human capital investment activities. Unlike previous studies, the model in this paper includes network externalities in both the human capital investment stage and the subsequent career stages. This implies that not only the current network quality, but also the expectations about future network quality affect the current investment decision. Consequently, the coordinated expectation among the group members can play a crucial role in the determination of the final state. We define "overlap" for some initial skill ranges, whereby the economic performance of a group can be improved simply by increasing expectations of a brighter future. We also define "poverty trap" for some ranges, wherein a disadvantaged group is constrained by its history, and we explore the egalitarian policies to mobilize the group out of the trap.

  19. Social externalities, overlap and the poverty trap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Chul; Loury, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies find that some social groups are stuck in poverty traps because of network effects. However, these studies do not carefully analyze how these groups overcome low human capital investment activities. Unlike previous studies, the model in this paper includes network externalities in both the human capital investment stage and the subsequent career stages. This implies that not only the current network quality, but also the expectations about future network quality affect the current investment decision. Consequently, the coordinated expectation among the group members can play a crucial role in the determination of the final state. We define “overlap” for some initial skill ranges, whereby the economic performance of a group can be improved simply by increasing expectations of a brighter future. We also define “poverty trap” for some ranges, wherein a disadvantaged group is constrained by its history, and we explore the egalitarian policies to mobilize the group out of the trap. PMID:25484637

  20. Case histories of external microbiologically influenced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Pikas, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    External microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious dilemma in the pipeline industry. Even today, it has not been recognized as such because it has been primarily mistaken for galvanic corrosion. Due to the type of coating materials used in the past, the cleaning process or lack of it, and application methods used, all coating systems have the propensity to develop defects and pinholes where disbondment and this type of microbial corrosion could occur. In addition, the pipeline may or may not have had cathodic protection initially and/or consistently applied. Given these factors and the interaction of bacteria from the soil, moisture availability, degree of cathodic protection, and temperature of the pipeline, this paper will discuss the role that microbes play in the disbondment process, thus resulting in corrosion of an underground pipeline. Several case histories, laboratory testing results, and field findings will be presented.

  1. Edge convection driven by externally applied potentials

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2000-08-01

    A theoretical model of convection in collisional tokamak edge and scrape-off-layer plasmas is described. In the linear theory, any mechanism for poloidal and toroidal symmetry breaking of the equilibrium will drive ExB flows; this result stems from the parallel thermal and pressure forces in Ohm's law. In the nonlinear theory, the quadratic coupling of the perturbations leads to quasilinear-type fluxes in the vorticity, density, and temperature equations. If the convection is strong enough, these fluxes lead to an ambipolarity constraint on the equilibrium electric field and to increased transport of particles and energy. The theory shows qualitative agreement with some tokamak experiments in which potential perturbations are externally driven by radio frequency antennas. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. The flow along an external corner revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier, Jim; Jewell, Nathaniel

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the problem of the flow of an almost inviscid fluid along an external corner made from the junction of two quarter infinite plates joined at an angle 0 < α < π / 2 . The structure of the boundary layer which develops along the corner is explored using a computational approach based upon a spectral element discretisation of the steady two-dimensional boundary-layer equations. We pay particular attention to the case when the angle α is small, thus approximating the semi-infinte quarter plate problem considered by Stewartson (1961) and recently revisited by Duck & Hewitt (2012). Our results, which demonstrate a thickening of the boundary-layer near the sharp corner, will be discussed in the context of the asymptotic theory developed in the aforementioned papers.

  3. Behaviour of ferrocholesterics under external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, Emil; Motoc, Cornelia

    2001-08-01

    The influence of an external magnetic field on the orientational behaviour of a ferrocholesteric with a positive magnetic anisotropy is investigated. Both the phenomena arising when the field was switched on or switched off are considered. It is found that the field needed for a ferrocholesteric-ferronematic transition BFC↑ is higher when compared to that obtained for the pure cholesteric ( BC↑). A similar result was obtained when estimating the critical field for the homeotropic ferronematic-ferrocholesteric (focal conic) transition, occurring when the magnetic field was decreased or switched off. We found that BFC↓> BC↓. These results are explained when considering that the magnetic moments of the magnetic powder are not oriented parallel to the liquid crystal molecular directors, therefore hindering their orientation under a magnetic field.

  4. Scrubbing noise of externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the aeroacoustic mechanism that produces externally blown flap (EBF) scrubbing noise, i.e. a surface-radiated noise which is generally strongest normal to UTW deflected flaps. Scrubbing noise was not radiated from portions of the surface adjacent to strong, locally coherent turbulent eddies. Instead, scrubbing noise seemed to come from weak loading fluctuations that were coherent along the scrubbed span. These loading fluctuations probably were induced by the convected large-scale vortex structure of the attached exhaust jet. Deflecting a UTW flap would reduce the distance between the vortex trajectory and the flap surface, increasing the resulting dipole noise and rotating its directivity. In contrast, deflecting a USB flap would increase this distance, so that observable scrubbing noise would be radiated only from the undeflected forward portion of the wing.

