Science.gov

Sample records for program waste minimization

  1. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG&G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG&G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  3. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  4. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.

    1998-09-24

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site`s pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office`s (RL`s) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program.

  5. Development and pilot demonstration program of a waste minimization plan at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.; Thuot, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    In response to US Department of Energy directives, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a waste minimization plan aimed at reducing the amount of wastes at this national research and development laboratory. Activities at ANL are primarily research- oriented and as such affect the amount and type of source reduction that can be achieved at this facility. The objective of ANL's waste minimization program is to cost-effectively reduce all types of wastes, including hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous wastes. The ANL Waste Minimization Plan uses a waste minimization audit as a systematic procedure to determine opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste. To facilitate these audits, a computerized bar-coding procedure is being implemented at ANL to track hazardous wastes from where they are generated to their ultimate disposal. This paper describes the development of the ANL Waste Minimization Plan and a pilot demonstration of the how the ANL Plan audited the hazardous waste generated within a selected divisions of ANL. It includes quantitative data on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste at ANL and describes potential ways to minimize hazardous wastes. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Waste minimization policies, regulations, and practices within the U.S. Department of Energy defense programs

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, S.P.

    1989-11-01

    In 1984 the US Congress enacted the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One of the goals of this legislation was to focus attention on the need to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste so as to minimize the threat to human health and the environment. Subsequently, in September of 1988, DOE issued a Radioactive Waste Management Policy, DOE Order 5820.2A, and in November a General Environmental Program Order, DOE Order 5400.1. These documents embrace the principles set forth in RCRA, and expand their scope to include radioactive, mixed, and pollutant waste, and all actions for reducing waste from the point of generation through waste treatment, storage, transportation and disposal. This paper will present an overview of the legislation and policies for waste reduction and, in addition, give site responsibilities for implementing waste reduction program activities.

  7. Analysis of a waste-minimization program for nonhazardous solid wastes utilizing source-reduction and recycling techniques and its application to Air Force installations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, B.G.

    1991-09-01

    This nation has fallen victim to its own excessive behavior and has created an overabundance of trash, referred to in this thesis as Nonhazardous Solid Waste (NSW). This situation has created environmental and health problems that can no longer be ignored. All types of communities are affected including Air Force installations. Unfortunately, the AF does not currently have a long term waste management policy or program regarding NHSW minimization. This research concentrates on the application of a NHSW minimization program for AF installations using the two most preferred methods, source reduction and recycling. The development of a comprehensive waste minimization program using the techniques described is the most effective and efficient way to decrease the solid waste burden. The construction and implementation of these programs is not easy, especially for an organization as complex and diverse as the AF. However, the payoffs from a well planned and executed program far outweigh any costs.

  8. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  9. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  10. FY 1993 Projection Capability Assurance Program waste and hazard minimization. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, L.D.; Homan, D.A.

    1993-01-15

    Waste and hazard minimization efforts in the following areas are described: (1) environmentally responsive cleaning, (2) hazardous material exposure, (3) explosive processing, (4) flex circuit manufacturing, (5) tritium capture w/o conversion to water, (6) ES&H compatible pyrotechnic materials, and (7) remote explosive component assembly.

  11. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  12. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  13. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  14. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    PubMed

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  16. Waste minimization: The planned-parenthood-to-grave'' philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, K.M. ); Ostergaard, A.P. Corp. )

    1992-02-11

    Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as striving to develop and implement a comprehensive proactive program to reduce waste. Thus, the Y-12 Plant Waste Minimization Program has gradually developed toward an all encompassing program. The overall strategy and structure of the Y-12 program is centered around four basic elements: Waste Minimization Process Waste Assessments (PWAs), Opportunities, and Projects; Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Promotional Campaign; Waste Tracking; and Information Exchange and Technology Transfer. Activities within each of these elements are described in this report.

  17. Waste minimization: The ``planned-parenthood-to-grave`` philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, K.M.; Ostergaard, A.P.

    1992-02-11

    Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as striving to develop and implement a comprehensive proactive program to reduce waste. Thus, the Y-12 Plant Waste Minimization Program has gradually developed toward an all encompassing program. The overall strategy and structure of the Y-12 program is centered around four basic elements: Waste Minimization Process Waste Assessments (PWAs), Opportunities, and Projects; Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Promotional Campaign; Waste Tracking; and Information Exchange and Technology Transfer. Activities within each of these elements are described in this report.

  18. Waste management news: Nalco unveils commitment to waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    On September 27, 1989, Nalco Chemical Company held a press event in Detroit, Michigan, to announce the Company's growing commitment to waste minimization. The Nalco HEC Management Services Program was described as instrumental in the Company's efforts to provide waste minimization products and services to the automotive industry. The HEC Management Services Program is a unique waste minimization process. This program combines technology, sales and service in water treatment. The HEC Management Services Program uses an emulsion in place of conventional water/chemical paint spray booth programs. The emulsion is able to attract paint overspray, keep it in a liquid form, and prevent the resulting sludge from being sticky and tacky. This, in turn, improves paint spray booth efficiencies, negates the need for paint sludge landfilling and provides a clean, manageable system with minimal maintenance costs. With this program, spent emulsion is transported to RTR, Inc., a facility in Detroit, Michigan, designed exclusively for recycling HEC spent emulsion. The recovered oil/emulsion is returned to the spray booth as a recycled product while the paint solids and various solvents are processed as waste-derived fuels.

  19. Waste minimization in chrome plating

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuer, J.; Walter, K.; Nastasi, M.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one year laboratory directed research and development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Traditional wet chemical electroplating techniques utilize toxic materials and pose environmental hazards in the disposal of primary baths and waste waters. Pollutants include metals and nonmetals, such as oil, grease, phosphates, and toxic and organic compounds. This project is focused on development of plasma source ion implantation (PSII), a novel and cost-effective surface modification technique, to minimize and ultimately eliminate waste generated in chrome plating. We are collaborating with and industrial partner to design material systems, utilize the PSII processes in existing Los Alamos experimental facilities, and analyze both material and performance characteristics.

  20. Environmental projects. Volume 16: Waste minimization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the MoJave Desert, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network. The Goldstone Complex is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At present, activities at the GDSCC support the operation of nine parabolic dish antennas situated at five separate locations known as 'sites.' Each of the five sites at the GDSCC has one or more antennas, called 'Deep Space Stations' (DSS's). In the course of operation of these DSS's, various hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated. In 1992, JPL retained Kleinfelder, Inc., San Diego, California, to quantify the various streams of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated at the GDSCC. In June 1992, Kleinfelder, Inc., submitted a report to JPL entitled 'Waste Minimization Assessment.' This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the Kleinfelder, Inc. report. The 'Waste Minimization Assessment' report did not find any deficiencies in the various waste-management programs now practiced at the GDSCC, and it found that these programs are being carried out in accordance with environmental rules and regulations.

  1. Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  2. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  3. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  4. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  5. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

  6. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The primary mission of DOE/NV is to manage and operate the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other designated test locations, within and outside the United States; provide facilities and services to DOE and non-DOE NTS users; and plan. coordinate, and execute nuclear weapons tests and related test activities. DOE/NV also: (a) Supports operations under interagency agreements pertaining to tests, emergencies, and related functions/activities, (b) Plans, coordinates, and executes environmental restoration, (c) Provides support to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office in conjunction with DOE/HQ oversight, (d) Manages the Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes received from the NTS and off-site generators, and (e) Implements waste minimization programs to reduce the amount of hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous solid waste that is generated and disposed The NTS, which is the primary facility controlled by DOE/NV, occupies 1,350 square miles of restricted-access, federally-owned land located in Nye County in Southern Nevada. The NTS is located in a sparsely populated area, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  7. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, Sonja L.; English, Charles J.

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  8. Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop

    SciTech Connect

    Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

  9. Waste Minimization via Radiological Hazard Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.; Coffield, T.; Hooker, K.L.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility in south-western South Carolina, incorporates pollution prevention as a fundamental component of its Environmental Management System. A comprehensive pollution prevention program was implemented as part of an overall business strategy to reduce waste generation and pollution releases, minimize environmental impacts, and to reduce future waste management and pollution control costs. In fiscal years 1995 through 1997, the Site focused on implementing specific waste reduction initiatives identified while benchmarking industry best practices. These efforts resulted in greater than $25 million in documented cost avoidance. While these results have been dramatic to date, the Site is further challenged to maximize resource utilization and deploy new technologies and practices to achieve further waste reductions. The Site has elected to target a site-wide reduction of contaminated work spaces in fiscal year 1998 as the primary source reduction initiative. Over 120,900 m{sup 2} of radiologically contaminated work areas (approximately 600 separate inside areas) exist at SRS. Reduction of these areas reduces future waste generation, minimizes worker exposure, and reduces surveillance and maintenance costs. This is a major focus of the Site`s As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) program by reducing sources of worker exposure. The basis for this approach was demonstrated during 1997 as part of a successful Enhanced Work Planning pilot conducted at several specific contamination areas at SRS. An economic-based prioritization process was utilized to develop a model for prioritizing areas to reclaim. In the H-Canyon Separation facility, over 3,900 m{sup 2} of potentially contaminated area was rolled back to a Radiation Buffer Area. The facility estimated nearly 420 m{sup 3} of low level radioactive waste will be avoided each year, and overall cost savings and productivity gains will reach

  10. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  11. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  12. Industrial Waste Reduction Program. Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  13. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  14. Pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshops: Proceedings. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the second workshop was to bring together representatives of DOE and DOE contractor organizations to discuss four topics: process waste assessments (PWAs), a continuation of one of the sessions held at the first workshop in Clearwater; waste minimization reporting requirements; procurement systems for waste minimization; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The topics were discussed in four concurrent group sessions. Participants in each group were encouraged to work toward achieving two main objectives: establish a ``clear vision`` of the overall target for their session`s program, focusing not just on where the program is now but on where it should go in the long term; and determine steps to be followed to carry out the target program.

  15. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-12-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL.

  16. Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E

    2000-01-01

    Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents, chemicals, and radionuclides that find significant use in research are not likely to be persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic if they are released. Today, the primary motivations for the ongoing efforts by facilities to improve minimization and management of wastes are regulatory compliance and avoidance of the high disposal costs and liabilities associated with generation of regulated wastes. The committee concluded that there was no evidence suggesting that the anticipated increases in biomedical research will significantly increase generation of hazardous wastes or have adverse impacts on the general environment. This conclusion assumes the positive, countervailing trends of enhanced pollution prevention

  17. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department`s use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled.

  18. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  19. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  20. Closing the Loop: Integrated Waste Management Activities for School & Home. K-12 Edition. A School-Based Waste Minimization and Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Environmental Education, Chagrin Falls, OH.

    Increased human population has led to more frequent interactions with the environment. The results of those interactions have affected the Earth's ecosystem. This manual contains hands-on, problem-centered activities to help students develop an environmental ethic and stewardship regarding waste management. The activities are grouped under three…

  1. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  2. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year (CY) 2007. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (number NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  3. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-07

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2009. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit (No. NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO.

  4. Low-level waste minimization at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koger, J.

    1993-03-01

    The Y-12 Development Waste Minimization Program is used as a basis for defining new technologies and processes that produce minimum low-level wastes (hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and industrial) for the Y-12 Plant in the future and for Complex-21 and that aid in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) efforts throughout the complex. In the past, the strategy at the Y-12 Plant was to treat the residues from the production processes using chemical treatment, incineration, compaction, and other technologies, which often generated copious quantities of additional wastes and, with the exception of highly valuable materials such as enriched uranium, incorporated very little recycle in the process. Recycle, in this context, is defined as material that is put back into the process before it enters a waste stream. Additionally, there are several new technology drivers that have recently emerged with the changing climate in the Nuclear Weapons Complex such as Complex 21 and D and D technologies and an increasing number of disassemblies. The hierarchies of concern in the waste minimization effort are source reduction, recycle capability, treatment simplicity, and final disposal difficulty with regard to Complex 21, disassembly efforts, D and D, and, to a lesser extent, weapons production. Source reduction can be achieved through substitution of hazardous substances for nonhazardous materials, and process changes that result in less generated waste.

  5. Energy from Municipal Waste Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Each year Americans throw away 3 quads of energy in the form of municipal waste and pay 6 billion dollars for the privilege. Only about 21 percent of our municipal wastes are used productively to generate electricity or produce new products by recycling. In 1990, waste-to-energy (WTE) plants and recycling efforts contributed roughly half a quad of energy in the form of electricity and reduced energy use. This productive use of waste avoided the disposal of about 50 million tons of wastes to landfills in that year. The Administration National Energy Strategy (NES) estimates that with proper Federal, State, local, and private action the electric generating capacity of WTE facilities could increase 600 percent by 2010 and by over 1200 percent by 2030, compared to 1990 capacity. This would result in about 55 gigawatts (GW) of capacity by 2030, up from roughly 4 GW today. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports an integrated approach to waste management that includes source reduction, WTE, recycling, and landfilling as complementary pieces of a solution to the municipal waste disposal problem. The Energy from Municipal Waste Program, described in this plan, seeks to minimize the productive use of municipal waste as an energy resource to improving its economic and environmental characteristics. While the Program focuses on WTE systems, it is conducted as part of a larger Federal effort that includes source reduction and recycling of wastes to save energy.

  6. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.B.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  7. Solid waste recycling programs at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, R.L.; Blackman, T.E.; Shepard, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Flats (RFP) recycling programs for solid waste materials have been in place for over ten years. Within the last three years, the programs were centralized under the direction of the Rocky Flats Waste Minimization department, with the assistance of various plant organizations (e.g., Trucking, Building Services, Regulated Waste Operations, property Utilization and Disposal and Security). Waste Minimization designs collection and transportation systems for recyclable materials and evaluates recycling markets for opportunities to add new commodities to the existing programs. The Waste Minimization department also promotes employee participation in the Rocky Flats Recycling Programs, and collects all recycling data for publication. A description of the program status as of January 1994 is given.

  8. Summary of research on waste minimization studies by Japan Waste Research Foundation (JWRF)

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeshima, Yoshiro

    1996-12-31

    Japan is trying to provide a qualitatively better environment and the treatment of incinerator gas emissions is an indispensable part of pollution prevention programs. Therefore, a large part of incinerator wastes will be disposed of in landfills for municipal solid waste, and volume reduction and stabilization are major items on the technology agenda. For these reasons, the purpose of this research is waste minimization, namely reducing the volume of wastes that must be disposed of in landfills. This is being done by studying ways to use heat treatment to reduce the volume of incinerator ash, to develop technology for the effective use of treated material and to render fly ash and fused salts harmless. In addition, the author seeks to establish more advanced municipal solid waste treatment systems that reduce (slim) waste by using space efficiently and recovering metals in incinerator residue and fly ash for recycling.

  9. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have...

  10. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have...

  11. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have...

  12. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have...

  13. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have...

  14. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  15. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  16. JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Erica

    2003-01-01

    THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

  17. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  18. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SPEED REDUCTION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  19. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REFURBISHED RAILCAR ASSEMBLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  20. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization ssessment Cente...

  1. Waste Minimization Assessment for Multilayered Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manu facturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at s...

  2. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  3. Food waste minimization from a life-cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Bernstad Saraiva Schott, A; Andersson, T

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates potentials and environmental impacts related to household food waste minimization, based on a case study in Southern Sweden. In the study, the amount of avoidable and unavoidable food waste currently being disposed of by households was assessed through waste composition analyses and the different types of avoidable food waste were classified. Currently, both avoidable and unavoidable food waste is either incinerated or treated through anaerobic digestion. A hypothetical scenario with no generation of avoidable food waste and either anaerobic digestion or incineration of unavoidable food waste was compared to the current situation using the life-cycle assessment method, limited to analysis of global warming potential (GWP). The results from the waste composition analyses indicate that an average of 35% of household food waste is avoidable. Minimization of this waste could result in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 800-1400 kg/tonne of avoidable food waste. Thus, a minimization strategy would result in increased avoidance of GWP compared to the current situation. The study clearly shows that although modern alternatives for food waste treatment can result in avoidance of GWP through nutrient and energy recovery, food waste prevention yields far greater benefits for GWP compared to both incineration and anaerobic digestion.

  4. Proceedings of pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Pollution Prevention (P2) has evolved into one of DOE`s sprime strategies to meet environmental, fiscal, and worker safety obligations. P2 program planning, opportunity identification, and implementation tools were developed under the direction of the Waste Minimization Division (EM-334). Forty experts from EM, DP, ER and DOE subcontractors attended this 2-day workshop to formulate the incentives to drive utilization of these tools. Plenary and small working group sessions were held both days. Working Group 1 identified incentives to overcoming barriers in the area of P2 program planning and resource allocation. Working Group 2 identified mechanisms to drive the completion of P2 assessments and generation of opportunities. Working Group 3 compiled and documented a broad range of potential P2 incentives that address fundamental barriers to implementation of cost effective opportunities.

  5. Waste minimization opportunity assessment: A photofinishing facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. The study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The report identifies potential options to achieve further waste minimization progress. A number of waste producing processes were initially screened, and detailed technical evaluations were performed on wastes associated with process solutions and wash waters. Options identified were as follows: (1) wash water control; (2) silver recovery--metal replacement cartridges; (3) silver recovery--electrowinning (4) electrowinning with MRC tailing; (5) recovery of silver--ion exchange; (6) recovery of fixer; (7) recovery of bleach fix; and (8) recovery of developer. Based on the results of the assessment phase, Options 1-4 and 7 were selected for further evaluation in the feasibility phase. The results of the study indicate the fastest payback would be realized from Options 1 and 7 assuming Accuphoto's willingness to recycle bleach and no production increases.

  6. Savannah River Site Radiological Technology Center's Efforts Supporting Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, K. H.; Smith, L. S.; Bates, R. L.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the efforts of the newly formed Radiological Technology Center (RTC) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to support waste minimization. The formation of the RTC was based upon the highly successful ALARA Center at the DOE Hanford Site. The RTC is tasked with evaluation and dissemination of new technologies and techniques for radiological hazard reduction and waste minimization. Initial waste minimization efforts have focused on the promotion of SRS containment fabrication capabilities, new personal protective equipment and use of recyclable versus disposable materials.

  7. Developing hazardous waste programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  8. WASTE MINIMIZATION PRACTICES AT TWO CCA WOOD TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treatment plants were assessed for their waste minimization practices. These practices have been reflected in several areas, including facility designs, process controls, and management practices. he objectives were to estimate the amount...

  9. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2008.

  10. Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B.

    1995-07-01

    The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques.

  11. Analytical procedures for waste minimization and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Schilling, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    Procedures exist for waste characterization, but waste minimization and pollution prevention have not usually played a role in development of these procedures. The US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to require several million characterizations over a 30-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. We have begun investigating ways to reduce these secondary wastes, focusing on three areas: microanalysis using flow injection; reduction of solvent volume required for dissolution of waste samples for radiochemical analysis; and alternative samples preparation for analysis of organic constituents in waste samples. Preliminary results are reported.

  12. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  13. Adoption of waste minimization technology to benefit electroplaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, E.M.K.; Li, C.P.H.; Yu, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Because of increasingly stringent environmental legislation and enhanced environmental awareness, electroplaters in Hong Kong are paying more heed to protect the environment. To comply with the array of environmental controls, electroplaters can no longer rely solely on the end-of-pipe approach as a means for abating their pollution problems under the particular local industrial environment. The preferred approach is to adopt waste minimization measures that yield both economic and environmental benefits. This paper gives an overview of electroplating activities in Hong Kong, highlights their characteristics, and describes the pollution problems associated with conventional electroplating operations. The constraints of using pollution control measures to achieve regulatory compliance are also discussed. Examples and case studies are given on some low-cost waste minimization techniques readily available to electroplaters, including dragout minimization and water conservation techniques. Recommendations are given as to how electroplaters can adopt and exercise waste minimization techniques in their operations. 1 tab.

