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Sample records for program small-scale industrial

  1. National Occupational Health Service policies and programs for workers in small-scale industries in China.

    PubMed

    Zhi, S; Sheng, W; Levine, S P

    2000-01-01

    Over the 14 years since economic reform began, and the restructuring of the economy to encourage international trade, a large number of township enterprises have been developed and put into operation in the Peoples Republic of China. From 1978 to 1991, the number of enterprises has increased 11.5 times; the number of employees has increased 2.4 times; the fixed assets have increased 13.7 times; and the value of the total output has increased 22.5 times. In this article, a report is given on a sample survey in 30 counties in 1990, which showed that 82.69% of rural industrial enterprises had at least one type of occupational hazard in their work environments. Workers engaged in at least one type of hazardous working environment accounted for 33.91% of the blue-collar workers. Physical examinations were performed for seven types of occupational diseases: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, chronic lead poisoning, benzene analogs poisoning, chronic chromium poisoning, and noise-induced hearing loss. The total detectable rate of the seven types of occupational diseases was 4.4% among those workers. In addition, 11% had illnesses suspected of being (though not proven to be) caused by occupational exposures. Most township enterprises do not provide basic occupational health services. The coverage of five routine occupational health service activities provided for township enterprises were very limited, from 1.4 to 36%.

  2. Technology, managerial, and policy initiatives for improving environmental performance in small-scale gold mining industry.

    PubMed

    Hilson, Gavin; Van der Vorst, Rita

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews a series of strategies for improving environmental performance in the small-scale gold mining industry. Although conditions vary regionally, few regulations and policies exist specifically for small-scale gold mining activity. Furthermore, because environmental awareness is low in most developing countries, sites typically feature rudimentary technologies and poor management practices. A combination of policy-, managerial- and technology-related initiatives is needed to facilitate environmental improvement in the industry. Following a broad overview of these initiatives, a recommended strategy is put forth for governments keen on improving the environmental conditions of resident small-scale gold mines.

  3. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  4. Equating in Small-Scale Language Testing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFlair, Geoffrey T.; Isbell, Daniel; May, L. D. Nicolas; Gutierrez Arvizu, Maria Nelly; Jamieson, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Language programs need multiple test forms for secure administrations and effective placement decisions, but can they have confidence that scores on alternate test forms have the same meaning? In large-scale testing programs, various equating methods are available to ensure the comparability of forms. The choice of equating method is informed by…

  5. Developing a Small Scale Preventive Maintenance Program: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John M.

    1981-01-01

    The first of two articles outlines how the director of the physical plant at Monroe County Community College (Michigan) developed a preventive maintenance program. The first step, assembling a set of up-to-date records, is detailed. (MLF)

  6. Use of a moss biomonitoring method to compile emission inventories for small-scale industries.

    PubMed

    Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Real, C; Fernández, J A

    2014-06-30

    We used a method of detecting small-scale pollution sources (DSSP) that involves measurement of the concentrations of elements in moss tissues, with the following aims: (i) to determine any common qualitative patterns of contaminant emissions for individual industrial sectors, (ii) to compare any such patterns with previously described patterns, and (iii) to compile an inventory of the metals and metalloids emitted by the industries considered. Cluster analysis revealed that there were no common patterns of emission associated with the industrial sectors, probably because of differences in production processes and in the types of fuel and raw materials. However, when these variables were shared by different factories, the concentrations of the elements in moss tissues enabled the factories to be grouped according to their emissions. We compiled a list of the metals and metalloids emitted by the factories under study and found that the DSSP method was satisfactory for this purpose in most cases (53 of 56). The method appears to be a useful tool for compiling contaminant inventories; it may also be useful for determining the efficacy of technical improvements aimed at reducing the industrial emission of contaminants and could be incorporated in environmental monitoring and control programmes.

  7. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  8. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    James O'Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  9. Monitoring of cotton dust and health risk assessment in small-scale weaving industry.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Wajid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Tauseef, Shanza; Sajjad, Muqadas; Nazeer, Awais; Farheen, Nazish; Iqbal, Muddsar

    2012-08-01

    The present study describes the estimation of particulate matter (cotton dust) with different sizes, i.e., PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0 μm) in small-scale weaving industry (power looms) situated in district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and the assessment of health problems of workers associated with these pollutants. A significant difference was found in PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0) with reference to nine different sampling stations with p values <0.05. Multiple comparisons of particulate matter with respect to size, i.e. PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), depict that PM(1.0) differs significantly from PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), with p values <0.05 and that PM(2.5) differs significantly from PM(1.0) and PM(10.0), with p values <0.05, whereas PM(2.5) differs non-significantly from PM(4.0), with a p value >0.05 in defined sampling stations on an average basis. Majority of the workers were facing several diseases due to interaction with particulate matter (cotton dust) during working hours. Flue, cough, eye, and skin infections were the most common diseases among workers caused by particulate matter (cotton dust).

  10. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  11. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Summary of Large-and Small-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.

    2002-06-28

    A five-year, large- and small-scale, static and dynamic experimental research program, in which more than 700 tests were conducted, has demonstrated that unreinforced masonry infills are more ductile and resist lateral loads more effectively than anticipated by conventional code procedures. The tests were conducted both in the laboratory and on existing structures at the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex. The experimental data indicate that the combination of a steel frame and infill material efficiently resists lateral loads--the infilling provides significant lateral stiffness while the surrounding frame adds ductility and confinement to the overall system. The results from approximately 25 moderate- and full-scale tests on infills showed that with simulated seismic loads, the frames confined the masonry, and the load-carrying capacity of the infill was considerably above the load that caused initial cracking. This finding was a significant departure from classical code approaches that assumed first cracking to be failure of an unreinforced masonry wall. The experimental program, performed for the US Department of Energy, consisted of the following large-scale tests on infills: in situ airbag pressure testing, shake-table tests, and the application of quasi-static in-plane and out-of-plane drift loads. This paper provides a summary of the overall experimental methodology and results.

  13. Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

    2009-08-01

    Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)).

  14. Inventory compilation and distribution of heavy metals in wastewater from small-scale industrial areas of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Manju; Moturi, Mechah Charles Zuriels; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan

    2003-12-01

    Delhi has the highest cluster of small-scale industries (SSI) in India. There are generally less stringent rules for the treatment of waste in SSI due to less waste generation within each individual industry. This results in SSI disposing of their wastewater untreated into drains and subsequently into the river Yamuna, which is a major source of potable water in Delhi, thus posing a potential health and environmental risk to the people living in Delhi and downstream. To study the quantity, quality and distribution of heavy metals in liquid waste from industrial areas, wastewater, suspended materials and bed sediments were collected from industrial areas and from the river Yamuna in Delhi. This study has also focused on the efficiency of production processes in small-scale industries in India. Heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Co and Pb were detected using a GBC 902 atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentration of heavy metals observed was as follows: Fe 2-212, Mn 0.3-39, Cu 0.2-20, Zn 0.2-5, Ni 0.6-6, Cr 0.2-53, Cd 0.08-0.2, Co 0.013-0.55, Pb 0.3-0.7 mg L(-1) in wastewater; Fe 5842-78 000, Mn 585-10 889, Cu 206-7201, Zn 406-9000, Ni 22-3621, Cr 178-10 533, Co 17-114, Cd 13-141, Pb 67-50 171 mg kg(-1) in suspended material; and Fe 3000-84000, Mn 479-1230, Cu 378-8127, Zn 647-4010, Ni 164-1582, Cr 139-3281, Co 20-54, Cd 37-65, Pb 228-293 mg kg(-1) in bed residues. This indicates that SSI could be one of the point sources of metals pollution in the river system.

  15. The development of educational programs for small-scale business women managers.

    PubMed

    Ha, P Y

    1991-01-01

    Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers

  16. Interactive analysis of waste recycling and energy recovery program in a small-scale incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeng-Chung; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Davila, Eric; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien

    2005-09-01

    Conflicting goals affecting solid waste management are explored in this paper to find the best implementation of resource recovery with a small-scale waste-to-energy process. Recycling paper and plastic material often leaves a shortage of thermal energy to support incineration that forces operators to supplement the process with auxiliary fuels. Although there are considerable profits to be made from material recovery, the increase of fuel usage causes conflict given that it is cost prohibitive. A series of trials performed on a small-scale 1.5-t/day incineration plant with a cyclone heat recovery system found that material recycling can impede performance. Experimental results are expressed as empirical regression formulas with regard to combustion temperature, energy transfer, and heat recovery. Process optimization is possible if the waste moisture content remains <30%. To test the robustness of the optimization analysis, a series of sensitivity analyses clarify the extent of material recycling needed with regard to plastic, paper, and metal. The experiments also test whether the moisture in the waste would decrease when recycling paper because of its exceptional capacity to absorb moisture. Results show that recycling paper is strongly recommended when the moisture content is >20%, whereas plastic recycling is not necessary at that moisture condition. Notably, plastic recovery reduces the heat needed to vaporize the water content of the solid waste, thus it is recommended only when the moisture content is <10%. For above-normal incineration temperatures, plastic recycling is encouraged, because it removes excess energy. Metal is confirmed as an overall priority in material recycling regardless of the moisture content of the incoming waste.

  17. A program for handling map projections of small-scale geospatial raster data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Trent, Jason R.; Buehler, Robert A.; Mattli, David M.; Yamamoto, Kristina H.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish small-scale geospatial modeling using raster datasets of global extent. Such use often requires the projection of global raster datasets onto a map or the reprojection from a given map projection associated with a dataset. The distortion characteristics of these projection transformations can have significant effects on modeling results. Distortions associated with the reprojection of global data are generally greater than distortions associated with reprojections of larger-scale, localized areas. The accuracy of areas in projected raster datasets of global extent is dependent on spatial resolution. To address these problems of projection and the associated resampling that accompanies it, methods for framing the transformation space, direct point-to-point transformations rather than gridded transformation spaces, a solution to the wrap-around problem, and an approach to alternative resampling methods are presented. The implementations of these methods are provided in an open-source software package called MapImage (or mapIMG, for short), which is designed to function on a variety of computer architectures.

  18. Small-Scale Industries in Kenya: A Case Study of Economic Development. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Harriet; Ross-Larson, Bruce, Ed.

    This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is a case study designed to introduce secondary school social studies students to a project in Kenya established to strengthen small-scale industries. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a sound filmstrip, and a teacher's guide. The pamphlet, "Economic Summary: Kenya," points out the severe…

  19. The Role of Small Scale Industry in Employment Generation and Rural Development: Initial Research Results from Sierra Leone. African Rural Employment Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuta, Enyinna; Liedholm, Carl

    Urban and rural small scale industry and employment generation in Sierra Leone, Africa were studied via a 2 phase procedure. Phase 1 data collection (March-June, 1974) involved a random sampling procedure based on locality size. The following information was obtained from each of the localities (cities, towns, and villages) and "enumeration…

  20. Using qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate small-scale disease management pilot programs.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Dominick; Taylor, Erin Fries; Gold, Marsha

    2009-02-01

    Interest in disease management programs continues to grow as managed care plans, the federal and state governments, and other organizations consider such efforts as a means to improve health care quality and reduce costs. These efforts vary in size, scope, and target population. While large-scale programs provide the means to measure impacts, evaluation of smaller interventions remains valuable as they often represent the early planning stages of larger initiatives. This paper describes a multi-method approach for evaluating small interventions that sought to improve the quality of care for Medicaid beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions. Our approach relied on quantitative and qualitative methods to develop a complete understanding of each intervention. Quantitative data in the form of both process measures, such as case manager contacts, and outcome measures, such as hospital use, were reported and analyzed. Qualitative information was collected through interviews and the development of logic models to document the flow of intervention activities and how they were intended to affect outcomes. The logic models helped us to understand the underlying reasons for the success or lack thereof of each intervention. The analysis provides useful information on several fronts. First, qualitative data provided valuable information about implementation. Second, process measures helped determine whether implementation occurred as anticipated. Third, outcome measures indicated the potential for favorable results later, possibly suggesting further study. Finally, the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative data in combination helped us assess the potential promise of each intervention and identify common themes and challenges across all interventions.

  1. Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    This manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are: the role of the SSE in third world development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of management assistance to…

  2. Abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining industry: restructuring the policy and research agendas.

    PubMed

    Hilson, Gavin

    2006-06-01

    This paper critiques contemporary research and policy approaches taken toward the analysis and abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector. Unmonitored releases of mercury from gold amalgamation have caused considerable environmental contamination and human health complications in rural reaches of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia. Whilst these problems have caught the attention of the scientific community over the past 15-20 years, the research that has since been undertaken has failed to identify appropriate mitigation measures, and has done little to advance understanding of why contamination persists. Moreover, the strategies used to educate operators about the impacts of acute mercury exposure, and the technologies implemented to prevent further pollution, have been marginally effective at best. The mercury pollution problem will not be resolved until governments and donor agencies commit to carrying out research aimed at improving understanding of the dynamics of small scale gold mining communities. Acquisition of this knowledge is the key to designing and implementing appropriate support and abatement measures.

  3. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  4. Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

    2011-05-01

    In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term.

  5. Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

    This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

  6. Small-scale test program to develop a more efficient swivel nozzle thrust deflector for V/STOL lift/cruise engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The installed performance degradation of a swivel nozzle thrust deflector system obtained during increased vectoring angles of a large-scale test program was investigated and improved. Small-scale models were used to generate performance data for analyzing selected swivel nozzle configurations. A single-swivel nozzle design model with five different nozzle configurations and a twin-swivel nozzle design model, scaled to 0.15 size of the large-scale test hardware, were statically tested at low exhaust pressure ratios of 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1 and vectored at four nozzle positions from 0 deg cruise through 90 deg vertical used for the VTOL mode.

  7. INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    ASFAW BEYENE

    2008-09-29

    Since its establishment in 1990, San Diego State University’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) has served close to 400 small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in Southern California. SDSU/IAC’s efforts to transfer state-of-the-art technologies to industry have increased revenues, cultivated creativity, improved efficiencies, and benefited the environment. A substantial benefit from the program has been the ongoing training of engineering faculty and students. During this funding cycle, SDSU/IAC has trained 31 students, 7 of the graduate. A total of 92 assessments and 108 assessment days were completed, resulting in 638 assessment recommendations.

  8. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dereje Agonafer

    2007-11-30

    The work described in this report was performed under the direction of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at University of Texas at Arlington. The IAC at The University of Texas at Arlington is managed by Rutgers University under agreement with the United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology, which financially supports the program. The objective of the IAC is to identify, evaluate, and recommend, through analysis of an industrial plant’s operations, opportunities to conserve energy and prevent pollution, thereby reducing the associated costs. IAC team members visit and survey the plant. Based upon observations made in the plant, preventive/corrective actions are recommended. At all times we try to offer specific and quantitative recommendations of cost savings, energy conservation, and pollution prevention to the plants we serve.

  9. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    PubMed

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  10. General patterns of niche construction and the management of ‘wild’ plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

  11. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    -treatment was significantly higher than overall adherence to the control group's functional rehabilitation activities. Cortisol level was significantly reduced after participating in an AAT session, which could indicate that interaction with the therapy dogs reduced stress. In conclusion, the results of this small-scale RCT suggest that AAT could be considered a useful adjunct to conventional psychosocial rehabilitation for people with schizophrenia.

  12. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R.; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L.; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    . Adherence to the AAT-treatment was significantly higher than overall adherence to the control group’s functional rehabilitation activities. Cortisol level was significantly reduced after participating in an AAT session, which could indicate that interaction with the therapy dogs reduced stress. In conclusion, the results of this small-scale RCT suggest that AAT could be considered a useful adjunct to conventional psychosocial rehabilitation for people with schizophrenia. PMID:27199859

  13. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  14. Accreditation of Industrial Engineering Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George H.

    The guidelines used in the accreditation of industrial engineering programs are discussed. Changes that have taken place in engineering curriculum are described, along with the philosophy of educators in formulating industrial engineering program requirements in the areas of faculty, facilities, curriculum, administration, and scholastic work.…

  15. AVLIS industrial access program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

  16. Doctorate Program Trains Industrial Chemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The University of Texas (Dallas) has initiated a new Ph.D. program specifically to train chemists for doctoral level work in industry (Doctor of Chemistry). Participants will complete three research practica (at an industrial site and in two laboratory settings) instead of the traditional dissertation, emphasizing breadth and flexibility in…

  17. Industrial technology modernization (ITM) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, M. R.

    The Industrial Technology Modernization (ITM) program represents an F-16 technology modernization program for subcontractors. The original F-16 Technology Modernization Program was conceived to establish a manufacturing environment which would minimize the manufacturing costs of F-16 aircraft. The success of this program led to the expansion of the concept of modernization to include key F-16 subcontractors. The phases in the ITM program structure are related to analysis and conceptual design, detailed factory modernization designs, and the implementation of factory medernization. Attention is also given to aspects of program documentation, and details regarding the contracting mechanics established for initiating subcontractor technology modernization.

  18. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  19. Small-Scale-Field Dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzinov, A.; Cowley, S.; Sudan, R. ||

    1996-11-01

    Generation of magnetic field energy, without mean field generation, is studied. Isotropic mirror-symmetric turbulence of a conducting fluid amplifies the energy of small-scale magnetic perturbations if the magnetic Reynolds number is high, and the dimensionality of space {ital d} satisfies 2.103{lt}{ital d}{lt}8.765. The result does not depend on the model of turbulence, incompressibility, and isotropy being the only requirements. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  1. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarik, William J.

    2007-02-26

    Over the five-year period (2002-2006) the Oklahoma State University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) performed energy assessments for 106 different clients, writing 835 recommendations, for a total of $23,937,099 in potential estimated annual savings. IAC clients served consisted of small and medium-sized manufacturers ranging from food manufactures to foundries. The OSU IAC served clients in Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas. In addition to client service, student training and instruction was a major accomplishment. The OSU IAC employed (and trained) 12 baccalaureate-level students, 17 masters-level graduate students, and 7 doctoral-level graduate students. Most are practicing in the energy management area. Training was focused on both energy assessment and safety. Safety training was both center-based training as well as on-site training. Energy management related training was focused on classroom (for academic credit) work at both the undergraduate and graduate level. IEM 4923 (Energy and Water Management) was developed to serve both the IAC as well as non-IAC students. It was delivered once per year, with enrollments of typically 10 to 20 students. This course was required for IAC student employees, both undergraduate and graduate. This course was patterned after the AEE CEM (five-day) course for practicing professionals. IEM 4923 required each student to attend at least one on-site assessment and write at least one recommendation for their client’s report. Hence, a hands-on approach was practiced. Advance level courses were used to train graduate students. Two courses played major roles here: IEM 5923 (Advanced Energy and Water Management) and IEM 5943 (Hazardous Material and Waste). Graduate student participation in these courses helped the IAC to gain additional perspectives in on-site assessment and resulting recommendations. Numerous hands-on demonstration/training was conducted by directors and graduate students in order to gain

  2. ACS Proposes Industrial Internship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The American Chemical Society has proposed a federal program which would enable 1500 unemployed chemists and chemical engineers possessing master's or higher degrees to serve from one to two years as interns in industrial research and development installations. (Author/TS)

  3. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  4. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  5. The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Dean, Lynn

    This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

  6. Small Scale Marine Fisheries: An Extension Training Manual. TR-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Steven; And Others

    This manual is designed for use in a preservice training program for prospective volunteers whose Peace Corps service will be spent working with small-scale artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. The program consists of 8 weeks of intensive training to develop competencies in marine fisheries technology and fisheries extension work…

  7. Purdue Program Enhances Academe/Industry Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1985-01-01

    The Industrial Associates Program (IAP) at Purdue University is a formal organization to coordinate department-industry interactions. Philosophy, features, and projects of IAP are discussed. Indicates that a new effort will aim at setting up a sort of "Industrial Extension Service" (analogous to agricultural programs) to help industries…

  8. Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, S. Hoyt; Diaz, David Maldonado; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. Principal Findings/Methodology 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996–2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year−1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. Conclusions/Significance Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing

  9. Artificial cells: building bioinspired systems using small-scale biology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ruder, Warren C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2008-01-01

    Artificial cells have generated much interest since the concept was introduced by Aleksandr Oparin in the 1920s, and they have had an impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry in various areas, including potential therapeutic applications. Here, we discuss the development of small-scale, bio-inspired artificial cell components that recreate the function of key cellular and physiological systems. We describe artificial cells, selected current applications and how small-scale biology could be used to provide what might be a next-generation approach in this area. We believe that this type of work is in its infancy and that exploiting small-scale biological inspiration in the field of artificial cells has great potential for successes in the future.

  10. Common Degree Program for Industrial Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John I.

    1974-01-01

    A consortium approach in Delaware's State technical schools offers a common B. S. degree competency-based program to persons seeking a teaching career in either trade and industry or industrial arts. (Author/AJ)

  11. Pautas para Programas de Asesoramiento Gestional para Microempresas (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    Written in Spanish, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of…

  12. Directives Relatives a l'Elaboration de Programmes de Conseil en Gestion pour Petites Entreprises (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    Written in French, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of management…

  13. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

  14. Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

  15. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

    This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

  16. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  17. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  18. Method and system for small scale pumping

    DOEpatents

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  19. Speckle imaging of solar small scale structure. 2: Study of small scale structure in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Luehe, O.

    1994-01-01

    The speckle imaging technique which is described in the first paper of this series (von der Luehe 1993) was used to analyze time series of high angular resolution images of solar small scale structure at a wavelength of 585 nm in active regions with the 76 cm diameter vacuum tower telescope at National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Sac Peak. Two sets of reconstructed images with a field of 4 by 4 arcsec which cover a period of 36 min and 83 min were generated and analyzed. The image reconstructions are supplemented with simultaneous large field photographs taken within a 15 A passband centered on the Ca II K (3933) line. The prime objective of the observing program was the study of the structure and the dynamics of the continuum wavelength counterpart of facular points which appear with high contrast in the Ca pictures, i.e., continuum bright points (CBPs). In addition to CBPs, the reconstructions allow studying other small scale phenomena. Results of the studies are given.

  20. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1989-10-30

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  2. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

  3. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with industry, has set new performance standards for industrial gas turbines through the creation of the Industrial Advanced Turbine System Program. Their leadership will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in this size class (3-to-20 MW). The DOE has already created a positive effect by encouraging gas turbine system manufacturers to reassess their product and technology plans using the new higher standards as the benchmark. Solar Turbines has been a leader in the industrial gas turbine business, and is delighted to have joined with the DOE in developing the goals and vision for this program. We welcome the opportunity to help the national goals of energy conservation and environmental enhancement. The results of this program should lead to the U.S. based gas turbine industry maintaining its international leadership and the creation of highly paid domestic jobs.

  4. The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

    I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

  5. Industrial Pretreatment Program | NPDES | New England | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    The Industrial Pretreatment Program prevents the discharge of pollutants to Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) which will interfere with the operations of the POTW or its use and disposal of municipal biosolids.

  6. The Genetic Programming of Industrial Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the development of the field of industrial microbial genetics, describing a range of techniques for genetic programing. Includes a discussion of site-directed mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, and recombinant DNA manipulations. (CS)

  7. Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

  8. Parallel programming of industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, M; Koniges, A; Simon, H

    1998-07-21

    In the introductory material, we overview the typical MPP environment for real application computing and the special tools available such as parallel debuggers and performance analyzers. Next, we draw from a series of real applications codes and discuss the specific challenges and problems that are encountered in parallelizing these individual applications. The application areas drawn from include biomedical sciences, materials processing and design, plasma and fluid dynamics, and others. We show how it was possible to get a particular application to run efficiently and what steps were necessary. Finally we end with a summary of the lessons learned from these applications and predictions for the future of industrial parallel computing. This tutorial is based on material from a forthcoming book entitled: "Industrial Strength Parallel Computing" to be published by Morgan Kaufmann Publishers (ISBN l-55860-54).

  9. IAPSA 2 small-scale system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The details of a hardware implementation of a representative small scale flight critical system is described using Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) building block components and simulated sensor/actuator interfaces. The system was used to study application performance and reliability issues during both normal and faulted operation.

  10. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  11. Small-scale coronal structure, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations and models pertaining specifically to solar coronal bright points (BPs) and generally to small-scale coronal structure are reviewed. Two questions were addressed: What is the degree of correspondence among various alleged signatures of BPs at different levels of atmosphere and what can PBs tell about the emerging flux spectrum of the sun?

  12. Forging strategic partnerships with industry: The Industrial Fellows Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.; Castain, R.; Hynes, M.V.; Sanders, V.; Siemon, R.; Tellier, A.; Tiedman, A.; Umbarger, J.; Wilson, M.

    1995-04-01

    Science, technology, and industrial policy are at an important nexus due to long developing trends in the national and international economy and recent events in national security affairs. The research and development assets built by the American taxpayer in response to the Cold War face a quest for relevance in the new era. National competitiveness in international markets has emerged as an important new priority. To better understand the perspective of US industry the management of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated an Industrial Fellows Program which has placed six individuals at US corporations. Their goal is to create strategic partnerships through increased understanding of technical needs of industry and the technical capabilities of the Laboratory.