  5. Radiative processes in external gravitational fields

    SciTech Connect

    Papini, Giorgio

    2010-07-15

    Kinematically forbidden processes may be allowed in the presence of external gravitational fields. These can be taken into account by introducing generalized particle momenta. The corresponding transition probabilities can then be calculated to all orders in the metric deviation from the field-free expressions by simply replacing the particle momenta with their generalized counterparts. The procedure applies to particles of any spin and to any gravitational fields. Transition probabilities, emission power, and spectra are, to leading order, linear in the metric deviation. It is also shown how a small dissipation term in the particle wave equations can trigger a strong backreaction that introduces resonances in the radiative process and deeply affects the resulting gravitational background.

  6. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this 'photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli. PMID:27572806

  7. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kewisch, Jorg; Chang, Xiangyun

    2007-06-05

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  8. An electrocaloric refrigerator without external regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Haiming; Qian, Xiao-Shi; Ye, Hui-Jian; Zhang, Q. M.

    2014-10-01

    Regeneration processes are commonly used in cooling devices to improve the device performance. However, irreversible heat loss within the regenerators in many earlier designs of magnetocaloric and electrocaloric (EC) based cooling devices reduces the device performance. In this paper, an electrocaloric based refrigerator without external regenerators is proposed and studied. The regeneration process in this device is realized by direct heat exchange between contacting EC elements which are moving in opposite directions with different applied fields. Simulation results show that a 37 W/cm3 cooling power density is obtained for a Tspan of 20 K while the refrigerator still maintains 57% of Carnot efficiency for a cooling device made of an EC polymer.

  9. Liquid Oxygen Tank of the External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This photograph shows a liquid oxygen tank for the Shuttle External Tank (ET) during a hydroelastic modal survey test at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  11. Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, W.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Eliyahu, D.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced applications in optical metrology demand improved lasers with high spectral purity, in form factors that are small and insensitive to environmental perturbations. While laboratory-scale lasers with extraordinarily high stability and low noise have been reported, all-integrated chip-scale devices with sub-100 Hz linewidth have not been previously demonstrated. Lasers integrated with optical microresonators as external cavities have the potential for substantial reduction of noise. However, stability and spectral purity improvements of these lasers have only been validated with rack-mounted support equipment, assembled with fibre lasers to marginally improve their noise performance. In this work we report on a realization of a heterogeneously integrated, chip-scale semiconductor laser featuring 30-Hz integral linewidth as well as sub-Hz instantaneous linewidth. PMID:26104321

  12. External fuel vaporization study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to devise and evaluate techniques for the external vaporization of fuel for use in an aircraft gas turbine with characteristics similar to the Energy Efficient Engine (E(3)). Three vaporizer concepts were selected and they were analyzed from the standpoint of fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. One of the concepts was found to improve the performance of the baseline E(3) engine without seriously compromising engine startup and power change response. Increased maintenance is required because of the need for frequent pyrolytic cleaning of the surfaces in contact with hot fuel.

  13. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Precision Radial Velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Muterspaugh, M W; Edelstein, J; Lloyd, J; Herter, T; Feuerstein, W M; Muirhead, P; Wishnow, E

    2007-03-27

    Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is the series combination of a fixed-delay field-widened Michelson interferometer with a dispersive spectrograph. This combination boosts the spectrograph performance for both Doppler velocimetry and high resolution spectroscopy. The interferometer creates a periodic spectral comb that multiplies against the input spectrum to create moire fringes, which are recorded in combination with the regular spectrum. The moire pattern shifts in phase in response to a Doppler shift. Moire patterns are broader than the underlying spectral features and more easily survive spectrograph blurring and common distortions. Thus, the EDI technique allows lower resolution spectrographs having relaxed optical tolerances (and therefore higher throughput) to return high precision velocity measurements, which otherwise would be imprecise for the spectrograph alone.

  14. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this ‘photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli. PMID:27572806

  15. Identifying External Influences on Global Precipitation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle ('thermodynamic' changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt ('dynamic' changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external anthropogenic influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes.

  16. Myxedema megacolon after external neck irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Borrie, M.J.; Cape, R.D.; Troster, M.M.; Fung, S.T.