  14. Waste minimization study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Solvent Wastes: Final report. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-31

    Two solvent studies are described in Volumes I and II of the Final report/emdash/one covering Site 300 and the second covering the General Plant program. At the Laboratory's request the writeup on a third solvent study was delayed, and in its place, is a Lead Waste Minimization Study, Volume III of the Final Report. Also, a Lead Integrated Management Program report was prepared and delivered to the Laboratory. Actually, four solvent studies were conducted. Site 300 and the General Plant program were among the largest users of solvents and/or the largest producers of solvent wastes according to a laboratory-wide survey. Primarily for that reason, they were chosen for the studies. Each of the studies in this report is a stand-alone document so that a person needing information for one program could quickly refer to that specific study and not have to unnecessarily read the other study. In general, solvent is used for degreasing, parts cleaning, equipment cleaning, and paint cleanup. Solvent wastes are generated from each of these operations. 66 refs., 32 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Waste minimization study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Solvent wastes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-31

    Two solvent studies are described in Volumes 1 and 2 of the Final Report - one covering Site 300 and the second covering the General Plant program. At the Laboratory's request the writeup on a third solvent study was delayed, and in its place, is a Lead Waste Minimization Study, Volume 3 of the Final Report. Also, a Lead Integrated Management Program report was prepared and delivered to the Laboratory. Actually, four solvent studies were conducted. Site 300 and the General Plant program were among the largest users of solvents and/or the largest producers of solvent wastes according to a laboratory-wide survey. Primarily for that reason, they were chosen for the studies. Each of the studies in this report is a stand-alone document so that a person needing information for one program could quickly refer to that specific study and not have to unnecessarily read the other study. In general, solvent is used for degreasing, parts cleaning, equipment cleaning, and paint cleanup. Solvent wastes are generated from each of these operations. Volume 2 contains attachments for Volume 1.

  16. National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

  17. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Identification No. NV3890090001

    SciTech Connect

    Haworth, D.M.

    2011-01-30

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment.

  18. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: SCOTT AIR FORCE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a waste minimization assessment of three operations at Scott AFB. ircuit board manufacturing, non-destructive wheel inspection, and paint shipping/painting/parts cleaning are the operations addressed in this assessment. he primary focus of the assessment was...

  19. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberich, M.J.; Robinson, P.; Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  20. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  1. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  2. Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M.; Gay, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form, mixture, concentration, encapsulation, shape, size, and configuration. Accumulations and storage are minimized, shipments are sized for low risk. Actinides, fissile material, and long-lived isotopes are separated and completely burned or transmuted in an MSR. The MSR requires no fuel element fabrication, accepts the materials as salts in arbitrarily small quantities enhancing safety, security, and overall acceptability.

  3. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  4. A sustainable growth pathway for industries -- From waste minimization to an integrated environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.Y.

    1995-12-31

    A study of developing an integrated pollution prevention and environmental management program was conducted for a DOE facility. This study evaluated and established the following systems: the chemical and waste management system includes inventory and tracking program, emergency preparedness and safety program, waste handling, treatment, storage, and disposal program, and toxic chemical release inventory and source reduction program. The cleaner technology and waste minimization system addresses the solvent substitution, life-cycle assessment, resource conservation and recycling, and least hazardous chemical practices issues. The environmental protection and monitoring system has four elements which are: surfacewater, groundwater, wastewater, and stormwater program, air emission control and monitoring program, soil and solid contamination monitoring program, and ecological monitoring program. The environmental restoration/development system establishes cleanup and remediation program, least-toxic landscaping program, and design-for-environment program. The environmental auditing system evaluates the EH and S organization structure, the effectiveness of implementation of an environmental management system, the environmental commitment, employee training, and the effectiveness of the waste management and environmental protection and monitoring systems. A parallel testing of these systems in a developing country is also conducted to compare with the ISO 14000 standards.

  5. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

  6. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  7. An analysis of radioactive waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, S.L.; Boerigter, S.T.

    1997-09-30

    LANL will be the primary DOE facility for plutonium research and development and plutonium processing. A summary of the currently generated waste types, volumes, generating facilities or programs, and disposal costs are given in this report along with future waste generation projections. Several key existing technologies have been identified that could be introduced to reduce the generated waste at LANL. Four of these are discussed in detail in this report: (1) electrolytic surface decontamination, (2) electrochemical treatment of mixed wastes, (3) Long Range Alpha Detection (LRAD), and (4) Segmented Gate and Containerized Vat Leach System (SGS/CVL). These technologies may be implemented as modifications in upstream processes as well as more efficient volume reduction and segregation. The four technologies are mature enough to be implemented in the next two to three years and can be done so with the support for capital and operational costs. Also discussed in this report is a small sample of some of the recent waste minimization success stories that have been implemented. Several technologies are presented that are either currently being investigated or on hold due to lack of funding at LANL but show potential for making significant gains in waste minimization. This report is intended to provide a review of the waste minimization issues and analysis of the impact of implementing a few of these technologies.

  8. Development and implementation of a radwaste volume minimization program at FP and L

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, P.J.; Robinson, P.J.; Deltete, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Acts of 1985 established specific waste volume allocations that each utility must comply with until new disposal facilities are built within each of the established compact regions. In the case of the Florida Power and Light Co. (FP and L) St. Lucie and Turkey Point generating facilities, which are pressurized water reactor units located within a region that currently has an operating disposal facility each of the four units is limited to specified quantities. Based on FP and L's waste generation history over the past 10 yr, it is likely these allocations will be exceeded if waste generation rates are not reduced. To assure that allocation allotments are not exceeded, FP and L is developing and implementing a comprehensive volume minimization/reduction program aimed primarily at minimizing waste generation at the source through the implementation of relatively low-cost management techniques. The program will develop detailed characterizations of each relevant waste stream, select waste minimization techniques appropriate for the waste streams and operations at each plant, implement the respective techniques, and track the effectiveness of each technique in relation to the overall program. A key element to this program is its development through FP and L's Quality Improvement Program.

  9. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  10. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  11. An analysis of UK waste minimization clubs: key requirements for future cost effective developments.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P S; Pratt, R M; Pike, K

    2001-01-01

    The UK waste strategy is based upon use of the best practicable environmental option (BPEO), by those making waste management decisions. BPEO is supported by the use of the waste hierarchy, with its range of preferable options for dealing with waste, and the proximity principle, where waste is treated/disposed of as close to its point of origin as possible. The national waste strategy emphasizes the key role of waste minimization and encourages industry, commerce and the public to move towards sustainable waste management practice for economic and environmental reasons. Waste minimization clubs have been used, since the early 1990s, to demonstrate to industry/commerce that reducing waste production can lead to significant financial savings. There have been around 75 such clubs in the UK and they receive support from a wide range of agencies, including the Environmental Technology Best Practice Program. The early Demonstration Clubs had significant savings to cost ratios, e.g. Aire and Calder at 8.4, but had very high costs, e.g. Aire and Calder at 400,000 pounds. It is acknowledged that the number of clubs will have to be approximately doubled in the next few years so as to have an adequate coverage of the UK. There are at present, marked regional variations in club development and cognizance needs to be taken, by facilitators, of the need for extensive coverage of the UK. Future clubs will probably have to operate in a financially constrained climate and they need to be designed to deliver significant savings and waste reduction at low cost. To aid future club design, final reports of all projects should report in a standard manner so that cost benefit analysis can be used to inform facilitators about the most effective club type. rights reserved.

  12. Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul. E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Anthony, Stephen M.; Tsoras, Alexandra N.; Nur, Monoita; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed.

  13. Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Anthony, S. M.; Tsoras, A. N.; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.; Nur, Mononita

    2013-01-01

    Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed

  14. 360 Degree Photography to Decrease Exposure, Increase Safety & Minimize Waste

    SciTech Connect

    LEBARON, G.J.

    2002-01-31

    High-resolution digital cameras, in conjunction with software techniques. make possible 360{sup o} photos that allow a person to look all around, up and dawn, and zoom in or out. The software provides the opportunity to attach other information to a 360{sup o} photo such as sound tiles, flat photos (providing additional detail about what is behind a panel or around a corner) and text (Information which can be used to show radiological conditions or identify other hazards not readily visible). The software also allows other 360{sup o} photos to be attached creating a virtual tour where the user can move from area to area, and stop, study and zoom in on areas of interest. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, and training, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous radioactive areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and minimizes waste.

  15. Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

  16. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  17. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  18. Zinc recovery and waste sludge minimization from chromium passivation baths.

    PubMed

    Diban, Nazely; Mediavilla, Rosa; Urtiaga, Ane; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the feasibility of applying emulsion pertraction technology (EPT) aiming at zinc recovery and waste minimization in the zinc electroplating processes that include Cr (III) passivation. The assessment consists of firstly the lifetime extension of the passivation baths by selective removal of the tramp ions zinc and iron, and secondly, the recovery of zinc for further reuse. Spent passivation baths from a local industry were tested, being the major metallic content: Cr(3+) 9000mg L(-1), Zn(2+) 12,000mg L(-1), Fe(3+) 100mg L(-1). Working in a Liqui-Cel hollow fiber membrane contactor and using the extractant bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, reduction of zinc and iron concentrations below 60mg L(-1) and 2mg L(-1), respectively were obtained, while trivalent chromium, the active metal that generates the passivation layer, was retained in the baths. Zinc was selectively transferred to an acidic stripping phase that in the experimental time reached a concentration of 157,000mg L(-1). Zinc recovery by electrowinning from the acidic stripping phase without any pretreatment of the electrolyte solution provided a purity of 98.5%, matching the lower commercial zinc grade. As a result of the extension of the life time of the passivation bath, significant environmental advantages are derived such as minimization of the volume of hazardous wastes and savings in the consumption of raw materials. PMID:21704452

  19. Waste minimization in analytical chemistry through innovative sample preparation techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L. L.

    1998-05-28

    Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are commonly used in analytical methods, characterization procedures result in significant and costly amount of waste. We are developing alternative analytical methods in the radiological and organic areas to reduce the volume or form of the hazardous waste produced during sample analysis. For the radiological area, we have examined high-pressure, closed-vessel microwave digestion as a way to minimize waste from sample preparation operations. Heated solutions of strong mineral acids can be avoided for sample digestion by using the microwave approach. Because reactivity increases with pressure, we examined the use of less hazardous solvents to leach selected contaminants from soil for subsequent analysis. We demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by extracting plutonium from a NET reference material using citric and tartaric acids with microwave digestion. Analytical results were comparable to traditional digestion methods, while hazardous waste was reduced by a factor often. We also evaluated the suitability of other natural acids, determined the extraction performance on a wider variety of soil types, and examined the extraction efficiency of other contaminants. For the organic area, we examined ways to minimize the wastes associated with the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental samples. Conventional methods for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds are labor intensive and require copious amounts of hazardous solvents. For soil and sediment samples, we have a method to analyze PCBs that is based on microscale extraction using benign solvents (e.g., water or hexane). The extraction is performed at elevated temperatures in stainless steel cells containing the sample and solvent. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantitate the analytes in the isolated extract. More recently, we developed a method utilizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for natural

  20. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H.; Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B.

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  1. Waste minimization at Alpha -- A vehicle for progress

    SciTech Connect

    DiMartini, C.

    1994-12-31

    Alpha Metals, a Division of Cookson America, manufactures a full line of tin-lead solder alloy and soldering chemicals for the electronics industry. The solder alloys are produced at a facility in Jersey City, New Jersey. Raw materials are tin and lead purchased from primary producers and recycled and reclaimed alloy. Alpha also operates a facility in Alpharetta, Georgia which blends chemical intermediates to manufacture fluxes and cleaner sold to the printed circuit board and electronics assembly industries. Primary raw materials for the chemical blending operations are organic acids, solvents (mostly alcohols), rosin and surfactants. Both facilities generate hazardous wastes in these operations. These are collected, stored and directed to TSDs. The strategy of the federal government to encourage pollution prevention has been codified by the New Jersey and Georgia legislatives. As a consequent, both the Jersey City and Alpha facilities are actively pursuing changes in current operating practices and business objectives to minimize or eliminate hazardous non product output.

  2. Scrap metal recycling for waste minimization at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinella, M.A.; Harris, V.; Anderson, G.

    1994-12-31

    The US Army Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a former munitions and pesticide production, storage and demilitarization facility. Two large manufacturing complexes remain at the facility. All production activities ceased in 1982, and the Arsenal is now a National Priorities List (NPL) site undergoing environmental restoration. The US Army is now removing tanks, piping and equipment from the manufacturing areas. This paper addresses the Army`s use of recycling to minimize wastes that would otherwise be land disposed during these removal operations. The advantages of recycling and the problems and pitfalls will be addressed. This paper will focus primarily on scrap metal from areas that did not produce or store chemical warfare agents. The special case of recycling of containers and equipment associated with chemical warfare agents will also be briefly addressed.

  3. A model for a national low level waste program

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenhorn, James A

    2009-01-01

    A national program for the management of low level waste is essential to the success of environmental clean-up, decontamination and decommissioning, current operations and future missions. The value of a national program is recognized through procedural consistency and a shared set of resources. A national program requires a clear waste definition and an understanding of waste characteristics matched against available and proposed disposal options. A national program requires the development and implementation of standards and procedures for implementing the waste hierarchy, with a specitic emphasis on waste avoidance, minimization and recycling. It requires a common set of objectives for waste characterization based on the disposal facility's waste acceptance criteria, regulatory and license requirements and performance assessments. Finally, a national waste certification program is required to ensure compliance. To facilitate and enhance the national program, a centralized generator services organization, tasked with providing technical services to the generators on behalf of the national program, is necessary. These subject matter experts are the interface between the generating sites and the disposal facility(s). They provide an invaluable service to the generating organizations through their involvement in waste planning prior to waste generation and through championing implementation of the waste hierarchy. Through their interface, national treatment and transportation services are optimized and new business opportunities are identified. This national model is based on extensive experience in the development and on-going management of a national transuranic waste program and management of the national repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Low Level Program at the Savannah River Site also successfully developed and implemented the waste hierarchy, waste certification and waste generator services concepts presented below. The Savannah River Site

  4. Waste minimization opportunity assessment, U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New York. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard facility at Governors Island, New York, was chosen for a waste reduction assessment under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. The Coast Guard mission on the Island, which serves as a support center for Coast Guard activities in the New York area, generates a substantial amount of hazardous waste (e.g., lead-acid batteries, lead-contaminated blast grit, paint, and paint-related materials). Opportunities to minimize waste through technology included substituting plastic for steel shot when removing paint and rust from buoys and using high volume/low pressure paint guns to reduce overspray.

  5. TRU waste-sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. WASTE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM PLAN - REVISION 7

    SciTech Connect

    MORGAN, LK

    2002-01-08

    The primary changes that have been made to this revision reflect the relocation of the Waste Certification Official (WCO) organizationally from the Quality Services Division (QSD) into the Laboratory Waste Services (LWS) Organization. Additionally, the responsibilities for program oversight have been differentiated between the QSD and LWS. The intent of this effort is to ensure that those oversight functions, which properly belonged to the WCO, moved with that function; but retain an independent oversight function outside of the LWS Organization ensuring the potential for introduction of organizational bias, regarding programmatic and technical issues, is minimized. The Waste Certification Program (WCP) itself has been modified to allow the waste certification function to be performed by any of the personnel within the LWS Waste Acceptance/Certification functional area. However, a single individual may not perform both the technical waste acceptance review and the final certification review on the same 2109 data package. Those reviews must be performed by separate individuals in a peer review process. There will continue to be a designated WCO who will have lead programmatic responsibility for the WCP and will exercise overall program operational oversite as well as determine the overall requirements of the certification program. The quality assurance organization will perform independent, outside oversight to ensure that any organizational bias does not degrade the integrity of the waste certification process. The core elements of the previous WCP have been retained, however, the terms and process structure have been modified.. There are now two ''control points,'' (1) the data package enters the waste certification process with the signature of the Generator Interface/Generator Interface Equivalent (GI/GIE), (2) the package is ''certified'', thus exiting the process. The WCP contains three steps, (1) the technical review for waste acceptance, (2) a review of the

  7. POLLUTION BALANCE METHOD AND THE DEMONSTRATION OF ITS APPLICATION TO MINIMIZING WASTE IN A BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appro...

  8. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility, Permit Number NEV HW0101, Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Patrick

    2014-02-14

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  9. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    J Dorsey

    1999-10-14

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.

  10. 1994 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1995-10-16

    The Y-12 Plant serves as a key manufacturing technology center for the development and demonstration of unique materials, components, and services of importance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. This is accomplished through the reclamation and storage of nuclear materials, manufacture of nuclear materials, manufacture of components for the nation`s defense capabilities, support to national security programs, and services provided to other customers as approved by DOE. We are recognized by our people, the community, and our customers as innovative, responsive, and responsible. We are a leader in worker health and safety, environmental protection, and stewardship of our national resources. As a DOE facility, Y-12 also supports DOE`s waste minimization mission. Data contained in this report represents waste generation in Tennessee.

  11. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars.

  12. Systematic process synthesis and design methods for cost effective waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Biegler, L.T.; Grossman, I.E.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1995-12-31

    We present progress on our work to develop synthesis methods to aid in the design of cost effective approaches to waste minimization. Work continues to combine the approaches of Douglas and coworkers and of Grossmann and coworkers on a hierarchical approach where bounding information allows it to fit within a mixed integer programming approach. We continue work on the synthesis of reactors and of flexible separation processes. In the first instance, we strive for methods we can use to reduce the production of potential pollutants, while in the second we look for ways to recover and recycle solvents.

  13. Waste management/waste certification plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. Jr.; Hunt-Davenport, L.D.; Cofer, G.H.

    1995-03-01

    This Waste Management/Waste Certification (C) Plan, written for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), outlines the criteria and methodologies to be used in the management of waste generated during ORNL ER field activities. Other agreed upon methods may be used in the management of waste with consultation with ER and Waste Management Organization. The intent of this plan is to provide information for the minimization, handling, and disposal of waste generated by ER activities. This plan contains provisions for the safe and effective management of waste consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance. Components of this plan have been designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public. It, therefore, stresses that investigation derived waste (IDW) and other waste be managed to ensure that (1) all efforts be made to minimize the amount of waste generated; (2) costs associated with sampling storage, analysis, transportation, and disposal are minimized; (3) the potential for public and worker exposure is not increased; and (4) additional contaminated areas are not created.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM CANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED PLASTIC BAGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A METAL PARTS COATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  17. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PROTOTYPE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  20. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: US Coast Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. The assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas that were assessed were paint removal operations using blasting grit, buoy painting, and on-site solvent recovery.

  1. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  6. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS AND SCHOTTKY RECTIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTUERE OF OUTDOOR ILLUMINATED SIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  8. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTIC PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  9. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  10. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. ); Sen, R.K. and Associates, Washington, DC )

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  11. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.K.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  12. Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, G.L.; Holstein, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan (HWCPP) describes how the Rocky Flats Plant institutes a more effective waste management program designed to achieve and maintain strict adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Emphasis is given to improve integration of line operations with programmatic and functional support activities necessary to achieve physical compliance to RCRA regulated equipment, facilities and operations at the floor level. This program focuses on specific activities occurring or which need to occur within buildings containing RCRA regulated units and activities. The plan describes a new approach to achieving and maintaining compliance. This approach concentrates authority and accountability for compliance with the line operating personnel, with support provided from the programmatic functions. This approach requires a higher degree of integration and coordination between operating and program support organizations. The principal changes in emphases are; (1) increased line operations involvement, knowledge and accountability in compliance activities, (2) improved management systems to identify, correct and/or avoid deficiencies and (3) enhanced management attention and employee awareness of compliance related matters.

  13. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  14. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the

  15. Integrated decision support system for waste minimization analysis in chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Halim, Iskandar; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan

    2002-04-01

    The need to build and operate environmentally friendly plants has challenged the chemical industry to consider waste minimization or even elimination starting from the early stages of process development. A thorough waste minimization analysis requires specialized expertise and is laborious, time-consuming, expensive, and knowledge-intensive. This has caused a major technical barrier for implementing waste minimization programswithin the industry. Previously, we had reported a systematic methodology and a knowledge-based system, called ENVOPExpert, for identifying waste minimization opportunities in chemical processes. In this paper, we propose an integrated qualitative-quantitative methodology to identify waste minimization alternatives and assess their efficacy in terms of environmental impact and process economics. A qualitative analysis is first conducted to identify the sources of wastes and to propose alternatives for eliminating or minimizing them. Environmental impact of each alternative is then calculated by doing a quantitative pollutant balance. The capital expenditure required for implementing the alternative and the resulting plant operating costs are also calculated and used in the evaluation of the waste minimization alternatives. Through this, practical and cost-effective options can be identified. This methodology has been implemented as an integrated decision support system and tested using the hydrodealkylation process case study with satisfactory results.