  13. Wireless Success Story - Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-05-01

    This success story presents the results of wireless research by Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The prioritized research resulted in success with realized energy and cost savings.

  14. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains industrial education courses standards for 183 exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts. The first part, the curriculum framework, includes four major sections: major…

  15. Energy Industry Powers CTE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

  16. Creating Tech Programs Industry Wants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges serve on the front line of workforce development. With their focus on applied science associate degrees and technical certificate programs, they provide students with a high-quality, low-cost education that prepares them for careers in one to two years. And for students who can't take time away from their family or work to…

  17. Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry

    1993-06-01

    The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

  18. Electricity's future: the shift to efficiency and small-scale power

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.

    1984-01-01

    Because most countries have rigid, centralized utility systems, small-scale power generation has barely caught on outside the US. In many countries a single state utility or a few large private utilities have exclusive rights to generate power, and these bureaucracies have concentrated on large power plants. But rapid advances under way in a wide range of small-scale generating technologies may soon encourage changes worldwide. Research programs are widespread, and international developments are closely followed. Improved energy efficiency and load management should also be considered as alternatives to building new power plants. In most regions of the world inefficient appliances can be replaced, houses weatherized, and industrial equipment upgraded for a fraction of the cost of building a new generating plant. Efficiency can be promoted many ways, but some of the best include utility-sponsored information and financing programs, with a return allowed on the investment, just as a new power plant would receive. Electricity prices can be adjusted to encourage less power use at peak periods, thus avoiding the need to build additional plants. Many utilities have recently adopted efficiency programs at the insistence of government regulators, but most are just token efforts. 101 references.

  19. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  20. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  1. Small Scale Equidistribution of Random Eigenbases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaolong

    2017-01-01

    We investigate small scale equidistribution of random orthonormal bases of eigenfunctions (i.e., eigenbases) on a compact manifold M. Assume that the group of isometries acts transitively on M and the multiplicity {m_λ} of eigenfrequency {λ} tends to infinity at least logarithmically as {λ to ∞}. We prove that, with respect to the natural probability measure on the space of eigenbases, almost surely a random eigenbasis is equidistributed at small scales; furthermore, the scales depend on the growth rate of {m_λ}. In particular, this implies that almost surely random eigenbases on the sphere S^n ({n ≥ 2}) and the tori T^n ({n ≥ 5}) are equidistributed at polynomial scales.

  2. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  3. Small Scale Water Disinfection for Military Purposes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AD-A268 654 Small scale water disinfection for military purposes. Gary Thomson DSTO DoGC Materials Research Laboratory ELECTE P.O. Box 147 m...Scottsdale AUG 2 4 •9 3 1. SUMTasmania 7260 E When a military force is in the field, it is impossible to apply at all times the normal practices of water ...purification such as coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination used for a municipal water supply. For personnel who are

  4. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  5. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  6. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Douglas R.

    1987-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of small-scale phenomena in the oceans are reviewed, with a focus on progress during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include surface layers, equatorial turbulence, off-equator mixed layers, the scaling of mixing, turbulence concepts, laboratory results, internal waves and mixing, rings, the nature of the bottom layer, double diffusion and intrusions, salt fingers, and biological interactions. Also discussed are developments in instrumentation (fast sampling profilers with upward-profiling capability, deep profilers, ship-motion correction, horizontal samplers, small submersibles, submarines, towed packages, conductivity sensors, dissolved-oxygen sensors, and acoustic Doppler current profilers) and goals for future research.

  7. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  8. Expanded Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT)ootnotetextH. W. Sandusky, R. H. Granholm, D. G. Bohl, ``Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test,'' NSWC Technical Report (in publication), Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter, with the reactions quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block. This test has been expanded to simultaneously measure both early and late-time reactions from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. The sample apparatus is further confined within a small chamber instrumented with a pressure gage for internal air blast. This provides a measure of late-time reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion. Results are shown from several simultaneous early- and late-reaction measurements.

  9. Small-scale ethanol-production demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, L.E. II; Eley, M.H.; Schroer, B.J.

    1981-09-01

    The Johnson Environmental and Energy Center with assistance from the Madison County Farm Bureau Association received a grant from the US Department of Energy to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to economically fabricate the distillation unit. A third objective was to thoroughly evaluate the unit with emphasis on production potential, operation considerations, and energy balance. The fourth objective was to work with the Farm Bureau in identifying an organization that would place the unit in a production environment. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit is capable of producing an average of 9 to 14 gallons per hour (based on alcohol percent in beer) of 174 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation is a positive 3:1. Once the unit has reached steady state very little operator attention is required with the exception of periodically refluxing. Material cost of the plate column is approximately $5000. The unit could be built by an individual provided he is trained in welding and has the necessary shop equipment. The report also contains 7 appendices entitled: Principles of ethanol production; pump manufacturer specifications; boiler manufacturer specifications, water treatment manufacturer specifications; tank specifications; test results; and boiler efficiency data sheets. 39 figures, 112 tables.

  10. Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D.; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A.; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2014-01-01

    Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ∼ 102 the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

  11. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  12. A small-scale turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    A model for the small-scale structure of turbulence is reformulated in such a way that it may be conveniently computed. The model is an ensemble of randomly oriented structured two dimensional vortices stretched by an axially symmetric strain flow. The energy spectrum of the resulting flow may be expressed as a time integral involving only the enstrophy spectrum of the time evolving two-dimensional cross section flow, which may be obtained numerically. Examples are given in which a k(exp -5/3) spectrum is obtained by this method without using large wave number asymptotic analysis. The k(exp -5/3) inertial range spectrum is shown to be related to the existence of a self-similar enstrophy preserving range in the two-dimensional enstrophy spectrum. The results are insensitive to time dependence of the strain-rate, including even intermittent on-or-off strains.

  13. Energetics in robotic flight at small scales.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Konstantinos; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-02-06

    Recent advances in design, sensing and control have led to aerial robots that offer great promise in a range of real-world applications. However, one critical open question centres on how to improve the energetic efficiency of aerial robots so that they can be useful in practical situations. This review paper provides a survey on small-scale aerial robots (i.e. less than 1 m(2) area foot print, and less than 3 kg weight) from the point of view of energetics. The paper discusses methods to improve the efficiency of aerial vehicles, and reports on recent findings by the authors and other groups on modelling the impact of aerodynamics for the purpose of building energy-aware motion planners and controllers.

  14. Practical small-scale explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24896

  15. Models of Small-Scale Patchiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy Dennis J., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Patchiness is perhaps the most salient characteristic of plankton populations in the ocean. The scale of this heterogeneity spans many orders of magnitude in its spatial extent, ranging from planetary down to microscale. It has been argued that patchiness plays a fundamental role in the functioning of marine ecosystems, insofar as the mean conditions may not reflect the environment to which organisms are adapted. For example, the fact that some abundant predators cannot thrive on the mean concentration of their prey in the ocean implies that they are somehow capable of exploiting small-scale patches of prey whose concentrations are much larger than the mean. Understanding the nature of this patchiness is thus one of the major challenges of oceanographic ecology. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  17. Practical small-scale explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives.

  18. Small-scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Jaynes, A. N.; Knudsen, D. J.; Trondsen, T.; Lessard, M.

    2011-12-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the 'off' phase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  19. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  20. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these “small-scale controversies.” Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  1. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets.

  2. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  3. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) was originated in 1959 by the Army, Navy, and Air Force Ballistic Missile Agencies. Known at that time as IDEP--Interservice Data Exchange Program--its intent was to eliminate duplicate testing of parts and components by disseminating pertinent test data among Department of Defense contractors and various government agencies. In 1966 both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Canadian Military Electronics Standards Agency (CAMESA) recognized the value of the data provided by the program and became participants. Today, GIDEP provides the interchange of specialized technical data to all the military services, participating government contractors and numerous government agencies such as the Atomic Energy Commission, Federal Aviation Administration, Defense Supply Agency, and the Small Business Administration.

  4. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

  5. Iowa Handbook of Basic Computer Programs for Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bro, Ronald D., Ed.

    This teacher's guide contains computer programs, written in BASIC, for use in Iowa secondary school industrial arts programs. The programs were developed in two 2-week workshops by industrial arts teachers who had little or no previous experience with computers; the programs have been classroom tested and refined for publication. The programs are…

  6. Small-scale pig farmers' behavior, silent release of African swine fever virus and consequences for disease spread.

    PubMed

    Costard, Solenne; Zagmutt, Francisco J; Porphyre, Thibaud; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-11-27

    The expanding distribution of African swine fever (ASF) is threatening the pig industry worldwide. Most outbreaks occur in backyard and small-scale herds, where poor farmers often attempt to limit the disease's economic consequences by the emergency sale of their pigs. The risk of African swine fever virus (ASFV) release via this emergency sale was investigated. Simulation modeling was used to study ASFV transmission in backyard and small-scale farms as well as the emergency sale of pigs, and the potential impact of improving farmers and traders' clinical diagnosis ability-its timeliness and/or accuracy-was assessed. The risk of ASFV release was shown to be high, and improving farmers' clinical diagnosis ability does not appear sufficient to effectively reduce this risk. Estimates obtained also showed that the distribution of herd size within the backyard and small-scale sectors influences the relative contribution of these farms to the risk of release of infected pigs. These findings can inform surveillance and control programs.

  7. Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering (The National Shipbuilding Research Program)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Part II Part III BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING What is Industrial Engineering Operational Questions for Industrial Engineers

  8. Small-scale waste-to-energy systems: A state-of-the-art report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. L.

    1982-02-01

    For industry and local government, small scale waste to energy systems represent an increasingly attractive option to enhance energy security, control energy costs, generate revenues and alleviate landfill constraints. Projects are characterized by: a mix of modular and waterwall systems; small and medium size industrial steam customers; a nascent interest in cogeneration; the utilization of a variety of public financing instruments; and growing vendor involvement in facility operations. Experience also points to the pivotal role of one or a few persistent individuals during the project implementation process. Recent operating history is likely to provide the foundation for steady growth in the number of small scale systems during the next decade.

  9. A small-scale turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    A previously derived analytical model for the small-scale structure of turbulence is reformulated in such a way that the energy spectrum may be computed. The model is an ensemble of two-dimensional (2D) vortices with internal spiral structure, each stretched by an axially symmetric strain flow. Stretching and differential rotation produce an energy cascade to smaller scales in which the stretching represents the effect of instabilities and the spiral structure is the source of dissipation at the end of the cascade. The energy spectrum of the resulting flow may be expressed as a time integration involving only the enstrophy spectrum of the time evolving 2D cross section flow, which may be obtained numerically. Examples are given in which a k exp -5/3 spectrum is obtained by this method. The k exp -5/3 inertial range spectrum is shown to be related to the existence of a self-similar enstrophy preserving range in the 2D enstrophy spectrum. The results are found to be insensitive to time dependence of the strain rate, including even intermittent on-or-off strains.

  10. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  11. Space Industrialization. Volume 2: Opportunities, Markets and Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The nature of space industrialization and the reasons for its promotion are examined. Increases in space industry activities to be anticipated from 1980 to 2010 are assessed. A variety of future scenarios against which space industrialization could evolve were developed and the various industrial opportunities that might constitute that evolution were defined. The needs and markets of industry activities were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed and messed. The various hardware requirements vs. time (space industry programs) as space industrialization evolves are derived and analyzed.

  12. Extreme events and small-scale structure in computational turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, X. M.; Yeung, P. K.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed analyses have been made of data from a direct numerical simulation of turbulence on a periodic domain with 81923 grid points designed to improve our understanding of small-scale structure and intermittency. At the Reynolds number of this simulation (1300 based on the Taylor scale) extreme events of dissipation and enstrophy as large as 105 times the mean value are observed. These events are shown to possess a form that is different from similar events at low Reynolds numbers. Extreme vorticity appears to be ``chunky'' in character, in contrast to elongated vortex tubes at moderately large amplitudes commonly reported in the literature. We track the temporal evolution of these extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived, which suggests frequent sampling on-the-fly is useful. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy are essentially coincident in space and remain so during their evolution. Numerical tests show sensitivity to small-scale resolution and sampling but not machine precision. The connections expected between indicators of fine-scale intermittency such as acceleration statistics and the anomalous scaling of high-order velocity structure functions are also investigated. Supported by NSF Grant ACI-1036170 (Track 1 Petascale Resource Allocations Program).

  13. TURBULENT SMALL-SCALE DYNAMO ACTION IN SOLAR SURFACE SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Cameron, Robert; Schuessler, Manfred

    2010-05-10

    We demonstrate that a magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics, we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of the small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: the tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations ('turbulent induction'). Instead, we find that the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo.

  14. NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

  15. A spatial method to calculate small-scale fisheries effort in data poor scenarios.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew Frederick; Moreno-Báez, Marcia; Giron-Nava, Alfredo; Corominas, Julia; Erisman, Brad; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2017-01-01

    To gauge the collateral impacts of fishing we must know where fishing boats operate and how much they fish. Although small-scale fisheries land approximately the same amount of fish for human consumption as industrial fleets globally, methods of estimating their fishing effort are comparatively poor. We present an accessible, spatial method of calculating the effort of small-scale fisheries based on two simple measures that are available, or at least easily estimated, in even the most data-poor fisheries: the number of boats and the local coastal human population. We illustrate the method using a small-scale fisheries case study from the Gulf of California, Mexico, and show that our measure of Predicted Fishing Effort (PFE), measured as the number of boats operating in a given area per day adjusted by the number of people in local coastal populations, can accurately predict fisheries landings in the Gulf. Comparing our values of PFE to commercial fishery landings throughout the Gulf also indicates that the current number of small-scale fishing boats in the Gulf is approximately double what is required to land theoretical maximum fish biomass. Our method is fishery-type independent and can be used to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of growth in small-scale fisheries. This new method provides an important first step towards estimating the fishing effort of small-scale fleets globally.

  16. Health and Safety Management for Small-scale Methane Fermentation Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Masaru; Yuyama, Yoshito; Nakamura, Masato; Oritate, Fumiko

    In this study, we considered health and safety management for small-scale methane fermentation facilities that treat 2-5 ton of biomass daily based on several years operation experience with an approximate capacity of 5 t·d-1. We also took account of existing knowledge, related laws and regulations. There are no qualifications or licenses required for management and operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities, even though rural sewerage facilities with a relative similar function are required to obtain a legitimate license. Therefore, there are wide variations in health and safety consciousness of the operators of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. The industrial safety and health laws are not applied to the operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. However, in order to safely operate a small-scale methane fermentation facility, the occupational safety and health management system that the law recommends should be applied. The aims of this paper are to clarify the risk factors in small-scale methane fermentation facilities and encourage planning, design and operation of facilities based on health and safety management.

  17. Program of Studies: Trade and Industrial: Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    Part 1 of the trade and industrial education curriculum guide for grades 9-12 contains a brief program overview and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) description, more detailed descriptions of in-school and out-of-school programs and program classification methods, a list of references, and charts of various programs and training…

  18. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  19. Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

  20. Small-Scale Magnetic Reconnection at Equatorial Coronal Hole Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Derek; DeForest, C. E.

    2011-05-01

    Coronal holes have long been known to be the source of the fast solar wind at both high and low latitudes. The equatorial extensions of polar coronal holes have long been assumed to have substantial magnetic reconnection at their boundaries, because they rotate more rigidly than the underlying photosphere. However, evidence for this reconnection has been sparse until very recently. We present some evidence that reconnection due to the evolution of small-scale magnetic fields may be sufficient to drive coronal hole boundary evolution. We hypothesize that a bias in the direction of that reconnection is sufficient to give equatorial coronal holes their rigid rotation. We discuss the prospects for investigating this using FLUX, a reconnection-controlled coronal MHD simulation framework. This work was funded by the NASA SHP-GI program.

  1. Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Amelie Goldberg; Taylor, Robert P.; Hedman, Bruce

    2014-03-21

    This report provides state regulators, utilities, and other program administrators with an overview of U.S. industrial energy efficiency programs and assesses some of the key features of programs that have generated increased energy savings.

  2. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  3. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  4. Exposure assessment in SMES: a low-cost approach to bring OHS services to small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Mahinda; Phoon, Wai On

    2006-01-01

    There is increased attention to improving occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Workers Health Centre, a not-for-profit OHS service in western Sydney, assessed workplace exposures in two SMEs following intervention by regulatory agencies. A low-cost monitoring program for noise, airbone dust, fibers and chemicals was conducted at these two metal working industry workplaces. Results showed that exposure to the hazards were above the statutory limits and there was generally an unhealthy access to OHS information by the predominantly immigrant or low literate worker population, were identified. The potential for using a program of low-cost exposure assessments, accompanied by a strategy to provide OHSs information for workers in small-scale enterprises, is discussed.

  5. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  6. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. 1: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This research program has developed a viable methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using imagery obtained from orbital multispectral scanners.

  7. Small-scale fuel-alcohol plant. Design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    This report describes a small-scale fuel alcohol plant designed and constructed for the DOE by EG and G Idaho, Inc., an operating contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant is reasonably complete, having the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, byproduct dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention. The production designed capacity of the plant is 26.4 gallons of 190-proof ethanol per hour. Most of the processes and equipment used in the plant represent conventional ethanol production technology. Two slight deviations are the control system, which is common in larger plants, and the continuous cooker, which was adapted from the food industry. A device for dewatering the by-product is included, but a byproduct drying system was not, because systems evaluated were too expensive for a plant of this size. Alcohol dehydration was not included for the same reason. Commerical molecular sieve units are now available at costs that allow economic drying of ethanol. Evaluations are underway to install a commercially available molecular sieve unit at this plant.

  8. Industrial Insights on the DoD Concurrent Engineering Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    improvements in: 1) concurrent engineering -related technologies; 2) industrial structural approaches to product design and production process development ; 3... industry in DoD-specific manufacturing design and process development ; and 3) sponsorship and support of manufacturing engineering education and...implementation of the Concurrent Engineering Program will take place principally in the design and development laboratories of industry and on the production

  9. National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farzin

    The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

  10. Training Engineers of Joint Programs for the European Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    Examines topics and issues related to training engineers of joint programs for the European aerospace industry. Forms of cooperation, European educational systems, and skills needed to successfully work as an engineer in a joint program for the European aircraft industry are the major areas addressed. (JN)

  11. Physico-chemical treatment of wastewater from clusters of small scale cotton textile units.

    PubMed

    Pathe, P P; Biswas, A K; Rao, N N; Kaul, S N

    2005-03-01

    Small scale industries can not own individual wastewater treatment facility due to non-availability of land and skilled manpower for operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. A centralized wastewater treatment facility for clusters of small scale industries is appropriate. This concept is gaining popularity in recent years. In India, various textile process operations are undertaken by individual small scale units. The wastewater generated at these units is conveyed to a common effluent treatment facility comprising of equalization, flocculation-clarification, activated sludge process, secondary clarification and finally discharge into inland surface water bodies. The wastewater from small scale cotton textile processing units was highly coloured and alkaline with average BOD and COD concentration of 205 and 790 mg l(-1), respectively. Due to the presence of several dyes, particularly reactive dyes, the biological treatment is often found less effective. Therefore, applicability of various physico-chemical treatment methods needs to be investigated in pursuit of an alternative to biological treatment of textile wastewater. A physico-chemical treatment scheme, involving chemical coagulation-sedimentation, dual media filtration, activated carbon adsorption followed by chemical oxidation was investigated in this paper. The quality of final treated wastewater in terms of BOD and COD was 18-24 and 230-240 mg l(-1), respectively through this scheme. A scheme of treatment comprising coagulation-sedimentation, dual media filtration, activated carbon, chemical oxidation may be considered as an alternative to biological treatment of textile wastewater.

  12. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  13. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  14. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  16. DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Lee

    2003-09-30

    For the academic year 2001-2002, the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences received $50,000 of industrial contributions, matched by a DOE grant of $35,000. We used the combined DOE/Industry Matching Grant of $85,000 toward (a) undergraduate merit scholarships and research support, (b) graduate student support, and (c) partial support of a research scientist.

  17. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  18. Industrial Maintenance. Program CIP: 47.0303 - Industrial Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  19. A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

  20. Small scale thematic mapping - A case for radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1974-01-01

    Small scale thematic maps (1:250,000 and smaller) of physical and cultural phenomena manifested on the landscape are a major concern to scientists and investigators in diverse disciplines. A strip of K-band radar imagery consisting of a traverse from eastern Minnesota to northern Utah was employed to evaluate the potential of radar imagery for small scale land use mapping. In the course of this investigation, it was discovered that certain borders derived from radar imagery were compatible with borders found on the nonland use thematic maps used for comparison. Specifically, numerous borders and regions of small scale maps of landforms, soils, vegetation, and geology are found to be similar to the radar land use regions. Although far from conclusive it appears that radar imagery can be employed in the small scale mapping of landforms and possibly for mapping physiognomic or economic vegetation.

  1. The Physical Character of Small-Scale Interstellar Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the multiple interstellar absorption lines of H2 toward the members of 3 resolvable binary/multiple star systems to explore the physical conditions in known interstellar small-scale structures. Each of the selected systems was meant to address a different aspect of the models for the origin of these structures: 1) The stars HD 32039/40 were meant to probe a temporally varying component which probed a cloud with an inferred size of tens to a few hundreds of AU. The goal was to see if there was any significant H2 associated with this component; 2) The star HD 36408B and its companion HD 36408A (observed as part of FUSE GTO program P119) show significant spatial and temporal (proper motion induced) Na I column variations in a strong, relatively isolated component, as well as a relatively simple component structure. The key goal here was to identify any differences in H2 or C I excitation between the sightlines, and to measure the physical conditions (primarily density and temperature) in the temporally varying component; 3) The stars HD 206267C and HD 206267D are highly reddened sightlines which showed significant variations in K I and molecular absorption lines in multiple velocity components. Coupled with FUSE GTO observations of HD 206267A (program P116), the goal was to study the variations in H2 along sightlines which are significantly more distant, with larger separations, and with greater extinctions than the other selected binary systems.

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  3. Innovative Programs To Meet Industry Workforce Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ernest L.

    Over the past decade, the Travelers Insurance companies have dramatically expanded their involvement in educational programs for students at all grade levels, from prekindergarden through college. Throughout the 1970s, the Travelers educational programs focused exclusively on providing speakers for career awareness programs for high school…

  4. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and…

  5. Effectiveness of an Undergraduate Program in Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirnan, Jean P.; Reilly, Maura; Decker, William

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an evaluation of an undergraduate program in industrial/organizational psychology (College of New Jersey) five years after its implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of the program and identify areas in need of change. Describes the program and makes recommendations for future directions. (CMK)

  6. Canada's Voluntary ARET Program: Limited Success Despite Industry Cosponsorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antweiler, Werner; Harrison, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxins (ARET) Challenge was a voluntary program initiated in 1994 by the Government of Canada. Unlike the U.S. 33/50 Program, ARET involved industry partners in negotiation and cosponsorship of the program, with the intention that early involvement would yield stronger commitment to voluntary reductions. We…

  7. Cartographic research in EREP program for small scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mott, P. G.; Fullard, H.; Bartholomew, J. C.; Leatherdale, J. D.; Chismon, H. J.; Hall, H. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photography is suitable for producing planimetric maps with graphical representation of landform at scales up to 1:100,000. It cannot supply all the detail necessary for maps at this scale, but it may be used to produce a sound framework which can be completed by detail from other sources. Its principal cartographic use is for original mapping of undeveloped areas of the world, but it would also be useful for the revision of existing maps and for monitoring extensive urban changes.

  8. Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

  9. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  10. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  11. An Industrial View of Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David M.

    Several areas that are lacking in undergraduate nuclear engineering programs are discussed. Although most programs provide adequate theoretical knowledge in nuclear science, the nuclear engineer must have a working knowledge with the complete nuclear power plant, and be acquainted with the functions and responsibilities of the various segments of…

  12. Biobased industrial lubricants and biopreferred program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global chemical industry growth is projected at 3 to 6 percent per year through 2025, while the biobased chemicals market share is expected to grow from 2 to 22 percent and biobased polymers are expected to increase from 0.1 to 10-20 percent market share. Finding a renewable replacement for petrole...

  13. Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

  14. Occupational Employment Statistics Program. Staffing Patterns in Selected Nonmanufacturing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

    The material in the publication is intended to acquaint users with the occupational composition of the various nonmanufacturing industries in the State of Indiana. It is directed particularly to those who are concerned with designing academic and vocational education programs in order to supply workers to fill the needs of industry and to…

  15. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories policy to practice. The contents include: 1) Purpose of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP); 2) NASA and GSFC Documentation; 3) NASA Advisories, differences from GIDEP; 4) GIDEP Distribution by Originator; 5) New Interim GIDEP Policy for Suspect Counterfeits; 6) NASA and Suspect Counterfeits; 7) Threats to GIDEP; and 8) Conclusions and Contact Information.