    1983-04-01

    Myxedema megacolon is a rare manifestation of hypothyroidism. It may respond to appropriate treatment but is sometimes irreversible, resulting in fatal complications. Two possible mechanisms to explain the colonic atony include (1) myxomatous infiltration of the submucosa with separation of the muscular fibers from the ganglia of Auerbach's plexus, and (2) severe autonomic neuropathy affecting the extrinsic nerves to the colon and the myenteric plexus. Histology from our case supports the first proposed mechanism. Urecholine challenge and manometric measure response may help predict reversibility of colonic atony. Treatment should be individualized and should include factors such as age, duration of symptoms, and other medical illness. Low-dose oral or intravenous triiodothyronine is effective. Hypothyroidism following external radiation of the neck for lymphoma is not uncommon, and the risk increases following one or more lymphangiograms. Such patients should be followed up with regular TSH estimations for at least three years.

  17. Ultralow noise miniature external cavity semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Eliyahu, D.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-06-01

    Advanced applications in optical metrology demand improved lasers with high spectral purity, in form factors that are small and insensitive to environmental perturbations. While laboratory-scale lasers with extraordinarily high stability and low noise have been reported, all-integrated chip-scale devices with sub-100 Hz linewidth have not been previously demonstrated. Lasers integrated with optical microresonators as external cavities have the potential for substantial reduction of noise. However, stability and spectral purity improvements of these lasers have only been validated with rack-mounted support equipment, assembled with fibre lasers to marginally improve their noise performance. In this work we report on a realization of a heterogeneously integrated, chip-scale semiconductor laser featuring 30-Hz integral linewidth as well as sub-Hz instantaneous linewidth.

  18. Multiaxial stress concentration in an externally pressurized cylinder with an external circumferential groove

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, S.M.; Sorem, J.R. Jr.; Hickey, K.A.; Rawson, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    Downhole oil tools are often comprised of cylindrical sections with external, circumferential stress concentrations. Frequently, it is necessary to design locally thin walls that are just capable of sustaining rare applications of severe external pressure with little or moderate amounts of yielding. Here, a thick-walled cylindrical specimen containing an external circumferential groove was subjected to external pressure. To investigate the maximum pressure sustainable by the reduced wall thickness, strain gage measurements were taken during external pressurization tests. For comparison to experimental results, an elastic-plastic notch stress-strain analysis was conducted based on Neuber`s rule. The analysis utilized multiaxial elastic finite element results along with elastic-plastic tensile test data for the cylinder material. It is demonstrated that the boundary conditions used to model the specimen had a substantial effect on the finite element results, even though the boundary was somewhat removed from the region of concentrated stress. Biaxial strain measurements are presented versus pressure over the elastic and into the plastic regime, and deformation plasticity theory was used to compute stress and radial strain components corresponding to measured strains. It is demonstrated that in order to apply a multiaxial Neuber`s rule to accurately estimate the elastic-plastic stress-strain response (using elastic stress concentration information and elastic-plastic material data), it is necessary to utilize an experimental observation that the ratio of the hoop to radial strain remains invariant from the elastic to the elastic-plastic regime. This differs from published assumptions about invariant hoop-to-axial strain ratios based on analysis of circumferentially grooved solid shafts. The predictions are accurate for moderate plastic strains, but correlation breaks down for bulk plastic deformation.

  19. A digital control system for external magnetohydrodynamic modes in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J. M.; Klein, A. J.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. Sunn

    2009-04-15

    A feedback system for controlling external, long-wavelength magnetohydrodynamic activity is described. The system is comprised of a network of localized magnetic pickup and control coils driven by four independent, low-latency field-programable gate array controllers. The control algorithm incorporates digital spatial filtering to resolve low mode number activity, temporal filtering to correct for frequency-dependent amplitude and phase transfer effects in the control hardware, and a Kalman filter to distinguish the unstable plasma mode from noise.

  20. Participation patterns among Mexican-American parents enrolled in a universal intervention and their association with child externalizing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Anne M; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Gonzales, Nancy A; Millsap, Roger E; Dumka, Larry E; Berkel, Cady

    2014-12-01

    This study used growth mixture modeling to examine attendance trajectories among 292 Mexican-American primary female caregivers enrolled in a universal preventive intervention and the effects of health beliefs, participation intentions, cultural influences, and intervention group cohesion on trajectory group membership as well as trajectory group differences on a distal outcome, immediate posttest teacher report of child externalizing (T2). Results supported four trajectory groups-early terminators (ET), mid-program terminators (MPT), low-risk persistent attenders (LRPA), and high-risk persistent attenders (HRPA). Compared with LRPAs, caregivers classified as HRPAs had weaker familism values, less parenting efficacy, and higher externalizing children with lower GPAs. Caregivers in the two persistent attender groups reported strong group cohesion and providers rated these caregivers as having strong participation intentions. Children of caregivers in the LRPA group had the lowest T2 child externalizing. Children of caregivers in the MPT group had lower T2 externalizing than did those of the ET group, suggesting partial intervention dosage can benefit families. Despite high levels of attendance, children of caregivers in the HRPA had the highest T2 externalizing, suggesting this high-risk group needed either more intensive services or a longer period for parents to implement program skills to evidence change in child externalizing. PMID:25315031