  16. [Integrating technologies for urban communities' municipal solid waste minimization].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Bin; Liu, Jing-Ru; Wang, Ru-Song; Zhang, Yi-Shan

    2010-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management of urban communities has difficulties of insufficient source separation and food waste's high moisture content, an integrating technology of manual separation, simple compression of food waste, reclaim of food waste and composting leachate was studied. Manual separating rate was 36.8 kg/h, and would increase when the worker became sophisticated. Community separated food waste had high organic matter content of 44.493%, nutrients N, P, K contents of 2.586%, 0.649% and 1.274%, C/N ratio of 17.427, but 0.07-0.82 times lower heavy metals contents compared to centralized separation of mixed municipal solid waste. Moisture content of food waste was still 78.7%, high enough to have negative impacts of composting processes. Composting leachate processing with biological stabilization and dilution showed a fertilizer efficiency, and dry weight of impatiens irrigated with composting leachate was 1.46-2.49 times of tap water irrigation. Integrating technology based on community's manual separation could decrease 52.6% municipal solid waste.

  17. Strategic Minimization of High Level Waste from Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael F.; Benedict, Robert W.

    2007-09-01

    The pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in two high-level waste streams--ceramic and metal waste. Ceramic waste contains active metal fission product-loaded salt from the electrorefining, while the metal waste contains cladding hulls and undissolved noble metals. While pyroprocessing was successfully demonstrated for treatment of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in 1999, it was done so without a specific objective to minimize high-level waste generation. The ceramic waste process uses “throw-away” technology that is not optimized with respect to volume of waste generated. In looking past treatment of EBR-II fuel, it is critical to minimize waste generation for technology developed under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). While the metal waste cannot be readily reduced, there are viable routes towards minimizing the ceramic waste. Fission products that generate high amounts of heat, such as Cs and Sr, can be separated from other active metal fission products and placed into short-term, shallow disposal. The remaining active metal fission products can be concentrated into the ceramic waste form using an ion exchange process. It has been estimated that ion exchange can reduce ceramic high-level waste quantities by as much as a factor of 3 relative to throw-away technology.

  18. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite.

  19. Drilling fluids waste minimization and stabilization using polymer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.F.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to address environmental issues associated with generated waste through drilling. Polymers have been proven to be extremely effective in the waste reduction in drilling closed system without the use of solids control equipment with shale shakers optional and the stabilization of drilling discharges using additional polymer technology. The objective is to demonstrate that with the proper use of polymers, waste can be reduced and stabilized without an increase in volume and with a very cost effective method. The result is that the environment will be enhanced while reducing risks and costs.

  20. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request... pollution prevention or waste minimization measures will significantly reduce the amount and/or toxicity...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request... pollution prevention or waste minimization measures will significantly reduce the amount and/or toxicity...

  4. Waste minimization: A team approach at McGuire nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Poteat, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    The production of radioactive waste and its subsequent disposal is a costly proposition. Burial of low-level waste (LLW), if available at all, is expensive and getting more so. The availability of disposal options is often subject to the whims and vagaries of political forces that cannot be predicted, let alone controlled in any way by the members of the nuclear community. On-site storage is a limited and, quite often, an extremely difficult process to put into place. After LLW has been generated, various volume reduction techniques are available, but these can vary widely in cost and effectiveness. If and when new disposal sites are available, the waste acceptance criteria may be such that some or all of the volume reduction processes will not produce an acceptable final waste form. Consequently, the best thing to do is probably deceptively simple: Do not generate the waste in the first place. This is the philosophy that McGuire nuclear station operates under, and this paper discusses the team approach that has been developed to support this idea.

  5. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. The assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. These shops service the Mark 48 torpedo and the Mark 46 torpedo respectively. The five waste minimization options presented are volume reduction of contaminated clothing, automated cleaning of parts, automated fuel tank draining, modification of the deep sink draining schedule and recycling of mineral spirits.

  6. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  7. CONMIN: A FORTRAN program for constrained function minimization: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    CONMIN is a FORTRAN program, in subroutine form, for the solution of linear or nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The basic optimization algorithm is the Method of Feasible Directions. The user must provide a main calling program and an external routine to evaluate the objective and constraint functions and to provide gradient information. If analytic gradients of the objective or constraint functions are not available, this information is calculated by finite difference. While the program is intended primarily for efficient solution of constrained problems, unconstrained function minimization problems may also be solved, and the conjugate direction method of Fletcher and Reeves is used for this purpose. This manual describes the use of CONMIN and defines all necessary parameters. Sufficient information is provided so that the program can be used without special knowledge of optimization techniques. Sample problems are included to help the user become familiar with CONMIN and to make the program operational.

  8. POLLUTION BALANCE: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR MINIMIZING WASTE PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new methodolgy based on a generic pollution balance equation, has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. A "pollution index," defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative meas...

  9. High-pressure microwave digestion: A waste-minimization tool for the radiochemistry laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.L.; Yaeger, J.S.

    1996-11-01

    High-pressure, closed-vessel microwave systems are an important waste-minimization tool for the radiochemistry laboratory. This approach offers significant improvements in the sample-preparation process for the radiochemical analyses of soil. These microwave systems dramatically reduce secondary wastes from the sample-preparation process can be decreased by factors of ten or more.

  10. Waste minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a systematic approach to identify, select and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. The report describes the application of the waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station in Keyport, WA (NUWES Keyport).

  11. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government…

  12. INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

  13. Barriers to development and deployment of innovative waste minimization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, E.A.; Donaghue, J.F.

    1994-08-01

    Increasing regulation and scrutiny is driving waste generators towards reducing the use of scarce natural resources and reducing or eliminating was streams. There is increasing emphasis on developing and deploying technologies that meet industry needs for recovering valuable materials in a cost-effective manner. At the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, Battelle operates Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL`s mission is to develop technologies to clean up the environment, and to assist industry in being competitive on a global scale. One such technology developed by PNL is the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) process. This technology recovers acids from metal-bearing spent solutions, separating out the metals (which are a valuable byproduct of the acid recycling operation) from the acids. WADR uses selective precipitation and distillation together in an innovative waste recycling technology. Selective precipitation removes the heavy metals, and vacuum distillation recovers clean acid. However, WADR and other innovative waste reduction technologies face numerous barriers to successful development and deployment in the field.

  14. Program Planning Concepts in Solid Waste Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Presents a brief review of the program planning process, and uses the example of a solid waste program to illustrate what has or has not been accomplished through the use of the planning process. (LK)

  15. Antimicrobial stewardship programs - cost-minimizing or cost-effective?

    PubMed

    You, Joyce

    2015-02-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are aimed to improve patient care and health care outcomes. It is encouraging to find ASP interventions to be cost-saving in many cost-minimization analyses in literature. Nevertheless, the cost-effectiveness of ASP interventions, measured in cost per quality-adjusted life-years, is less well-established. This Editorial aims to explore the barriers in assessing clinical effectiveness of ASPs and provide suggestions to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of ASPs. PMID:25331093

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PENNY BLANKS AND ZINC PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EnvIronmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  17. Pollution balance method and the demonstration of its application to minimizing waste in a biochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    In this study, the authors introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appropriate waste reduction tasks at designated levels of the hierarchy. A sensitivity coefficient was used to measure the relative impacts of process variables on the pollution index of a process. The use of the WAR algorithm was demonstrated by a fermentation process for making penicillin.

  18. Waste Management Technician Partnership Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Donna

    This final report for Columbia Basin College's waste management technician partnership program outlines 4 objectives: (1) develop at least 4 waste management competency-based curriculum modules; (2) have 50 participants complete at least 1 module; (3) have 100 participants complete a training and/or certification program and 200 managers complete…

  19. Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

    1991-07-01

    This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

  20. An introduction to nonlinear programming. IV - Numerical methods for constrained minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, H. W.; Koble, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    An overview is presented of the numerical solution of constrained minimization problems. Attention is given to both primal and indirect (linear programs and unconstrained minimizations) methods of solution.

  1. From waste minimization to ISO 14000: Taiwan`s experience and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Huei Chen; Wain-Sun Hou

    1996-12-31

    Taiwan has completed a very successful five-year industrial waste minimization (IWM) demonstration and promotion project sponsored by the government. From 1990 to 1995, the project successfully disseminated the IWM concept of pollution prevention (P2) to industries. It effectively reduced industrial waste while significantly benefitting the economy by assisting industries in implementing in-plant IWM programs. In July 1995, the second stage of the five-year IWM and ISO 14000 promotion project was initiated for further promoting the IWM, P2, and cleaner production and, in particular, coping with the upcoming international environmental management standards (ISO 14000). To assist industries in establishing an environmental management system (EMS) and accumulating related experience, an EMS pilot demonstration project of five model industries and an ISO 14001 EMS demonstration and promotion project for 22 factories in 13 industries were initiated in October 1995 and August 1996, respectively. These projects can assist Taiwan`s industries in changing the constitution of their enterprises, enhancing competition in the international market, and helping our nation achieve the forerunner`s profits in sustainable development. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Waste minimization study for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann; Huang, Hann S.; Peters, R.W.; Tsai, S.Y. ); Tsai, Wen-Tien; Shieh, Shih-Shien; Hsieh, Te-Yuan; Hwang, Li-Shyong ); Liu, Solo; Peng, Chien-Tang ); Wu, Min H. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of industrial waste minimization sponsored by the Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, Republic of China. Waste reduction opportunities are identified and evaluated for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan. Plant audits were conducted on various processes, such as deburring, alkaline etching, black oxidation, desmearing, electroless copper, and copper and tin/lead plating. Specific areas in which the wastes could be minimized, such as reducing the amount of dragout and rinse water requirements in the plating and etchant lines, and on-site treatment and reuse of spent bath solutions were identified, assessed, and implemented. Jar tests on the wastewater were performed, and the results were used to improve the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant for removal of heavy metals and reduction of sludge generation. In addition, administrative controls of hazardous wastes designed to reduce associated health and environmental hazards were recommended. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of chemicals. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Looby, G.P.; Miller, P.S.

    1992-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing acrylic emulsions, low molecular weight resins, herbicides, and specialty chemicals - approximately 300 million lb/yr. In general, monomers, additives, activators, and catalysts are metered and mixed in tanks then pumped sequentially into reactor vessels. Once the product is formed, the solution is pumped into a blend tank where more chemicals, such as binders, emulsifiers, and thickeners, are added. The team's report recommendations, indicated that the majority of waste was generated in the waste water treatment system and that the greatest savings could be obtained by installing a natural gas-fired dry-off oven in the waste water treatment system to reduce (by 81%) the amount of sludge removed to the landfill.

  5. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  6. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  7. Waste minimization plan construction and operation of the replacement cross-site transfer system, project W-058

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, T.D.

    1996-04-01

    This report addresses the research and development of a waste minimization plan for the construction and operation of Project W-058, Replacement of the Cross-Site Transfer System, on the Hanford Site. The plan is based on Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307, Plans. The waste minimization plan identifies areas where pollution prevention/waste minimization principles can be incorporated into the construction and operation of the cross-site transfer system.

  8. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of rebuilt railway cars and components. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1991-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee inspected a plant that rebuilds approximately 2,000 railway cars (open, flat, and freight) each year and that refurbishes wheel assemblies and air brake systems. The team's report, detailing their findings and recommendations, indicated that the greatest opportunities to minimize waste came from the railcar painting operation where paint and primer solids and sludge are generated. The team recommended installing an electrostatic spray paint system for priming and painting to reduce the overspray losses. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

  10. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of printed plastic bags. Research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing printed plastic bags for snack foods - approximately 1.8 million lb/yr. Plastic stock is ink printed and oven cured. To make single-layer bags, a heat seal process is used, and the bags are then packaged and shipped. For certain products, a plastic or metalized film is laminated to the printed plastic film, the rolls are slit to obtain individual bags, and the bags are packaged and shipped. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated the most waste was generated in the lamination process and that the greatest savings could be obtained by installing an automatic adhesive/solvent mixing system to reduce (75%) the waste from the unused metalized film adhesive/solvent mixture.

  11. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  12. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of metal-plated display racks. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Looby, G.P.; Kirsch, F.W.

    1992-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing metal-plated display racks. Steel wire, tubing, and sheets undergo machining operations, and the resulting parts are then nickel and brass-plated, nickel-plated, zinc-plated, nickel and chrome-plated, or painted. The various finished parts are assembled into display racks. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the majority of waste was generated by the plating lines and that the greatest waste reduction would result from utilizing a Zero Discharge Recovery system in the nickel-plating baths.

  13. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-02-25

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

  14. Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jorg Schwitzgebel; Klaus Schwitzgebel; Michael W. Bonem; Ronald E. Borah

    1998-12-09

    From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT â Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT â chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.

  15. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  16. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-12-31

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.

  17. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.

  18. Waste-minimization assessment for a paint-manufacturing plant. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1991-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University inspected a plant blending and mixing raw materials into paints, coatings, stains, and surface-treating products. For water-based paints, water, latex, resins, extenders, and pigments are mixed and blended. For oil-based paints, solvents replace water and latex, and plasticizers, tints, and thinners are also added. These batches are then transferred to let-down tanks where additional ingredients are incorporated. After testing, the paints meeting specifications are filtered, canned, labelled, and packaged for shipping. Hazardous wastes result when the mixing vessels, let-down tanks, and lines are cleaned. For example, cleaning a let-down tank after a water-based paint has been blended requires about 35 gal water; after a 400-gal tank for a solvent-based paint, about 5 gal mineral spirits. Because the spirits are sent off-site for recovery, most of the waste results from cleaning up after mixing water-based paint. This waste is hazardous because it contains mercury used as the bactericide. Although the plant reuses rinse water, recovers solvent, and has adopted other measures to reduce waste, the team report, detailing findings and recommendations, suggested that additional savings could result from installing a pipe cleaning system, using a solvent-recovery system based on distillation, and substituting an organic material for the mercury bactericide.

  19. Waste minimization measures associated with the analysis of {sup 137}Cs in coconut milk collected from the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.; Jones, H.; Wong, K.; Robinson, W.

    1998-05-01

    The Marshall Islands Environmental Characterization and Dose Assessment Program has recently implemented waste minimization measures to reduce low level radioactive (LLW) and low level mixed (LLWMIXED) waste streams at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Several thousand environmental samples are collected annually from former US nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands, and returned to LLNL for processing and radiometric analysis. In the past, we analyzed coconut milk directly by gamma-spectrometry after adding formaldehyde (as preservative) and sealing the fluid in metal cans. This procedure was not only tedious and time consuming but generated storage and waste disposal problems. We have now reduced the number of coconut milk samples required for analysis from 1500 per year to approximately 250, and developed a new analytical procedure which essentially eliminates the associated mixed radioactive waste stream. Coconut milk samples are mixed with a few grams of ammonium-molydophosphate (AMP) which quantitatively scavenges the target radionuclide cesium 137 in an ion-exchange process. The AMP is then separated from the mixture and sealed in a plastic container. The bulk sample material can be disposed of as a non- radioactive non-hazardous waste, and the relatively small amount of AMP conveniently counted by gamma-spectrometry, packaged and stored for future use.

  20. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report - Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Patrick

    2015-02-17

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  1. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-16

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  2. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P. M.

    2013-02-21

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.

  3. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  4. WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Walterskirchen, K.M.

    1997-03-31

    WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

  5. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  9. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, October-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1983-07-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, in situ storage or disposal, waste from development and characterization, process and equipment development, and low-level waste management are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities.

  10. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, Aporil-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, process and equipment development, TRU waste, and low-level waste are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities.

  11. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of motor-vehicle exterior mirrors. Environmental Research Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1992-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing exterior motor vehicle mirrors--approximately 3 million mirrors per year. Galvanized steel and stainless steel stock undergo stamping, pressing, and cutting operations followed by degreasing. Stainless steel mirror housings are buffed, assembled, packaged, and shipped. Galvanized steel, zinc die-cast, and plastic mirror parts are washed then electrostatically primed and painted. Parts are assembled, packaged, and shipped. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the majority of the waste was generated in the cleaning and washing areas but that the greatest savings could be obtained by installing an electrostatic powder coating system to reduce primer/paint overspray (100%) solvent evaporation (55%), cleaning solvent evaporation (80%), and still bottoms (80%).

  12. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of printed-circuit boards. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1991-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University inspected a plant producing printed circuit boards -- a plant that already had taken steps to control its hazardous wastes. Producing a circuit board involves many major processes and subprocesses: preparing the board; depositing copper on the board by electroless plating; applying dry film; electrolytically plating copper; electrolytically plating tin; etching and stripping; applying solder; and, perhaps, plating gold on connectors. Each of these steps produces hazardous wastes, e.g., electrolytic copper plating results in acid soap dumps, copper and tin drag-out, and sulfuric acid. The main sources of metallic contamination (copper (both dissolved and metallic), tin, lead, gold) are the rinses after scrubbing, plating, and etching. Although the greatest amount of waste can be reduced by reusing effluent from the MEMTEK (with some further treatment), the greatest dollar savings can be found by changing the dry film developer. The present brand adheres strongly to the unexposed film and requires an aggressive acid soap; a less aggressive, nonhazardous soap could be used with a less-adhering dry film developer. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

  13. Unrestricted disposal of minimal activity levels of radioactive wastes: exposure and risk calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rule 10 CFR Part 20, which covers disposal of solid wastes containing minimal radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. Monetary consequences of minimal activity waste disposal are briefly discussed. The PRESTO methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 12 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  14. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2010

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2011-06-23

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2010 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2010 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2009-00138, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2010, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2010 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 30, 31 and 32 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2010-00533, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2010, Waste Tanks 30, 31 and 32. A total of 5824 photographs were made and 1087 visual and video inspections were performed during 2010. Ten new leaksites at Tank 5 were identified in 2010. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.5. Ten leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. None of these new leaksites resulted in a release to the environment. The leaksites were documented during wall cleaning activities and the waste nodules associated with the leaksites were washed away. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tank 12 during waste removal activities.

  15. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  16. Computer optimization program finds values for several independent variables that minimize a dependent variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warech, E. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program finds values of independent variables which minimize the dependent variable. This optimization program has been used on the F-1 and J-2 engine programs to establish minimum film coolant requirements.

  17. The Remote-Handled TRU Waste Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gist, C. S.; Plum, H. L.; Wu, C. F.; Most, W. A.; Burrington, T. P.; Spangler, L. R.

    2002-02-26

    RH TRU Waste is radioactive waste that requires shielding in addition to that provided by the container to protect people nearby from radiation exposure. By definition, the radiation dose rate at the outer surface of the container is greater than 200 millirem per hour and less than 1,000 rem per hour. The DOE is proposing a process for the characterization of RH TRU waste planned for disposal in the WIPP. This characterization process represents a performance-driven approach that satisfies the requirements of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for WIPP long-term performance, the transportation requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Transportation, as well as the technical safety requirements of RH TRU waste handling. The transportation, management and disposal of RH TRU waste is regulated by external government agencies as well as by the DOE itself. Externally, the characterization of RH-TRU waste for disposal at the WIPP is regulated by 20.4.1.500 New Mexico Administrative Code (incorporating 40 CFR 261.13) for the hazardous constituents and 40 CFR 194.24 for the radioactive constituents. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission certifies the shipping casks and the transportation system must meet DOT regulations. Internally, the DOE evaluates the environmental impacts of RH TRU waste transportation, handling and disposal through its National Environmental Policy Act program. The operational safety is assessed in the RH TRU Waste Safety Analysis Report, to be approved by the DOE. The WIPP has prepared a modification request to the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit that includes modifications to the WIPP facility for the safe receipt and handling of RH TRU waste and the addition of an RH TRU waste analysis plan. Modifications to the facility include systems and equipment for safe handling of RHTRU containers. Two shipping casks are to be used to optimize RH TRU was te throughput

  18. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of parts for truck engines. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Binkley, K.; Thomas, T.; Wilson, S.; Daley, E.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures turbochargers, fan drives, and vibration dampers for truck engines. Metal castings are machined and cleaned; degreased, coated and/or painted, if required; and assembled, inspected, packaged, and shipped. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the plant could achieve significant cost savings by replacing its solvent-based painting system with an electrostatic powder coating system, thereby reducing paint overspray.