  16. Material Management Program Can Attract Local Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magad, Eugene L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the material management certificate and the associate in applied science degree programs at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois. Material management functions include purchasing, production control, inventory control, material handling, warehousing, packaging, computer applications, and transportation. (MF)

  17. DoD Industrial Security Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    24 1-237 Imigrant Alien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1-238 Industrial Security .. .. ..r. ....... .... 24 1-239...Included in this definition is any natural person who is not a citizen or national of the U.S. (An Imigrant alien as defined in paragraph 1-237 is...Any person lawfully admitted into the U.S. under an imigration visa foýr permanent residence is an immigrant alien (see paragraph 2-308 for special

  18. Small Scale Equidistribution of Eigenfunctions on the Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Stephen; Rudnick, Zeév

    2016-08-01

    We study the small scale distribution of the L 2 mass of eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the flat torus {{T}d} . Given an orthonormal basis of eigenfunctions, we show the existence of a density one subsequence whose L 2 mass equidistributes at small scales. In dimension two our result holds all the way down to the Planck scale. For dimensions d = 3, 4 we can restrict to individual eigenspaces and show small scale equidistribution in that context. We also study irregularities of quantum equidistribution: We construct eigenfunctions whose L 2 mass does not equidistribute at all scales above the Planck scale. Additionally, in dimension d = 4 we show the existence of eigenfunctions for which the proportion of L 2 mass in small balls blows up at certain scales.

  19. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  20. The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program office of industrial technologies fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in FY95 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 to 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`

  1. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  2. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    PubMed

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓ^{ϑ}, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  3. SMALL-SCALE ANISOTROPIES OF COSMIC RAYS FROM RELATIVE DIFFUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, Markus; Mertsch, Philipp

    2015-12-10

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small-scale structure can naturally arise from cosmic ray scattering in local turbulent magnetic fields that distort a global dipole anisotropy set by diffusion. We study this effect in terms of the power spectrum of cosmic ray arrival directions and show that the strength of small-scale anisotropies is related to properties of relative diffusion. We provide a formalism for how these power spectra can be inferred from simulations and motivate a simple analytic extension of the ensemble-averaged diffusion equation that can account for the effect.

  4. Feedback of a small-scale magnetic dynamo.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, S V; Falkovich, G E; Galtier, S

    2001-01-01

    We develop a WKB approach to the rapid distortion theory for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with large magnetic Prandtl number. Within this theory, we study the growth of small-scale magnetic fluctuations in a large-scale velocity field being initially a pure strain. We show that the magnetic Lorentz force excites a secondary flow in the form of counterrotating vortices on the periphery of the magnetic spot. Those vortices slow down stretching of the magnetic spot and thus provide a negative feedback for a small-scale magnetic dynamo.

  5. Design for a small-scale fuel-alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1981-06-01

    The design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant 100 L/h (26.4 gal/h) of 95% (190 proof) ethanol is presented. The plant was designed and constructed using commercially available equipment. The object was to provide an energy efficiency and economical feasible reference design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The design requirements of the plant are presented. Each subsystem is described in detail. The systems discussed are feedstock handling and preparation; cooking and saccharification fermentation, distillation, and the automatic control system. Also discussed are test results, and costs.

  6. Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

  7. A continuing program for technology transfer to the apparel industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A six month program has been carried out to investigate various mechanisms for transferring technology to industry. This program has focused on transfer to the apparel industry through the Apparel Research Foundation. The procedure was to analyze the problem, obtain potentially relevant aerospace technology, and then transfer this technology to the industry organization. This was done in a specific case. Technology was identified relevant to stitchless joining, and this technology was transferred to the Apparel Research Foundation. The feasibility and ground rules for carrying out such activities on a broader scale were established. A specific objective was to transfer new technology from the industry organization to the industry itself. This required the establishment of an application engineering program. Another transfer mechanism tested was publication of solutions to industry problems in a format familiar to the industry. This is to be distinguished from circulating descriptions of new technology. Focus is on the industry problem and the manager is given a formula for solving it that he can follow. It was concluded that this mechanism can complement the problem statement approach to technology transfer. It is useful in achieving transfer when a large amount of application engineering is not necessary. A wide audience is immediately exposed to the technology. On the other hand, the major manufacturing problems which require a sophisticated technical solution integrating many innovations are less likely to be helped.

  8. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  9. Program of Studies: Industrial Arts: Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    The first part of the industrial arts curriculum guide provides brief descriptions of the program and course goals for grades K-12 and a one-page chart of program courses. Part 2 contains unit plans for grades 7-12 which provide unit descriptions, credit values, minimum class times, maximum students per class, prerequisites, and various unit…

  10. Strategies for Improving Compliance with Health Promotion Programs in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Behavioral, educational, and organizational methods for improving the degree to which workers comply with the objectives of industrial health promotion programs are discussed. Compliance can be enhanced through: (1) better program location and scheduling; (2) increased worker satisfaction; (3) use of psychological and educational techniques; and…

  11. Industrial R&D Program Evaluation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, David P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The history of research and development (R&D) and its evaluation within the 3M Company are traced as an example of the progression of the use of evaluation and evaluation techniques. Scoring methods, cost-benefit analysis, and risk analysis have been among the most frequently used program evaluation methods. (SLD)

  12. Automated small-scale fuel alcohol plant: A means to add value to food processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Keller, J.; Wernimont, L.P.

    1993-12-31

    A small scale fuel grade alcohol plant was designed, constructed and operated a decade ago. This plant design incorporated several innovative processes and features that are still on the cutting edge for small scale alcohol production. The plant design could be scaled down or up to match the needs of food processing waste streams that contain sugars or starches as BOD. The novel features include automation requiring four hours of labor per 24 hour day and a plug flow low temperature cooking system which solubilizes and liquifies the starch in one step. This plant consistently produced high yield of alcohol. Yields of 2.6 gallons of absolute alcohol were produced from a bushel of corn. Potato waste grain dust and cheese whey were also processed in this plant as well as barley. Production energy for a 190 proof gallon was approximately 32,000 BTU. This paper discusses the design, results, and applicability of this plant to food processing industries.

  13. Small-Scale H-alpha Jets in the Solar Chromosphere (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-15

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2011-0003 TP-2011-0003 SMALL-SCALE Hα JETS IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE (POSTPRINT) D. Kuridze, et al... Chromosphere (Postprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2301 D. Kuridze,* M...Sun: chromospheres , Sun: faculae, plages , Sun: photosphere, Sun: surface magnetism 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  14. Career Exploration in the Fashion Industry: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    The career exploration guide is the first of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. The series is intended to provide an information source for establishing, expanding, or evaluating secondary and adult vocational instructional programs related to the broad field of…

  15. Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

  16. On the Small-Scale Morphology of Asthenospheric Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, V.; Davaille, A.; Crambes, C.

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the interaction of small-scale cold instabilities dripping from a cooling lithosphere with a shear flow confined in the asthenosphere, using analog experiments. Rayleigh numbers ranged between 104 and 108. The fluids were either polymer solutions (constant viscosity), sugar or corn syrups (viscosity depending on temperature), or wax (phase transition). When cooling away from the ridge, the thickening lithosphere becomes thermally unstable and develops small-scale convective instabilities at its bottom. For sufficiently fast asthenospheric flow, these instabilities are sheared and remain trapped in the asthenosphere, following a helicoidal path aligned with the direction of plate motion. A phase diagram and scaling laws for the flow characteristics were determined. The observed helicoidal pattern could explain some geophysical observables such as small wavelength lineations in the terrestrial gravity field, or seismic anisotropy anomalies under the Pacific plate. Moreover, the distance from the ridge at which the small-scale instabilities form depends on the underlying mantle temperature: for a hotter mantle, they are generated closer to the ridge. Therefore, in the case of a ridge-centered plume, the hot temperature anomaly due to the plume triggers small-scale instabilities almost at the ridge. The heat transfer out of the mantle is accelerated, and the thickening of the lithosphere away from the ridge is delayed. Therefore, a groove at the bottom of the lithosphere may be expected along the track of a ridge-centred hotspot.

  17. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

    This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

  18. The Role of Leadership in Small Scale Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; DeBrot, David; Witney, Carol

    2015-01-01

    By investigating the factors facilitating and hindering a small scale educational change, this study highlights the crucial role of leadership in designing and implementing an educational change at a transnational university in Vietnam. During its initiation stage, the programme leaders seemed to fail to (1) set up a clear schedule for changing,…

  19. Design and operation of a small-scale ethanol still

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a small-scale alcohol still utilizing beer derived from both corn and potato mash. Use was made of the ethanol in alcohol vehicles imported from Brazil. By-products (stillage) were successfully used as cattle feed. (DMC)

  20. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, D.; Khlystova, A.; Abramenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  1. Shaping Component Leads for Small-Scale Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Simple tool makes it easy to bend leads of electronic components quickly and uniformly for assembly on circuit board. Useful in small-scale production of electronic circuits; saves labor but avoids cost of complicated machinery. Made in range of sizes to accommodate components in variety of dimensions.

  2. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  3. Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Ozone in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deanes, L. N.; Sadighi, K.; Casey, J. G.; Collier, A. M.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) can pose several health risks to humans, such as an increased number of and intensity of asthma attacks. Considering this, it is important that ozone levels are monitored. While municipal air quality monitors are present in cities like Boulder, Colorado, these monitors often only consider regional analysis, neglecting the variability of compounds, such as ozone or carbon monoxide, over smaller distances. Small-scale (approximately 1 kilometer) spatial variability in ozone is important because humans experience these small scales on a daily basis. Using low-cost, next-generation air quality monitors ("pods") developed at the University of Colorado-Boulder, we assessed small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone in Boulder, Colorado. This was done by placing clusters of 4-5 pods within approximately 1 kilometer of each other at specific sites in the city of Boulder. We collected data at two sites: one on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus (i.e., an urban site) and one outside of the city (i.e., a rural site). Pods were left in their positions for one to two weeks allowing for observation of ozone trends. As expected the typical diurnal trend was observed; however, further analysis revealed differences between these daily trends. Data collected by the pods allows for better understanding of small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone and how this may be driven by nearby sources.

  4. A Small-Scale Randomized Efficacy Trial of Carescapes: Enhancing Children's Social Development in Child Care Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Smolkowski, Keith; Marquez, Brion; Taylor, Ted K.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of the child care environment and caregiver practices can potentially have significant, lasting impact on children's social development. This study involves the development and a small-scale efficacy trial of the Carescapes program, a video-based training program that focuses on promoting positive social development in young children…

  5. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  6. Commercial/Industrial Activities Program: The Effect of Program Implementation at the Command Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    R,177 468 COMMERCIAL /INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM THE EFFECT OF 1/1 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION AT THE COMMAND LEVEL(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL...OLUTION 1ESI Chs,; o NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California rMl , MA. 0 3 1987 ,, THESIS V E COMMERCIAL /INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM: THE...block number) ED GROUP SUB-GROUP Commercial Activities; L Effective Implementation 9 ,BS’RAC’ (Continue on reverie if necessary ard ident, fy by block

  7. Automated disposable small scale reactor for high throughput bioprocess development: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Bareither, Rachel; Bargh, Neil; Oakeshott, Robert; Watts, Kathryn; Pollard, David

    2013-12-01

    The acceleration of bioprocess development for biologics and vaccines can be enabled by automated high throughput technologies. This will alleviate the significant resource burden from the multi-factorial statistical experimentation required for controlling product quality attributes of complex biologics. Recent technology advances have improved clone evaluation and screening, but have struggled to combine the scale down criteria required for both high cell density cell culture and microbial processes, with sufficient automation and disposable technologies to accelerate process development. This article describes the proof of concept evaluations of an automated disposable small scale reactor for high throughput upstream process development. Characterization studies established the small scale stirred tank disposable 250 mL reactor as similar to those of lab and pilot scale. The reactor generated equivalent process performance for industrial biologics processes for therapeutic protein and monoclonal antibody production using CHO cell culture, Pichia pastoris and E. coli. This included similar growth, cell viability, product titer, and product quality. The technology was shown to be robust across multiple runs and met the requirements for the ability to run high cell density processes (>400 g/L wet cell weight) with exponential feeds and sophisticated event triggered processes. Combining this reactor into an automated array of reactors will ultimately be part of a high throughput process development strategy. This will combine upstream, small scale purification with rapid analytics that will dramatically shorten timelines and costs of developing biological processes.

  8. Electron Precipitation Associated with Small-Scale Auroral Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, R.; Samara, M.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Hampton, D. L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from the Ground-to-Rocket Electrons Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket mission, where we combined high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging with high time-resolution precipitating electron measurements. The GREECE payload successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska on 03 March 2014 and reached an apogee of approximately 335 km. The narrow field-of-view auroral imaging was taken from Venetie, AK, which is directly under apogee. This enabled the small-scale auroral features at the magnetic footpoint of the rocket payload to be imaged in detail. The electron precipitation was measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) onboard the payload. Features in the electron data are matched up with their corresponding auroral structures and boundaries, enabling measurement of the exact electron distributions responsible for the specific small-scale auroral features. These electron distributions will then be used to infer what the potential electron acceleration processes were.

  9. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies. PMID:26503683

  10. Radar for small-scale land-use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1975-01-01

    Small-scale (1:250,000 and smaller) land-use maps are a major concern not only to geographers but also to national and regional planners. Unfortunately, such maps are usually out of date by the time they are printed. An interpretation key consisting of five physical and cultural characteristics of the environment evident on radar imagery is used to create land-use regions. Regions and borders interpreted from radar are compared with those found on two existing land-use maps created by traditional methods. Radar imagery can be used to create a small-scale land-use map with regions comparable to those found on existing land-use maps. However, the radar regions depict something more than land use and should be termed rural landscape regions.

  11. Design for a small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    The paper describes the small-scale fuel alcohol plant (SSFAT) which was designed as a small-scale chemical processing plant. The DOE publication, Fuel from Farms, set forth the basic design requirements. To lower operating costs, it was important that all the processes required to produce alcohol were integrated. Automated control was also an important consideration in the design to reduce the number of operators and operator time, thus reducing operating costs. Automated control also provides better quality control of the final product. The plant is presently operating in a test mode to evaluate operating characteristics. The discussion covers the following topics - design requirements; plan operations; fermentation; distillation; microprocessor control; automatic control; operating experience. 1 ref.

  12. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-12-05

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies.

  13. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  14. On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

  15. A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadman, Jason Markos

    Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated

  16. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  17. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-01-01

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  18. Program Operations and Curriculum Guide for Cooperative Industrial Education Programs in Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.

    This model program guide was developed to help cooperative industrial education (CIE) teacher coordinators (especially in Missouri) to develop a program of CIE. Topics covered in the 10 sections of the manual are as follows: (1) introduction to the CIE program; (2) role of the CIE teacher-coordinator; (3) instructional classification of the CIE…

  19. 75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office 32 CFR Part 2004 RIN 3095-AB34 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, NARA. ACTION.... This correction assigns a Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) number to the proposed rule...

  20. Developing Customized Programs for Steel and Other Heavy Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Philip R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Dundalk Community College's (DCC's) customized training programs for local industries. Looks at employment problems and outlook in Baltimore County, the development of a training agreement with Bethlehem Steel, the use of the Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process to develop skill profiles, and future directions. (DMM)

  1. Program Improvement Project for Industrial Education. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaeffer, Bruce W.

    Designed to improve industrial education programs through the development of minimum uniform quality standards, a project developed a task list, educationally sequenced the identified tasks, and developed a recommended shop layout and equipment list for four occupational areas: diesel repair, appliance repair, office machine repair, and small…

  2. Formation and evolution of small-scale solar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. A.

    2008-06-01

    In this thesis I investigate the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun. I observe the magnetic field in quiet sun regions in an effort to further understand the baseline magnetic field that exists throughout the photosphere at all phases of the solar cycle. An automated feature tracking algorithm that I helped develop allows me to systematically analyze datasets containing over 10 5 evolving magnetic features. In 1.2"-resolution Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetograms, I find that 30% of features identified by our algorithm originate without other detectable flux within 2.2 Mm. These features having an apparent unipolar origin account for 94% of the flux newly detected by the algorithm. I infer from their ensemble average that these features are actually previously existing flux, coalesced by surface flows into concentrations large and strong enough to detect. Flux coalescence is at least as important as bipolar ephemeral region emergence for introducing detectable flux into the photosphere, underscoring the importance of small-scale fields to the overall photospheric flux budget. Using 0.3"-resolution magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on the recently-launched Hinode spacecraft, I confirm that apparent unipolar emergence seen with MDI is indeed flux coalescence. I then demonstrate that apparent unipolar emergence seen in NFI magnetograms also corresponds to coalescence of previously existing weak field. The uncoalesced flux, detectable only in the ensemble average of hundreds of these events, accounts for 30-50% of the total flux within 3 Mm of the detected features. Finally, I study small-scale fields around intermediate-scale supergranular network concentrations. This is motivated by simulations and observations showing suppression of flux production by background magnetic fields at small and large scales. Within 12 Mm of the network concentrations, I find no evidence that the concentrations

  3. Motivational contracting in space programs - Government and industry prospectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has used incentive-free policies in contracting for Apollo's Saturn Launch vehicle hardware, as well as award-fee contracts for major development and early production programs in the case of the Space Shuttle Program. These programs have evolved to a point at which multiple incentive fees are useful in motivating cost reductions and assuring timely achievement of delivery requirements and flight mission goals. An examination is presently conducted of the relative success of these motivation-oriented techniques, drawing on the comments of both government and industry personnel.

  4. NASA and CD Radio's TDRSS industrial test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briskman, Robert D.; Hollansworth, James E.

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has embarked on a joint test program with CD Radio Inc. The program will demonstrate spatial diversity techniques in support of industrial development of a new satellite direct broadcast national radio service called Satellite Radio. Satellite Radio will operate in the FCC approved frequency band 2310-2360 MHz which is close to NASA's Tracking and Data Relay System (TDRSS) satellites' high power transmit frequency near 2110 MHz. The cooperative test program in which NASA provides use of a TDRSS satellite and CD Radio provides the measurement equipped vehicle is described as well as its current status. Some initial measurement data are presented.

  5. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  6. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  7. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  8. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann |

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  9. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color-color slope significance S ˜ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}˜ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ˜ 1.75σ and {cc}˜ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ˜ 1.59σ and {cc}˜ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  10. Small scale production of biofuels: a feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Geyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Current public policy fails to adequately address one of the most exigent concerns of the agricultural producer: the cost and availability of energy. Specifically, they are interested in energy production alternatives that are feasible and economic for implementation by smaller agricultural producers. After a extended review of much of the available popular and technical literature, as well as conducting interviews with numerous individuals knowledgeable in the field of alternative energy production, the Roosevelt-Custer Regional Council for Development has prepared this preliminary feasibility assessment on the small scale production of biofuels in North Dakota. The production of energy from renewable sources is not chimerical; it is reality. Currently, North Dakotan's rely on energy produced from agricultural products to run their automobiles and to heat their homes, as well as to dry the crops on which much of the North Dakota economy depends. Over the next 20 years, this reliance on renewable energy sources is expected to triple. Unfortunately, most of the processes currently used to produce these biofuels are not adaptable for use by the smaller producer/consumer. Today, economics simply preclude the small scale production of biofuels. A deplorable consequence of this lag between demand and technical feasibility is the appearance of the quick-buck consultant. These individuals have not limited their activities to North Dakota but, in fact, they have appeared over the length and breadth of this Nation. This report then is an assessment of the feasibility of producing biofuels in North Dakota by the small scale producer. Specific types of biofuels to be critiqued are: alcohol; vegetable oils; biogas/methane; and biomass briquettes.

  11. Small scale production of biofuels: a feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Geyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Current public policy fails to adequately address one of the most exigent concerns of the agricultural producer: the cost and availability of energy. Specifically, they are interested in energy production alternatives that are feasible and economic for implementation by smaller agricultural producers. After an extended review of much of the available popular and technical literature, as well as conducting interviews with numerous individuals knowledgeable in the field of alternative energy production, the Roosevelt-Custer Regional Council for Development has prepared this preliminary feasibility assessment on the small scale production of biofuels in North Dakota. The production of energy from renewable sources is not commerical; it is reality. Currently, North Dakotan's rely on energy produced from agricultural products to run their automobiles and to heat their homes, as well as to dry the crops on which much of the North Dakota economy depends. Over the next 20 years, this reliance on renewable energy sources is expected to triple. Unfortunately, most of the processes currently used to produce these biofuels are not adaptable for use by the smaller producer/consumer. Today, economics simply preclude the small scale production of biofuels. A deplorable consequence of this lag between demand and technical feasibility is the appearance of the quick-buck consultant. These individuals have not limited their activities to North Dakota but, in fact, they have appeared over the length and breadth of this nation. This report then is an assessment of the feasibility of producing biofuels in North Dakota by the small scale producer. Specific types of biofuels to be critiqued are: alcohol; vegetable oils; biogas/methane; and biomass briquettes.

  12. The Uses and Limits of Small-Scale Military Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    justi- fied, at least in some instances. U.S. strategy did not misapprehend the nature of the threat nor the nature of the tools required to respond...the rationale for such small-scale missions—what we in this volume call “minimalist stabilization”: American strategy was to “drain the swamp ” by...of any gains to American security far outweigh the benefits . . . . The world is full of “ swamps .” By all measures, they are grow- ing, not shrinking

  13. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. . Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Bringing analysis of gender and social-ecological resilience together in small-scale fisheries research: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kawarazuka, Nozomi; Locke, Catherine; McDougall, Cynthia; Kantor, Paula; Morgan, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    The demand for gender analysis is now increasingly orthodox in natural resource programming, including that for small-scale fisheries. Whilst the analysis of social-ecological resilience has made valuable contributions to integrating social dimensions into research and policy-making on natural resource management, it has so far demonstrated limited success in effectively integrating considerations of gender equity. This paper reviews the challenges in, and opportunities for, bringing a gender analysis together with social-ecological resilience analysis in the context of small-scale fisheries research in developing countries. We conclude that rather than searching for a single unifying framework for gender and resilience analysis, it will be more effective to pursue a plural solution in which closer engagement is fostered between analysis of gender and social-ecological resilience whilst preserving the strengths of each approach. This approach can make an important contribution to developing a better evidence base for small-scale fisheries management and policy.

  15. Impact of small scale fermentation technology on food safety in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Motarjemi, Yasmine

    2002-05-25

    Fermentation is one of the oldest technologies used for food preservation. Over the centuries, it has evolved and been refined and diversified. Today, a variety of food products is derived from this technology in households, small-scale food industries as well as in large enterprises. Furthermore, fermentation is an affordable food preservation technology and of economic importance to developing countries. In the report of an FAO/WHO Workshop (FAO/WHO, 1996), fermentation was reviewed and the nutritional and safety aspects of fermentation technologies and their products were assessed. Fermentation enhances the nutritional quality of foods and contributes to food safety particularly under conditions where refrigeration or other foods processing facilities are not available. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) studies of some fermented products have demonstrated that depending on the process and the hygienic conditions observed during preparation, some fermented foods, e.g. togwa prepared in Tanzania, may pose a safety risk. Fermented foods must therefore be studied following HACCP principles and small-scale food industries and households must be advised on the critical control points of fermentation processes and the control measures to be applied at these points. This paper reviews the risks and benefits of fermentation and demonstrates the application of the HACCP system to some fermented foods in developing countries.

  16. Intergenerational Wealth Transmission and the Dynamics of Inequality in Small-Scale Societies*

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Bowles, Samuel; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian; Beise, Jan; Clark, Greg; Fazzio, Ila; Gurven, Michael; Hill, Kim; Hooper, Paul L.; Irons, William; Kaplan, Hillard; Leonetti, Donna; Low, Bobbi; Marlowe, Frank; McElreath, Richard; Naidu, Suresh; Nolin, David; Piraino, Patrizio; Quinlan, Rob; Schniter, Eric; Sear, Rebecca; Shenk, Mary; Smith, Eric Alden; von Rueden, Christopher; Wiessner, Polly

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale human societies range from foraging bands with a strong egalitarian ethos to more economically stratified agrarian and pastoral societies. We explain this variation in inequality using a dynamic model in which a population’s long-run steady-state level of inequality depends on the extent to which its most important forms of wealth are transmitted within families across generations. We estimate the degree of intergenerational transmission of three different types of wealth (material, embodied, and relational) as well as the extent of wealth inequality in 21 historical and contemporary populations. We show that intergenerational transmission of wealth and wealth inequality are substantial among pastoral and small-scale agricultural societies (on a par with or even exceeding the most unequal modern industrial economies) and quite limited among horticultural and foraging peoples (equivalent to the most egalitarian of modern industrial populations). Differences in the technology by which a people derive their livelihood and in the institutions and norms making up the economic system jointly contribute to this pattern. PMID:19900925

  17. Intergenerational wealth transmission and the dynamics of inequality in small-scale societies.

    PubMed

    Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Bowles, Samuel; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian; Beise, Jan; Clark, Greg; Fazzio, Ila; Gurven, Michael; Hill, Kim; Hooper, Paul L; Irons, William; Kaplan, Hillard; Leonetti, Donna; Low, Bobbi; Marlowe, Frank; McElreath, Richard; Naidu, Suresh; Nolin, David; Piraino, Patrizio; Quinlan, Rob; Schniter, Eric; Sear, Rebecca; Shenk, Mary; Smith, Eric Alden; von Rueden, Christopher; Wiessner, Polly

    2009-10-30

    Small-scale human societies range from foraging bands with a strong egalitarian ethos to more economically stratified agrarian and pastoral societies. We explain this variation in inequality using a dynamic model in which a population's long-run steady-state level of inequality depends on the extent to which its most important forms of wealth are transmitted within families across generations. We estimate the degree of intergenerational transmission of three different types of wealth (material, embodied, and relational), as well as the extent of wealth inequality in 21 historical and contemporary populations. We show that intergenerational transmission of wealth and wealth inequality are substantial among pastoral and small-scale agricultural societies (on a par with or even exceeding the most unequal modern industrial economies) but are limited among horticultural and foraging peoples (equivalent to the most egalitarian of modern industrial populations). Differences in the technology by which a people derive their livelihood and in the institutions and norms making up the economic system jointly contribute to this pattern.

  18. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  19. A new statistical model of small-scale fluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmah, Deep; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2004-11-01

    A famous and still unsolved theoretical problem in fluid dynamics is related to the statistical description of small-scale (or subgrid ) turbulence in fluids [1,2]. As is well known, in fact, no physically consistent model, based on first principles, is yet available, which is able to cope with numerical (or laboratory) experiments in so-called non-asymptotic regimes. These are characterized locally by finite values of the the characteristic lengths and time scales of subgrid fluid-field fluctuations δ p, δ V, which result comparable in order, or at least not so small, with respect to the corresponding quantities for the average fields , . Purpose of this investigation is to propose a new statistical model of small-scale turbulence based on a consistent kinetic description of an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Predictions of the theory [3] will be presented with particular reference to small-amplitude fluctuations. References 1 - A.N.Kolgomorov, Dokl.Akad. Nauk. SSSR 32, 16 (1941). 2 - A.N.Kolgomorov, J.Fluid Mech.13, 82 (1962). 3 - D.Sarmarh and M.Tessarotto, to appear (2004).

  20. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  1. Effects of thermal inflation on small scale density perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sungwook E.; Lee, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Young Jae; Stewart, Ewan D.; Zoe, Heeseung E-mail: ohsk111@kaist.ac.kr E-mail: jcap@profstewart.org

    2015-06-01

    In cosmological scenarios with thermal inflation, extra eras of moduli matter domination, thermal inflation and flaton matter domination exist between primordial inflation and the radiation domination of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During these eras, cosmological perturbations on small scales can enter and re-exit the horizon, modifying the power spectrum on those scales. The largest modified scale, k{sub b}, touches the horizon size when the expansion changes from deflation to inflation at the transition from moduli domination to thermal inflation. We analytically calculate the evolution of perturbations from moduli domination through thermal inflation and evaluate the curvature perturbation on the constant radiation density hypersurface at the end of thermal inflation to determine the late time curvature perturbation. Our resulting transfer function suppresses the power spectrum by a factor 0∼ 5 at k >> k{sub b}, with k{sub b} corresponding to anywhere from megaparsec to subparsec scales depending on the parameters of thermal inflation. Thus, thermal inflation might be constrained or detected by small scale observations such as CMB distortions or 21cm hydrogen line observations.

  2. Interpreting chemical compositions of small scale basaltic systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Smith, Ian E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Small scale basaltic magmatic systems occur in all of the major tectonic environments of planet Earth and are characteristically expressed at the Earth's surface as fields of small monogenetic cones. The chemical compositions of the materials that make up these cones reflect processes of magma generation and differentiation that occur in their plumbing system. The volumes of magmas involved are very small and significantly their compositional ranges reveal remarkably complex processes which are overwhelmed or homogenized in larger scale systems. Commonly, compositions are basaltic, alkalic and enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, although the spectrum extends from highly enriched nephelinites to subalkalic and tholeiitic basalts. Isotopic analyses of rocks from volcanic fields almost always display compositions which can only be explained by the interaction of two or more mantle sources. Ultimately their basaltic magmas originate by small scale melting of mantle sources. Compositional variety is testament to melting processes at different depths, a range of melting proportions, a heterogeneous source and fractionation, magma mixing and assimilation within the plumbing system that brings magmas to the surface. The fact that such a variety of compositions is preserved in a single field shows that isolation of individual melting events and their ascent is an important and possibly defining feature of monogenetic volcanism, as well as the window their chemical behavior provides into the complex process of melt generation and extraction in the Earth's upper mantle.

  3. A small-scale extreme ultraviolet wave observed by SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, R.; Jiang, Y.; Hong, J.; Yang, J.; Bi, Y.; Yang, L.; Yang, D.

    2012-06-01

    "Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves" are large-scale wavelike transients often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this Letter, we present a possible detection of a fast-mode EUV wave associated with a mini-CME observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. On 2010 December 1, a small-scale EUV wave erupted near the disk center associated with a mini-CME, which showed all the low corona manifestations of a typical CME. The CME was triggered by the eruption of a mini-filament, with a typical length of about 30''. Although the eruption was tiny, the wave had the appearance of an almost semicircular front and propagated at a uniform velocity of 220-250km s-1 with very little angular dependence. The CME lateral expansion was asymmetric with an inclination toward north, and the southern footprints of the CME loops hardly shifted. The lateral expansion resulted in deep long-duration dimmings, showing the CME extent. Our analysis confirms that the small-scale EUV wave is a true wave, interpreted as the fast-mode wave.

  4. Suprathermal Charged Particle Acceleration by Small-scale Flux Ropes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.; le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We consider different limits of our recently developed kinetic transport theory to investigate the potential of super-Alvenic solar wind regions containing several small-scale flux ropes to explain the acceleration of suprathermal ions to power-law spectra as observations show. Particle acceleration is modeled in response to flux-rope activity involving contraction, merging (reconnection), and collisions in the limit where the particle gyoradius is smaller than the characteristic flux-rope scale length. The emphasis is mainly on the statistical variance in the electric fields induced by flux-rope dynamics rather than on the mean electric field induced by multiple flux ropes whose acceleration effects are discussed elsewhere. Our steady-state analytical solutions suggest that particle drift acceleration by flux ropes, irrespective of whether displaying incompressible or compressible behavior, can yield power laws asymptotically at higher energies whereas an exponential spectral rollover results asymptotically when field-aligned guiding center motion acceleration occur by reconnection electric fields from merging flux ropes. This implies that at sufficiently high particle energies, drift acceleration might dominate. We also expect compressive flux ropes to yield harder power-law spectra than incompressible flux ropes. Preliminary results will be discussed to illustrate how particle acceleration might be affected when both diffusive shock and small-scale flux acceleration occur simultaneously at interplanetary shocks.

  5. Design report: small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the report are to (a) provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and (b) provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small-scale fuel alcohol plant. This report describes a small-scale fuel alcohol plant designed and constructed for the DOE by EG and G Idaho, Inc., an operating contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant is reasonably complete, having the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention. Where possible, this document follows the design requirements established in the DOE publication Fuel From Farms, which was published in February 1980. For instance, critical requirements such as using corn as the primary feedstock, production of 25 gallons of 190 proof ethanol per hour, and using batch fermentation were taken from Fuel From Farms. One significant deviation is alcohol dehydration. Fuel From Farms recommends the use of a molecular sieve for dehydration, but a preliminary design raised significant questions about the cost effectiveness of this approach. A cost trade-off study is currently under way to establish the best alcohol dehydration method and will be the subject of a later report. Volume one contains background information and a general description of the plant and process.

  6. The Small-Scale Structure of Acceleration in Wall Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Kenneth T.; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2001-11-01

    Temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are measured in the streamwise--wall-normal plane of turbulent channel flow at Re_τ=547, 1133, and 1734 using a new technique called particle-image accelerometry. Pairs of temporally-resolved instantaneous velocity fields are acquired in rapid succession using a two-CCD-camera arrangement, and the associated instantaneous temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are computed numerically from this data. Advection of the small-scale vortices embedded within the flow dominates the small-scale behavior of the velocity time-derivative as noted in both the instantaneous rate-of-change fields as well as in the statistics of the temporal derivative. However, in a reference frame traveling with the vortices, a marked deceleration is present and represents the evolution of the flow. This large-scale deceleration is conjectured to be the dynamic influence of larger-scale vortices present further away from the wall on the smaller scale vortices present closer to the wall.

  7. Small-scale morphology across the surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, E.B.; Swayne, J.L.; Dingler, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Small-scale (< 5 m horizontal length) nearshore morphologic height variations were measured by combining CRAB surveys with bed elevations acquired with a 1 MHz sonic altimeter mounted on the CRAB during the October Phase of the DUCK94 experiment. Bedform plan views were recorded simultaneously using a 500 kHz side-scan sonar mounted on the CRAB. Waves and currents were measured at the same time. Significant temporal and spatial variations in the small-scale morphology were measured in response to changing waves and currents during the 2 weeks examined. Three cases are examined in detail: (1) mild waves and weak longshore currents resulting in wave ripples throughout the study area; (2) storm waves with strong longshore currents resulting in lunate and straight-crested mega-ripples in the trough of the barred beach; and (3) narrow-band, normally incident waves with a strong rip current resulting in a planar bed except in the throat of the rip where mega-ripples were measured. Wavenumber spectra of the bed were generally broad, indicating newly formed ripples coexisted with residual ripples from the past to form complex, multi-scaled ripple patterns.

  8. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver.

    PubMed

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-07

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and (125)I, (90)Y, (211)At, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (177)Lu, (131)I and (18)F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons ((125)I) or high-LET alpha particles ((211)At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  9. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  10. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.Y. |

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  11. First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

  12. Burlington industries' program proves worth of shift to coal

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, R.G.; O'Keefe, W.

    1981-11-01

    It is shown how reduction in both fuel cost and energy consumption comes from corporate planning, local initiative, skilled operation, and constant followup. Phased conversion to solid fuel has paid off for the company. Burlington Industries energy-management objectives, diversification of the corporation, and return to coal in three phases are described. Coal sampling, coal handling, steam generation, pollution control, and the training program are described.

  13. Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

  14. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01

    New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell

  15. Industrial hygiene programs for workers' health protection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cecchetti, G; Peruzzo, G F; Sordelli, D

    1988-06-01

    The recent Health and Safety Act devolves the management of workers' health protection to new local authorities named "Local Sanitary Units." The specific program is framed in the existing state regulations and is in agreement with European community politics regarding health risks arising from the industrial use of particular substances like lead, asbestos, benzene, PCBs and others. The rapid industrial growth during recent years put into evidence completely new and numerous risks with the result of both qualitative and quantitative modifications of occupational diseases which existed in the years preceding the second world war. This rapid and remarkable change required a general adjustment in the country, which involved universities, government and industry. At the same time, the need of new relationships between occupational risks and insurance management rose. Beginning in the seventies, the Italian Industrial Hygiene Association [Associazione Italiana Degli Igienisti Industriali (A.I.D.I.I.)] promoted the progress of industrial hygiene in Italy through national and international conferences, continuous educational activities and participation with government standard-setting committees. The trend in A.I.D.I.I. future activities embraces the development of standard evaluation and control procedures and the improvement of research following European guidelines in strict cooperation with correlated European and American organizations.

  16. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, H. Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Crittenden, Alyssa N.; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Fitzpatrick, Simon; Gurven, Michael; Henrich, Joseph; Kanovsky, Martin; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne; Scelza, Brooke A.; Stich, Stephen; von Rueden, Chris; Zhao, Wanying; Laurence, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Although these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence moral judgments. Although participants in all societies took such factors into account to some degree, they did so to very different extents, varying in both the types of considerations taken into account and the types of violations to which such considerations were applied. The particular patterns of assessment characteristic of large-scale industrialized societies may thus reflect relatively recently culturally evolved norms rather than inherent features of human moral judgment. PMID:27035959

  17. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Fessler, Daniel M T; Fitzpatrick, Simon; Gurven, Michael; Henrich, Joseph; Kanovsky, Martin; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne; Scelza, Brooke A; Stich, Stephen; von Rueden, Chris; Zhao, Wanying; Laurence, Stephen

    2016-04-26

    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Although these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence moral judgments. Although participants in all societies took such factors into account to some degree, they did so to very different extents, varying in both the types of considerations taken into account and the types of violations to which such considerations were applied. The particular patterns of assessment characteristic of large-scale industrialized societies may thus reflect relatively recently culturally evolved norms rather than inherent features of human moral judgment.

  18. The Implications of Industrial Management for the Administration of Industrial Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the functions and principles of industrial management, compares educational and industrial organization, and notes industrial management techniques applicable to industrial education administration. (MF)

  19. Small-scale lunar graben: Distribution, dimensions, and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Renee A.; Bina, Craig R.; Robinson, Mark S.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2015-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is the first instrument to provide widespread coverage with a range of incidence angles at the resolution required to detect small-scale landforms. A sample (n = 238) of globally distributed, small-scale graben average 26 m wide and 179 m long. When dividing the population into those located within mare and highland regions, we observe that graben located within mare tend to be narrower, shorter, and more irregularly spaced than those in highland terrane. For graben associated with contractional landforms, those in mare are smaller in width and length than those in highlands; the same is true for graben independent of contractional landforms. Assuming a simple geometry, widths of mare graben associated with scarps or ridges are used to estimate the minimum depth range to a mechanical discontinuity (e.g., base of the regolith) resulting in values of ∼4-48 m. These values are similar to the ranges estimated for regolith thickness from previous workers using Apollo 14 seismic data (3.9-8.5 m), crater counting techniques (8-33 m), crater morphology techniques (2.5-9 m), and crater blockiness (8-31 m). Widths of highland graben yield minimum depths of faulting of 209-296 m. While this range agrees well with models for regolith production (an older surface will have thicker regolith), this estimate likely does not represent the thickness of a mechanical unit due to the fragmented nature of the highland crust (it does not provide a defining boundary between bedrock and regolith). Spacing of mare graben not associated with contractional landforms is used to estimate maximum local mare unit thickness for two graben groups: 190 m for Posidonius and 296 m for Vitello. Maximum graben ages range from late Eratosthenian to early Copernican based on superposed and crosscut crater ages with a group of graben deforming ejecta from Copernicus crater. Data presented here provide further evidence of a globally distributed, young, small-scale

  20. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  1. The prevalence and correlates of occupational injuries in small-scale manufacturing enterprises.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Swanson, Naomi G; Fujioka, Yosei; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-09-01

    Workers involved in small-scale manufacturing businesses are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury. The present study investigated the prevalence and correlates of occupational injury in this population. A self-administered questionnaire that solicited answers about occupational information including injury, demographic characteristics, health conditions and lifestyle factors was collected from a sample of 1,298 workers in 228 small-scale manufacturing enterprises (defined as fewer than 50 workers) aged 16-78 (mean 46) yr in Yashio city, Saitama, Japan (response rate 65.5%). The enterprises were randomly selected from the 2000 edition of the city commercial directory corresponding to the distribution of types of businesses in the city. Occupational injury was assessed by asking subjects, ;Have you ever been injured during your work, including minor scratches and cuts in the previous 1-yr period?' The possible response was either ;yes' or ;no.' The prevalence of study-defined occupational injury among the workers was 35.6% (male 43.0%, female 17.9%). Among job types, manufacturing (44.2%) and driving (43.5%) had high rates of occupational injuries. Similarly, occupational injuries were high in the papermaking (54.5%) and machinery (47.7%) industries. For males, younger age, current or former smoking, insomnia symptoms, and disease(s) currently under treatment were correlated with injury, whereas for females, being unmarried, higher educational status, and insomnia symptoms were the correlating factors. Occupational injury is common among small-scale manufacturing businesses, and is associated with multiple controllable factors. Countermeasures such as prohibiting smoking during work, sleep health education, job safety training for young/inexperienced workers are appropriate methods for eliminating or reducing injuries.

  2. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  3. City of Newport, R.I. Industrial Pretreatment Program Recognized for Excellence

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Newport, R.I. Water Pollution Control Plant was recently selected by EPA for a 2014 Regional Industrial Pretreatment Program Excellence Award. The pretreatment program staff at the Newport facility, led by Industrial Pretreatment

  4. Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.

  5. Technology Overview and Assessment for Small-Scale EDL Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidrich, Casey R.; Smith, Brandon P.; Braun, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by missions to land large rovers and humans at Mars and other bodies, high-mass EDL technologies are a prevalent trend in the research community. In contrast, EDL systems for low-mass payloads have attracted less attention. Significant potential in science and discovery exists in small-scale EDL systems. Payloads acting secondary to a flagship mission are a currently under-utilzed resource. Before taking advantage of these opportunities, further developed of scaled EDL technologies is required. The key limitations identified in this study are compact decelerators and deformable impact systems. Current technologies may enable rough landing of small payloads, with moderate restrictions in packaging volume. Utilization of passive descent and landing stages will greatly increase the applicability of small systems, allowing for vehicles robust to entry environment uncertainties. These architectures will provide an efficient means of achieving science and support objectives while reducing cost and risk margins of a parent mission.

  6. Determining the Products of Inertia for Small Scale UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzetti, Joseph S.; Banuelos, Leonel C.; Clarke, Robert; Murillo, Oscar J.; Bowers, Albion H.

    2017-01-01

    Moments of inertia and products of inertia often need to be determined for aircraft. As complex bodies, their mass properties need to be determined experimentally for best accuracy. While several moment of inertia experimental techniques have been developed, there are few to determine the products of inertia. Products of inertia can be easily determined mathematically if the angle between the aircraft x body axis and principal x axis is known. This method finds the principal inclination angle by mathematically correlating the measured moments of inertia about a range of axes of the aircraft. This correlation uses a least squares error minimization of a mathematical model that describes the ellipse of inertia in the aircraft's x-z axes plane. Results from a test conducted on a small scale UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center is also presented, which is an example of the intended application of this technique.

  7. Microbial inoculants for small scale composting of putrescible kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Nair, J; Okamitsu, K

    2010-06-01

    This research looked at the need for ligno-cellulolytic inoculants (EM bacteria and Trichoderma sp.) in small to medium scale composting of household wastes. A mixture of household organic waste comprised of kitchen waste, paper, grass clippings and composted material was subjected to various durations of thermo composting followed by vermicomposting with and without microbial inoculants for a total of 28days. The results revealed that ligno-celluloytic inoculants are not essential to speed up the process of composting for onsite small scale household organic waste treatment as no significant difference was observed between the control and those inoculated with Trichoderma and EM in terms of C:N ratio of the final product. However, it was observed that EM inoculation enhanced reproductive rate of earthworms, and so probably created the best environment for vermicomposting, in all treatment groups.

  8. Formation control for a network of small-scale robots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonsoo

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a network of small-scale robots (typically centimeter-scale robots) equipped with artificial actuators such as electric motors is considered. The purpose of this network is to have the robots keep a certain formation shape (or change to another formation shape) during maneuvers. The network has a fixed communication topology in the sense that robots have a fixed group of neighbors to communicate during maneuvers. Assuming that each robot and its actuator can be modeled as a linear system, a decentralized control law (such that each robot activates its actuator based on the information from its neighbors only) is introduced to achieve the purpose of formation keeping or change. A linear matrix inequality (LMI) for deriving the upper bound on the actuator's time constant is also presented. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the merit of the introduced control law.

  9. Small-Scale Performance Testing for Studying New Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, F J; Chambers, R D; Tran, T D

    2005-04-29

    The development of new high-explosive (HE) formulations involves characterizing their safety and performance. Small-scale experiments requiring only a small amount of explosives are of interest because they can facilitate development while minimizing hazards and reducing cost. A detonation-spreading, dent test, called the Floret test, was designed to obtain performance data for new explosives. It utilizes the detonation of about a 1.0 g sample of HE, initiated by an accelerated aluminum flyer. Upon impact, the HE sample detonates and a copper witness plate absorbs the ensuing shock wave. The dent of the plate is then measured and correlated to the energetic output of the HE. Additionally, the dent measurement can be used to compare the performance of different explosives. The Floret test is beneficial because it quickly returns important performance information, while requiring only a small explosive sample. This work will explain the Floret test and discuss some exemplary results.

  10. Small-Scale Variability in Warm Continental Cumulus Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, P. H.; Baker, M. B.; Blyth, A. M.; Jensen, J. B.

    1985-06-01

    We have analyzed small-scale fluctuations in microphysical, dynamical and thermodynamical parameters measured in two warm cumulus clouds during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) project (1981) in light of predictions of several recent models. The measurements show the existence at all levels throughout the sampling period of two statistically distinct kinds of cloudy regions, termed `variable' and `steady,' often separated by transition zones of less than ten meters. There is some evidence for microphysical variability induced by local fluctuations in thermodynamic and dynamic parameters; however, the predominant variations are of a nature consistent with laboratory evidence suggesting that mixing is dominated by large structures. Entrainment appears to occur largely near cloud top but the data presented here do not permit identification of a mechanism for transport of the entrained air throughout the cloud.

  11. CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

    The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

  12. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (small-scale volcanoes were not intensely studied for a long time due to a lack of high-resolution data enabling their proper identification; however their existence and basic characteristics were predicted on theoretical grounds. Streams of new high-resolution images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade

  13. Evolving Flare Ribbon Small-Scale Substructure: A Second Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roegge, Alissa; Brannon, Sean

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary analysis on imaging and spectroscopic observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of the evolution of the flare ribbon in the SOL2014-06-22T13:08 B-class flare event, at high spatial resolution and time cadence. IRIS is a solar observation satellite containing a high frame rate ultraviolet imaging spectrometer. This work continues the work started in Brannon et al 2015 by searching for small-scale substructure within flare ribbons, which manifest themselves as coherent quasiperiodic oscillations in both position and Doppler velocities. Using IRIS observations from October 2013 to June 2016, we selected candidate observations on the basis of physical characteristics, Si IV intensity, and shift in doppler velocity. In addition to our preliminary analysis and images, we present our techniques that can be used to find further observations also containing the periodic oscillations, and other small-substructure.

  14. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  15. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    A series of tests has been completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method cold be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  16. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of tests was completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method could be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  17. Design for a small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    This article describes how operating costs were lowered by integrating all the alcohol-producing processes in a facility designed for the US DOE as a chemical processing plant. Typical minimum DOE requirements for a fuel alcohol plant operated by a single owner or small cooperative include: the plant must continuously produce 100 L (26.4 gal) of ethanol per hour; plant products must be 190 proof ethanol and wet stillage for animal feed; and required operator time shall be limited to 4 hours per 24-hour day including both normal operation and routine preventive maintenance. Presents diagram of small-scale fuel alcohol plant and table with design requirements and test results. Topics covered include fermentation and saccharification; distillation; by-product dewatering; and plant costs and start-up schedule.

  18. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

  19. Robust attitude tracking control of small-scale unmanned helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiafu; Chen, You; Lu, Geng; Zhong, Yisheng

    2015-06-01

    Robust attitude control problem for small-scale unmanned helicopters is investigated to improve attitude control performances of roll and pitch channels under both small and large amplitude manoeuvre flight conditions. The model of the roll or pitch angular dynamics is regarded as a nominal single-input single-output linear system with equivalent disturbances which contain nonlinear uncertainties, coupling-effects, parameter perturbations, and external disturbances. Based on the signal compensation method, a robust controller is designed with two parts: a proportional-derivative controller and a robust compensator. The designed controller is linear and time-invariant, so it can be easily realised. The robust properties of the closed-loop system are proven. According to the ADS-33E-PRF military rotorcraft standard, the controller can achieve top control performances. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  20. Alternative Bioenergy: Small Scale Pellet Production from Forest Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Audra S.

    Forests can readily supply feedstock for alternative bioenergy production. Feedstock removal has the potential to benefit forest health and provide ecosystem services, while also generating profit for landowners, contractors and forest managers. However, many landowners are faced with the challenge of managing forest residuals to meet slash compliances and fire regulations. Currently, most residuals are burned or left on site to decompose. Every year, the north-central Idaho region produces over 16 million dry tons of unutilized forest residues. In a time where alternative energy sources are growing in demand, new approaches to utilize these residuals for bioenergy production are being examined. One approach is a portable, small-scale wood pellet mill that can be taken directly to the logging site. Utilizing forest residues for pellet production reduces residue burning and its potential negative impacts on air quality. This presentation focuses on the quality of wood pellets manufactured by a portable wood pellet mill utilizing various forms of forest residuals.

  1. Evaluation of the TSI small-scale powder disperser

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.T.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Fan, Bijian

    1994-11-01

    Several dry powder generators, including the Wright-dust-feed, the fluidized-bed, the venturi tube, and the jet-o-mizer systems, have been used for inhalation toxicity studies involving relatively high concentrations of aerosols. For fundamental laboratory studies, however, a powder generator that can produce a limited quantity of test aerosol is more practical than a system that generates high concentrations. The TSI small-scale powder disperser (SSPD) is a low flow rate, low mass output generator that uses venturi aspiration through a capillary tube to remove particles from the surface of a turntable, like a vacuum cleaner. The particles are then deagglomerated in a venturi throat and an expansion cone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the SSPD by investigating the effects of flow rate, particle size, and particle shape on the generation efficiency and internal losses.