  19. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides information on the progress of activities during fiscal year 1993 in the Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a new program, efforts are just getting underway toward addressing major issues related to the fuel and waste stored at the ICPP. The SF&WMTDP has the following principal objectives: Investigate direct dispositioning of spent fuel, striving for one acceptable waste form; determine the best treatment process(es) for liquid and calcine wastes to minimize the volume of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and low level waste (LLW); demonstrate the integrated operability and maintainability of selected treatment and immobilization processes; and assure that implementation of the selected waste treatment process is environmentally acceptable, ensures public and worker safety, and is economically feasible.

  20. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hohnstreiter, G. F.; Glass, R. E.; McAllaster, M. E.; Nigrey, P. J.; Trennel, A. J.; Yoshimura, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas.

  1. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  2. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  3. OVERVIEW OF MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) is an interagency agreement with the DOE and has partnerships with Universities, Forest Service, BLM, Industry and states. The mission of the MWTP is to provide engineering solutions to national environmental issues resulting from the past...

  4. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

  5. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM- 2007

    SciTech Connect

    West, B; Ruel Waltz, R

    2008-06-05

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. The 2007 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. A very small amount of material had seeped from Tank 12 from a previously identified leaksite. The material observed had dried on the tank wall and did not reach the annulus floor. A total of 5945 photographs were made and 1221 visual and video inspections were performed during 2007. Additionally, ultrasonic testing was performed on four Waste Tanks (15, 36, 37 and 38) in accordance with approved inspection plans that met the requirements of WSRC-TR-2002- 00061, Revision 2 'In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks'. The Ultrasonic Testing (UT) In-Service Inspections (ISI) are documented in a separate report that is prepared by the ISI programmatic Level III UT Analyst. Tanks 15, 36, 37 and 38 are documented in 'Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2007'; WSRC-TR-2007-00064.

  6. MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE`s mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel.

  7. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  8. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  9. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program -- 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1994-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1993 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report. The 1993 inspection program revealed that the condition of the Savannah River Site waste tanks had not changed significantly from that reported in the previous annual report. No new leaksites were observed. No evidence of corrosion or materials degradation was observed in the waste tanks. However, degradation was observed on covers of the concrete encasements for the out-of-service transfer lines to Tanks 1 through 8.

  10. Australian Waste Wise Schools Program: Its Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Waste Wise Schools program has a longstanding history in Australia. It is an action-based program that encourages schools to move toward zero waste through their curriculum and operating practices. This article provides a review of the program, finding that it has had notable success in reducing schools' waste through a "reduce, reuse, and…

  11. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. At the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated ...

  12. NEWSUMT: A FORTRAN program for inequality constrained function minimization, users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program written in FORTRAN subroutine form for the solution of linear and nonlinear constrained and unconstrained function minimization problems is presented. The algorithm is the sequence of unconstrained minimizations using the Newton's method for unconstrained function minimizations. The use of NEWSUMT and the definition of all parameters are described.

  13. A generic hazardous waste management training program

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Karnofsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of this training program element is to familiarize personnel involved in hazardous waste management with the goals of RCRA and how they are to be achieved. These goals include: to protect health and the environment; to conserve valuable material and energy resources; to prohibit future open dumping on the land; to assure that hazardous waste management practices are conducted in a manner which protects human health and the environment; to insure that hazardous waste is properly managed thereby reducing the need for corrective actions in the future; to establish a national policy to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste, wherever feasible. Another objective of this progam element is to present a brief overview of the RCRA regulations and how they are implemented/enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each of the fifty states. This element also discusses where the RCRA regulations are published and how they are updated. In addition it details who is responsible for compliance with the regulations. Finally, this part of the training program provides an overview of the activities and materials that are regulated. 1 ref.

  14. Evidence-Based Integrated Environmental Solutions For Secondary Lead Smelters: Pollution Prevention And Waste Minimization Technologies And Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization...

  15. Waste certification program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kornegay, F.C.

    1996-09-01

    This document defines the waste certification program being developed for implementation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The document describes the program structure, logic, and methodology for certification of ORNL wastes. The purpose of the waste certification program is to provide assurance that wastes are properly characterized and that the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for receiving facilities are met. The program meets the waste certification requirements outlined in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, and ensures that 40 CFR documentation requirements for waste characterization are met for mixed (both radioactive and hazardous) and hazardous (including polychlorinated biphenyls) waste. Program activities will be conducted according to ORNL Level 1 document requirements.

  16. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-09

    This TWRS Program plan presents the planning requirements and schedules and management strategies and policies for accomplishing the TWRS Project mission. It defines the systems and practices used to establish consistency for business practices, engineering, physical configuration and facility documentation, and to maintain this consistency throughout the program life cycle, particularly as changes are made. Specifically, this plan defines the following: Mission needs and requirements (what must be done and when must it be done); Technical objectives/approach (how well must it be done); Organizational structure and philosophy (roles, responsibilities, and interfaces); and Operational methods (objectives and how work is to be conducted in both management and technical areas). The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and supports the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing contracts with private contractors for the treatment (immobilization) of Hanford tank high-level radioactive waste.

  17. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1998-04-13

    Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-04-06

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  19. Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1994-02-01

    To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal are identified. Two initiatives now in early stages of implementation are described in some detail. A highly motivated and trained work force and a systems approach to waste minimization and pollution prevention are necessary to maintain technical capabilities, to comply with regulations, and to meet the strategic goal.

  20. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  2. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, July-December, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1986-10-01

    This report provides information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, other support, in situ storage or disposal, waste form development and characterization, process and equipment development, and the Defense Waste Processing Facility are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations: tank farm operation, inspection program, burial ground operations, and waste transfer/tank replacement.

  3. Dynamic analysis for solid waste management systems: an inexact multistage integer programming approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongping; Huang, Guohe

    2009-03-01

    In this study, a dynamic analysis approach based on an inexact multistage integer programming (IMIP) model is developed for supporting municipal solid waste (MSW) management under uncertainty. Techniques of interval-parameter programming and multistage stochastic programming are incorporated within an integer-programming framework. The developed IMIP can deal with uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval numbers, and can reflect the dynamics in terms of decisions for waste-flow allocation and facility-capacity expansion over a multistage context. Moreover, the IMIP can be used for analyzing various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic consequences. The developed method is applied to a case study of long-term waste-management planning. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated for binary and continuous variables. They can help generate desired decisions of system-capacity expansion and waste-flow allocation with a minimized system cost and maximized system reliability. PMID:19320267

  4. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  5. Nuclear waste programs; Semiannual progress report, October 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Finn, P.A.; Gerding, T.J.; Hoh, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Programs of the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1991-March 1992. In these programs, studies are underway on the performance of waste glass and spent fuel in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories

  6. Nuclear Waste Programs semiannual progress report, April--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Programs of the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1992. In these programs, studies are underway on the performance of waste glass and spent fuel in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

  7. Removal of contaminants from equipment and debris and waste minimization using TechXtract{reg_sign} technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonem, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Under this Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA), EET, Inc., is extending its proprietary TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical decontamination technology into an effective, economical, integrated contaminant removal system. This integrated system will consist of a series of decontamination baths using the TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical formulas, followed by a waste treatment process that will remove the contaminants from the spent chemicals. Sufficient decontamination will result so that materials can be released without restriction after they have been treated, even those materials that have traditionally been considered to be {open_quotes}undecontaminable.{close_quotes} The secondary liquid waste will then be treated to separate any hazardous and radioactive contaminants, so that the spent chemicals and wastewater can be discharged through conventional, permitted outlets. The TechXtract{reg_sign} technology is a unique process that chemically extracts hazardous contaminants from the surface and substrate of concrete, steel, and other solid materials. This technology has been used successfully to remove contaminants as varied as PCBs, radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous organics. The process` advantage over other alternatives is its effectiveness in safe and consistent extraction of subsurface contamination. TechXtract{reg_sign} is a proprietary process developed, owned, and provided by EET, Inc. The objective of the PRDA is to demonstrate on a full-scale basis an economical system for decontaminating equipment and debris, with further treatment of secondary waste streams to minimize waste volumes. Contaminants will be removed from the contaminated items to levels where they can be released for unrestricted use. The entire system will be designed with maximum flexibility and automation in mind.

  8. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  9. Waste certification review program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Faulk, G.W.; Kinney, J.C.; Knapp, D.C.; Burdette, T.E.

    1996-02-01

    After approving the waste certification programs for 45 generators of low-level radioactive and mixed waste, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) moved forward to implement a performance-based approach for assuring that approved waste generators maintain their waste certification programs. WSRC implemented the Waste Certification Review Program, which is comprised of two sitewide programs, waste generator self-assessments and Facility Evaluation Board reviews, integrated with the WSRC Solid Waste Management Department Waste Verification Program Evaluations. The waste generator self-assessments ensure compliance with waste certification requirements, and Facility Evaluation Board reviews provide independent oversight of generators` waste certification programs. Waste verification evaluations by the TSD facilities serve as the foundation of the program by confirming that waste contents and generator performance continue to meet waste acceptance criteria (WSRC 1994) prior to shipment to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Construction of the Savannah River Site (SRS) was started by the US Government in 1950. The site covers approximately 300 square miles located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. It is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Operations are conducted by managing and operating contractors, including the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Historically, the primary purpose of the SRS was to produce special nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium. In general, low-level radioactive and mixed waste is generated through activities in operations. Presently, 47 SRS facilities generate low-level radioactive and mixed waste. The policies, guidelines, and requirements for managing these wastes are determined by DOE and are reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A (US DOE 1988).

  10. Helping or Hurting: Are Adolescent Intervention Programs Minimizing Racial Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    In 1965, appalled by the racial disparity with respect to access to higher education, the federal government implemented the Higher Education Act. After more than 40 years of programmatic intervention, gaps persist. As such, this study analyzes two of the three original HEA programs--Upward Bound and Talent Search--focusing on race/ethnicity and…

  11. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2010-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  12. AN INNOVATIVE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MINIMIZING GYPSUM AND PYRITE WASTES BY CONVERSION TO MARKETABLE PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao

    2000-06-27

    The objective of this research program is to develop a novel integrated process to eliminate millions of tons of gypsum and pyrite wastes generated annually by the U.S. energy industries and reduce the emission of millions of tons of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. This was accomplished by converting gypsum and pyrite wastes to marketable products such as lime, direct reduced iron (DRI), and sulfur products and obviating the need to calcine millions of tons of limestone for use in utility scrubbers. Specific objectives included: (1) Develop a novel, integrated process for utilizing two major wastes generated by mining and energy industries to produce lime for recycling and other marketable products. (2) Study individual chemical reactions involved in pyrite decomposition, DRI production, and Muller-Kuhne process for lime regeneration to determine optimum process variables such as temperature, time, and reactant composition. (3) Investigate techniques for effective concentration of pyrite from tailing waste and methods for effective separation of DRI from calcium sulfide.

  13. Nuclear Waste Management Program summary document, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Sheldon

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Program Summary Document outlines the operational and research and development (R and D) activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Management (NEW) under the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document focuses on the current and planned activities in waste management for FY 1981. This Program Summary Document (PSD) was prepared in order to explain the Federal nuclear waste management and spent fuel storage programs to Congress and its committees and to interested members of the public, the private sector, and the research community. The national energy policy as it applies to waste management and spent fuel storage is presented first. The program strategy, structure, budget, management approach, and public participation programs are then identified. The next section describes program activities and outlines their status. Finally, the applicability of departmental policies to NEW programs is summarized, including field and regional activities, commercialization plans, and environmental and socioeconomic implications of waste management activities, and international programs. This Nuclear Waste Management Program Summary Document is meant to serve as a guide to the progress of R and D and other energy technology programs in radioactive waste management. The R and D objective is to provide the Nation with acceptable solutions to short- and long-term management problems for all forms of radioactive waste and spent fuel.

  14. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program - Introduction and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This is the introductory module to the Land Application of Wastes educational program. The module contains information on the content, structure, and dynamics of the program. Also included with the module is a script to accompany a slide presentation. The Land Application of Wastes program consists of twenty-five modules and audio-visual…

  15. Using linear programming to minimize the cost of nurse personnel.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Charles H

    2005-01-01

    Nursing personnel costs make up a major portion of most hospital budgets. This report evaluates and optimizes the utility of the nurse personnel at the Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic of Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center. Linear programming (LP) was employed to determine the effective combination of nurses that would allow for all weekly clinic tasks to be covered while providing the lowest possible cost to the department. Linear programming is a standard application of standard spreadsheet software that allows the operator to establish the variables to be optimized and then requires the operator to enter a series of constraints that will each have an impact on the ultimate outcome. The application is therefore able to quantify and stratify the nurses necessary to execute the tasks. With the report, a specific sensitivity analysis can be performed to assess just how sensitive the outcome is to the stress of adding or deleting a nurse to or from the payroll. The nurse employee cost structure in this study consisted of five certified nurse assistants (CNA), three licensed practicing nurses (LPN), and five registered nurses (RN). The LP revealed that the outpatient clinic should staff four RNs, three LPNs, and four CNAs with 95 percent confidence of covering nurse demand on the floor. This combination of nurses would enable the clinic to: 1. Reduce annual staffing costs by 16 percent; 2. Force each level of nurse to be optimally productive by focusing on tasks specific to their expertise; 3. Assign accountability more efficiently as the nurses adhere to their specific duties; and 4. Ultimately provide a competitive advantage to the clinic as it relates to nurse employee and patient satisfaction. Linear programming can be used to solve capacity problems for just about any staffing situation, provided the model is indeed linear. PMID:18972976

  16. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  17. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  18. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  19. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  20. MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. )

    1991-05-01

    An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

  1. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Hansen, E.; Herman, C.; Marra, S.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-03-06

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project is currently transitioning its emphasis from an engineering design and construction phase toward facility completion, start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements that must be met during the actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program. In general, the waste qualification program involves testing and analysis to demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria, determine waste processability, and demonstrate laboratory-scale unit operations to support WTP operations. The testing and analysis are driven by data quality objectives (DQO) requirements necessary for meeting waste acceptance criteria for transfer of high-level wastes from the tank farms to the WTP, and for ensuring waste processability including proper glass formulations during processing within the WTP complex. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which were based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested subject matter experts (SMEs) from SRNL to support a technology exchange with respect to waste qualification programs in which a critical review of the WTP program could be initiated and lessons learned could be shared. The technology exchange was held on July 18-20, 2011 in Richland, Washington, and was the initial step in a multi-phased approach to support development and implementation of a successful waste qualification program at the WTP. The 3-day workshop was hosted by WTP with representatives from the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and SRNL in attendance as well as representatives from the US DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Site Representative office. The purpose of the

  2. Optimizing the National TRU waste system transportation program.

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, S. A.; Countiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the National TRU Waste Program (NTP) is to operate the system safely and cost-effectively, in compliance with applicable regulations and agreements, and at full capacity in a fully integrated mode. One of the objectives of the Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO) is to complete the current Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) mission for the disposal of the nation's legacy transuranic (TRU) waste at least IO years earlier thus saving approximately %7B. The National TRU Waste Optimization Plan (1) recommends changes to accomplish this. This paper discusses the optimization of the National TRU Waste System Transportation Program.

  3. A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Michael J.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

  4. Madison County, NY, food and paper waste pilot compost program, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zecca, J.A.; Pike, W.R.; Higgins, T.W.

    1995-05-01

    Madison County, NY has a program which promises to extend the life of their landfill, by as much as double, at minimal cost. The County already has an impressive list of successful recycling programs but recognized that there was a need for further action. The objective of the new program is to reduce the size of the stream entering the landfill by composting a source separated fraction of the waste stream. Costs of collection are minimized by co-collecting the separately bagged {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} household compost fraction with the balance of the trash. This is separated from the balance of the waste on the landfill site and composted in windrows. When the program started, the composted material was targeted for use as landfill cover to minimize the quality requirements. However, testing has shown that the compost is acceptable for all applications. Although the opening phase of the program might properly be called a pilot, it was started with the intention to enlarge it as events indicate such was possible. Expansion to the balance of the county, inclusion of specific commercial waste and inclusion of a broader range of household compostables are currently in progress.

  5. Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114

    SciTech Connect

    Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

  6. The University of Georgia Chemical Waste Disposal Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreesen, David W.; Pohlman, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university-wide program directed at reducing the improper storage and disposal of toxic chemical wastes from laboratories. Specific information is included on the implementation of a waste pick-up service, safety equipment, materials and methods for packaging, and costs of the program. (CS)

  7. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  8. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  9. I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2011-09-01

    Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project

  10. Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of hazardous waste training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpa, R.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Weaver, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    An installation`s compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations is strongly dependent on the knowledge, skill, and behavior of all individuals involved in the generation and management of hazardous waste. Recognizing this, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command (HQ/AFMC) determined that an in-depth evaluation of hazardous waste training programs at each AFMC installation was an appropriate element in assessing the overall effectiveness of installation hazardous waste management programs in preventing noncompliant conditions. Consequently, pursuant to its authority under Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-7042, Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance (May 12, 1994) to support and maintain hazardous waste training, HQ/AFMC directed Argonne National Laboratory to undertake the Hazardous Waste Training Initiative. This paper summarizes the methodology employed in performing the evaluation and presents the initiative`s salient conclusions.

  11. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-30

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes.

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Bates, L.D.; Box, W.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Setaro, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that all DOE facilities handling defense transuranic (TRU) waste develop and implement a program whereby all TRU waste will be contained, stored, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in the DOE certification documents WIPP-DOE-069, 114, 120, 137, 157, and 158. The program described in this report describes how Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) intends to comply with these requirements and the techniques and procedures used to ensure that ORNL TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP. This document describes the program for certification of newly generated (NG) contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. Previsions have been made for addenda, which will extend the coverage of this document to include certification of stored CH-TRU and NG and stored remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste, as necessary. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. The toxic waste dump problem and a suggested insurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent of the hazardous waste problem in the U.S. is explored. To emphasize the enormous scope of the problem, several recent cases involving hazardous waste disasters, including the Love Canal incident, are reviewed. Legislation related to toxic waste disposal is discussed. A Nat'l Hazardous Waste Insurance Program, based on the policies of the Nat'l Flood Insurance Program, is proposed. The rationale for government involvement in insurance provision is examined. The cost to taxpayers of this toxic waste insurance program will depend on several factors, including: the types of coverage available/ upper limits on each type of coverage/ the premium rates charged for each type of coverage/ the number and size of potential impact acres/ the number of people who would actually buy the insurance/ the actual incidence of hazardous waste damages/ and the time frame chosen for mapping all potential impact areas. (138 references)

  14. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A; Killough, P; Puckett, E; Best, D S; Simmons, J E; Pressman, J G; Narotsky, M G

    2010-01-01

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, and lead to excessive waste of test material. To refine drinking water toxicity studies in rodents by enhancing sample quality and consistency, and minimizing waste, we designed and implemented a novel water delivery system that keeps the water chilled, headspace free and protected from light. Materials used were resistant to chemical interaction. In this gravity-fed system, a 6-L Teflon water bag, stored in a polystyrene cooler on the cage rack, was connected to a stainless steel manifold delivering water to five cages via specialized drinking valves. Due to the absence of headspace in the water bag, this system allows consistent exposure of volatile chemicals. In addition, small diameter tubing throughout the system reduces the amount of test material residing in the system and minimizes chemical waste. PMID:19858168

  15. MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: The last two decades

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.-T. . E-mail: luliteh@ms13.hinet.net; Hsiao, T.-Y.; Shang, N.-C.; Yu, Y.-H.; Ma, H.-W.