  2. NASA industry education initiative. Education programs report, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Findings from the initial inventory of education programs show that support for the NASA-Industry Education Initiative (NIEI) appears to be strong among the organizations surveyed. In addition, the range, depth and historical baselines of NIEI education programs are encouraging. It is also apparent that there is a significant level of cooperation between NIEI members and other organizations. Heavily focused towards science, engineering, mathematics and technology achievement, NIEI activities appear to be aligned with national education goals. Three criticisms are revealed: (1) the majority of programs are targeted fairly late in the education cycle; (2) the number of initiatives geared towards adult literacy and adult skills-enhancement appears to be relatively low; (3) the majority of NIEI activities involve traditional education-assistance programs, but the number of critical assessment and systematic reform initiatives is low. Four Working Group recommendations resulted from this activity: (1) NIEI Working Group operations should continue for an indefinite period, with participation open to other like-minded private-sector organization; (2) the report should be periodically updated; (3) an analysis of ongoing education programs should be conducted; (4) American corporations should continue to support education and evaluate in-house programs periodically.

  3. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J F

    1981-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  4. Small-Scale Variability of Large Cloud Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Y.; Wiscombe, Warren

    2004-01-01

    Cloud droplet size distribution is one of the most fundamental subjects in cloud physics. Understanding of spatial distribution and small-scale fluctuations of cloud droplets is essential for both cloud physics and atmospheric radiation. For cloud physics, it relates to the coalescence growth of raindrops while for radiation, it has a strong impact on a cloud's radiative properties. Most of the existing cloud radiation and precipitation formation models assume that the mean number of drops with a given radius varies proportionally to volume. The analysis of microphysical data on liquid water drop sizes shows that, for sufficiently small volumes, the number is proportional to the drop size dependent power of the volume. For abundant small drops present, the exponent is 1 as assumed in the conventional approach. However, for rarer large drops, the exponents fall below unity. At small scales, therefore, the mean number of large drops decreases with volume at a slower rate than the conventional approach assumes, suggesting more large drops at these scales than conventional models account for; their impact is consequently underestimated. Size dependent models of spatial distribution of cloud drops that simulate the observed power laws show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents. The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. Current theories of photon-cloud interaction and warm rain formation will need radical revision in order to produce these statistics; their underlying equations are unable to yield the observed power law.

  5. Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects. PMID:15314048

  6. Work Ethic of Prison Inmates Who Participate in Correctional Industries Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Timothy J.

    A study examined the relationship between correctional industry work experience and the work ethic of the inmate workers assigned to certain Florida correctional industry programs. Inmate workers (n=369) assigned to three of PRIDE Enterprises's correctional industry programs were participants. These industries were selected for the study:…

  7. Office of Industrial Technologies: Summary of program results

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Working in partnership with industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) is helping reduce industrial energy use, emissions, and waste while boosting productivity. Operating within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), OIT conducts research, development, demonstration, and technology transfer efforts that are producing substantial, measurable benefits to industry. This document summarizes some of the impacts of OIT`s programs through 1997. OIT tracks energy savings as well as other benefits associated with the successfully commercialized technologies resulting from OIT-supported research partnerships. Specifically, a chart shows current and cumulative energy savings as well as cumulative reductions of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The bulk of the document consists of four appendices. Appendix 1 describes the technologies currently available commercially, along with their applications and benefits; Appendix 2 describes the OIT-supported emerging technologies that are likely to be commercialized within the next year or two; Appendix 3 describes OIT-sponsored technologies used in commercial applications in the past that are no longer tracked; and Appendix 4 describes the methodology used to assess and track OIT-supported technologies.

  8. The “We Card” Program: Tobacco Industry “Youth Smoking Prevention” as Industry Self-Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    The “We Card” program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry “youth smoking prevention” program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

  9. Use of stakeholder analysis to inform risk communication and extension strategies for improved biosecurity amongst small-scale pig producers.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, M; Gilmour, J; Schembri, N; Sysak, T; Holyoake, P K; Beilin, R; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2012-05-01

    Extension and communication needs amongst small-scale pig producers, described as pig producers with less than 100 sows, have been previously identified. These producers, who are believed to pose a biosecurity risk to commercial livestock industries, are characterized by a lack of formal networks, mistrust of authorities, poor disease reporting behaviour and motivational diversity, and reliance on other producers, veterinarians and family for pig health and production advice. This paper applies stakeholder identification and analysis tools to determine stakeholders' influence and interest on pig producers' practices. Findings can inform a risk communication process and the development of an extension framework to increase producers' engagement with industry and their compliance with biosecurity standards and legislation in Australia. The process included identification of stakeholders, their issues of concerns regarding small-scale pig producers and biosecurity and their influence and interest in each of these issues. This exercise identified the capacity of different stakeholders to influence the outcomes for each issue and assessed their success or failure to do so. The disconnection identified between the level of interest and influence suggests that government and industry need to work with the small-scale pig producers and with those who have the capacity to influence them. Successful biosecurity risk management will depend on shared responsibility and building trust amongst stakeholders. Flow-on effects may include legitimating the importance of reporting and compliance systems and the co-management of risk. Compliance of small-scale pig producers with biosecurity industry standards and legislation will reduce the risks of entry and spread of exotic diseases in Australia.

  10. Dynamic cross-flow filtration: enhanced continuous small-scale solid-liquid separation.

    PubMed

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, a small-scale dynamic filtration device (SFD) was analyzed and the basic mechanisms governing the filtration process were characterized. The present work aims at improving the device's performance in terms of actual production. Various operation modes were tested in order to increase permeate flow and concentration factors (CF), while maintaining a fully continuous production mode. Both, a vacuum-enhanced and a pulsating operation mode, proved to be superior to the currently implemented open-operation mode. For example, for lactose, an increase of the CF could be achieved from 1.7 in open mode to 7.6 in pulsating operation mode. The investigated operation strategy enables process control systems to rapidly react to fluctuating feeds that may occur due to changes in upstream manufacturing steps. As a result, not only filtration performance in terms of permeate rate but also process flexibility can be significantly increased. Overall, vacuum-enhanced operation was shown to be most promising for integration into an industrial environment. The option to elevate achievable concentration factors, ease of flow monitoring as well as the ability to react to changes in the feed conditions allow for effective and efficient continuous small-scale filtration.

  11. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    PubMed

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products.

  12. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July...

  13. 77 FR 68104 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...-Economic Profile of Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... socio-economic data about small scale fishermen and seafood dealers operating in the U.S. Caribbean. The...-economic performance of small- scale fleets, and evaluate the socio-economic impacts of Federal...

  14. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes)…

  15. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo

    Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number

  16. The Holyoke Industrial Energy Conservation And Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaufler, Edward R.; Bateman, Robert H.; Connor, Frederick J.

    1982-03-01

    An innovative approach to the development of a model system for comprehensive industrial sector thermographic investigations and inspections will be taken during the winter of 1981-82 in Holyoke, MA. Infrared thermography techniques will be utilized for cost effective identification of building and process heat losses. The Holyoke program provides for a wide range of energy conservation services and will result in the implementation of no-cost, low-cost, and cost-effective capital intensive measures financed through a cooperative effort of government and private funding.

  17. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  18. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  19. The NIST radioactivity measurement assurance program for the radiopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B

    2012-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) maintains a program for the establishment and dissemination of activity measurement standards in nuclear medicine. These standards are disseminated through Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), Calibration Services, radionuclide calibrator settings, and the NIST Radioactivity Measurement Assurance Program (NRMAP, formerly the NEI/NIST MAP). The MAP for the radiopharmaceutical industry is described here. Consolidated results show that, for over 3600 comparisons, 96% of the participants' results differed from that of NIST by less than 10%, with 98% being less than 20%. Individual radionuclide results are presented from 214 to 439 comparisons, per radionuclide, for (67)Ga, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (99)Mo, (111)In, (125)I, (131)I, and (201)Tl. The percentage of participants results within 10% of NIST ranges from 88% to 98%.

  20. Mapping small-scale mantle heterogeneities using seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentham, H. L.; Rost, S.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to detect and locate the small scale (~10 km) structure of the Earth. In the mantle, small scale structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is essential in our understanding of mechanical mixing processes within mantle convection. As subducted crust is chemically distinct from the background mantle, imaging the remains of the crust provides a tracer for convectional flow. Evidence for heterogeneities has been found in the lower mantle in previous seismology studies but the arrivals associated with such heterogeneities are difficult to detect in the seismic data as they are typically low amplitude and are often masked by a multitude of larger amplitude arrivals. In this study we find global and regional seismic heterogeneities in the mantle by processing teleseismic earthquake data through array seismology methods. We find global patterns of heterogeneity using a stacking approach. To locate regional heterogeneities, we target the "quiet" window prior to the PP arrival for earthquakes with epicentral distances of 90-110°. Within this time window, we enhance the weak coherent energy that arrives off great circle path by calculating the observed directivity (slowness and backazimuth) and using a semblance weighted beampower measure. We use the directivity and travel times of suitable precursors to back-trace the energy to the origin of P-to-P reflections, using a 1D raytracer. Most of the P-to-P reflections that we observe have reflection origins in the upper/mid mantle. Beneath the western Pacific subduction zones, such reflections show a good correlation with subduction zone contours that are derived from subduction zone seismicity, and correlate well with tomography gradients of 0.01-0.5% per degree, interpreted as the edge of the slab. Deep mantle reflections (>600 km) are also observed to depths of ~1900 km. The locations of these heterogeneities are combined with previous seismological

  1. Small Scale Landscape Evolution: Rainfall Simulations On High Precision Dtms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, F.; Moretti, S.

    Processes characterizing the evolution of relief have recently been recognized as hav- ing scaling properties both in their physical behavior and in their effects on the shape of landscape. Sophisticated evolutionary models have been devised so far, which takes also into account fractal properties, self-similarity and self-organized criticality, espe- cially in the organization of river networks inside catchments. Despite these efforts, which are generally successful from a theoretical point of view, few attempts have been made to actually test these hypotheses in the field. This is due mainly to the dif- ficulties connected with the practical realization of suitable physical models as well as with the problem of the time scale of such processes when dealing with whole river basins. This paper, that presents experimental data on the geometric and morphometric evolution of small scale soil parcels after simulated cycles of rainfall, could contribute to partially fill this gap giving insight on the spatial patterns of newly formed valleys and ridges as well as on the most stable geomorphological configurations. Starting from chosen parcels on crops or bare soils in central Italy, rainfall simulations have been undertaken over repeating cycles of storms. At the beginning of the experiment and after each event, a high resolution DTM of the parcel was automatically generated by means of a recently developed digital stereo-photogrammetric ground-based tech- nique. At the same time, sediment yield and runoff were measured. All the studied parcels were initially characterized by the absence of an internal channel system. Ini- tial topographies could basically be considered as random space functions with quasi- isotropic distribution of the elevations. Each DTM sequence can thus be regarded as an example of channel building process, from sheet flow erosion to the convergence and intersection of small flows to the full development of the surface, with a system of valleys and

  2. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  3. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-22

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  4. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  5. IMPACTS. Industrial Technologies Program: Summary of Program Results for CY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-02

    The Impacts report summarizes benefits resulting from ITP-sponsored technologies, including energy savings, waste reduction, increased productivity, and lowered emissions. It also provides an overview of the activities of the Industrial Assessment Centers, BestPractices Program, and Combined Heat and Power efforts.

  6. Medical surveillance and programs on industrial hygiene at RCRA facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.E.

    1994-12-31

    Some special areas where much progress in industrial hygiene and safety has been made in the past few years are; training, personal protective equipment, uniforms, personal monitoring, area monitoring, and medical surveillance. Before one can begin to construct programs for worker protection, some knowledge of potential exposures must be gained. The best place to start is the Waste Analysis Plan, and the list of wastes that a particular site is authorized to receive. Waste Codes are listed within a facility`s Part A and Part B permits. Actual facility receipt of wastes are well documented within Load Records and other documentation. A facility`s training program forms the heart of a health and safety program. Every TSD facility should have developed a matrix of job titles and required training. Every facility must also make a commitment to providing a wide range of personal protective equipment, including a wide array of disposables. Some facilities will benefit from the occasional use of the newer respirator quantitative fit-testing devices. All facilities are urged to rent or borrow this type of equipment periodically. Quantitative respirator fit-testers are capable of revealing important deficiencies in a respirator program. Providing uniforms is a newer means of protecting workers. The use of uniforms is an effective means for addressing the idea of carry-home-waste. The use of disposables including boots, must be integrated into a Uniform Program if the program is to be effective. In addition, employees must strictly understand that uniforms must not leave the facility at any time, including lunch time.

  7. Family planning programs in industrial establishments: an operations research study.

    PubMed

    Cabigon, J; Magsino, E

    1993-01-01

    An operations research study in the Philippines sought to uncover determinants of the sustainability of employment-based family planning (FP) programs offered in industrial settings where the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD) had provided assistance in implementing Responsible Parenthood/FP-Maternal Health (RP/FP-MH) Programs. Qualitative data were gathered through observations and interviews with the target population and with company management and program implementers. Based on this study, the following recommendations were made: 1) training outputs should be echoed to employees immediately; 2) RP/FP-MCH team members should be recruited from each level of the work force; 3) an appropriate IEC (information, education, and communication) strategy should be devised to respond to the short time-frame in which employees can participate; 4) team-building training should be incorporated as a regular activity early in the contract period; 5) sectoral targeting should be used within a given company; 6) training programs should be designed for each of the three types of team members and should overlap the basic topics; 7) teamwork and mutual assistance should be encouraged; 8) the work of the teams should be rewarded; 9) commendable initiative of liaison officers should be sustained; 10) representatives of the PCPD should maintain a close relationship with the teams through PCPD staff visits to the companies; 11) management requires more intensive orientation on the RP/FP-MH program; 12) PCPD support should be withdrawn gradually until the companies are able to sustain the program themselves; 13) it may be helpful to require a company to meet rigid criteria in order to take part in the PCPD project; 14) OR should be continued; and 15) the concept and practice of quality of care should be introduced to service delivery and training of staff and motivators.

  8. Adult Literacy: Industry-Based Training Programs. Research and Development Series No. 265C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Ernest L.; And Others

    Nine industry-based adult literacy programs across the country were studied to identify exemplary training programs and practices that business and industry trainers, planners, and policymakers and individuals in the public education sector alike could replicate in designing adult literacy programs. Training programs offered by the following…

  9. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection. PMID:26808261

  10. The small-scale turbulent dynamo in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricco, T. S.; Price, D. J.; Federrath, C.

    2016-05-01

    Supersonic turbulence is believed to be at the heart of star formation. We have performed smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of the small- scale dynamo amplification of magnetic fields in supersonic turbulence. The calculations use isothermal gas driven at rms velocity of Mach 10 so that conditions are representative of starforming molecular clouds in the Milky Way. The growth of magnetic energy is followed for 10 orders in magnitude until it reaches saturation, a few percent of the kinetic energy. The results of our dynamo calculations are compared with results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and their qualitative behaviour. The simulations utilise the latest algorithmic developments we have developed, in particular, a new divergence cleaning approach to maintain the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field and a method to reduce the numerical dissipation of the magnetic shock capturing scheme. We demonstrate that our divergence cleaning method may be used to achieve ∇ • B = 0 to machine precision, albeit at significant computational expense.

  11. Performance of small-scale tidal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J. A.; Smachlo, M. A.

    1983-12-01

    Small-scale tidal power plants - having electric power between 1 and 100 MW, approximately - possess several attractive economic and environmental benefits. The dynamical behavior of such systems is calculated in terms of dimensionless variables and parameters, so that the size of the system is inconsequential (except for one parameter related to the slope of the walls of the tidal basin). Two measures of system performance are defined: capacity factor (ratio of average to rated power) and effectiveness (ratio of average to ideal tidal power). It was found that improving both parameters is mutually incompatible so that an economic analysis will determine the optimum values of the system design and performance parameters. The effects of variation of tidal range and basin shape were determined. Using typical variable flow properties of low-head hydroturbines, a favorable design head could be determined from the analysis. It was found that the change in the area of the intertidal zone relative to the surface area of the tidal pond is greater for small, as compared to large, systems, possibly leading to proportionately greater environmental effects. A comparison of the performance of several tidal power plant designs with the methodology of this paper showed generally good agreement with the dimensionless performance parameters and only a modest difference among them over several orders of magnitude in size of power plant.

  12. Small-Scale Thermal Violence Cook Off Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Malcolm; Curtis, John; Stennett, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The Small-Scale thermal Violence Test (SSVT) is designed to quantify the violence (explosiveness) of test materials by means of observing the velocity history of a metal burst disk that forms one end of a strong thick-walled cylindrical test vehicle. A copper heating block is placed to the rear of, but in contact with, the sample and provides sealing. The difference in thermal conductivity between copper and steel is sufficient that thermal runaway is induced near to the explosive / copper interface in an unlagged test. A series of experiments has been made, in which explosive specimens were confined and heated to explosion. A high-accuracy velocity measurement system was used to record the motion of the bursting disk. These experiments have shown that the early-time motion of the bursting disk corresponds qualitatively to the onset of thermal explosion and growth of reaction within the explosive specimens. However, the velocity history traces are more complex than had been anticipated. In particular, unexplained shoulders were observed in the Phase-Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) data. Some preliminary modelling studies have been carried out in order to shed light on the complex shapes of the projectile velocity histories.

  13. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a “water-tight” barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell–cell connections, cell–matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis. PMID:26903872

  14. Dynamic properties of small-scale solar wind plasma fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Riazantseva, M O; Budaev, V P; Zelenyi, L M; Zastenker, G N; Pavlos, G P; Safrankova, J; Nemecek, Z; Prech, L; Nemec, F

    2015-05-13

    The paper presents the latest results of the studies of small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent flow of solar wind (SW) using measurements with extremely high temporal resolution (up to 0.03 s) of the bright monitor of SW (BMSW) plasma spectrometer operating on astrophysical SPECTR-R spacecraft at distances up to 350,000 km from the Earth. The spectra of SW ion flux fluctuations in the range of scales between 0.03 and 100 s are systematically analysed. The difference of slopes in low- and high-frequency parts of spectra and the frequency of the break point between these two characteristic slopes was analysed for different conditions in the SW. The statistical properties of the SW ion flux fluctuations were thoroughly analysed on scales less than 10 s. A high level of intermittency is demonstrated. The extended self-similarity of SW ion flux turbulent flow is constantly observed. The approximation of non-Gaussian probability distribution function of ion flux fluctuations by the Tsallis statistics shows the non-extensive character of SW fluctuations. Statistical characteristics of ion flux fluctuations are compared with the predictions of a log-Poisson model. The log-Poisson parametrization of the structure function scaling has shown that well-defined filament-like plasma structures are, as a rule, observed in the turbulent SW flows.

  15. Small scale turbulence and the finite Reynolds number effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonia, R. A.; Djenidi, L.; Danaila, L.; Tang, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    Failure to recognize the importance of the finite Reynolds number effect on small scale turbulence has, by and large, resulted in misguided assessments of the first two hypotheses of Kolmogorov ["Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible fluid for very large Reynolds numbers," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 299-303 (1941)] or K41 as well as his third hypothesis [A. N. Kolmogorov, "A refinement of previous hypotheses concerning the local structure of turbulence in a viscous incompressible fluid at high Reynolds number," J. Fluid Mech. 13, 82-85 (1962)] or K62. As formulated by Kolmogorov, all three hypotheses require local isotropy to be valid and the Reynolds number to be very large. In the context of the first hypothesis, there is now strong evidence to suggest that this requirement can be significantly relaxed, at least for dissipative scales and relatively low order moments of the velocity structure function. As the scale increases, the effect of the large scale motion on these moments becomes more prominent and higher Reynolds numbers are needed before K41 and K62 can be tested unambiguously.

  16. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a "water-tight" barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell-cell connections, cell-matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis.

  17. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  18. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    PubMed

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-03

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone.

  19. Mapping small-scale vegetation changes in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Kevin M.; Lulla, Kemlesh; Venugopal, Gopalan

    1993-01-01

    This research attempts to map small-scale vegetation changes in Mexico. Forty-eight weeks of coarse resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a digitized climax vegetation map, land cover samples from space shuttle photographs and actual vegetation samples were used as inputs. Principal components analyses and a clustering algorithm were applied to the NDVI data to generate a single layer that was stratified by the climax vegetation zones map. The purpose is to create a new layer that differentiates climax vegetation (hypothesized potential vegetation) from non-climax vegetation land covers. One of the keys to developing a present-day vegetation map was differentiating intrazone land covers based on the stratification; as great as 75% of the sampled land cover types differed from the climax vegetation. The present-day vegetation map achieved 80% classification accuracy when calculated from available ground reference data. About 55% of the temperate zones and 37% of the tropical zones were found to contain original climax vegetation. Most changes coincide with areas of major agricultural activity.

  20. Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

    2012-11-01

    This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

  1. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  2. Observations of How Magnetofluid Turbulence Dissipates at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Sahraoui, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent magneto fluid that can be studied intensively at multiple scales. Investigations using single spacecraft have revealed much about the properties of the solar wind throughout the heliosphere (from 0.3 AU to 100 AU). More recently, data from multiple spacecraft have provided further details of both the statistical properties of the turbulence and its small-scale structure. In particular, high time resolution magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecrafl have led to the conclusion that at spatial scales of order the proton inertial length and smaller, the turbulence becomes strongly anisotropic and the power in fluctuations that are perpendicular to the (local) magnetic field is measured to be much larger than that in fluctuations that are parallel to the magnetic field. As the spatial scales approach the electron inertial length, the power is almost completely dissipated. Various analysis techniques and theoretical ideas have been put forward to account for the properties of those measurements. The talk will describe the current state of observations, theory and simulations.

  3. Some features of the small-scale solar wind fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zastenker, G.; Eiges, P.; Avanov, L.; Astafyeva, N.; Zurbuchen, Th.; Bochsler, P.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated small-scale variations of the solar wind ion flux measured with Faraday cups onboard the Prognoz-8 satellite. These measurements have a high time resolution of 1.24 seconds for intervals with a duration of several hours and as high as 0.02 seconds for some periods of about 1 hour duration. The main goal of this work is the determination of the quantitative features of fast ion flux fluctuations using mainly spectral analysis but also other methods. We also identify their association with interplanetary plasma parameters. Particularly, it is shown that the slope of the power spectra in the frequency range from 1E-4 to 6E-2 Hz is close to the classical Kolmogorov (-5/3) law. We also discuss some intervals with a very high level of the relative amplitude of flux fluctuations (10-20 percent) which were observed near the Earth's bow shock in the foreshock region. The use of the wavelet method for the long time series allows us to study the temporal evolution of power spectra.

  4. A Small-Scale Safety Test for Initiation Components

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, J; Chow, C; Chau, H; Hodgin, R; Lee, R

    2002-04-22

    We have developed a small-scale safety test for initiation train components. A low-cost test was needed to assess the response of initiation components to an abnormal shock environment and to detect changes in the sensitivity of initiation components as they age. The test uses a disk of Detasheet to transmit a shock through a PMMA barrier into a the test article. A schematic drawing of the fixture is shown. The 10-cm-diameter disk of 3-mm-thick Detasheet, initiated at its center by a RISI, RP detonator, produces a shock wave that is attenuated by a variable-thickness PMMA spacer (gap). Layers of metal and plastic above the test article and the material surrounding the test article may be chosen to mock up the environment of the test article at its location in a warhead. A metal plate at the bottom serves as a witness plate to record whether or not the test article detonated. For articles containing a small amount of explosive, it can be difficult to determine whether or not a detonation has occurred. In such cases, one can use a pressure transducer or laser velocimeter to detect the shock wave from the detonation of the article. The assembly is contained in a 10-cm-ID section of PVC pipe and fired in a containment vessel rated at 100 g. Test results are given for a hemispherical, exploding-bridgewire (EBW) detonator.

  5. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernando P; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection.

  6. On-farm characteristics and biosecurity protocols for small-scale swine producers in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Schembri, N; Hernandez-Jover, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2015-01-01

    (by the industry and/or authorities; 18.5%). Up to three-quarters of all producers maintained an open breeding herd, regularly introducing new pigs to the main herd. Saleyards are an important source of income for backyard and small-scale producers as well as an important risk factor for the introduction and dissemination of endemic and emerging animal diseases. Differing management and biosecurity practices as well as the motivations of these producers keeping pigs in small numbers and trading pigs at saleyards need to be taken into account in the development of successful biosecurity extension programmes for this sector of the Australian pork industry.

  7. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  8. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  9. Challenges with minimising mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector: experiences from the Guianas.

    PubMed

    Hilson, Gavin; Vieira, Rickford

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the barriers to mitigating mercury pollution at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas (Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname), and prescribes recommendations for overcoming these obstacles. Whilst considerable attention has been paid to analysing the environmental impacts of operations in the region, minimal research has been undertaken to identify appropriate policy and educational initiatives for addressing the mounting mercury problem. Findings from recent fieldwork and selected interviews with operators from Guyanese and Surinamese gold mining regions reveal that legislative incapacity, the region's varied industry policy stances, various technological problems, and low environmental awareness on the part of communities are impeding efforts to facilitate improved mercury management at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas. Marked improvements can be achieved, however, if legislation, particularly that pertaining to mercury, is harmonised in the region; educational seminars continue to be held in important mining districts; and additional outlets for disseminating environmental equipment and mercury-free technologies are provided.