    2006-07-01

    Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km{sup 2} (628 people/km{sup 2}). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling.

  16. Combination of decentralized waste drying and SSF techniques for household biowaste minimization and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, A; Vourka, I; Erotokritou, A; Novakovic, J; Panaretou, V; Vakalis, S; Thanos, T; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D

    2016-06-01

    The results of the demonstration of an innovative household biowaste management and treatment scheme established in two Greek Municipalities for the production of lignocellulosic ethanol using dehydrated household biowaste as a substrate, are presented within this research. This is the first time that biowaste drying was tested at a decentralized level for the production of ethanol using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process, at a pilot scale in Greece. The decentralized biowaste drying method proved that the household biowaste mass and volume reduction may reach 80% through the dehydration process used. The chemical characteristics related to lignocellulosic ethanol production have proved to differ substantially between seasons thus; special attention should be given to the process applied for ethanol production mainly regarding the enzyme quality and quantity used during the pretreatment stage. The maximum ethanol production achieved was 29.12g/L, approximately 60% of the maximum theoretical yield based on the substrate's sugar content. The use of the decentralized waste drying as an alternative approach for household biowaste minimization and the production of second generation ethanol is considered to be a promising approach for efficient biowaste management and treatment in the future. PMID:27084105

  17. Waste minimization and pollution prevention techniques for equipment decontamination during refinery shutdowns

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Pyrophoric iron is a concern for most refineries. It is formed when sulfide laden hydrocarbon streams come in contact with any source of iron. During normal plant operations, pyrophoric iron does not cause a problem. However, when specific units are opened for inspection and maintenance, the potential for a pyrophoric iron fire is significant. Previous methods for decontamination have included the use of steam, caustic soda and in some cases sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide. Each of these methods has drawbacks. The use of steam is time consuming and generates a significant amount of wastewater contaminated with organics. Sodium hypochlorite has the potential to generate toxic gases in addition to chlorinated organics in the wastewater. Hydrogen peroxide, although an environmentally friendly chemical, can violently decompose if not applied properly resulting in a potential explosive situation. The full paper will describe the successful use of potassium permanganate for the elimination of pyrophoric iron and odors (e.g. sulfides, mercaptans) in a refinery environment. A case study on the application of potassium permanganate for a crude unit and coker will be presented. Advantages of this decontamination process in terms of waste minimization (less wastewater generated), safer and non toxic by-products (direct discharge to a POTW possible), shorter downtimes and cost savings will also be discussed.

  18. Waste Form Evaluation Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-09-01

    This report presents data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. The waste streams selected for this study include dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash as representative wastes which result from advanced volume reduction technologies and ion exchange resins which remain problematic for solidification using commercially available matrix materials. Property evaluation tests such as compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation and leachability were conducted for polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms over a range of waste-to-binder ratios. Based on the results of the tests, optimal waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins were established for polyethylene, although maximum loadings were considerably higher. For modified sulfur cement, optimal loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate, 40 wt % boric acid and 40 wt % incinerator ash are reported. Ion exchange resins are not recommended for incorporation into modified sulfur cement because of poor waste form performance even at very low waste concentrations. The results indicate that all waste forms tested within the range of optimal waste concentrations satisifed the requirements of the NRC Technical Position Paper on Waste Form.

  19. Altering textile manufacture to minimize treatment needed for waste-water reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Beja Neves, M.E.C.

    1989-01-01

    The research involved the uses of water and chemicals in the textile industry. A linear programming model was developed, capable of minimizing the cost of treatment needed for wastewater reclamation. This was accomplished through the selection of the optimum set of chemicals in respect to their removal from a wastewater by biodegradation, and by so doing, preventing the accumulation of inorganic dissolved solids in the reused wastewater, even with prolonged reuse. Different values were tested for the wastewater reclamation rate, and for the percentage of biodegradable materials used by the industry. The industrial processes themselves were considered as blocks, with different manufacturing objectives and using different kinds and quantities of chemicals. The cost of wastewater treatment was influenced by the nature of the chemicals and by the wastewater reclamation rate.

  20. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A new waste management scheme and the effects of co-gasification of MSW were assessed. • A co-gasification system was compared with other conventional systems. • The co-gasification system can produce slag and metal with high-quality. • The co-gasification system showed an economic advantage when bottom ash is landfilled. • The sensitive analyses indicate an economic advantage when the landfill cost is high. - Abstract: This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the

  1. Solid Waste Program Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS 1.2.1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan for the Solid Waste Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Solid Waste Program treats, stores, and disposes of a wide variety of solid wastes consisting of radioactive, nonradioactive and hazardous material types. Solid waste types are typically classified as transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, and non-radioactive hazardous waste. This report describes the mission, goals and program strategies for the Solid Waste Program for fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

  2. Civilian radioactive waste management program plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy`s site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program`s ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program`s mission and vision, and summarizes the Program`s broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program`s approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program`s organization chart; the Commission`s regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms.

  3. Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) Waste Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    VOLKMAN, D.D.

    1999-10-27

    This document is the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH), that implements the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) document, and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement with Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), Sections 6.5 and 7.8. WHM is responsible for the treatment, storage, and disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated at the Hanford Site as well as those wastes received from other US Department of Energy (DOE) and non-DOE sites. WMH operations include the Low-Level Burial Grounds, Central Waste Complex (a mixed-waste storage complex), a nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility, the Transuranic Storage Facility, T Plant, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facility, 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility, the 242-A Evaporator, 300 Area Treatment Effluent Disposal Facility, the 340 Facility (a radioactive liquid waste handling facility), 222-S Laboratory, the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford TRU Waste Program.

  4. USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

  5. Characterization of mixed waste for shipment to TSD Facilities Program

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Goyal, K.

    1995-12-31

    In compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is striving to ship its low-level mixed waste (LLMW) off-site for treatment and disposal. In order to ship LLMW off site to a commercial facility, LANL must request exemption from the DOE Order 5820.2A requirement that LLMW be shipped only to Department of Energy facilities. Because the process of obtaining the required information and approvals for a mixed waste shipment campaign can be very expensive, time consuming, and frustrating, a well-planned program is necessary to ensure that the elements for the exemption request package are completed successfully the first time. LANL has developed such a program, which is cost- effective, quality-driven, and compliance-based. This program encompasses selecting a qualified analytical laboratory, developing a quality project-specific sampling plan, properly sampling liquid and solid wastes, validating analytical data, documenting the waste characterization and decision processes, and maintaining quality records. The products of the program are containers of waste that meet the off-site facility`s waste acceptance criteria, a quality exemption request package, documentation supporting waste characterization, and overall quality assurance for the process. The primary goal of the program is to provide an avenue for documenting decisions, procedures, and data pertinent to characterizing waste and preparing it for off-site treatment or disposal.

  6. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility upgrades project - A model for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.L.; Durrer, R.E.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility, constructed in 1952, is currently undergoing a major, multi-year construction project. Many of the operations required under this project (i.e., design, demolition, decontamination, construction, and waste management) mimic the processes required of a large scale decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) job and are identical to the requirements of any of several upgrades projects anticipated for LANL and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. For these reasons the CMR Upgrades Project is seen as an ideal model facility - to test the application, and measure the success of - waste minimization techniques which could be brought to bear on any of the similar projects. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the past, present, and anticipated waste minimization applications at the facility and will focus on the development and execution of the project`s {open_quotes}Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Strategic Plan.{close_quotes}

  7. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  8. A summary of de minimis/low-level radioactive waste segregation programs in Canada: Implications for new program design

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    Currently in Canada, a number of programs have been designed to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) that must be stored in licensed radioactive waste management facilities. These programs are based on exempting de minimis LLRW from further licensing upon transferal for disposal, or on segregating wastes into either ``releasable`` or LLRW categories based on criteria that have obtained prior regulatory approval. These wastes arise from operation of nuclear generating plants and research facilities, medical and industrial uses, and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This minimization of LLRW volumes is very desirable as a matter of environmental policy, due to the high cost of their handling, storage and disposal, and due to the long-term liability incurred in their storage. This paper will summarize four cases of de minimis/LLRW Segregation Programs that have been successfully implemented in Canada. The terminologies used in the four cases to refer to the exempted or segregated wastes include ``active/inactive``, ``clean/contaminated``, ``de minimis`` and ``unconditional release``. For each case, the release criteria adopted, the procedures and instruments used in segregation or release, and the nature of the regulatory approval process will be described. Finally, the consideration of these four cases in the design of a pilot-scale facility for solid LLRW segregation at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) will be discussed.

  9. ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

    2003-01-01

    A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

  10. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  11. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 2000

    SciTech Connect

    West, W.R.

    2001-04-17

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2000 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  12. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2009-06-11

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  13. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

  14. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company's hazardous waste program.

    PubMed

    Van Noordwyk, H J; Santoro, M A

    1978-12-01

    This paper discusses the present hazardous waste program of 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company). 3M's definition of hazardous waste and the company's position on hazardous waste disposal are first considered. The company position is that wherever and whenever the disposal of a waste material threatens the environment or public safety, then that waste should be considered a hazardous waste and treated accordingly in terms of its handling and ultimate disposal. The generation of hazardous wastes and the differentiation of "hazardous" and "nonhazardous" wastes are described next. Handling of hazardous wastes from their generation to their disposal is then covered. This includes a definition of internal 3M terminology and a description of the hazard rating system used by the company. Finally, 3M disposal practices are presented. It is 3M's position that thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, where appropriate, is the best method for their disposal. With this in mind, 3M has constructed incineration facilities throughout the country. The rotary kiln incinerator at the 3M Chemolite plant in Cottage Grove, Minnesota is briefly described. Disposal of certain hazardous wastes in controlled secure land disposal sites is then briefly discussed.

  15. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  16. Nuclear waste treatment program. Annual report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are: (1) to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further deployment of light-water reactors (LWR) and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and (2) to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide (1) documented technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and (2) problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required, to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1985 toward meeting these two objectives. The detailed presentation is organized according to the task structure of the program.

  17. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program annual progress report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Programs (HAZWRAP), a unit of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., supports the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office in broadly environmental areas, especially those relating to waste management and environmental restoration. HAZWRAP comprises six program areas, which are supported by central administrative and technical organizations. Existing programs deal with airborne hazardous substances, pollution prevention, remedial actions planning, environmental restoration, technology development, and information and data systems. HAZWRAP's mission to develop, promote, and apply-cost-effective hazardous waste management and environmental technologies to help solve national problems and concerns. HAZWRAP seeks to serve as integrator for hazardous waste and materials management across the federal government. It applies the unique combination of research and development (R D) capabilities, technologies, management expertise, and facilities in the Energy Systems complex to address problems of national importance. 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

  19. Pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD: are programs with minimal exercise equipment effective?

    PubMed

    Alison, Jennifer A; McKeough, Zoe J

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an essential component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management with strong evidence supporting the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation to improve exercise capacity and quality of life, as well as reduce hospital admissions. However, it is estimated that only 2-5% of people with COPD who could benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation have access to programs. Most research on the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation has used equipment such as cycle ergometers and treadmills for endurance training and weight machines for resistance training. To enable greater availability of pulmonary rehabilitation, the efficacy of exercise training using minimal equipment needs to be evaluated. Randomised controlled trials that used minimal, low cost equipment for endurance (eight trials) and strength training (three trials) compared to no training in people with COPD were evaluated. Statistically and clinically significant differences in functional exercise capacity and quality of life, as well as improvements in strength were demonstrated when exercise training with minimal equipment was compared to no training [six-minute walk test: mean difference 40 (95% CI: 13 to 67) metres; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire: mean difference -7 (95% CI: -12 to -3) points]. While the number of studies is relatively small and of variable quality, there is growing evidence that exercise training using minimal, low cost equipment may be an alternative to equipment-intensive pulmonary rehabilitation programs. PMID:25478201

  20. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure.

  1. Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F.

    2013-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

  2. Waste form development program. Annual report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work conducted for the Waste Form Development/Test Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory in FY 1983 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. The primary focus of this work is the investigation of new solidification agents which will provide improved immobilization of low-level radioactive wastes in an efficient, cost-effective manner. A working set of preliminary waste form evaluation criteria which could impact upon the movement of radionuclides in the disposal environment was developed. The selection of potential solidification agents for further investigation is described. Two thermoplastic materials, low-density polyethylene and a modified sulfur cement were chosen as primary candidates for further study. Three waste types were selected for solidification process development and waste form property evaluation studies which represent both new volume reduction wastes (dried evaporator concentrates and incinerator ash) and current problem wastes (ion exchange resins). Preliminary process development scoping studies were conducted to verify the compatibility of selected solidification agents and waste types and the potential for improved solidification. Waste loadings of 60 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 25 wt % H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, 25 wt % incinerator ash and 50 wt % dry ion exchange resin were achieved using low density polyethylene as a matrix material. Samples incorporating 65 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 40 wt % H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, 20 wt % incinerator ash and 40 wt % dry ion exchange resin were successfully solidified in modified sulfur cement. Additional improvements are expected for both matrix materials as process parameters are optimized. Several preliminary property evaluation studies were performed to provide the basis for an initial assessment of waste form acceptability. These included a two-week water immersion test and compressive load testing.

  3. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  4. A program to assess microbial impacts on nuclear waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.; Meike, A.

    1996-02-20

    In this paper we discuss aspects of a comprehensive program to identify and bound potential effects of microorganisms on long-term nuclear waste containment, using as examples, studies conducted within the Yucca Mountain Project. A comprehensive program has been formulated which cuts across standard disciplinary lines to address the specific concerns of microbial activity in a radioactive waste repository. Collectively, this program provides bounding parameters of microbial activities that modify the ambient geochemistry and hydrology, modify corrosion rates, and transport and transform radionuclides under conditions expected to be encountered after geological waste emplacement. This program is intended to provide microbial reaction rates and bounding conditions in a form that can be integrated into existing chemical and hydrological models. The inclusion of microbial effects will allow those models to more accurately assess long term repository integrity.

  5. Remediating minimal progress on teaching programs by adults with severe disabilities in a congregate day setting.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Marsha B; Reid, Dennis H; Towery, Donna; England, Peggy; Darden, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a modified teaching approach for improving the performance of adults with severe disabilities who were making minimal progress on teaching programs in a congregate day setting. An approach for enhancing progress was developed for implementation within the ongoing routine of the adult day setting using resources indigenous to the setting. The teaching approach, based on early intensive teaching programs, involved increasing teaching trials, adding another consequence to the reinforcement component, and reducing distractions. Improved progress accompanied the approach with each of 4 participating adults. Measures of happiness and problem behavior showed no detrimental effect on quality of life. Advantages and disadvantages of the teaching approach are discussed regarding implications for practitioners.

  6. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1995-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1994 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  7. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1998-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1997 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  8. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1999-10-27

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  9. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  10. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1992-12-31

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1992 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  11. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1997-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  12. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.J.

    2000-04-14

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  13. Savannah River Site Waste Removal Program - Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Saldivar, E.

    2002-02-25

    The Savannah River Site has fifty-one high level waste tanks in various phases of operation and closure. These tanks were originally constructed to receive, store, and treat the high level waste (HLW) created in support of the missions assigned by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) requires the high level waste to be removed from the tanks and stabilized into a final waste form. Additionally, closure of the tanks following waste removal must be completed. The SRS HLW System Plan identifies the interfaces of safe storage, waste removal, and stabilization of the high level waste and the schedule for the closure of each tank. HLW results from the dissolution of irradiated fuel components. Desired nuclear materials are recovered and the byproducts are neutralized with NaOH and sent to the High Level Waste Tank Farms at the SRS. The HLW process waste clarifies in the tanks as the sludge settles, resulting in a layer of dense sludge with salt supernate settling above the sludge. Salt supernate is concentrated via evaporation into saltcake and NaOH liquor. This paper discusses the history of SRS waste removal systems, recent waste removal experiences, and the challenges facing future removal operations to enhance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Specifically, topics will include the evolution and efficiency of systems used in the 1960's which required large volumes of water to current systems of large centrifugal slurry pumps, with significant supporting infrastructure and safety measures. Interactions of this equipment with the waste tank farm operations requirements will also be discussed. The cost and time improvements associated with these present-day systems is a primary focus for the HLW Program.

  14. Minimizing asynchronism to improve the performances of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and corn stover.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Jaffu, Muhanmad; Chufo, Akiber; Li, Xiujin

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the existence of the asynchronism during the anaerobic co-digestion of different substrates, two typical substrates of food waste and corn stover were anaerobically digested with altering organic loadings (OL). The results indicated that the biodegradability of food waste and corn stover was calculated to be 81.5% and 55.1%, respectively, which was main reason causing the asynchronism in the co-digestion. The asynchronism was minimized by NaOH-pretreatment for corn stover, which could improve the biodegradability by 36.6%. The co-digestion with pretreatment could increase the biomethane yield by 12.2%, 3.2% and 0.6% comparing with the co-digestion without pretreatment at C/N ratios of 20, 25 and 30 at OL of 35 g-VS/L, respectively. The results indicated that the digestibility synchronism of food waste and corn stover was improved through enhancing the accessibility and digestibility of corn stover. The biomethane production could be increased by minimizing the asynchronism of two substrates in co-digestion.

  15. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  16. Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

  17. Fuel cycle and waste management demonstration in the IFR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Benedict, R.W. ); Laidler, J.J.; Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Argonne's National Laboratory's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is the main element in the US advanced reactor development program. A unique fuel cycle and waste process technology is being developed for the IFR. Demonstration of this technology at engineering scale will begin within the next year at the EBR-II test facility complex in Idaho. This paper describes the facility being readied for this demonstration, the process to be employed, the equipment being built, and the waste management approach.

  18. Fuel cycle and waste management demonstration in the IFR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Benedict, R.W.; Laidler, J.J.; Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-09-01

    Argonne`s National Laboratory`s Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is the main element in the US advanced reactor development program. A unique fuel cycle and waste process technology is being developed for the IFR. Demonstration of this technology at engineering scale will begin within the next year at the EBR-II test facility complex in Idaho. This paper describes the facility being readied for this demonstration, the process to be employed, the equipment being built, and the waste management approach.

  19. Waste not - want not. DOE appropriate technology small grants program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The work reported was to look at various alternatives for local solid waste management and develop an implementation strategy for a resource conservation and recovery plan for the community of Berea, Kentucky. A library on recycling and conservation of resources was compiled, and state and local plans were examined. To get a better understanding of how the community would respond to a waste reduction and recycling program, a series of surveys was conducted. A community recycling project plan is proposed. (LEW)

  20. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year`s findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H{sub 2}. Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs.

  1. USBI Booster Production Company's Hazardous Waste Management Program at the Kennedy Space Center, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venuto, Charles

    1987-01-01

    In response to the hazardous-waste generating processes associated with the launch of the Space Shuttle, a hazardous waste management plan has been developed. It includes waste recycling, product substitution, waste treatment, and waste minimization at the source. Waste material resulting from the preparation of the nonmotor segments of the solid rocket boosters include waste paints (primer, topcoats), waste solvents (methylene chloride, freon, acetone, toluene), waste inorganic compounds (aluminum anodizing compound, fixer), and others. Ways in which these materials are contended with at the Kennedy Space Center are discussed.

  2. Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

  3. TRU Waste Management Program cost/schedule optimization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Detamore, J.A. . Joint Integration Office); Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A. Corp., Boulder, CO )

    1985-10-01

    The cost/schedule optimization task is a necessary function to insure that program goals and plans are optimized from a cost and schedule aspect. Results of this study will offer DOE information with which it can establish, within institutional constraints, the most efficient program for the long-term management and disposal of contact handled transuranic waste (CH-TRU). To this end, a comprehensive review of program cost/schedule tradeoffs has been made, to identify any major cost saving opportunities that may be realized by modification of current program plans. It was decided that all promising scenarios would be explored, and institutional limitations to implementation would be described. Since a virtually limitless number of possible scenarios can be envisioned, it was necessary to distill these possibilities into a manageable number of alternatives. The resultant scenarios were described in the cost/schedule strategy and work plan document. Each scenario was compared with the base case: waste processing at the originating site; transport of CH-TRU wastes in TRUPACT; shipment of drums in 6-Packs; 25 year stored waste workoff; WIPP operational 10/88, with all sites shipping to WIPP beginning 10/88; and no processing at WIPP. Major savings were identified in two alternate scenarios: centralize waste processing at INEL and eliminate rail shipment of TRUPACT. No attempt was made to calculate savings due to combination of scenarios. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab. (MHB)

  4. TRU Waste Management Program. Cost/schedule optimization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Detamore, J.A.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office Rockwell International (JIO/RI) during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short-term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. Systems models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions.