  10. Determining Small Scale Albedos Using High Resolution Multiangle Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowski, G. R.; Davies, R.

    2005-05-01

    Current satellite short-wave (SW) albedo measurements, such as CERES's, have only a broad spatial resolution and cannot by themselves accurately measure reflectance (roughly solar "forcing") on small space and time scales. The major difficulty is that earth's surface reflectivity, including the atmosphere and clouds, is substantially anisotropic. However, accurate regional and time-dependent albedos are needed for studying causes of climate variability and change, and improving models from global to at least cloud resolving scales. A first step to obtain these albedos, for which we show results, is to accurately relate (and verify) the high resolution spatial and angular surface narrow-band MISR (Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer) radiance measurements aboard the Terra satellite to coincident total shortwave broadband (SWB) low resolution measurements from the onboard CERES instrument. Because MISR measures radiance of the same points along an orbital swath, it becomes possible to check and improve Angular (reflection) Distribution Models (ADMs) at small scales (< 1 km). The ADMs can later be used to invert a measured angular radiance to a local albedo. The difficulty lies in obtaining accurate ADMs for earth's highly varied surface and lighting conditions. We show prediction accuracy examples of CERES SWB vs. single and multiple band MISR data regressions. We include view angle dependence (9 angles: nadir plus 26, 46, 60, and 70 degrees fore and aft) and show improved accuracy when surface data, e.g., solar zenith and scattering angle, and surface type are included. In many cases, we predict angular (bidirectional) reflectance to ~ 0.01, or about 10 watts/sq m in irradiance. We also show examples of "difficult" scene types, such as varying levels of broken clouds, where accuracy degrades by a factor of ~2.

  11. Small-scale thermal studies of volatile homemade explosives

    DOE PAGES

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Kirsten F.; ...

    2016-01-26

    Several homemade or improvised explosive mixtures that either contained volatile components or produced volatile products were examined using standard small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing that employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques (constant heating rate and standard sample holders). KClO3 and KClO4 mixtures with dodecane exhibited different enthalpy behavior when using a vented sample holder in contrast to a sealed sample holder. The standard configuration produced profiles that exhibited only endothermic transitions. The sealed system produced profiles that exhibited additional exothermic transitions absent in the standard configuration produced profiles. When H2O2/fuel mixtures were examined, the volatilization of the peroxide (endothermic)more » dominated the profiles. When a sealed sample holder was used, the energetic releases of the mixture could be clearly observed. For AN and AN mixtures, the high temperature decomposition appears as an intense endothermic event. Using a nominally sealed sample holder also did not adequately contain the system. Only when a high-pressure rated sample holder was used the high temperature decomposition of the AN could be detected as an exothermic release. The testing was conducted during a proficiency (or round-robin type) test that included three U.S. Department of Energy and two U.S. Department of Defense laboratories. In the course of this proficiency test, certain HMEs exhibited thermal behavior that was not adequately accounted for by standard techniques. Further examination of this atypical behavior highlighted issues that may have not been recognized previously because some of these materials are not routinely tested. More importantly, if not recognized, the SSST testing results could lead to inaccurate safety assessments. Furthermore, this study provides examples, where standard techniques can be applied, and results can be obtained, but these results may be misleading in establishing

  12. Large- and Small-Scale Ring Current Electrodynamic Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2003-01-01

    In this talk we will address the two primary issues of ring current (RC) electrodynamic coupling: 1. RC self-consistent magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling that includes calculation of the magnetospheric electric field (large scale electrodynamic coupling); and 2. RC self-consistent coupling with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves (small scale electrodynamic coupling). Our study will be based on two RC models that we have recently developed in our group. The first model by Khazanov et al. [2002] couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation which describes the RC ion dynamics and another equation which describes the energy density evolution of EMIC waves. The second model by Khazanov et al. [2003] deals with large scale electrodynamic coupling processes and provides a self-consistent simulation of RC ions and the magnetospheric electric field. There is presently no model that addresses both of these issues simultaneously in a self-consistent calculation. However, the need exists for such a model, because these two processes directly influence each other, with the mesoscale coupling changing the drift paths of the thermal and energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere, thereby changing the wave interactions, and the microscale coupling altering the pitch angle distributions and ionospheric conductivities (through increased precipitation), thus changing the field-aligned currents and electric potential structure. The initial thrust of the work will be the development of a combined kinetic model of micro- and meso-scale RC electrodynamic coupling processes and to examine their interactions with each other on a global scale.

  13. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum

  15. Small-scale thermal studies of volatile homemade explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Kirsten F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2016-01-26

    Several homemade or improvised explosive mixtures that either contained volatile components or produced volatile products were examined using standard small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing that employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques (constant heating rate and standard sample holders). KClO3 and KClO4 mixtures with dodecane exhibited different enthalpy behavior when using a vented sample holder in contrast to a sealed sample holder. The standard configuration produced profiles that exhibited only endothermic transitions. The sealed system produced profiles that exhibited additional exothermic transitions absent in the standard configuration produced profiles. When H2O2/fuel mixtures were examined, the volatilization of the peroxide (endothermic) dominated the profiles. When a sealed sample holder was used, the energetic releases of the mixture could be clearly observed. For AN and AN mixtures, the high temperature decomposition appears as an intense endothermic event. Using a nominally sealed sample holder also did not adequately contain the system. Only when a high-pressure rated sample holder was used the high temperature decomposition of the AN could be detected as an exothermic release. The testing was conducted during a proficiency (or round-robin type) test that included three U.S. Department of Energy and two U.S. Department of Defense laboratories. In the course of this proficiency test, certain HMEs exhibited thermal behavior that was not adequately accounted for by standard techniques. Further examination of this atypical behavior highlighted issues that may have not been recognized previously because some of these materials are not routinely tested. More importantly, if not recognized, the SSST testing results could lead to inaccurate safety assessments. Furthermore, this study provides examples, where standard techniques can be applied, and results can be obtained, but these results

  16. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  17. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  18. Joint Explorations Program. A Supplement to Home Economics/Industrial Arts 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Joint Explorations Program for Home Economics/Industrial Arts, middle years, is a guide and support document related to the curriculum guides for Home Economics 7-9, and Industrial Arts 7-9. Developed as part of the overall revision of the Home Economics and Industrial Arts programs for the junior high schools of Manitoba, the guide provides…

  19. Employer-Employee Relations. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package. LAP 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Herbert G.; Chernenko, Walter

    This learning activity package, one of six intended for use in Industrial Cooperative Training Programs, is designed to aid students in developing a good employer-employee relationship by gaining the kinds of worker traits sought by employers. (The industrial cooperative training program provides industrial occupational training experience for…

  20. Emerging technology from the DOE industrial heat pump program

    SciTech Connect

    Plaster, D.S.; Chappell, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    In 1976 a program was established to develop industrial heat pumps that could recover waste energy from and return it to the same process. Three research and development projects support that objective: A waste-heat-powered, steam-compression system was developed. This system, powered by a waste-heat-driven turbine, extracts 34.7 million Btu/h from dirty steam at 25 psia to produce 20.9 million Btu of clean steam per hour at 40 psia. A high-temperature Rankine system was developed with methanol as the working fluid. This system, powered by a 2500-hp electric motor, extracts 24.3 million Btu/h from dirty steam at 25 psia to produce 30 million Btu of clean steam per hour at 78 psia. A Brayton cycle solvent-recovery system was developed. This system recovers solvents from airstreams in drying ovens, restores the heat of vaporization to the airstream, and returns the solvent-free air to the drying ovens. The manufacturers began testing prototypes of all three systems in 1983. Testing of the MTI prototype is complete; the other two prototypes are presently in testing. The systems will be ready for installation at other industrial sites during 1984.

  1. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    SciTech Connect

    Butez, Marc; Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent; Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo; Beguin, Stephane

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  2. An Industry Program for Managing PWSCC of Closure Head Penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, Larry K.

    2002-07-01

    The Alloy 600 Issues Task Group of the EPRI managed Materials Reliability Program initiated an industry program to address the generic aspects of the Alloy 182 weld cracking in the A hot leg nozzle weld at V. C. Summer in December 2000. The generic affects of the recent cracks in the Alloy 600 Control Rod Drive Module (CRDM) and thermocouple (T/C) nozzles at Oconee 1 in November 2000 would also be included. This need for a concerted industry effort for head penetrations was further emphasized by the discovery of similar cracking at Arkansas Nuclear One (ANO) Unit 1 and the other two Oconee units during early 2001. Prior to the experiences at Oconee and ANO, there had been only one reported case of a through wall crack in a penetration at Bugey 3 in France in 1991. The predominant form of PWSCC cracking discovered in the Alloy 600 nozzles between 1991 and the recent events had been axial cracks initiated on the inner surface of the penetration tubes. This type of cracking had been addressed through an industry program in response to Generic Letter 97-01, and included a series of lead plant inspections which were being carried out over several years. Most of the cracks at Oconee and ANO 1, however, appeared to originate on the outside surface of the stub of the penetration tube extending below the J-groove weld, or in the weld itself. Circumferential cracking above the nozzle attachment weld was discovered on four nozzles at two of the Oconee units. During inspections in the Fall 2001 outages, additional leaking or cracked nozzles were discovered at several other plants. The models that had been used to rank the susceptibility of the plants to ID initiated flaws needed revision to account for the new phenomena. Additionally, the presence of circumferential cracks above the attachment weld presented the potential safety concerns of rod ejection and small break LOCA. Also, the NDE techniques that had been developed and qualified for the ID initiated flaws would be

  3. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three

  4. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky

  5. Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop

  6. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  7. Small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Beck, Christian; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Context. The chromosphere above sunspot umbrae and penumbrae shows several different types of fast dynamic events such as running penumbral waves, umbral flashes, and penumbral microjets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. Methods: High-resolution broadband filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We identified the jets in the Ca ii H images using a semi-automatic routine and determined their length and orientation. We applied local correlation tracking (LCT) to the G-band images to obtain the photospheric horizontal velocity field. The magnetic field topology was derived from a Milne-Eddington inversion of a simultaneous scan with the Spectropolarimeter. Results: The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure that is bright against the dark umbral background. Most of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of the jets have lengths between 1000-1600 km. The jets are oriented within ±35° to the normal of the spine of the light bridge. Most of them are clustered near the central part of the light bridge within a 2'' area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and many of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily located on one side of the light bridge and are directed into the umbral core. The Stokes profiles at or close to the location of the blobs on the LB exhibit both a significant net circular polarization and multiple components, including opposite-polarity lobes. The magnetic field diverges from the light bridge towards the umbral cores that it separates. The LCT reveals that in the photosphere there is a predominantly uni-directional flow with

  8. Small-scale soil moisture determination with GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of topsoil moisture distribution is an important input for modelling water flow and evapotranspiration which are essential processes in hydrology, meteorology, and agriculture. All these processes involve non-linear effects and thus the small-scale variability of input parameters play an important role. Using smoothed interpolations instead can cause significant biases. Lateral soil moisture distribution can be sensed by different techniques at various scales whereby geophysical methods provide spatial information which closes the gap between point measurements by classical soil scientific methods and measurements on the field or regional scale by remote sensing. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to explore soil moisture on the field scale as propagation of electromagnetic waves is correlated to soil water content. By determining the velocity of the ground wave, which is a guided wave travelling along the soil surface, we can sense soil water content. This method has been applied to determine topsoil moisture for several years. We present a new groundwave technique which determines the velocity in between two receiving antennas which enables a higher lateral resolution (approx. 10 cm) compared to classical groundwave technique (half meter and more). We present synthetic data from finite-differences (FD) calculations as well as data from a sandbox experiment carried out under controlled conditions to demonstrate the performance of this method. Further, we carried out field measurements on two sites on a sandy soil which is used as grassland. The measurements were carried out in late summer at dry soil conditions. Soil moisture on the first site shows an isotropic pattern with correlation lengths of approx. 35 cm. We think this natural pattern is governed by rout distribution within the soil and the water uptake of vegetation. On the second site, soil moisture distribution shows a regular stripe pattern. As the land has been used as

  9. "Free Training": Special For-Industry State-Subsidized Job Training Programs in Two States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Robert

    Tailored-for-industry programs like South Carolina's Special Schools and Minnesota's New Jobs raise questions concerning the effectiveness of such programs in creating jobs and their influence on future local and national education policy. Almost every state has a subsidized for-industry program which trains workers for new or expanding industries…

  10. Alabama Industrial Technician Education Cooperative Demonstration Program (I-TEC). Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John M. Patterson State Technical Coll., Montgomery, AL.

    A cooperative demonstration program between industry (General Electric) and education (John Patterson State Technical College, Alabama) designed and conducted a training program and competency assessment for individuals entering high technology positions related to industrial production in Alabama. The program was designed to develop employees as…

  11. Asbestos-induced lung disease in small-scale clutch manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Gothi, Dipti; Gahlot, Tanushree; Sah, Ram B.; Saxena, Mayank; Ojha, U. C.; Verma, Anand K.; Spalgais, Sonam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The crocidolite variety of asbestos is banned. However, chrysotile, which is not prohibited, is still used in developing countries in making products such as clutch plate. Fourteen workers from a small-scale clutch plate-manufacturing factory were analyzed for asbestos-induced lung disease as one of their colleagues had expired due to asbestosis. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of workers, the prevalence and type of asbestos-induced lung disease, and the sensitivity and specificity of diffusion test. Materials and Methods: History, examination, chest radiograph, spirometry with diffusion, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) thorax was performed in all the workers. The diagnosis of asbestos-induced lung disease was suspected on the basis of HRCT. This was subsequently confirmed on transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). Results: None of the workers had detailed information about asbestos and its ill effects. Eleven out of 14 (71.42%) workers had asbestos-induced lung disease. All 11 had small airway disease (SAD). Three had SAD alone, 6 had additional interstitial lung disease (ILD), and 2 patients had additional ILD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sensitivity and specificity of residual volume (RV) or total lung capacity (TLC) for detecting SAD was 90% and 100%, respectively, and that of diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) for detecting ILD was 100%. Conclusion: The awareness about asbestos in small-scale clutch-plate manufacturing industry is poor. The usage of chrysotile should be strictly regulated as morbidity and mortality is high. DLCO and RV/TLC are sensitive and specific in detecting nonmalignant asbestos induced lung disease. PMID:28194083

  12. Development of a Small Scale BIGGT Power Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-02

    cotton gin trash, SERDP 8 Western Regional Biomass Energy Program 16. PRICE CODE N/A 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19...by the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program. INTRODUCTION The most economically promising path for supplying electrical and thermal power to...we could never have completed an uneventful 24 hour run. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The U.S. Department of Energy’s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program

  13. Micrometer accuracy method for small-scale laser focal spot centroid measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zhiwei; Wang, Xin; Ba, Dexin; Zhu, Chengyu

    2015-03-01

    The measurement of the centroid of small-scale laser focal spot is one of the most promising technologies for small-scale laser focal spot precise positioning. A method of two-dimensional scanning with CCD has been conducted to precisely measure the centroid of the small-scale laser focal spot (diameter in microns) by obtaining the change curve for gray value. The theoretical analysis is consistent with the experimental results.

  14. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program: A government overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    LaRC, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work was performed by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program was made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  15. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: A government overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1993-01-01

    NASA-Langley, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work has been done by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program has been made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  16. Entering Industry: A Case Study of Links between a School Vocational Program and the Building and Construction Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anthea

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have tracked youth transition beyond the immediate post-school period or have looked at the longer-term outcomes of post-school programs. This study reports the findings of a case study investigating links between an industry-specific school vocational education and training (VET) program and subsequent work transitions to the building…

  17. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    develop into potholes; - Although in general the natural infiltration of the terrains surrounding the roads is sufficient, in some road sections water from adjacent sloping terrain brings extra water on the road; - A thin cover of leaves on the footpaths and road sections with low car traffic improves the infiltration in the road, and reduces the run-off to other the road sections to nearly zero. Leaves along the roadside also help to retard and reduce the run-off over the roads. However leaves on or along the road are not tolerated by most inhabitants, the roads need to be 'clean'. Our conclusion: Each dirt road is unique, but also within one dirt road there are important geological differences that have consequences for its maintenance. Knowledge of geodiversity of the terrain and study of small-scale erosion processes can help to improve the management of dirt roads. References Gemeente Ede, Nota Zandwegen, 2009.

  18. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  19. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  20. Sustained Energy Savings Achieved through Successful Industrial Customer Interaction with Ratepayer Programs: Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Amelie; Hedman, Bruce; Taylor, Robert P.; Russell, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Many states have implemented ratepayer-funded programs to acquire energy efficiency as a predictable and reliable resource for meeting existing and future energy demand. These programs have become a fixture in many U.S. electricity and natural gas markets as they help postpone or eliminate the need for expensive generation and transmission investments. Industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is an energy efficiency resource that is not only a low cost option for many of these efficiency programs, but offers productivity and competitive benefits to manufacturers as it reduces their energy costs. However, some industrial customers are less enthusiastic about participating in these programs. IEE ratepayer programs suffer low participation by industries across many states today despite a continual increase in energy efficiency program spending across all types of customers, and significant energy efficiency funds can often go unused for industrial customers. This paper provides four detailed case studies of companies that benefited from participation in their utility’s energy efficiency program offerings and highlights the business value brought to them by participation in these programs. The paper is designed both for rate-payer efficiency program administrators interested in improving the attractiveness and effectiveness of industrial efficiency programs for their industrial customers and for industrial customers interested in maximizing the value of participating in efficiency programs.

  1. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects. Guidelines for Planning Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    This document was developed in response to the need for simplified technical information for planning environmentally sound small-scale projects in third world countries. It is aimed specifically at those who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects in less-developed areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The guidelines included in…

  2. Small-Scale Evaluation of the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Throughout 2007, an evaluation the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP), a mobile water treatment techno...

  3. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  4. Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1993-01-01

    The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

  5. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 20, 2013 from 10:00...

  6. Tools for Schools. Defense Industrial Reserve Loan Program. Public Law 93-155, 93rd Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Logistics Agency (DOD), Memphis, TN.

    This brochure describes the "Tools for Schools" Loan Program and includes guidelines for preparation of an application for a loan of industrial manufacturing equipment from the Defense Industrial Reserve (DIR). The first section is in question-and-answer form and describes the program through which equipment from DIR may be loaned to any…

  7. Mobile Training Laboratories, Mobile Equipment and Programs Offered in Business or Industry. Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Raymond L.

    A literature review and telephone survey examined the following alternate methods for delivering vocational education services: mobile training laboratories, mobile training programs, training programs offered by educational institutions in business and industry facilities, and equipment loaned or supplied as a gift by business and industry for…

  8. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting will be open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  9. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access procedures, the name and telephone... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2012 from 10:00...

  10. Benefits of Strategic Small-Scale Targeted Screening.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is a key technology platform for the discovery of chemical probes and identification of potential drug leads. Once mainly found in industry, HTS is now an integral component of a significant number of academic basic and translational research enterprises. Although the allure of large-scale diversity set-based HTS is substantive, the inherent costs associated with this type of screening strategy are steep and often yield suboptimal return on investment. Perhaps more appealing, and potentially more rewarding, are smaller scale screening strategies using targeted libraries coupled with assays with high-physiological relevance. These "high-physiocontextual"-targeted library screening paradigms, in turn, may have significant impact on the quality of chemical probes and ensuing drug discovery efforts.

  11. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operator attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2 %) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit. This environmentally acceptable and cost effective coal-fired AFBC system is targeted for industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications in the 5 x 10{sup 6} to 10 X 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger beat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agriculture, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes).

  12. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

  13. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry

  14. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  15. Industrial demand-side management programs: What`s happened, what works, what`s needed

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.A.; Nadel, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    In order to analyze experience to date with industrial demand-side management (DSM), a survey of utilities was conducted and a database of industrial DSM programs was prepared. More than eighty utilities and third-party organizations were interviewed. Data were collected via phone, fax, and/or mail from the utilities and entered into a database. In order to limit the scope of this study, the database contains incentive-based, energy-saving programs and not load management or information-only programs (including technical assistance programs). Programs in the database were divided into four categories: two ``prescriptive rebate`` categories and two ``custom rebate`` categories. The database contains 31 incentive-based, energy-saving industrial DSM programs offered by 17 utilities. The appendix to this report summarizes the results approximately 60 industrial DSM programs. Most of the programs included in the appendix, but not in the database, are either C&I programs for which commercial and industrial data were not disaggregated or new industrial DSM programs for which data are not yet available.

  16. Injury Risk Factors in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana's Upper East Region.

    PubMed

    Long, Rachel N; Sun, Kan; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-07-24

    Occupational injury is one of many health concerns related to small-scale gold mining (ASGM), but few data exist on the subject, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011 and 2013, we examined accidents, injuries, and potential risk factors in a Ghanaian ASGM community. In 2011, 173 participants were surveyed on occupational history and health, and 22 of these were surveyed again in 2013. Injury rates were estimated at 45.5 and 38.5 injuries per 100 person-years in 2011 and in 2013, respectively; these rates far surpass those of industrialized mines in the U.S. and South Africa. Demographic and job characteristics generally were not predictive of injury risk, though there was a significant positive association with injury risk for males and smokers. Legs and knees were the most common body parts injured, and falling was the most common cause of injury. The most common type of injuries were cuts or lacerations, burns and scalds, and contusions and abrasions. Only two miners had ever received any occupational safety training, and PPE use was low. Our results suggest that injuries should be a priority area for occupational health research in ASGM.

  17. Autonomous Guidance of Agile Small-scale Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Bernard; Feron, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a guidance system for agile vehicles based on a hybrid closed-loop model of the vehicle dynamics. The hybrid model represents the vehicle dynamics through a combination of linear-time-invariant control modes and pre-programmed, finite-duration maneuvers. This particular hybrid structure can be realized through a control system that combines trim controllers and a maneuvering control logic. The former enable precise trajectory tracking, and the latter enables trajectories at the edge of the vehicle capabilities. The closed-loop model is much simpler than the full vehicle equations of motion, yet it can capture a broad range of dynamic behaviors. It also supports a consistent link between the physical layer and the decision-making layer. The trajectory generation was formulated as an optimization problem using mixed-integer-linear-programming. The optimization is solved in a receding horizon fashion. Several techniques to improve the computational tractability were investigate. Simulation experiments using NASA Ames 'R-50 model show that this approach fully exploits the vehicle's agility.

  18. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  19. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Training PhD Physicists for Industrial Careers: The Industrial Leadership in Physics Program at Georgetown University.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keuren, Edward

    2009-03-01

    The Physics department at Georgetown University has a unique PhD level graduate program designed to prepare PhD physicists for positions in high-tech business. Launched in 2001, the Industrial Leadership in Physics (ILP) graduate program combines training in technical subjects and business topics with a focus on group learning, communication skills, and practical work experience. Some highlights of the program include a modular curriculum in fundamental physics, centered on solid-state physics, instrumentation, problem solving and computer modeling; a year-long apprenticeship at the site of an industrial partner chosen to match the interests of the student and coursework in the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown. This presentation will give an overview of the program.

  1. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  2. Apiculture de Petite Eschelle (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This French-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in French-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  3. La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  4. Exposure of Small-Scale Gold Miners in Prestea to Mercury, Ghana, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Ebenezer Kofi; Afari, Edwin; Wurapa, Frederick; Sackey, Samuel; Quainoo, Albert; Kenu, Ernest; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Small-scale gold miners in Ghana have been using mercury to amalgamate gold for many years. Mercury is toxic even at low concentration. We assessed occupational exposure of small-scale gold miners to mercury in Prestea, a gold mining town in Ghana. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we collected morning urine samples from 343 small-scale gold miners and tested for elemental mercury. Data on small-scale gold miner's socio-demographics, adverse health effects and occupational factors for mercury exposure were obtained and analyzed using SPSS Version 16 to determine frequency and percentage. Bivariate analysis was used to determine occupational factors associated with mercury exposure at 95% confidence level. Results The mean age of the small-scale gold miners was 29.5 ±9.6 years, and 323(94.20%) were males. One hundred and sixty (46.65%) of the small-scale gold miners had urine mercury above the recommended exposure limit (<5.0ug/L). Complaints of numbness were significantly associated with mercury exposure among those who have previously worked at other small-scale gold mines (χ2=4.96, p=0.03). The use of personal protective equipment among the small-scale gold miners was low. Retorts, which are globally recommended for burning amalgam, were not found at mining sites. Conclusion A large proportion of small-scale gold miners in Prestea were having mercury exposure in excess of occupational exposure limits, and are at risk of experiencing adverse health related complications. Ghana Environmental Protection Agency should organize training for the miners. PMID:28210374

  5. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  6. EMERGENCE OF THE KENNICUTT-SCHMIDT RELATION FROM THE SMALL-SCALE SFR-DENSITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Fujimoto, Yusuke

    2014-05-20

    We use simulations of isolated galaxies with a few parsec resolution to explore the connection between the small-scale star formation rate (SFR)-gas density relation and the induced large-scale correlation between the SFR surface density and the surface density of the molecular gas (the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation). We find that, in the simulations, a power-law small-scale ''star formation law'' directly translates into an identical power-law Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. If this conclusion holds in the reality as well, it implies that the observed approximately linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relation must reflect the approximately linear small-scale ''star formation law''.