  5. How to set-up a program of minimally-invasive surgery for congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Caballero, Ramón; Pita-Fernández, Ana; González-López, María-Teresa; Sánchez, Jairo; De Agustín, Juan-Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Mid-line sternotomy is the commonest incision for cardiac surgery. Alternative approaches are becoming fashionable in many centres, amidst some reluctance because of learning curves and overall complexity. Our recent experience in starting a new program on minimally invasive pediatric cardiac surgery is presented. The rationale for a stepwise onset and the short-medium term results for a three-year span are displayed. Methods A three-step schedule is planned: First, an experienced surgeon (A) starts performing simple cases. Second, new surgeons (B, C, D, E) are introduced to the minimally invasive techniques according to their own proficiency and skills. Third, the new adopters are enhanced to suggest and develop further minimally invasive approaches. Two quality markers are defined: conversion rate and complications. Results In part one, surgeon A performs sub-mammary, axillary and lower mini-sternotomy approaches for simple cardiac defects. In part two, surgeons B, C, D and E are customly introduced to such incisions. In part three, new approaches such as upper mini-sternotomy, postero-lateral thoracotomy and video-assisted mini-thoracotomy are introduced after being suggested and developed by surgeons B, C and E, as well as an algorithm to match cardiac conditions and age/weight to a given alternative approach. The conversion rate is one out of 148 patients. Two major complications were recorded, none of them related to our alternative approach. Four minor complications linked to the new incision were registered. The minimally invasive to mid-line sternotomy ratio rose from 20% in the first year to 40% in the third year. Conclusions Minimally invasive pediatric cardiac surgery is becoming a common procedure worldwide. Our schedule to set up a program proves beneficial. The three-step approach has been successful in our experience, allowing a tailored training for every new surgeon and enhancing the enthusiasm in developing further strategies on their

  6. Overview of the Spanish high-level waste program

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, A.; Beceiro, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to be responsible for the management of all radioactive wastes generated in Spain. The strategy and main guidelines of ENRESA`s program to fulfill this mandate are contained in the General Radioactive Waste Plan (PGRR), a basic document which ENRESA is due to submit every year to the Ministry of Industry and Energy for Government approval. The Spanish nuclear electricity generating program consists of nine Light Water Reactors (LWR) with an overall capacity of 7.1 GWe, after the Vandellos 1 nuclear power plant were phased-out in 1989. The spent nuclear fuel from LWRs is defined, in accordance with the 1983 National Energy Plan, as high level waste, and its management is accordingly focused to the direct disposal option. The spent nuclear fuel from Vandellos 1, a graphite gas-cooled reactor which was in operation from 1972 to 1989, in reprocessed abroad, and the wastes generated in the processes will be returned to Spain. The final objective of the Spanish High Level Waste program is to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel and high level vitrified waste into a deep geological repository. In fulfilling this target, taking into account the time frame in which it can reasonably be achieved, a previous step is necessary in order to secure the temporary storage of the spent fuel. This paper presents the strategy and a description of the different elements of the program currently under way as established in the fourth General Radioactive Waste Plan that has been approved by the Government in December 1994.

  7. RCRA/UST, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Strategy for hazardous waste minimization and combustion, updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The module presents a general overview of the issues EPA has addressed in the hazardous waste minization and combustion strategy. It provides a detailed description of the history and goals of the strategy. It presents an in-depth discussion of hazardous waste minimization and combustion issues and includes a section on environmental justice.

  8. Waste minimization through high-pressure microwave digestion of soils for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Yaeger, J.S.; Smith, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management activities, laboratories receive numerous analytical requests for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses. Traditional sample preparation methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis of environmental and mixed waste samples require repetitive leaching, which is time consuming and generates large volumes of secondary wastes. An alternative to leaching is microwave digestion. In the past. microwave technology has had limited application in the radiochemical laboratory because of restrictions on sample size resulting from vessel pressure limitations. However, new microwave vessel designs allow for pressures on the order of 11 MPa (1500 psi). A procedure is described in which microwave digestion is used to prepare environmental soil samples for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis. Results indicate that the described procedure meets performance requirements for several soil types and is equivalent to traditional digestion techniques. No statistical differences at the 95% confidence interval exist between the measurement on samples prepared from the hot plate and microwave digestion procedures for those soils tested. Moreover, microwave digestion allows samples to be prepared in a fraction of the time with significantly less acid and with lower potential of cross-contamination. In comparison to the traditional hot plate method, the waste volumes required for the microwave procedure are a factor of 10 lower, while the analyst time for sample processing is at least a factor of three lower.

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  10. Minimization of actinide waste by multi-recycling of thoriated fuels in the EPR reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.; Wilson, J. N.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Guillemin, P.; Ivanov, E.; Méplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Siem, S.

    2012-02-01

    The multi-recycling of innovative uranium/thorium oxide fuels for use in the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) has been investigated. If increasing quantities of 238U, the fertile isotope in standard UO2 fuel, are replaced by 232Th, then a greater yield of new fissile material (233U) is produced during the cycle than would otherwise be the case. This leads to economies of natural uranium of around 45% if the uranium in the spent fuel is multi-recycled. In addition we show that minor actinide and plutonium waste inventories are reduced and hence waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are up to a factor of 20 lower after 103 years. Two innovative fuel types named S90 and S20, ThO2 mixed with 90% and 20% enriched UO2 respectively, are compared as an alternative to standard uranium oxide (UOX) and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels at the longest EPR fuel discharge burn-ups of 65 GWd/t. Fissile and waste inventories are examined, waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are extracted and safety feedback coefficients are calculated.

  11. Agent Regeneration and Hazardous Waste Minimization and Teaching Note. IBM Case Study. Doc #93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliker, L. Richard; And Others

    The manufacturing process used to produce printbands for International Business Machines, Inc. involves a photolithographic process in which the stainless steel panels are chemically machined using strong ferric chloride etching solution containing hydrochloric acid. The waste material that results from this chemical reaction is a solution…

  12. From the ground up: building a minimally invasive aortic valve surgery program

    PubMed Central

    Lamelas, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is associated with numerous advantages including improved patient satisfaction, cosmesis, decreased transfusion requirements, and cost-effectiveness. Despite these advantages, little information exists on how to build a MIAVR program from the ground up. The steps to build a MIAVR program include compiling a multi-disciplinary team composed of surgeons, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, operating room (OR) technicians, and nurses. Once assembled, this team can then approach hospital administrators to present a cost-benefit analysis of MIAVR, emphasizing the importance of reduced resource utilization in the long-term to offset the initial financial investment that will be required. With hospital approval, training can commence to provide surgeons and other staff with the necessary knowledge and skills in MIAVR procedures and outcomes. Marketing and advertising of the program through the use of social media, educational conferences, grand rounds, and printed media will attract the initial patients. A dedicated website for the program can function as a “virtual lobby” for patients wanting to learn more. Initially, conservative selection criteria of cases that qualify for MIAVR will set the program up for success by avoiding complex co-morbidities and surgical techniques. During the learning curve phase of the program, patient safety should be a priority. PMID:25870815

  13. From the ground up: building a minimally invasive aortic valve surgery program.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tom C; Lamelas, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is associated with numerous advantages including improved patient satisfaction, cosmesis, decreased transfusion requirements, and cost-effectiveness. Despite these advantages, little information exists on how to build a MIAVR program from the ground up. The steps to build a MIAVR program include compiling a multi-disciplinary team composed of surgeons, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, operating room (OR) technicians, and nurses. Once assembled, this team can then approach hospital administrators to present a cost-benefit analysis of MIAVR, emphasizing the importance of reduced resource utilization in the long-term to offset the initial financial investment that will be required. With hospital approval, training can commence to provide surgeons and other staff with the necessary knowledge and skills in MIAVR procedures and outcomes. Marketing and advertising of the program through the use of social media, educational conferences, grand rounds, and printed media will attract the initial patients. A dedicated website for the program can function as a "virtual lobby" for patients wanting to learn more. Initially, conservative selection criteria of cases that qualify for MIAVR will set the program up for success by avoiding complex co-morbidities and surgical techniques. During the learning curve phase of the program, patient safety should be a priority. PMID:25870815

  14. From the ground up: building a minimally invasive aortic valve surgery program.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tom C; Lamelas, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is associated with numerous advantages including improved patient satisfaction, cosmesis, decreased transfusion requirements, and cost-effectiveness. Despite these advantages, little information exists on how to build a MIAVR program from the ground up. The steps to build a MIAVR program include compiling a multi-disciplinary team composed of surgeons, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, operating room (OR) technicians, and nurses. Once assembled, this team can then approach hospital administrators to present a cost-benefit analysis of MIAVR, emphasizing the importance of reduced resource utilization in the long-term to offset the initial financial investment that will be required. With hospital approval, training can commence to provide surgeons and other staff with the necessary knowledge and skills in MIAVR procedures and outcomes. Marketing and advertising of the program through the use of social media, educational conferences, grand rounds, and printed media will attract the initial patients. A dedicated website for the program can function as a "virtual lobby" for patients wanting to learn more. Initially, conservative selection criteria of cases that qualify for MIAVR will set the program up for success by avoiding complex co-morbidities and surgical techniques. During the learning curve phase of the program, patient safety should be a priority.

  15. OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

  16. Taipower`s radioactive waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.C.C.

    1996-09-01

    Nuclear safety and radioactive waste management are the two major concerns of nuclear power in Taiwan. Recognizing that it is an issue imbued with political and social-economic concerns, Taipower has established an integrated nuclear backend management system and its associated financial and mechanism. For LLW, the Orchid Island storage facility will play an important role in bridging the gap between on-site storage and final disposal of LLW. Also, on-site interim storage of spent fuel for 40 years or longer will provide Taipower with ample time and flexibility to adopt the suitable alternative of direct disposal or reprocessing. In other words, by so exercising interim storage option, Taipower will be in a comfortable position to safely and permanently dispose of radwaste without unduly forgoing the opportunities of adopting better technologies or alternatives. Furthermore, Taipower will spare no efforts to communicate with the general public and make her nuclear backend management activities accountable to them.

  17. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    SciTech Connect

    Butez, Marc; Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent; Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo; Beguin, Stephane

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  18. Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Mebratu, D.

    1990-09-10

    The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term problems associated with generation and treatment of industrial waste water influence, every effort is made to present what ever relevant informations pertaining to the program's objective and goal. To this end, the first chapter delivers general background information about the countries natural resource and the prevailing industrial feature, while the second chapter deliberates on the results of the investigation and evaluation of the selected subsectors and factories from the industrial sector. Finally, an overview of other side factors which could possibly have effects on the project's activity is presented in the third chapter.

  19. Quality programs for waste management research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, F.C.

    1990-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) multi-program national laboratory. PNL develops waste management processes and techniques as well as providing management services for characterization and remediation of radioactive and/or hazardous waste sites for the DOE. This paper deals with the application of total quality management principles to waste management research and development activities at PNL. The PNL Quality Program has evolved with expanding expectations for error-free'' performance from the client and the public sector; it describes the management controls needed to achieve desired levels of product quality and to verify they are reached. It includes the definition of work requirements, performance objectives, roles and responsibilities, performance indicators and measurement, performance feedback mechanisms, and process improvement methodologies. 6 refs.

  20. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  1. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM - "THE BOATHOUSE"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a research program designed to examine the engineering and environmental acceptability of using municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor ash as an aggregate substitute in the manufacture of construction quality cement blocks. 50 tons of MSW combust...

  2. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  3. Plate Waste and Attitudes among High School Lunch Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Jessica; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) What foods high school students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are discarding the most? (2) How much of these foods they are discarding? and (3) What are their perceptions towards school lunch? Methods: Researchers measured plate waste at two high…

  4. Mine Waste Technology Program. Passive Treatment for Reducing Metal Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 48, Passive Treatment Technology Evaluation for Reducing Metal Loading, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Departmen...

  5. AN OVERVIEW OF THE MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) is an interagency agreement with the DOE and has partnerships with Universities, Forest Service, BLM, Industry and states. The mission of the MWTP is to provide engineering solutions to national environmental issues resulting from the past...

  6. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  7. Solid waste operations complex engineering verification program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-28

    This plan supersedes, but does not replace, the previous Waste Receiving and Processing/Solid Waste Engineering Development Program Plan. In doing this, it does not repeat the basic definitions of the various types or classes of development activities nor provide the rigorous written description of each facility and assign the equipment to development classes. The methodology described in the previous document is still valid and was used to determine the types of verification efforts required. This Engineering Verification Program Plan will be updated on a yearly basis. This EVPP provides programmatic definition of all engineering verification activities for the following SWOC projects: (1) Project W-026 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1; (2) Project W-100 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A; (3) Project W-112 - Phase V Storage Facility; and (4) Project W-113 - Solid Waste Retrieval. No engineering verification activities are defined for Project W-112 as no verification work was identified. The Acceptance Test Procedures/Operational Test Procedures will be part of each project`s Title III operation test efforts. The ATPs/OTPs are not covered by this EVPP.

  8. The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program

    SciTech Connect

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    1996-06-01

    The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation`s transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions

  9. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A.

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  10. Maximizing the benefits and minimizing the risks of intervention programs to address micronutrient malnutrition: symposium report.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Kupka, Roland; Zimmermann, Michael B; Lietz, Georg; Engle-Stone, Reina; Kraemer, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Interventions to address micronutrient deficiencies have large potential to reduce the related disease and economic burden. However, the potential risks of excessive micronutrient intakes are often not well determined. During the Global Summit on Food Fortification, 9-11 September 2015, in Arusha, a symposium was organized on micronutrient risk-benefit assessments. Using case studies on folic acid, iodine and vitamin A, the presenters discussed how to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of intervention programs to address micronutrient malnutrition. Pre-implementation assessment of dietary intake, and/or biomarkers of micronutrient exposure, status and morbidity/mortality is critical in identifying the population segments at risk of inadequate and excessive intake. Dietary intake models allow to predict the effect of micronutrient interventions and their combinations, e.g. fortified food and supplements, on the proportion of the population with intakes below adequate and above safe thresholds. Continuous monitoring of micronutrient intake and biomarkers is critical to identify whether the target population is actually reached, whether subgroups receive excessive amounts, and inform program adjustments. However, the relation between regular high intake and adverse health consequences is neither well understood for many micronutrients, nor do biomarkers exist that can detect them. More accurate and reliable biomarkers predictive of micronutrient exposure, status and function are needed to ensure effective and safe intake ranges for vulnerable population groups such as young children and pregnant women. Modelling tools that integrate information on program coverage, dietary intake distribution and biomarkers will further enable program makers to design effective, efficient and safe programs. PMID:27501994

  11. Decision Modeling Framework to Minimize Arrival Delays from Ground Delay Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohleji, Nandita

    Convective weather and other constraints create uncertainty in air transportation, leading to costly delays. A Ground Delay Program (GDP) is a strategy to mitigate these effects. Systematic decision support can increase GDP efficacy, reduce delays, and minimize direct operating costs. In this study, a decision analysis (DA) model is constructed by combining a decision tree and Bayesian belief network. Through a study of three New York region airports, the DA model demonstrates that larger GDP scopes that include more flights in the program, along with longer lead times that provide stakeholders greater notice of a pending program, trigger the fewest average arrival delays. These findings are demonstrated to result in a savings of up to $1,850 per flight. Furthermore, when convective weather is predicted, forecast weather confidences remain the same level or greater at least 70% of the time, supporting more strategic decision making. The DA model thus enables quantification of uncertainties and insights on causal relationships, providing support for future GDP decisions.

  12. Incorporation of pollution prevention and waste minimization practices during the decommissioning of Building 310 at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    SciTech Connect

    Mezaraups, J.; Krstich, M.A.; Yerace, P.J.; Gresalfi, M.J.

    1997-10-01

    The decommissioning of radiologically contaminated buildings at Department of Energy (DOE) sites provides a major opportunity to include pollution prevention and waste minimization (P2/WMin) practices to minimize waste using authorized release opportunities, and recycle and reuse (R2) activities on a complex-wide basis. The ``P2/WMin Users Guide for Decommissioning Projects`` (a.k.a. Users Guide or Guide) will be used to incorporate P2/WMin practices into the decommissioning and dismantlement (D and D) of Building 310 retention tanks at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). The Building 310 service floor retention-tank facility contains ten isolated retention tanks that served to store excess radioactive liquids generated during process operations. The building consists of three rooms containing three tanks each and a larger room containing one tank. Due to a concern that the deteriorating facility could expose personnel working in the vicinity to radioactive contamination, a decision was made to decommission the building. The Users Guide, a document prepared under the auspices of the Office of Pollution Prevention (EM-77), details a step-by-step approach for incorporating P2/WMin options into a project`s documentation and subsequent decommissioning activities. It is a compilation of lessons learned and strategic P2/WMin initiatives from across the DOE complex. The benefits derived from using P2/WMin initiatives for the D and D of Building 310 include an accelerated decommissioning schedule, reduction in health risk, and the elimination of six release sites from the DOE EM-40 list. The benefits derived from implementation of P2/WMin initiatives into this project include cost savings, reduction in long-term liability, and deployment of technologies without impacting scope or schedule for the project.

  13. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  14. Investigation of Fission Product Transport into Zeolite-A for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Allensworth; Michael F. Simpson; Man-Sung Yim; Supathorn Phongikaroon

    2013-02-01

    Methods to improve fission product salt sorption into zeolite-A have been investigated in an effort to reduce waste associated with the electrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. It was demonstrated that individual fission product chloride salts were absorbed by zeolite-A in a solid-state process. As a result, recycling of LiCl-KCl appears feasible via adding a zone-freezing technique to the current treatment process. Ternary salt molten-state experiments showed the limiting kinetics of CsCl and SrCl2 sorption into the zeolite. CsCl sorption occurred rapidly relative to SrCl2 with no observed dependence on zeolite particle size, while SrCl2 sorption was highly dependent on particle size. The application of experimental data to a developed reaction-diffusion-based sorption model yielded diffusivities of 8.04 × 10-6 and 4.04 × 10-7 cm2 /s for CsCl and SrCl2, respectively. Additionally, the chemical reaction term in the developed model was found to be insignificant compared to the diffusion term.

  15. Waste certification program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Orrin, R.C.

    1997-05-01

    This document defines the waste certification program developed for implementation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The document describes the program structure, logic, and methodology for certification of ORNL wastes. The purpose of the waste certification program is to provide assurance that wastes are properly characterized and that the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for receiving facilities are met. The program meets the waste certification requirements outlined in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, and ensures that 40 CFR documentation requirements for waste characterization are met for mixed (both radioactive and hazardous) and hazardous (including polychlorinated biphenyls) waste. Program activities will be conducted according to ORNL Level 1 document requirements.

  16. The Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division Management and Supervisor Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbreath, B.

    1992-04-23

    The Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) is the management and operating contractor (MOC) for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP). Managers and supervisors at DOE facilities such as the WIPP are required to complete extensive training. To meet this requirement, WID created a self-paced, self-study program known as Management and Supervisor Training (MAST). All WID managers and supervisors are required to earn certification through the MAST program. Selected employees are permitted to participate in MAST with prior approval from their manager and the Human Resources Manager. Initial MAST certification requires the completion of 31 modules. MAST participants check out modules and read them when convenient. When they are prepared, participants take module examinations. To receive credit for a given module, participants must score at least 80 percent on the examination. Lessons learned from the development, implementation, and administration are presented in this paper.