  7. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

  8. Unit-Credit Titles under Program Headings, Directory. Technology Education: Vocational Industrial, Industrial Arts, Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

    This directory lists the unit-credit titles of the technology education courses offered in Manitoba, along with their corresponding department codes and course numbers. Sections A through C list the unit-credit titles of the following vocational-industrial clusters: heavy industrial (agriculture, auto body repair, building construction, building…

  9. Options on Roles, Organization, and Programs of the Private Industry Council. Private Industry Council Training Series: 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook, developed by the National Alliance of Business, is designed as a tool for Private Industry Councils (PICs) in promoting permanent partnerships between public and private interests in training and employing the disadvantaged. Basic information on roles, organizational issues, and program activities of the PIC are considered in four…

  10. Statistical analysis of an inter-laboratory comparison of small-scale safety and thermal testing of RDX

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Geoffrey W.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Preston, Daniel N.; ...

    2014-11-17

    In this study, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency test for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are statistical analyses of the results from this test for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Class 5 Type II standard. The material was tested as a well-characterized standard several times during the proficiency test to assess differences among participants and the range of results that may arise for well-behaved explosive materials.

  11. Small scale wind tunnel model investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, W. L.; Chin, Y. T.

    1974-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel test of a two engine hybrid model with upper surface blowing on a simulated expandable duct internally blown flap was accomplished in a two phase program. The low wing Phase I model utilized 0.126c radius Jacobs/Hurkamp flaps and 0.337c radius Coanda flaps. The high wing Phase II model was utilized for continued studies on the Jacobs/Hurkamp flap. Principal study areas included: basic data both engines operative and with an engine out, control flap utilization, horizontal tail effectiveness, spoiler effectiveness, USB nacelle deflector study and USB/IBF pressure ratio effects.

  12. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  13. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  14. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  15. US-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    books, the growth and increased importance to industry of the annual Lean Manufacturing Conference, and the increased involvement of students in internship to Japan and in lean manufacturing activities.

  16. English for Special Purposes in Business and Industry: Suggestions for Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Perla, Joann

    1988-01-01

    Examines the growing demand for English as a Second Language (ESL) programs in business and industry. Presents study findings on the characteristics of six ESL programs offered in Fortune 500 companies, identifying factors that commonly facilitate or impede ESL program design. (DMM)

  17. Evaluation of the Industrial Maintenance Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, V. David

    In 1982-83, a study was conducted at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute to determine whether the objectives of the Industrial Maintenance Program were being met, to measure program success, and to identify aspects needing improvement. Surveys were sent to 30 students who graduated from the program before 1978, yielding a 57%…

  18. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  19. Financial Awareness Education with Apprentices in the Australian Construction Industry: Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Karin; Green, Emma

    2013-01-01

    A financial awareness education program was implemented with construction industry apprentices in Victoria, Australia. The program included face-to-face delivery of education around a range of financial management issues that apprentices face as they begin their apprenticeship. The paper reports on an evaluation of the program, which included…

  20. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  1. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  2. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  3. A Government/Industry Summary of the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center in 1984 initiated a rotorcraft structural dynamics program, designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), with the objective of establishing the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. An assessment of the program showed that the DAMVIBS Program has resulted in notable technical achievements and major changes in industrial design practice, all of which have significantly advanced the industry's capability to use and rely on finite-element-based dynamics analyses during the design process.

  4. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Michael; Ruhl, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  5. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  6. Ground and Flight Evaluation of a Small-Scale Inflatable-Winged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thornton, Stephen V.; Vogus, Shannon; Frackowiak, Tony; Mello, Joe; Norton, Brook; Bauer, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A small-scale, instrumented research aircraft was flown to investigate the night characteristics of innersole wings. Ground tests measured the static structural characteristics of the wing at different inflation pressures, and these results compared favorably with analytical predictions. A research-quality instrumentation system was assembled, largely from commercial off-the-shelf components, and installed in the aircraft. Initial flight operations were conducted with a conventional rigid wing having the same dimensions as the inflatable wing. Subsequent flights were conducted with the inflatable wing. Research maneuvers were executed to identify the trim, aerodynamic performance, and longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the vehicle in its different wing configurations. For the angle-of-attack range spanned in this flight program, measured flight data demonstrated that the rigid wing was an effective simulator of the lift-generating capability of the inflatable wing. In-flight inflation of the wing was demonstrated in three flight operations, and measured flight data illustrated the dynamic characteristics during wing inflation and transition to controlled lifting flight. Wing inflation was rapid and the vehicle dynamics during inflation and transition were benign. The resulting angles of attack and of sideslip ere small, and the dynamic response was limited to roll and heave motions.

  7. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  8. Small scale in-rock precompression testing: Effects of delay timing

    SciTech Connect

    Mullay, J.J.; McGinley, C.J.; Anderson, G.W.; Keefer, C.J.; VanNorman, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Previous work has shown that testing of precompression effects conducted on a small scale under simulated field conditions in actual rock provides a reasonable model for the evaluation of explosives and initiators under the adverse conditions encountered in production blasting. Using this methodology can result in greater understanding of the phenomena as well as the ability to predict performance. This effort has been extended to evaluate various parameters not previously studied in a controlled fashion. The present paper describes the use of this technique to study the effects of delay timing on precompression effects. Intervals from 25 to 150 milliseconds are included in the study. Both VOD measurements and damage estimates are utilized in the evaluation. The results demonstrate that timing delay between holes is quite important in determining the overall effectiveness of a blasting program. In addition, a parallel study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of a smaller laboratory scale testing regime in screening various approaches to reduce the effects of precompression. Results are presented which indicate the presence of definite correlations between the laboratory procedure and the rock tests. The use of both methods together is shown to provide the explosive formulator as well as the mining engineer with an important tool for obtaining improved results.

  9. An Analysis of the Fulton Industrial Area: A Market for Parkway’s Industrial Medicine Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-30

    are not waiting for proof of the hypothesis related to the benefits of health promotion programs. Many accept the empirical evidence of employee...offered at Tee-Pak. *Interviewee did not desire to respond to the benefits of health promotion programs, because of such programs must originate from the

  10. Industry's voluntary program: Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.S. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper describes the chemical industry's Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) Program, and voluntary and mandatory actions by the chemical industry to comply with the major environmental legislation. The chemical industry started the voluntary CAER Program soon after the Bhopal Disaster in 1984; it is coordinated through the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. This program, which began in March 1985, is a long-term industry commitment to develop a community outreach program and to improve local emergency response planning. The Congress of the United States began, in 1985, to consider proposals for mandatory programs. This led to enactment of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, known as SARA. A portion of this Act, entitled Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Although this legislation has many mandatory requirements, it should be emphasized that a significant degree of voluntary industrial participation is needed if the purposes of the statute are to be achieved. Title III has created an intricate and still evolving system that ties together the EPA, industrial plant managers, state emergency response commissions, local emergency planning committees and fire departments with jurisdiction over the facility. Each of these groups has a different role and responsibilities but must work cooperatively with other participants. Because of the intricate network of participants, the magnitude of the information flow, and the continuing evolution of the system, unique public relations problems exist in order to comply with Title III.

  11. Supporting an Elementary Science Program Through Community Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Douglas M.; Benton, Leslie J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a program in Fairfax County, Virginia, in which Elementary Science Study (ESS) materials are constructed and reconditioned in an Instructional Materials Processing Center using local community labor. Also discusses an inservice program for training teachers in the use of ESS materials. (JR)

  12. Specialized Apprentice-Level Training Programs for Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edling, Walter

    Lorain County Community College (LCCC) has provided training programs for the employees of the United States Steel Corporation since 1969 and for the Lorain Telephone Company since 1977. These training programs are campus-based, and the students attend classes for four or five week periods at a time. An effort has been made to adhere as closely as…

  13. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later than...

  14. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access procedures, the name and telephone... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program...

  15. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access procedures, the name and telephone... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program...

  16. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting will be open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program...

  17. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access procedures, the name and telephone... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program...

  18. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange... cooperative program managed and funded by the U.S. Government to exchange engineering, failure experience... construction materials), manufacturing processes, environmental issues associated with those...

  19. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange... cooperative program managed and funded by the U.S. Government to exchange engineering, failure experience... construction materials), manufacturing processes, environmental issues associated with those...

  20. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange... cooperative program managed and funded by the U.S. Government to exchange engineering, failure experience... construction materials), manufacturing processes, environmental issues associated with those...

  1. Industry-Sponsored Dental Health Teaching Aids: Selection Criteria and Program Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Donna L.

    1982-01-01

    Ten questions are provided to facilitate selection and evaluation of materials for a dental health curriculum. Examples of industry-sponsored dental health programs available free or at minimal cost are given. (JN)

  2. City of Manchester, N.H. Industrial Pretreatment Program Recognized for Excellence

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Manchester, N.H. Wastewater Treatment plant was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Industrial Pretreatment Program Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  3. Educators-in-Industry; Career Guidance Programs Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Electric Co., Fairfield, CT. Corporate Educational Relations Operation.

    Unemployment of those aged 16 to 23 is due largely to inadequate job preparation. Most educators have little exposure to the world of work outside of education, and may unknowingly provide incorrect, restrictive or out-of-date information to students. This Educators-in-Industry Handbook is designed to provide G.E. plant representatives with…

  4. Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

  5. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  6. School Shops. Layouts, Justifications, Equipment for Trade and Industrial Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    Suggestions for school shops are presented in three general areas--(1) planning, (2) layouts, and (3) tools and equipment. Within the planning area, two types of shop programs are discussed--(1) industrial arts education, and (2) trade and industrial education. Layouts and floor plans are provided for the following shops: auto mechanics, building…

  7. Experiment in Materials Processing Engineering Education: The Industrial Internship Program. Summary Report on Task "A".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinmann, K. J.; And Others

    The final report on a program to encourage industry-university interaction in the materials processing industries presents the findings of various proposed activities, establishes some conclusions, and provides suggestions and recommendations for extending the task to the actual design and conduct of the project. The background in which the…

  8. FINS: A Guide to the LaConner School District's Program In Fishing Industry Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Paul J.; And Others

    Fishing Industry Specialization, or FINS, is a 2-year alternative education program designed in 1979 by the LaConner (Washington) School District to encourage high school completion by students wanting to enter the fishing industry. With encouragement from the Swinomish Indian Tribe and help from an active citizens advisory board, school officials…

  9. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans...

  10. 78 FR 26544 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC55 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Extension of...

  11. 78 FR 12251 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC55 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Extension of...

  12. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  13. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

    2013-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks.

  14. Partnerships between utilities and small-scale providers: Delegated management in Kisumu, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Klaas; Sanga, Anthony

    Increasingly, partnerships between small-scale providers and formal utilities are being promoted as an alternative model of infrastructure development and service provision. This paper analyzes the potential of such a model for bridging the gap in service provision in peri-urban areas. The model, which this article focuses on, is the delegated management model, which has been implemented in Kisumu, Kenya. In this model a formal utility entered into contracts with multiple small-scale providers to distribute water to an informal settlement. In this arrangement, the water utility sells bulk water to the small-scale providers and these then distribute the water to an area covering about 120 connections for each provider. The research finds that the arrangement in Kisumu has met with mixed results. On the one hand, the arrangement led to considerable service expansion and to service improvements for those not connected to the network. Also, the formal utility benefited from the fact that they generated additional revenue by selling bulk water to the small-scale providers. The arrangement has also generated employment for those working for the small-scale providers. On the other hand, experiences so far, show that some challenges need to be addressed before the partnership arrangement becomes truly sustainable. For some providers corruption seems to be a problem as funds have been misappropriated. Also, the utility has not upheld the agreement to transfer all ‘old connections’ to the small-scale providers. A particularly worrying feature is that in low-income areas of Nyalenda, the customers of kiosks run by the small-scale providers pay three times more for their water than households who have an in-house connection.

  15. A Comparison of Government and Industry Program Manager Competencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    Rene Rendon, Naval Postgraduate School Learning Organizations: Their Importance to Systems Acquisition in DoD Robert Tremaine, Defense Acquisition...with team members, upper management, and stakeholders CS5. Communication style . The ability to adapt one’s communication style to fit the situation... style (CS5). In the 2014 survey, senior government PMs with greater than 10 years experience more highly valued their industry counterparts’ abilities

  16. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or

  17. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between KSU

  18. (Technical and engineering support for the Office of Industrial Programs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    As of April 19, 1991, technical, operational and analytic support and assistance to the offices and divisions of the Office of Renewable Energy, under contract DE-AC01-86CE30844 was completed. The overall work effort, initiated February 20, 1986, was characterized by timely, comprehensive, high quality, professional responsiveness to a broad range of renewable energy program operational support requirements. These are no instances of failure to respond, nor unacceptable response, during the five-year period. The technology program areas covered are Solar Buildings Technology, Wind Energy Technology, Photovoltaic Energy Technology, Geothermal Energy Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology, Solar Thermal Technology, Hydropower Energy Technology, Ocean Energy Technology, and Electric Energy Systems and Energy Storage. The analytical and managerial support provided to the office and staff of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy enabled a comprehensive evaluation of program and policy alternatives, and the selection and execution of appropriate courses of action from amongst those alternatives. Largely through these means the Office has been able to maintain continuity and a meaningful program thrust through the vacillations of policies and budgets that it has experienced over that it has experienced over the past five years. Appended are summaries of support activities within each of the individual technology program areas, as well as a complete listing of all project deliverables and due-dates for each submittal under the contract.

  19. Seismic detection method for small-scale discontinuities based on dictionary learning and sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Caixia; Zhao, Jingtao; Wang, Yanfei

    2017-02-01

    Studying small-scale geologic discontinuities, such as faults, cavities and fractures, plays a vital role in analyzing the inner conditions of reservoirs, as these geologic structures and elements can provide storage spaces and migration pathways for petroleum. However, these geologic discontinuities have weak energy and are easily contaminated with noises, and therefore effectively extracting them from seismic data becomes a challenging problem. In this paper, a method for detecting small-scale discontinuities using dictionary learning and sparse representation is proposed that can dig up high-resolution information by sparse coding. A K-SVD (K-means clustering via Singular Value Decomposition) sparse representation model that contains two stage of iteration procedure: sparse coding and dictionary updating, is suggested for mathematically expressing these seismic small-scale discontinuities. Generally, the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is employed for sparse coding. However, the method can only update one dictionary atom at one time. In order to improve calculation efficiency, a regularized version of OMP algorithm is presented for simultaneously updating a number of atoms at one time. Two numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the developed method for clarifying and enhancing small-scale discontinuities. The field example of carbonate reservoirs further demonstrates its effectiveness in revealing masked tiny faults and small-scale cavities.

  20. BACIE Register of Programmed Instruction in the Field of Education and Training in Commerce and Industry. Volume 2, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education, London (England).

    The British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education has included in its register of annotated programed instructional materials: programs available in the United Kingdom; programs dealing with industrial and commercial training and related further education; and information as supplied by the authors or producers of programs. The areas…

  1. General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

    This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been…

  2. Deciphering the V-Chip: An Examination of the Television Industry's Program Rating Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale; Farinola, Wendy Jo Maynard; Farrar, Kirstie; Donnerstein, Edward; Biely, Erica; Zwarun, Lara

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the validity of the television industry's labeling of sensitive program content following the advent of the V-chip television ratings system. Examines programs for the nature and extent of portrayals of violence, sexual behavior and dialogue, and adult language. Suggests there are substantial limitations in the ability of the V-chip…

  3. An Appraisal of the Industrial Cooperative Education Program Based on Responses from Students and Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Edward F.; Freeman, Nancy

    The objective of this study was to appraise Macomb County Community College's (MCCC) industrial cooperative education program. Students enrolled in design and mechanical technology from 1970 to 1975, who either participated in the co-op program (N=252) or did not (N=274), and their employers (N=45) responded to the questionnaires. Information was…

  4. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

  5. Programmed Instruction in Business and Industry, Current Information Sources, No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    Covering the period since 1960, this annotated bibliography contains 97 items (most with abstracts) relevant to programed instruction in business and industry. The following appear: (1) 12 bibliographies, directories, and information sources, both foreign and domestic; (2) general considerations of programed instruction as a training technique (26…

  6. Industrial Arts Education Guide for Curriculum and Program Planning, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Guidelines for the development of courses and programs of industrial arts for local school districts in New York State are provided in this guide designed for administrators, curriculum personnel, supervisors, and teachers. Following a discussion of student program options, a basic series of suggested courses (titles and course topics) are…

  7. Managing Industrial Teacher Education Programs in a Multi-Purpose Academic Unit--Selected Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streichler, Jerry

    Multipurpose academic units are academic units that are headed or chaired by one individual who, along with his or her faculty, is responsible for more than one degree or for more than one program under a degree. One example of a multipurpose academic unit would be a department that combines teacher education and industrial technology programs and…

  8. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Tourist Services).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This career preparation curriculum outline for the hospitality/tourism industry is intended to provide secondary and postsecondary learning outcomes for completion of program requirements. The guide is organized into four sections. Section one presents an overview of the program, of the philosophy of career education, and of the organization and…

  9. Industrial Education, General Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Gordon; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates a set of 25 industrial education general software programs developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include measurement drill, fraction drill, loan and interest cost analysis, assault vehicle speeds, sun's rays, Ohm's law, concrete calculations, roof…

  10. Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

  11. Holistic Assessment of Students in Undergraduate Industrial Technology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dennis W.; Freeman, Steven A.; Dyrenfurth, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The nature and assessment of education is changing significantly, and the assessment trajectory is away from sole reliance on the traditional perspective of student grades. Technology faculty must respond to the changing requirements of student assessment and ensure that graduates of the program meet both the expectations and standards of the…

  12. An Evaluation of a Training Program in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stroller Tod

    This study investigated the extent to which the Analytic Trouble Shooting Program (ATS) trained troubleshooters in an automobile assembly plant (1) to use information about a problem to determine the cause of that problem and (2) to anticipate and prevent problems. Troubleshooters in two specific departments were general foremen, foremen, process…

  13. Bridge Building Programs in Industrial Arts: No Panaceas Necessary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Harold; Ricciuti, Renzo A.

    1973-01-01

    Two carefully planned programs operating within traditional classroom frameworks, have been unusually successful. The first, developed in Stoughton, Massachusetts, a lower middle-class community in the Boston area, uses a field-based approach. The second, initiated in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, an upper middle-class suburb of Philadelphia, employs a…

  14. A small scale remote cooling system for a superconducting cyclotron magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, F.; Berkowitz Zamorra, D.; Michels, M.; Gomez Bosch, R.; Schmid, J.; Striebel, A.; Krueger, A.; Diez, M.; Jakob, M.; Keh, M.; Herberger, W.; Oesterle, D.

    2017-02-01

    Through a technology transfer program CERN is involved in the R&D of a compact superconducting cyclotron for future clinical radioisotope production, a project led by the Spanish research institute CIEMAT. For the remote cooling of the LTc superconducting magnet operating at 4.5 K, CERN has designed a small scale refrigeration system, the Cryogenic Supply System (CSS). This refrigeration system consists of a commercial two-stage 1.5 W @ 4.2 K GM cryocooler and a separate forced flow circuit. The forced flow circuit extracts the cooling power of the first and the second stage cold tips, respectively. Both units are installed in a common vacuum vessel and, at the final configuration, a low loss transfer line will provide the link to the magnet cryostat for the cooling of the thermal shield with helium at 40 K and the two superconducting coils with two-phase helium at 4.5 K. Currently the CSS is in the testing phase at CERN in stand-alone mode without the magnet and the transfer line. We have added a “validation unit” housed in the vacuum vessel of the CSS representing the thermo-hydraulic part of the cyclotron magnet. It is equipped with electrical heaters which allow the simulation of the thermal loads of the magnet cryostat. A cooling power of 1.4 W at 4.5 K and 25 W at the thermal shield temperature level has been measured. The data produced confirm the design principle of the CSS which could be validated.

  15. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christine L; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research.

  16. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christine L.; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research. PMID:25558125

  17. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  18. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere.

  19. Four-dimensional visualization of a small-scale flame based on deflection tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Zhigang; Zhao, Minmin

    2016-11-01

    Optical computed tomography is an important technique in the visualization and diagnosis of various flow fields. A small-scale diffusion flame was visualized using deflection tomography. A projection sampling system was proposed for deflection tomography to obtain deflectograms with a pair of gratings. Wave-front retrieval was employed for processing the deflectograms to obtain the deflection angles of the rays. This two-dimensional data extraction method expanded the application of deflection tomography and was suitable for the projection extraction of small-scale combustion. Deflection angle revision reconstruction algorithm was used to reconstruct the temperature distributions in 10 cross sections for each deflectogram in different instants. The flow structure was reconstructed using a visualization toolkit equipped with the marching cube and ray casting algorithms. The performed experiments demonstrated the three-dimensional dynamic visualization of temperature distributions and the flame structures of small-scale diffusion combustion.

  20. Risk of resource failure and toolkit variation in small-scale farmers and herders.

    PubMed

    Collard, Mark; Ruttle, April; Buchanan, Briggs; O'Brien, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that global variation in toolkit structure among hunter-gatherers is driven by risk of resource failure such that as risk of resource failure increases, toolkits become more diverse and complex. Here we report a study in which we investigated whether the toolkits of small-scale farmers and herders are influenced by risk of resource failure in the same way. In the study, we applied simple linear and multiple regression analysis to data from 45 small-scale food-producing groups to test the risk hypothesis. Our results were not consistent with the hypothesis; none of the risk variables we examined had a significant impact on toolkit diversity or on toolkit complexity. It appears, therefore, that the drivers of toolkit structure differ between hunter-gatherers and small-scale food-producers.

  1. MMS Multipoint electric field observations of small-scale magnetic holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick D.; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnes, Werner; Gershman, Daniel; Giles, Barbara; Nakamura, Rumi; Stawarz, Julia; Holmes, Justin; Sturner, Andrew; Malaspina, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earth's magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (ρi). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E × B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E × B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  2. SCION: CubeSat Mission Concept to Observe Midlatitude Small-Scale Irregularities and Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The SCintillation and Ionospheric Occultation NanoSats (SCION) mission concept is to deploy two low-cost CubeSat spacecraft that maintain a separation distance <1 km to measure scintillation and associated small-scale density irregularities in the midlatitude ionosphere. Each spacecraft is equipped with a dual frequency GPS receiver to measure total electron content (TEC) and the S4 scintillation index along raypaths from the receiver to the GPS constellation. Scintillation causing small-scale density irregularities are increasingly observed in the vicinity of large TEC gradients associated with storm enhanced density (SED) regions. Detection of irregularities of the scale that cause GPS and VHF scintillation has previously relied on assumptions about their structural stability and drift speed. Space-based, multipoint observations would provide broad, regional coverage and disambiguation of temporal and spatial density fluctuations in order to detect small-scale irregularities without these assumptions.

  3. Small-scale martian polygonal terrain: Implications for liquid surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seibert, N.M.; Kargel, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) through August 1999 were analyzed for the global distribution of small-scale polygonal terrain not clearly resolved in Viking Orbiter imagery. With very few exceptions, small-scale polygonal terrain occurs at middle to high latitudes of the northern and southern hemisphere in Hesperian-age geologic units. The largest concentration of this terrain occurs in the Utopia basin in close association with scalloped depressions (interpreted as thermokarst) and appears to represent an Amazonia event. The morphology and occurence of small polygonal terrain suggest they are either mud desiccation cracks or ice-wedge polygons. Because the small-scale polygons in Utopia and Argyre Planitiae are associated with other cold-climate permafrost or glacial features, an ice-wedge model is preferred for these areas. Both cracking mechanisms work most effectively in water- or ice-rich finegrained material and may imply the seasonal or episodic existence of liquid water at the surface.

  4. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling.

  5. Comparison of SLAR images and small-scale, low-sun aerial photographs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) images and black and white aerial photos of similar scale and illumination of an area in the Mojave Desert of California shows that aerial photos yield far more information about geology than do SLAR images because of greater resolution, tonal range, and geometric fidelity, and easier use in stereo. Nevertheless, radar can differentiate some materials or surfaces that aerial photos cannot; thus, they should be considered as complementary, rather than competing tools in geologic investigations. The most significant advantage of SLAR, however, is its freedom from the stringent conditions of weather, date, and time that are required by small-scale aerial photos taken with a specified direction and angle of illumination. Indeed, in low latitudes, SLAR is the only way to obtain small-scale images with low illumination from certain directions; moreover, in areas of nearly continuous cloudiness, radar may be the only practical source of small-scale images.