  17. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  18. Radioactive Waste Minimization by Electrolytic Extraction and Destruction in a Purex-Truex Actinide Separation System

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Masaki; Sano, Yuichi; Ohara, Chisako; Kishi, Takamichi

    2000-05-15

    Electrolytic extraction of noble metals from nitric acid media was investigated. The largest deposition yield was obtained for Pd, supported by its large rate constants. Rate constants of RuNO{sup 3+} and ReO{sub 4}{sup -} were, however, smaller than that of Pd{sup 2+}; their yield can be improved under high cathode current supply in lower nitric acid concentration. Rather high apparent activation energy was observed for the deposition of RuNO{sup 3+}. Peculiar masking or synergistic effects in their electrodeposition behaviors might be due to mutual interaction of RuNO{sup 3+}, Pd{sup 2+} with ReO{sub 4}{sup -} in nitric acid solution. Sufficiently different redissolution potentials for deposited metals indicate their fractional recovery by anode processing.Mediatory electrochemical oxidation (MEO) was investigated for the mineralization of waste O{phi}D[iB]CMPO (hereafter CMPO) by burning its bulky hydrocarbon moiety under the existence of various kinds of metal ions. Only Ag{sup 2+/+} offered high-current efficiency up to 75%, fairly exceeding that by direct electrooxidation. Redox coupling characterized by a simple electron transfer, M{sup m+} + ne{sup -} <=> M{sup (m-n)+} provided high E{sup 0}, will act exactly as an active mediator. As for the destruction paths for CMPO by MEO, cleavage between carbonyl C and N of amide moiety was of principal importance. The coupling of Co{sup 3+/2+} is also recommended because of hydraulic advantages.

  19. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  20. The value of assessments in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Waste Certification Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, E.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper will discuss the value of assessments in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Waste Certification Programs by: introducing the organization and purpose of the LLNL Waste Certification Programs for transuranic, low-level, and hazardous waste; examining the differences in internal assessment/audit requirements for these programs; discussing the values and costs of assessments in a waste certification program; presenting practical recommendations to maximize the value of your assessment programs; and presenting improvements in LLNL`s waste certification processes that resulted from assessments.

  1. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    over fivefold the "typical" values for comparable landfill waste. In terms of "greenhouse benefit," fractional VOC and methane energy recovery are estimated to exceed 90%, with corresponding methane and VOC emission reductions. Analyses done for the greenhouse gas mitigation program of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory indicate favorable economics justified on landfill life extension, as well as environmental benefits. The "controlled landfill" project findings suggest potential for low-cost mitigation of waste greenhouse methane emissions, maximum landfill carbon sequestration, and maximization of beneficial energy capture from landfills. Details and results obtained since 1994 will be presented.

  2. Calculating averted caries attributable to school-based sealant programs with a minimal data set

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Susan O.; Jones, Kari; Crespin, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We describe a methodology for school-based sealant programs (SBSP) to estimate averted cavities,(i.e.,difference in cavities without and with SBSP) over 9 years using a minimal data set. Methods A Markov model was used to estimate averted cavities. SBSP would input estimates of their annual attack rate (AR) and 1-year retention rate. The model estimated retention 2+ years after placement with a functional form obtained from the literature. Assuming a constant AR, SBSP can estimate their AR with child-level data collected prior to sealant placement on sealant presence, number of decayed/filled first molars, and age. We demonstrate the methodology with data from the Wisconsin SBSP. Finally, we examine how sensitive averted cavities obtained with this methodology is if an SBSP were to over or underestimate their AR or 1-year retention. Results Demonstrating the methodology with estimated AR (= 7 percent) and 1-year retention (= 92 percent) from the Wisconsin SBSP data, we found that placing 31,324 sealants averted 10,718 cavities. Sensitivity analysis indicated that for any AR, the magnitude of the error (percent) in estimating averted cavities was always less than the magnitude of the error in specifying the AR and equal to the error in specifying the 1-year retention rate. We also found that estimates of averted cavities were more robust to misspecifications of AR for higher- versus lower-risk children. Conclusions With Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA) spreadsheets available upon request, SBSP can use this methodology to generate reasonable estimates of their impact with a minimal data set. PMID:24423023

  3. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by

  4. Preparing Los Alamos National Laboratory's Waste Management Program for the Future - 12175

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Scotty W.; Dorries, Alison M.; Singledecker, Steven; Henckel, George

    2012-07-01

    The waste management program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is undergoing significant transition to establish a lean highly functioning waste management program that will succeed the large environmental cleanup waste management program. In the coming years, the environmental cleanup activities will be mostly completed and the effort will change to long-term stewardship. What will remain in waste management is a smaller program focused on direct off-site shipping to cost-effectively enable the enduring mission of the laboratory in support of the national nuclear weapons program and fundamental science and research. It is essential that LANL implement a highly functioning efficient waste management program in support of the core missions of the national weapons program and fundamental science and research - and LANL is well on the way to that goal. As LANL continues the transition process, the following concepts have been validated: - Business drivers including the loss of onsite disposal access and completion of major environmental cleanup activities will drive large changes in waste management strategies and program. - A well conceived organizational structure; formal management systems; a customer service attitude; and enthusiastic managers are core to a successful waste management program. - During times of organizational transition, a project management approach to managing change in a complex work place with numerous complex deliverables is successful strategy. - Early and effective engagement with waste generators, especially Project Managers, is critical to successful waste planning. - A well-trained flexible waste management work force is vital. Training plans should include continuous training as a strategy. - A shared fate approach to managing institutional waste decisions, such as the LANL Waste Management Recharge Board is effective. - An efficient WM program benefits greatly from modern technology and innovation in managing waste data and

  5. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  6. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard; Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel; Nachtman, Thomas J.

    2013-07-01

    determine the TRU content of the boxes by assessing the activity of Am-241 (59 keV) and Pu-241 (414 keV). Using the data generated it was possible for qualified subject matter experts (SME) to assess that the gloveboxes could be consigned for disposition as LLW and not as TRU. Once this determination was assessed and accepted the gloveboxes were prepared for final disposition to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This preparation involved fixing any remaining radioactive contamination within the gloveboxes by filling them with a foam compound, prior to transportation. Once the remaining contamination was fixed the gloveboxes were removed from the laboratory and prepared for transported by road to NNSS. This successful glovebox decontamination and decommissioning process illustrates the means by which TRU waste generation has been minimized, LLW generation has been maximized, and risk has been effectively managed. The process minimizes the volume of TRU waste and reduced the decommissioning time with significant cost savings as the result. (authors)

  7. Teaching Radioactive Waste Management in an Undergraduate Engineering Program - 13269

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Brian M.

    2013-07-01

    The University of Ontario Institute of Technology is Ontario's newest university and the only one in Canada that offers an accredited Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering (Honours) degree. The nuclear engineering program consists of 48 full-semester courses, including one on radioactive waste management. This is a design course that challenges young engineers to develop a fundamental understanding of how to manage the storage and disposal of various types and forms of radioactive waste, and to recognize the social consequences of their practices and decisions. Students are tasked with developing a major project based on an environmental assessment of a simple conceptual design for a waste disposal facility. They use collaborative learning and self-directed exploration to gain the requisite knowledge of the waste management system. The project constitutes 70% of their mark, but is broken down into several small components that include, an environmental assessment comprehensive study report, a technical review, a facility design, and a public defense of their proposal. Many aspects of the project mirror industry team project situations, including the various levels of participation. The success of the students is correlated with their engagement in the project, the highest final examination scores achieved by students with the strongest effort in the project. (authors)

  8. Applications of supercritical fluid technology to pollution prevention and waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    One approach to the prevention of pollution and the reduction of worker exposure from conventional solvents is the use of less hazardous substitutes. One of the more novel substitutes is carbon dioxide. Although carbon dioxide is a gas at ordinary conditions, it can be liquified by application of pressure. In its supercritical state, it exhibits good solvent properties. Separation of the carbon dioxide from the extracted materials can be accomplished by pressure reduction, adsorption onto activated carbon, or with a membrane process, e.g., decaffeination of coffee. This paper presents a brief overview of the university and federal laboratory collaborative efforts focusing on processes using supercritical carbon dioxide as a substitute for hazardous solvents. The SCCO2 technology applications under this program include extraction of natural pharmaceutical materials, phase-transfer catalysis, solvent replacement in chemical synthesis, temperature-solubility relationships, and separation of organic materials from soils and slurries. A paper on the extraction of heavy metals with SCCO2 was presented by Ataai et.al. at the 87th National Meeting, A&WMA. This work is also supported by the EPA.

  9. Nonlinear Boltzmann equation for the homogeneous isotropic case: Minimal deterministic Matlab program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asinari, Pietro

    2010-10-01

    The homogeneous isotropic Boltzmann equation (HIBE) is a fundamental dynamic model for many applications in thermodynamics, econophysics and sociodynamics. Despite recent hardware improvements, the solution of the Boltzmann equation remains extremely challenging from the computational point of view, in particular by deterministic methods (free of stochastic noise). This work aims to improve a deterministic direct method recently proposed [V.V. Aristov, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001] for solving the HIBE with a generic collisional kernel and, in particular, for taking care of the late dynamics of the relaxation towards the equilibrium. Essentially (a) the original problem is reformulated in terms of particle kinetic energy (exact particle number and energy conservation during microscopic collisions) and (b) the computation of the relaxation rates is improved by the DVM-like correction, where DVM stands for Discrete Velocity Model (ensuring that the macroscopic conservation laws are exactly satisfied). Both these corrections make possible to derive very accurate reference solutions for this test case. Moreover this work aims to distribute an open-source program (called HOMISBOLTZ), which can be redistributed and/or modified for dealing with different applications, under the terms of the GNU General Public License. The program has been purposely designed in order to be minimal, not only with regards to the reduced number of lines (less than 1000), but also with regards to the coding style (as simple as possible). Program summaryProgram title: HOMISBOLTZ Catalogue identifier: AEGN_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 23 340 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7 635 236 Distribution format: tar

  10. AISI waste oxide recycling program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Aukrust, E.; Downing, K.B.; Sarma, B.

    1995-08-01

    In March 1995 AISI completed a five-year, $60 million collaborative development program on Direct Steelmaking cost-shared by DOE under the Metals Initiative. This program defined an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly technology to produce hot metal for steelmaking directly from coal and iron ore pellets without incurring the high capital costs and environmental problems associated with traditional coke oven and blast furnace technology. As it becomes necessary to replace present capacity, this new technology will be favored because of reduced capital costs, higher energy efficiency, and lower operating costs. In April 1994, having failed to move forward with a demonstration plant for direct ironmaking, despite substantial efforts by both Stelco and Geneva Steel, an alternative opportunity was sought to commercialize this new technology without waiting until existing ironmaking capacity needed to be replaced. Recycling and resource recovery of steel plant waste oxides was considered an attractive possibility. This led to approval of a ten-month, $8.3 million joint program with DOE on recycling steel plant waste oxides utilizing this new smelting technology. This highly successful trial program was completed in December 1994. The results of the pilot plant work and a feasibility study for a recycling demonstration plant are presented in this final technical report.

  11. 75 FR 45583 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... provisions of the State regulations that are authorized and that EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... the codification of New York's authorized hazardous waste program which is set forth in...

  12. 77 FR 29275 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'',...

  13. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  14. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010...

  15. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted...

  16. SB 1082 -- Unified hazardous materials/waste program: Local implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.

    1995-12-31

    California Senate Bill 1082 was signed into law in the fall of 1993 because business and industry believed there were too many hazardous materials inspectors asking the same questions, looking at the same items and requiring similar information on several variations of the same form. Industry was not happy with the large diversity of programs, each with its own inspectors, permits and fees, essentially doing what industry believed was the same inspection. SB 1082 will allow local city and county agencies to apply to the California Environmental Protection Agency to become a Certified Unified Program Agency (CUPA) or work with a CUPA as a Participating Agency (PA) to manage specific program elements. The CUPA will unify six regulatory programs including hazardous waste/tiered permitting, aboveground storage tanks, underground storage tanks, business and area plans/inventory or disclosure, acutely hazardous materials/risk management prevention and Uniform Fire Code programs related to hazardous materials inventory/plan requirements. The bill requires the CUPA to (1) implement a permit consolidation program; (2) implement a single fee system with a state surcharge; (3) consolidate, coordinate and make consistent any local or regional requirements or guidance documents; and (4) implement a single unified inspection and enforcement program.

  17. WASTE REDUCTION OF TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS OF THE U.S. EPA WRITE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE)Program was established in 1989 to provide objective, accurate performance and cost data about waste reducing technologies for a variety of industrial and commercial application. EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laborato...

  18. Cost reduction in space operations - Structuring a planetary program to minimize the annual funding requirement as opposed to minimizing the program runout cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, D. H.; Niehoff, J. C.; Spadoni, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach is proposed for the structuring of a planetary mission set wherein the peak annual funding is minimized to meet the annual budget restraint. One aspect of the approach is to have a transportation capability that can launch a mission in any planetary opportunity; such capability can be provided by solar electric propulsion. Another cost reduction technique is to structure a mission test in a time sequenced fashion that could utilize essentially the same spacecraft for the implementation of several missions. A third technique would be to fulfill a scientific objective in several sequential missions rather than attempt to accomplish all of the objectives with one mission. The application of the approach is illustrated by an example involving the Solar Orbiter Dual Probe mission.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report February 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2008-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  20. Waste reduction plan for The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose Research and Development (R D) facility. These R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution, changes to processes, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction efforts. Federal regulations, DOE policies and guidelines, increased costs and liabilities associated with the management of wastes, limited disposal options and facility capacities, and public consciousness have been motivating factors for implementing comprehensive waste reduction programs. DOE Order 5820.2A, Section 3.c.2.4 requires DOE facilities to establish an auditable waste reduction program for all LLW generators. In addition, it further states that any new facilities, or changes to existing facilities, incorporate waste minimization into design considerations. A more recent DOE Order, 3400.1, Section 4.b, requires the preparation of a waste reduction program plan which must be reviewed annually and updated every three years. Implementation of a waste minimization program for hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes is sited in DOE Order 5400.3, Section 7.d.5. This document has been prepared to address these requirements. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  3. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

  4. A method for optimizing waste collection using mathematical programming: a Buenos Aires case study.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Flavio; Durán, Guillermo; Larumbe, Frederico; Marenco, Javier

    2012-03-01

    A method is proposed that uses operations research techniques to optimize the routes of waste collection vehicles servicing dumpster or skip-type containers. The waste collection problem is reduced to the classic travelling salesman problem, which is then solved using the Concorde solver program. A case study applying the method to the collection system in the southern zone of Buenos Aires is also presented. In addition to the typical minimum distance criterion, the optimization problem incorporates the objective of reducing vehicle wear and tear as measured by the physics concept of mechanical work. The solution approach, employing graph theory and mathematical programming tools, is fully described and the data correction process is also discussed. The application of the proposed method minimized the distance travelled by each collection vehicle in the areas studied, with actual reductions ranging from 10 to 40% of the existing routes. The shortened distances led in turn to substantial decreases in work done and therefore in vehicle wear and tear. Extrapolation of the results to the entire southern zone of Buenos Aires indicates potential savings for the civic authorities of more than US $200,000 per year in addition to the qualitative impacts of less traffic disruption, less vehicle driver fatigue and less pollution.

  5. A method for optimizing waste collection using mathematical programming: a Buenos Aires case study.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Flavio; Durán, Guillermo; Larumbe, Frederico; Marenco, Javier

    2012-03-01

    A method is proposed that uses operations research techniques to optimize the routes of waste collection vehicles servicing dumpster or skip-type containers. The waste collection problem is reduced to the classic travelling salesman problem, which is then solved using the Concorde solver program. A case study applying the method to the collection system in the southern zone of Buenos Aires is also presented. In addition to the typical minimum distance criterion, the optimization problem incorporates the objective of reducing vehicle wear and tear as measured by the physics concept of mechanical work. The solution approach, employing graph theory and mathematical programming tools, is fully described and the data correction process is also discussed. The application of the proposed method minimized the distance travelled by each collection vehicle in the areas studied, with actual reductions ranging from 10 to 40% of the existing routes. The shortened distances led in turn to substantial decreases in work done and therefore in vehicle wear and tear. Extrapolation of the results to the entire southern zone of Buenos Aires indicates potential savings for the civic authorities of more than US $200,000 per year in addition to the qualitative impacts of less traffic disruption, less vehicle driver fatigue and less pollution. PMID:21460074

  6. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for Landscape Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.; Raubfogel, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    DOE orders mandate the development of a waste minimization program. The program`s goals are to: reduce volumes of wastes and toxicity; implement a system of tracking and reporting improvements; and devise a method for performing tasks. To satisfy the requirements of this program, Sandia conducts pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) to identify waste-generating processes. The information collected from a PPOA then is used to identify waste minimization opportunities. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted using Sandia`s new methodology for prioritizing, evaluating and managing site-wide waste streams. This new methodology and the list of priority waste streams are described in the wastes revision of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Plant. This PPOA addresses landscape waste minimization, partially in response to recent legislation and regulations.

  7. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-07-01

    The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

  8. The development of minimally invasive continuous Metabolic Monitoring Technologies in the U.S. Army TMM Research Program.

    PubMed

    Hover, Carl G; Stedeford, Todd; Vigneulle, Roy M

    2005-02-01

    The Technologies for Metabolic Monitoring and Julia Weaver Fund Research Program (TMM) promotes the development of minimally invasive, innovative technologies for the monitoring and assessment of metabolic changes that are important to the management of diabetes. This program also promotes the advancement of biological monitoring technologies for healthy individuals operating in extreme environments, such as soldiers and astronauts. These technologies have focused on measurements of analytes in interstitial fluids and functional outcomes related to glucose regulation. TMM investigators have advanced new sensing methods and are working to overcome technological barriers to long-term implants. This paper reviews the current goals, research areas, and future direction of the program.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System rogram Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  10. Hanford Site waste tank farm facilities design reconstitution program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vollert, F.R.

    1994-09-06

    Throughout the commercial nuclear industry the lack of design reconstitution programs prior to the mid 1980`s has resulted in inadequate documentation to support operating facilities configuration changes or safety evaluations. As a result, many utilities have completed or have ongoing design reconstitution programs and have discovered that without sufficient pre-planning their program can be potentially very expensive and may result in end-products inconsistent with the facility needs or expectations. A design reconstitution program plan is developed here for the Hanford waste tank farms facility as a consequence of the DOE Standard on operational configuration management. This design reconstitution plan provides for the recovery or regeneration of design requirements and basis, the compilation of Design Information Summaries, and a methodology to disposition items open for regeneration that were discovered during the development of Design Information Summaries. Implementation of this plan will culminate in an end-product of about 30 Design Information Summary documents. These documents will be developed to identify tank farms facility design requirements and design bases and thereby capture the technical baselines of the facility. This plan identifies the methodology necessary to systematically recover documents that are sources of design input information, and to evaluate and disposition open items or regeneration items discovered during the development of the Design Information Summaries or during the verification and validation processes. These development activities will be governed and implemented by three procedures and a guide that are to be developed as an outgrowth of this plan.

  11. Status and strategy of the U. S. commercial waste management program. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Jubin, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Management of airborne waste generally involves the following steps: recovery, treatment, interim storage, transportation, and disposal. The recovery (retention) of airborne radionuclides is generally well developed since the first-generation processes have been used for iodine and particulates for decades by the DOE nuclear materials production plants. Later-generation processes have been carried separately through the cold pilot-plant stage. However, the design and demonstration of a hot, integrated flowsheet for the recovery of all airborne species to the extent necessary to meet applicable regulations are still required. Treatment of the recovered airborne wastes is generally less-well developed. Tentatively preferred processes have been identified: iodine-barium iodate and/or silver zeolites in concrete with additives; krypton-implanted as ions in a metal alloy and encapsulated in concrete; carbon-barium carbonate in concrete with additives; particulates-encapsulation of HEPA filters in concrete; ruthenium-ruthenium traps encapsulated in concrete. The technology for interim storage and transportation appears to be straightforward engineering extensions of existing technology, assuming that the waste forms listed above are to be employed. Waste disposal concepts are the least well-developed aspect of airborne waste mangement technology. It appears that the long-lived materials such as /sup 129/I, /sup 14/C, and particulates will have to be emplaced in a geologic repository and that shorter-lived airborne waste may be acceptable in shallow-land burial grounds. The long-range goal of the program is to determine all of the steps necessary to manage airborne wastes.