  6. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic naturemore » of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.« less

  7. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  8. Federal legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the small-scale hydroelectric potential of the nineteen Northeastern states. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The main report for which this report is the executive summary, DOE/RA--23-216.00.0-01 (see EAPA 5:3929), was published in revised form in March 1979. Also, since that time, Energy Law Institute has produced detailed legal memoranda on obstacles and incentives for each of the 19 states. This executive summary summarizes the findings and observations of the original report. Specific summaries included are: Federal Jurisdiction Over Small-Scale Hydroelectric Facilities; The FERC; The Regulation of Construction in and the Discharge of Dredged, Fill, and Other Materials into the Waters of the US; The Protection of Fish, Wildlife, and Endangered Species; The Preservation of Historic Places, Archaeological Sites, and Natural Areas; Regulation of the Use of Federal Lands; Federal Dam Construction and Power-Distribution Agencies; Additional Federal Agencies Concerned with Small-Scale Hydroelectric Dams; Federal Tax Devices and Business Structures Affecting Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development; and an Outline of Federal-Assistance programs Available for Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development.

  9. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems.

  10. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  11. The SWT Materials Physics Program: Linking Physics Curriculum with Industry Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, C. J.

    1998-03-01

    As recently as five years ago, the undergraduate physics curriculum at Southwest Texas State University (SWT) resembled that of many other typical baccalaureate degree physics programs. As an improvement to our program, we recently assessed the state of relevant major regional industries and initiated the development of an alternative curriculum path for physics undergraduates who wish to expand their marketability in today's "high tech" economy. "To take physics local", we learned that our new curriculum would have to create new opportunities for our physics students in the lucrative semiconductor industry in nearby Austin, TX. As a first step towards developing the Materials Physics program, we chose to cultivate a new faculty expertise in thin film materials physics. This would be crucial for developing new curriculum facilitating our graduates' exposure to marketable techniques critical for the 200 billion semiconductor device industry and the 80 billion magnetic device industry. The crucial involvement of interested industry alumni and representatives towards actualizing this initiative will also be discussed. The curriculum content of the new Materials Physics program will be compared to our traditional physics program to show how a few well-chosen modifications in the curriculum can vastly improve the marketability of our students. We will describe how these changes are expected to develop a vibrant and well-attended Physics program with great relevance to local industry. (* CJG acknowledges the support of the NSF-CAREER program for the freedom to pursue these curriculum changes, and the NSF-ILI program for the creation of the SWT Materials Physics Lab (DUE 9552338).)

  12. Advanced sensor development program for the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.D.; Charagundla, S.R.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H.G.; Whetstone, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes experimental and theoretical studies toward development of a remote sensing technique for non-intrusive temperature measurement based on optical spectroscopic analysis of recovery boiler. The overall objectives were (a) construction of a fiber-optic system for measurement of spectroscopic emission intensities at several wavelengths and (b) development of a computer program relating these intensities to temperatures of the emitting species. The emitting species for temperature measurements in flames can be either naturally occurring free radicals (OH, CH, C{sub 2}) or atoms which, in turn, can be either naturally occurring or seeded into flames. Sodium atoms, the obvious emitters in recovery boilers, are not promising as thermometric species because of their high concentration. At high concentrations, strong self-absorption results cause optical depths to be much smaller than the sampling depths desired for recovery boilers. An experimental program was, therefore, undertaken with the objective of identification and spectroscopic detection and measurement of other naturally occurring thermometric species. The program consisted of several laboratory studies and four field trips to different recovery boilers. 19 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Fabrication of small-scale structures with non-planar features

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David B.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2015-11-19

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  14. Fabrication method for small-scale structures with non-planar features

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2016-09-20

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  15. Dynamics of the small-scale changes of metal optic surfaces induced by pulsed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liukonen, R. A.; Trofimenko, A. M.

    1991-10-01

    A study is made of small-scale changes in the relief and absorptivity of mirror metal surfaces due to interaction with pulsed infrared irradiation. Several singularities are identified which are associated with the pulsed nature of the interaction and which cannot be explained by the surface temperature change alone. These include small-scale deformations observed even in the case of uniform distribution of the incident radiation intensity; an increase in deformation in excess of the increase attributable to heating only; and a change in the absorptivity of metal mirrors in excess of the theoretically predicted value.

  16. Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

  17. Research and development separation technology: The DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    This brochure summarizes the Office of Industrial Programs' RandD efforts in the advancement of separation technology. The purpose of this brochure is to provide interested parties with information on federal industrial energy conservation activities in separation technology. The brochure is comprised of the following sections: Separation Technology, summarizes the current state of separation technology and its uses. Potential Energy Savings, discusses the potential for industrial energy conservation through the implementation of advanced separation processes. Office of Industrial Programs' RandD Efforts in Separation Technology Development, describes the separation RandD projects conducted by IP. RandD Data Base, lists contractor, principal investigator, and location of each separation-related RandD effort sponsored by IP.

  18. Energy-Efficiency Retrofits in Small-Scale Multifamily Rental Housing: A Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeChambeau, Brian

    The goal of this thesis to develop a real estate investment model that creates a financial incentive for property owners to perform energy efficiency retrofits in small multifamily rental housing in southern New England. The medium for this argument is a business plan that is backed by a review of the literature and input from industry experts. In addition to industry expertise, the research covers four main areas: the context of green building, efficient building technologies, precedent programs, and the Providence, RI real estate market for the business plan. The thesis concludes that the model proposed can improve the profitability of real estate investment in small multifamily rental properties, though the extent to which this is possible depends partially on utility-run incentive programs and the capital available to invest in retrofit measures.

  19. The NASA/industry design analysis methods for vibrations (DAMVIBS) program - Accomplishments and contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1991-01-01

    A NASA Langley-sponsored rotorcraft structural dynamics program, known as Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), has been under development since 1984. The objective of this program was to establish the technology base needed by the industry to develop an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Under the program, teams from the four major helicopter manufacturers have formed finite-element models, conducted ground vibration tests, made test/analysis comparisons of both metal and composite airframes, performed 'difficult components' studies on airframes to identify components which need more complete finite-element representation for improved correlation, and evaluated industry codes for computing coupled rotor-airframe vibrations. Studies aimed at establishing the role that structural optimization can play in airframe vibrations design work have also been initiated. Five government/industry meetings were held in connection with these activities during the course of the program. Because the DAMVIBS Program is coming to an end, the fifth meeting included a brief assessment of the program and its benefits to the industry.

  20. The NASA/industry design analysis methods for vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: Accomplishments and contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1991-01-01

    A NASA Langley-sponsored rotorcraft structural dynamics program, known as Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), has been under development since 1984. The objective of this program was to establish the technology base needed by the industry to develop an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Under the program, teams from the four major helicopter manufacturers have formed finite-element models, conducted ground vibration tests, made test/analysis comparisons of both metal and composite airframes, performed 'difficult components' studies on airframes to identify components which need more complete finite-element representation for improved correlation, and evaluated industry codes for computing coupled rotor-airframe vibrations. Studies aimed at establishing the role that structural optimization can play in airframe vibrations design work have also been initiated. Five government/industry meetings were held in connection with these activities during the course of the program. Because the DAMVIBS Program is coming to an end, the fifth meeting included a brief assessment of the program and its benefits to the industry.

  1. Simple Assessment Techniques for Soil and Water. Environmental Factors in Small Scale Development Projects. Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordination in Development, New York, NY.

    This booklet was produced in response to the growing need for reliable environmental assessment techniques that can be applied to small-scale development projects. The suggested techniques emphasize low-technology environmental analysis. Although these techniques may lack precision, they can be extremely valuable in helping to assure the success…

  2. Influence of Global Shapes on Children's Coding of Local Geometric Information in Small-Scale Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Noelle C.

    2013-01-01

    This research uses enclosed whole shapes, rather than visual form fragments, to demonstrate that children's use of local geometric information is influenced by global shapes in small-scale spaces. Three- to six-year-old children and adults participated in two experiments with a table-top task. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a…

  3. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  4. Small-scale field tests of attract-and-kill stations for pest Tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted at UF-TREC, Homestead to test efficacy of wax-matrix bait stations and mass trapping for control of the Caribbean fruit fly in a 5 by 30 tree guava planting. Results of the study and the ability to document control using small-scale field tests will be discussed....

  5. Building a lasting partnership - small-scale canola biodiesel experiment may go big

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT) of north central Washington, with assistance from USDA-ARS, hand-planted several rows of spring canola in Omak, Washington on Tribal land. The objective of this small-scale experiment was to determine if canola could be grown in this region to ultimate...

  6. The Role and Limitations of Small-Scale Initiatives in Educational Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    While small-scale initiatives in educational innovation do have advantages, problems are often encountered during the process of project replication or extension. Increased awareness of potential hazards with regard to pilot projects is a prerequisite for successful educational planning and development. (RM)

  7. Use of Small-Scale Artificial Archaeological Sites in the Teaching of Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Warren N.

    By using small-scale artificially created archaeologic sites, a teacher can provide students with a time-efficient approach in which to master some basic archaeological techniques. In an artificially created setting, the students can become familiar with conditions they might meet in the field. In a short period of time, students may be exposed to…

  8. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  9. Employability and Technical Skill Required to Establish a Small Scale Automobile Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…

  10. Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

    Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

  11. Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

  12. Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

  13. Energetic Materials Center Report--Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing Evaluation of Butyl Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2013-04-26

    Butyl Nitrate (BN) was examined by Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) Testing techniques to determine its sensitivity to impact, friction, spark and thermal exposure simulating handling and storage conditions. Under the conditions tested, the BN exhibits thermal sensitivity above 150 °C, and does not exhibit sensitive to impact, friction or spark.

  14. A Small-Scale Pilot Study into Language Difficulties in Children Who Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Fran; Curran, Anita; Porter, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale pilot research project investigates the prevalence of Speech Language and Communication Difficulties in a sample of children attending a Youth Offending Service in the UK. Using the CELF-4, approximately 90% of the sample displayed some form of language difficulty and, overall, this population displayed mild to moderate…

  15. Using Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate the Efficacy of New Curricular Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drits-Esser, Dina; Bass, Kristin M.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    How can researchers in K-12 contexts stay true to the principles of rigorous evaluation designs within the constraints of classroom settings and limited funding? This paper explores this question by presenting a small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the efficacy of curricular supplemental materials on epigenetics. The…

  16. Parachute Dynamics Investigations Using a Sensor Package Airdropped from a Small-Scale Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, Jessica; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the utility of various sensors by recovering parachute-probe dynamics information from a package released from a small-scale, remote-controlled airplane. The airdrops aid in the development of datasets for the exploration of planetary probe trajectory recovery algorithms, supplementing data collected from instrumented, full-scale tests and computer models.

  17. A Small-Scale Concept-Based Laboratory Component: The Best of Both Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halme, Dina Gould; Khodor, Julia; Mitchell, Rudolph; Walker, Graham C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we describe an exploratory study of a small-scale, concept-driven, voluntary laboratory component of Introductory Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. We wished to investigate whether students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of basic biological principles would improve through concept-based…

  18. Small scales formation via Alfven wave propagation in compressible nonuniform media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.

    1995-01-01

    In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. The possibility to produce small scales has been studied by Malara et al. in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend the work of Malara et al. to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Using numerical simulations we show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. Moreover, the interaction between the initial Alfven wave and the inhomogeneity gives rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. A rough estimate of the typical times which the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales and then to dissipate the energy show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin.

  19. "It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

  20. Economic analysis of small-scale agricultural digesters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion is a manure treatment option that is gaining popularity throughout the world due to its multiple environmental and economic benefits. However, further research is needed for anaerobic technology to become more readily available, cost effective and manageable for small-scale to m...

  1. A comparison of relative toxicity rankings by some small-scale laboratory tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Small-scale laboratory tests for fire toxicity, suitable for use in the average laboratory hood, are needed for screening and ranking materials on the basis of relative toxicity. The performance of wool, cotton, and aromatic polyamide under several test procedures is presented.

  2. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramana, Kharis Erasta Reza; Ertsen, Maurits Willem

    2016-10-01

    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the form of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both the development of intervention and research, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the development of the intervention and its associated hydrological research, as hydrological research is often designed without adequate consideration of how to account for human agency and that these effects have not yet been discussed explicitly in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a systematic planning for hydrological research, based on evaluating three hydrological research efforts targeting small-scale water development initiatives in Vietnam, Kenya, and Indonesia. The main purpose of the three cases was to understand the functioning of interventions in their hydrological contexts. Aiming for better decision-making on hydrological research in small-scale water intervention initiatives, we propose two analysis steps, including (1) consideration of possible surprises and possible actions and (2) cost-benefit analysis. By performing the two analyses continuously throughout small-scale hydrological intervention-based initiatives, effective hydrological research can be achieved.

  3. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia’s emergency pockets under ENCU’s supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8–11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. PMID:26828512

  4. Numerical simulation of small-scale mixing processes in the upper ocean and atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhinin, O.; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of turbulent mixing and momentum and heat exchange occur in the upper ocean at depths up to several dozens of meters and in the atmospheric boundary layer within interval of millimeters to dozens of meters and can not be resolved by known large- scale climate models. Thus small-scale processes need to be parameterized with respect to large scale fields. This parameterization involves the so-called bulk coefficients which relate turbulent fluxes with large-scale fields gradients. The bulk coefficients are dependent on the properties of the small-scale mixing processes which are affected by the upper-ocean stratification and characteristics of surface and internal waves. These dependencies are not well understood at present and need to be clarified. We employ Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as a research tool which resolves all relevant flow scales and does not require closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (LES and RANS). Thus DNS provides a solid ground for correct parameterization of small-scale mixing processes and also can be used for improving LES and RANS closure models. In particular, we discuss the problems of the interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves propagating in the pycnocline in the upper ocean as well as the impact of surface waves on the properties of atmospheric boundary layer over wavy water surface.

  5. The development of small-scale convection below evolving oceanic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltice, N.; Garnero, E.

    2015-12-01

    Seafloor of older ages shows a constancy of heat flow, and bathymetry that is different from what is expected for a half-space cooling model. These observations led to consideration of the existence of small-scale convection below the lithosphere (Parsons and McKenzie, 1978). Previous studies have characterized the detailed physics of such processes (Davaille and Jaupart, 1994; Choblet and Sotin, 2000; Solomatov and Moresi, 2000; Korenaga and Jordan, 2003 among others). However, questions remain for applications to the Earth: what is the shape of developed small-scale convection, what length-scales are involved, how does associated small-scale convection depend on the plate layout and its time-dependence. Using 3D spherical models of mantle convection with plate-like behaviour (Tackley, 2008), we will present a study of developed small-scale convection in a context of self-organization of plates and mantle flow. Small-scale convection depends on the resistance of the lithosphere, and its development beneath large plates produce network shapes with specific length-scales and orientations (see figure). We will show the impact of the size of plates and the evolution of subduction on the small-scale convection, and characterize how the age-heat flow relationship can change with time. The potential for seismic detection of the spatiotemporal patterns of temperature heterogeneity will also be discussed. ReferencesChoblet, G., and C. Sotin, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 119, 321-336 (2000). Davaille, A., and C. Jaupart, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 19,853-19,866 (1994). Korenaga, J., and T. H. Jordan, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2333, (2003). Parsons, B., and D. McKenzie, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 4485-4496 (1978). Solomatov, V. S., and L. N. Moresi, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 21,795-21,817 (2000). Tackley, P. J., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 171, 7-18 (2008). Figure: Age of the seafloor in Myrs and white countour of a cold temperature isotherm showing the network of small-scale convection.

  6. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  7. Low-force magneto-rheological damper design for small-scale structural control experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Benjamin D.; Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Experimental validation of novel structural control algorithms is a vital step in both developing and building acceptance for this technology. Small-scale experimental test-beds fulfill an important role in the validation of multiple-degree-offreedom (MDOF) and distributed semi-active control systems, allowing researchers to test the control algorithms, communication topologies, and timing-critical aspects of structural control systems that do not require full-scale specimens. In addition, small-scale building specimens can be useful in combined structural health monitoring (SHM) and LQG control studies, diminishing safety concerns during experiments by using benchtop-scale rather than largescale specimens. Development of such small-scale test-beds is hampered by difficulties in actuator construction. In order to be a useful analog to full-scale structures, actuators for small-scale test-beds should exhibit similar features and limitations as their full-scale counterparts. In particular, semi-active devices, such as magneto-rheological (MR) fluid dampers, with limited authority (versus active mass dampers) and nonlinear behavior are difficult to mimic over small force scales due to issues related to fluid containment and friction. In this study, a novel extraction-type small-force (0- 10 N) MR-fluid damper which exhibits nonlinear hysteresis similar to a full-scale, MR-device is proposed. This actuator is a key development to enable the function of a small-scale structural control test-bed intended for wireless control validation studies. Experimental validation of this prototype is conducted using a 3-story scale structure subjected to simulated single-axis seismic excitation. The actuator affects the structural response commanded by a control computer that executes an LQG state feedback control law and a modified Bouc-Wen lookup table that was previously developed for full-scale MR-applications. In addition, damper dynamic limitations are characterized and

  8. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground-belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition.

    PubMed

    Veen, G F Ciska; Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han

    2012-02-01

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the effects of interactions between yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) and European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the formation of small-scale heterogeneity in vegetation composition. In the absence of cattle, hares selectively foraged on ant mounds, while under combined grazing by hares and cattle, vertebrate grazing pressure was similar on and off mounds. Ant mounds that were grazed by only hares had a different plant community composition compared to their surroundings: the cover of the grazing-intolerant grass Elytrigia atherica was reduced on ant mounds, whereas the relative cover of the more grazing-tolerant and palatable grass Festuca rubra was enhanced. Combined grazing by hares and cattle, resulted in homogenization of plant community composition on and off ant mounds, with high overall cover of F. rubra. We conclude that hares can respond to local ant-soil-vegetation interactions, because they are small, selective herbivores that make their foraging decisions on a local scale. This results in small-scale plant patches on mounds of yellow meadow ants. In the presence of cattle, which are less selective aboveground herbivores, local plant community patterns triggered by small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions can disappear. Therefore, cattle modify the consequences of aboveground-belowground interactions for small-scale plant community composition.

  9. The Effects of Kinetic Instabilities on Small-scale Turbulence in Earth’s Magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuillard, H.; Yordanova, E.; Vaivads, A.; Alexandrova, O.

    2016-09-01

    The Earth's magnetosheath is the region delimited by the bow shock and the magnetopause. It is characterized by highly turbulent fluctuations covering all scales from MHD down to kinetic scales. Turbulence is thought to play a fundamental role in key processes such as energy transport and dissipation in plasma. In addition to turbulence, different plasma instabilities are generated in the magnetosheath because of the large anisotropies in plasma temperature introduced by its boundaries. In this study we use high-quality magnetic field measurements from Cluster spacecraft to investigate the effects of such instabilities on the small-scale turbulence (from ion down to electron scales). We show that the steepening of the power spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations in the magnetosheath occurs at the largest characteristic ion scale. However, the spectrum can be modified by the presence of waves/structures at ion scales, shifting the onset of the small-scale turbulent cascade toward the smallest ion scale. This cascade is therefore highly dependent on the presence of kinetic instabilities, waves, and local plasma parameters. Here we show that in the absence of strong waves the small-scale turbulence is quasi-isotropic and has a spectral index α ≈ -2.8. When transverse or compressive waves are present, we observe an anisotropy in the magnetic field components and a decrease in the absolute value of α. Slab/2D turbulence also develops in the presence of transverse/compressive waves, resulting in gyrotropy/non-gyrotropy of small-scale fluctuations. The presence of both types of waves reduces the anisotropy in the amplitude of fluctuations in the small-scale range.

  10. Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001–2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers’ practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  11. The impact of industry/university consortia programs on space education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, John R.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the industry/university consortia programs established by the United States and Australia and examines these programs from the viewpoint of their impact on space education in their respective countries. Particular attention is given to the aim and the nature of the three programs involved: the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDSs) (funded by NASA), which are currently involving about 250 companies and 88 universities as participants; the Space Industry Development Centers (SIDCs) (funded by the Australian Space Office): and the Cooperative Research Centers (CRCs) (funded by the Federal Government), which are not limited to the space area but are open to activities ranging from medical research to waste-water treatment. It is emphasized that, while the main aim of the CCDS, SIDC, and CRC programs is to develop space expertise, space education is a very significant byproduct of the activity of these agencies.

  12. Geothermal Program Review XVII: proceedings. Building on 25 years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XVII in Berkeley, California, on May 18--20, 1999. The theme this year was "Building on 25 Years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry". In 1974, Congress enacted Public Law 93-410 which sanctioned the Geothermal Energy Coordination and Management Project, the Federal Government's initial partnering with the US geothermal industry. The annual program review provides a forum to foster this federal partnership with the US geothermal industry through the presentation of DOE-funded research papers from leaders in the field, speakers who are prominent in the industry, topical panel discussions and workshops, planning sessions, and the opportunity to exchange ideas. Speakers and researchers from both industry and DOE presented an annual update on research in progress, discussed changes in the environment and deregulated energy market, and exchanged ideas to refine the DOE Strategic Plan for research and development of geothermal resources in the new century. A panel discussion on Climate Change and environmental issues and regulations provided insight into the opportunities and challenges that geothermal project developers encounter. This year, a pilot peer review process was integrated with the program review. A team of geothermal industry experts were asked to evaluate the research in progress that was presented. The evaluation was based on the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) criteria and the goals and objectives of the Geothermal Program as set forth in the Strategic Plan. Despite the short timeframe and cursory guidance provided to both the principle investigators and the peer reviewers, the pilot process was successful. Based on post review comments by both presenters and reviewers, the process will be refined for next year's program review.

  13. Industrial and urban symbiosis in Japan: analysis of the Eco-Town Program 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Rene; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Shizuka; Geng, Yong

    2009-03-01

    Japan's Eco-Town Program spearheaded in Japan the integration of Industrial Symbiosis and Urban Symbiosis, seeking to maximise the economic and environmental benefit from close geographic proximity of industrial and urban areas, through the use of previously discarded commercial, municipal and industrial waste materials in industrial applications. The program established 26 Eco-Towns around Japan. Approximately 1.65 billion USD was invested in 61 innovative recycling projects, with an average government subsidy of 36%. In addition at least 107 other recycling facilities have been constructed without government subsidy. 14 Eco-Towns primarily contributed to improving industry's productivity, whilst 10 Eco-Towns primarily contributed to improving environmental amenity. In 16 Eco-Towns the private sector was the most important actor supporting local government in the realisation of the Eco-Town, whilst in 9 Eco-Towns this was civil society. The availability of investment subsidies, the coming into force of ambitious recycling legislation with quantified, product-specific targets, access to the significant technological resources of the private sector, and widespread recognition of the urgency to act on environmental issues, all contributed to the success of the Eco-Town Program.

  14. 75 FR 10806 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... continuation of the Regulatory Project Management Site Tours and Regulatory Interaction Program (the Site Tours... performance in its regulatory project management staff. CDER seeks to significantly enhance review efficiency... about project management procedures (but not drug-specific information) with industry...

  15. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  16. Industrial-Organizational and Human Factors Graduate Program Admission: Information for Undergraduate Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Stone, Nancy J.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Many psychology departments do not have industrial-organizational (IO) or human factors (HF) faculty members. As such, potential IO and HF graduate students may miss career opportunities because faculty advisors are unfamiliar with the disciplines and their graduate programs. To assist advisors, this article highlights the content of IO and HF…

  17. Guidelines For Implementation of Industrial Programs For Proposed Community Colleges in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sada, Pablo Maria

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected industrial education departments and programs of the community colleges in the United States, and to draw some beneficial implications for the establishment of the proposed community colleges in Venezuela. The procedure involved a review of the literature, the construction of a questionnaire, and…

  18. Industrial Technology Modernization Program. Phase 3 Proposal, Category 1 Project Countermeasures Assembly Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-24

    Tracor INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY MODERNIZATION PROGRAM DTICRt .1ECTE CDJUN07 1989 00 PHASE 3 PROPOSAL CATEGORY 1 PROJECT COUNTERMEASURES ASSEMBLY...LINE ITEM NO. B. IDENTIFICATION C. QUANTITY D TOTAL PRICE E REF 03 Phase 3 /Category I Countermeasures Assembly Improvements Project ] Gross Savings

  19. Industrial Arts--Woods and Wood Technology: A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Council for Industrial Arts Education.

    The curriculum outline is designed to aid the instructor in developing a more complete course of study in woods and wood technology for intermediate and secondary school students. The guide is introduced by a discussion of objectives fundamental to a sound program of industrial arts education, followed by an outline and objectives for the content…

  20. [Substantiation of approaches to implementation of anti-smoking program in industrial enterprise].

    PubMed

    Amirov, N Kh; Mazitova, N N; Berkheeva, Z M; Bykovskaia, T Iu; Gorblianskiĭ, Iu Iu; Piktushanskaia, T E

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with prevention of chronic obstructive lung disease in industrial workers. The authors analysed prevalence of smoking and tobacco addiction degree on four enterprises of Tatarstan Republic. Share of smokers with moderate and high degree of tobacco addiction among the workers appeared high. The article covers approaches to realize corporate anti-smoking programs and to evaluate its efficiency.