  12. 78 FR 15338 - New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... applied to EPA for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Solid Waste... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management...

  13. 77 FR 69765 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Solid Waste... limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). New federal requirements and... November 2, 1984 (49 FR 41036), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We...

  14. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  15. 77 FR 15273 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... in its revised program application, subject to the limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste... limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). K. What is codification and is the EPA... 7004(b) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended 42 U.S.C. 6912(a), 6926, 6974(b). Dated: March...

  16. Building Staff Competencies and Selecting Communications Methods for Waste Management Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John G.

    The Waste Management Institute provided in-service training to interested County Extension agents in North Carolina to enable them to provide leadership in developing and delivering a comprehensive county-level waste management program. Training included technical, economic, environmental, social, and legal aspects of waste management presented in…

  17. 76 FR 62303 - California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ..., effective August 1, 1992 (57 FR 32726), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. EPA... (LDR) Treatment Standards for Listed Hazardous Wastes from Carbamate Production; (10) Extension of... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management...

  18. 76 FR 6561 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ..., effective December 31, 1984 (49 FR 48694) to implement its base hazardous waste management program. EPA....0112(b), (c). Cosmetic Colorants. 207--Uniform Hazardous Waste 70 FR 10776, 03/ 15A NCAC 13A.0102(b... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management...

  19. 76 FR 56708 - Ohio: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., effective June 30, 1989 (54 FR 27170) to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted... Wastes; Checklist 50.1. Changes to Part 124 Not Accounted April 1, 1983, 48 FR 14146.... OAC 3745-50-21...; Checklist 203. Hazardous Waste--Nonwastewaters February 24, 2005, 70 FR 9138. OAC 3745-51-04;...

  20. Application of nondestructive assay technology in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Smith, M.A.; Brandenburg, R.W.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Hensley, D.C.; Phoenix, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Waste characterization is the process whereby physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element of a waste certification program in that it provides information which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A and WIPP-DOE-069 list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content, fissile material content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual(s) who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which the major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 238}U can be found, and {sup 238}U behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  2. Status of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, C.J.; Stephens, M.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel waste has been developed extensively over the past several years, and is now well-advanced. The Concept, which involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock located in the Canadian Precambrian Shield, is supported by an R D program with the following objectives: (1) to develop and demonstrate technology to site, design, build and operate a disposal facility; (2) to develop and demonstrate a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system; and (3) to demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Precambrian Shield that would meet the regulatory requirements. A combination of engineered and natural barriers will be used to ensure that the vault design will meet rigorous safety standards. Experimental work is being carried out to elucidate all the important phenomena associated with the safety of the vault, including the performance of engineered barriers, natural geological barriers, and the biosphere.

  3. Savannah River Site Interim Waste Management Program Plan FY 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chavis, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report of how Waste Management`s operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year. In addition, this document projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year in order to adequately plan for safe handling, storage, and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site and for developing technology for improved management of wastes. In this document, work descriptions and milestone schedules are current as of December 1991.

  4. Savannah River Site Interim Waste Management Program Plan FY 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chavis, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report of how Waste Management's operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year. In addition, this document projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year in order to adequately plan for safe handling, storage, and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site and for developing technology for improved management of wastes. In this document, work descriptions and milestone schedules are current as of December 1991.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  6. Hazardous waste enforcement. [RCRA and Superfund regulatory programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    A change is taking place in the enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Superfund, a change described by the terms ''environmental results'' and ''cooperation, no confrontation''. Examples are given of environmental results achieved through criminal enforcement. In June 1981, a New York businessman received a two and one-half year prison sentence for dumping PCB-laced oil along North Carolina roads; a second defendant received an 18-month jail term. Other important measures of environmental results achieved by enforcement are 1) commitment of private money and effort for hazardous waste management and 2) the number of facility inspections conducted under RCRA's regulatory program's compliance monitoring system. A new strategy of cooperation between U.S. EPA and the parties affected by RCRA and Superfund should change the pattern which produced the confrontational conflicts of the past. (JMT)

  7. State hazardous waste programs; procedures for revision of state RCRA programs--EPA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1983-08-25

    EPA is today proposing to amend its requirements under 40 CFR 271.21(e) (formerly Section 123.13(e)) for the approval and revision of authorized state hazardous waste programs. One purpose is to ensure that states applying for final authorization under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended, (RCRA) do not have to revise their programs and applications to respond to federal regulatory changes occurring while the states' applications are being prepared or processed. The second purpose is to provide all authorized states with one full year (or two years, if there is a need for state legislative action) from the effective date of amended federal regulations to make the revisions in their programs required by such federal amendments. This action would provide the state with an additional six months since the existing regulation requires that program revisions be made within one year (or two years) after the promulgation of amended federal regulations.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  9. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste

  10. Program for certification of waste from contained firing facility: Establishment of waste as non-reactive and discussion of potential waste generation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L.; Garza, R.; Maienschein, J.; Pruneda, C.

    1997-09-30

    Debris from explosives testing in a shot tank that contains 4 weight percent or less of explosive is shown to be non-reactive under the specified testing protocol in the Code of Federal Regulations. This debris can then be regarded as a non-hazardous waste on the basis of reactivity, when collected and packaged in a specified manner. If it is contaminated with radioactive components (e.g. depleted uranium), it can therefore be disposed of as radioactive waste or mixed waste, as appropriate (note that debris may contain other materials that render it hazardous, such as beryllium). We also discuss potential waste generation issues in contained firing operations that are applicable to the planned new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). The goal of this program is to develop and document conditions under which shot debris from the planned Contained Firing Facility (CFF) can be handled, shipped, and accepted for waste disposal as non-reactive radioactive or mixed waste. This report fulfills the following requirements as established at the outset of the program: 1. Establish through testing the maximum level of explosive that can be in a waste and still have it certified as non-reactive. 2. Develop the procedure to confirm the acceptability of radioactive-contaminated debris as non-reactive waste at radioactive waste disposal sites. 3. Outline potential disposal protocols for different CFF scenarios (e.g. misfires with scattered explosive).

  11. 77 FR 15343 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... Oklahoma has applied to EPA for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the... Oklahoma. In the ``Rules and Regulations'' section of this Federal Register, EPA is authorizing the...

  12. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for RD&D permits. (69 FR 13242). This rule allows for variances from specified... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue research, development,...

  13. Program plan for evaluation of the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank safety issue at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Borsheim, G.L.; Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes the background, priorities, strategy and logic, and task descriptions for the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Program. The Ferrocyanide Safety Program was established in 1990 to provide resolution of a major safety issue identified for 24 high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site.

  14. 78 FR 79654 - Vermont: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...EPA proposes to grant final authorization to the State of Vermont for changes to its hazardous waste program. In the ``Rules and Regulations'' section of this Federal Register we are authorizing the changes to the Vermont hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as a direct final rule without prior proposed rule. EPA has determined that these changes......

  15. Quality assurance program plan for low-level waste at the WSCF Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the implementation of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the management of low-level waste at the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) Laboratory Complex as required by WHC-CM-4-2, Quality Assurance Manual, which is based on Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities, NQA-1 (ASME).

  16. 78 FR 25678 - Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions... for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation...

  17. 76 FR 6594 - Florida: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Florida: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions... for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource...

  18. 76 FR 19004 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... Oklahoma has applied to EPA for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under...

  19. 77 FR 69788 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... applied to the EPA for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The EPA proposes to grant final authorization to the hazardous...

  20. 78 FR 43842 - State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY... authorization for changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA.... Federal eRulemaking Portal: http: www.regulations.gov. Follow the on-line instructions for...

  1. Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Menche, C.E.

    1997-05-14

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance.

  2. Factors affecting waste generation: a study in a waste management program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tudin, Rabaah

    2011-08-01

    Information on waste generation, socioeconomic characteristics, and willingness of the households to separate waste was obtained from interviews with 402 respondents in Dhaka city. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the waste generation of the households. The results showed that the waste generation of the households in Dhaka city was significantly affected by household size, income, concern about the environment, and willingness to separate the waste. These factors are necessary to effectively improve waste management, growth and performance, as well as to reduce the environmental degradation of the household waste. PMID:21046234

  3. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-02-01

    The ONWI Socioeconomic Program Plan spells out DOE's approach to analyzing the socioeconomic impacts from siting, constructing, and operating radioactive waste repositories and discusses mitigation strategies. The peer review indicated the following modifications should be made to the Plan: encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process; place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

  4. Microbial studies in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program.

    PubMed

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; West, J M

    1997-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for permanent geological disposal of used nuclear fuel in Canada. This concept, based on a multibarrier system, would involve disposal of nuclear fuel waste in titanium or copper containers, surrounded by compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials, in a vault 500-1000 m deep in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. Subsurface environments will not be sterile and an experimental program was initiated in 1991 by AECL to address and quantify the potential effects of microbial action on the integrity of the disposal vault. This microbial program focuses on answering specific questions in areas such as the survival of bacteria in compacted clay-based buffer materials under relevant radiation, temperature and desiccation conditions; mobility of microbes in compacted buffer materials; the potential for microbially influenced corrosion of containers; microbial gas production in backfill material; introduction of nutrients as a result of vault excavation and operation; the presence and activity of microbes in deep granitic groundwaters; and the effects of biofilms on radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This paper summarizes the results to date from the research activities at AECL. PMID:9299719

  5. Microbial studies in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program.

    PubMed

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; West, J M

    1997-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for permanent geological disposal of used nuclear fuel in Canada. This concept, based on a multibarrier system, would involve disposal of nuclear fuel waste in titanium or copper containers, surrounded by compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials, in a vault 500-1000 m deep in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. Subsurface environments will not be sterile and an experimental program was initiated in 1991 by AECL to address and quantify the potential effects of microbial action on the integrity of the disposal vault. This microbial program focuses on answering specific questions in areas such as the survival of bacteria in compacted clay-based buffer materials under relevant radiation, temperature and desiccation conditions; mobility of microbes in compacted buffer materials; the potential for microbially influenced corrosion of containers; microbial gas production in backfill material; introduction of nutrients as a result of vault excavation and operation; the presence and activity of microbes in deep granitic groundwaters; and the effects of biofilms on radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This paper summarizes the results to date from the research activities at AECL.

  6. Investigation and evaluation of a computer program to minimize three-dimensional flight time tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, F. I.

    1981-01-01

    The program for the DC 8-D3 flight planning was slightly modified for the three dimensional flight planning for DC 10 aircrafts. Several test runs of the modified program over the North Atlantic and North America were made for verifying the program. While geopotential height and temperature were used in a previous program as meteorological data, the modified program uses wind direction and speed and temperature received from the National Weather Service. A scanning program was written to collect required weather information from the raw data received in a packed decimal format. Two sets of weather data, the 12-hour forecast and 24-hour forecast based on 0000 GMT, are used for dynamic processes in testruns. In order to save computing time only the weather data of the North Atlantic and North America is previously stored in a PCF file and then scanned one by one.

  7. Waste Reduction plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development (R&D) facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), Inc. ORNL R&D activities generate numerous small waste streams. In the hazardous waste category alone, over 300 streams of a diverse nature exist. Generation avoidance, reduction or recycling of wastes is an important goal in maintaining efficiency of ORNL R&D activities and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes or eliminates the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution and inventory management, process modification, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction activities.

  8. Waste Reduction plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development (R D) facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), Inc. ORNL R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. In the hazardous waste category alone, over 300 streams of a diverse nature exist. Generation avoidance, reduction or recycling of wastes is an important goal in maintaining efficiency of ORNL R D activities and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes or eliminates the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution and inventory management, process modification, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction activities.

  9. Systems Engineering in the Development and Implementation of the Savannah River Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1999-03-10

    The use of systems engineering facilitated the strategic planning and implementation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) transuranic waste disposal program. This application represented the first SRS use of systems engineering in the pre-program planning stages during the development of a comprehensive strategic plan for the disposal of transuranic waste at the Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The use of systems engineering focused the efforts of the technical experts to devise a three initiative plan for the disposal of transuranic waste where previous efforts failed. Continued application of systems engineering facilitated the further development and implementation of the first initiative outlined in the strategic plan, i.e., set-up the program and process to begin to characterize and ship waste to the WIPP.This application of systems engineering to the transuranic waste program represented the first opportunity at the SRS for a comprehensive usage of systems engineering at all program levels. The application was initiated at the earliest possible point in the program development, i.e., strategic planning, and successively was used in detailed development and implementation of the program. Systems engineering successfully focused efforts to produce a comprehensive plan for the disposal of SRS transuranic waste at the WIPP, and facilitated development of the SRS capability and infrastructure to characterize, certify, and ship waste.

  10. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    PubMed

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  11. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    PubMed

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  12. Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

  13. Technology needs for remediation: Hanford and other DOE sites. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Technologies are being developed under the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program to facilitate remediation of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) buried and stored low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive and hazardous buried wastes. The BWID program is being coordinated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, a DOE site that has large volumes of buried radioactive wastes. The program is currently focusing its efforts on the problems at INEL`s Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). As specific technologies are successfully demonstrated, they will be available for transfer to applications at other DOE buried waste sites. The purpose of this study is to present buried waste technology needs that have been identified for DOE sites other than INEL.

  14. An Original Behavior Modification Program for Weight Reduction: Minimal Intervention and Permanent Habit Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lublin, Irwin; Kirkish, Patricia

    This description of a weight reduction program, based on generalizations derived from eight years of work with overweight persons, discusses the clients' rationalization of overeating behaviors. In this behavior modification program, the client is required to permanently give up one high calorie food and to write down all foods eaten before actual…

  15. Radioactive waste management: a bibliography for the integrated data base program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.A.

    1981-10-01

    This is the second in a series of literature references compiled on waste generation and treatment, characteristics, inventories, and costs. Documents were collected, abstracted, and indexed into a searchable information file, which was then sorted, indexed, and printed for this bibliography. This volume contains over 200 references to nuclear waste management, the majority of which are 1979-1980 publications. Each reference is categorized by waste origin (commercial, government, institutional, and foreign) and by subject area: (1) high-level waste, (2) low-level waste, (3) transuranic (TRU) waste, (4) airborne waste, (5) Remedial Action Program (formerly utilized sites, surplus facilities, and mill tailings), (6) isolation, (7) transportation, (8) spent fuel, (9) fuel cycle centers, and (10) general, nonspecific waste. Six indexes are provided to assist the user in locating documents of interest.

  16. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests conducted on a regular frequency to evaluate the capability for nondestructive assay of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed with TRU waste characterization systems. Measurement facility performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples according to the criteria set by this Program Plan. Intercomparison between measurement groups of the DOE complex will be achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar or identical blind samples reported by the different measurement facilities. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). As defined for this program, a PDP sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components, once manufactured, will be secured and stored at each participating measurement facility designated and authorized by Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage.

  17. Outcomes of Minimal and Moderate Support Versions of an Internet-Based Diabetes Self-Management Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane; Dickman, Jennifer M.; Faber, Andrew J.; Halterman, Eve; Wooley, Tim; Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Osuna, Diego; Ritzwoller, Debra

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Internet and other interactive technology-based programs offer great potential for practical, effective, and cost-efficient diabetes self-management (DSM) programs capable of reaching large numbers of patients. This study evaluated minimal and moderate support versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, compared to an enhanced usual care condition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A three-arm practical randomized trial was conducted to evaluate minimal contact and moderate contact versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, offered in English and Spanish, compared to enhanced usual care. A heterogeneous sample of 463 type 2 patients was randomized and 82.5% completed a 4-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were behavior changes in healthy eating, physical activity, and medication taking. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, lipids, and blood pressure. RESULTS The Internet-based intervention produced significantly greater improvements than the enhanced usual care condition on three of four behavioral outcomes (effect sizes [d] for healthy eating = 0.32; fat intake = 0.28; physical activity= 0.19) in both intent-to-treat and complete-cases analyses. These changes did not translate into differential improvements in biological outcomes during the 4-month study period. Added contact did not further enhance outcomes beyond the minimal contact intervention. CONCLUSIONS The Internet intervention meets several of the RE-AIM criteria for potential public health impact, including reaching a large number of persons, and being practical, feasible, and engaging for participants, but with mixed effectiveness in improving outcomes, and consistent results across different subgroups. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term outcomes, enhance effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and understand the linkages between intervention processes and outcomes. Electronic supplementary material The online version

  18. Savannah River Site Waste Management Program Plan, FY 1993. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report on facilities being used to manage wastes, forces acting to change current waste management (WM) systems, and how operations are conducted. This document also reports on plans for the coming fiscal year and projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year to adequately plan for safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for developing technology for improved management of wastes.

  19. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  20. Salt Repository Project: Waste Package Program (WPP) modeling activiteis: FY 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, W.L.; Simonson, S.A.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Salt Repository Project (SRP) through its Waste Package Program (WPP). During FY 1984, the WPP continued its program of waste package component development and interactions testing and application of the resulting data base to develop predictive models describing waste package degradation and radionuclide release. Within the WPP, the Modeling Task (Task 04 during FY 1984) was conducted to interpret the tests in such a way that scientifically defensible models can be developed for use in qualification of the waste package.

  1. {open_quotes}Successful and cost-effective commercial waste prevention and recycling programs{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    Components of an integrated solid waste management program are detailed, with emphasis on government and business partnerships. The program incorporates waste reduction, reuse, waste exchange, recycling, composting, and recycled product procurement. Program options, which focus on educational materials, methods, and technical assistance for promoting commercial waste prevention and recycling, are specified for the business, manufacturing, and industrial sectors. A sample commercial recycling program budget and budget description is included.

  2. The effect of an exercise program on change in curve in adolescents with minimal idiopathic scoliosis. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stone, B; Beekman, C; Hall, V; Guess, V; Brooks, H L

    1979-06-01

    Forty-two adolescents with minimal idiopathic scoliosis, who had been on an exercise program for 9 to 15 months, were evaluated to determine the influence of exercise on change in their curvatures. A difference of 4 degrees or greater between initial and final curve measurements was considered to be a change. Five percent of the curves increased, 74% remained the same, and 21% decreased. Change in curvature for these patients was also compared with that of a matched retrospective group of adolescents with scoliosis who had not had the exercise program. No significant difference in change in curve between the two groups was found. For patients who had been on the exercise program, there was no significant relationship between change in curve and extent of physical activity or between change in curve and exercise recall, correct performance, or frequency. Limitations in the study design and possible explanations for the results are discussed.

  3. Installation and Setup of Whole School Food Waste Composting Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Forder, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong, one of the busiest trading harbors in the world, is also a city of 8 million of people. The biggest problem that the government faces is the lack of solid waste landfill space. Hong Kong produces around 13,500 tons of waste per day. There are three landfills in Hong Kong in operation. These three landfills will soon be exhausted in around 2020, and the solid waste in Hong Kong is still increasing. Out of the 13,500 tons of solid waste, 9,000 tons are organic solid waste or food waste. Food waste, especially domestic waste, is recyclable. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy has a project to collect domestic food waste (from the school cafeteria) for decomposition. Our school produces around 15 tons of food waste per year. The project includes a sub-project in the Primary school, which uses the organic soil produced by an aerobic food waste machine, the Rocket A900, to plant vegetables in school. This not only helps our school to process the waste, but also helps the Primary students to study agriculture and have greater opportunities for experimental learning. For this project, two types of machines will be used for food waste processing. Firstly, the Dehydra made by Tiny Planet reduces the volume and the mass of the food waste, by dehydrating the food waste and separating the ground food waste and the excessive water inside machine for further decomposition. Secondly, the A900 Rocket, also made by Tidy Planet; this is used to process the dehydrated ground food waste for around 14 days thereby producing usable organic soil. It grinds the food waste into tiny pieces so that it is easier to decompose. It also separates the wood chips inside the ground food waste. This machine runs an aerobic process, which includes O2 and will produce CO2 during the process and is less harmful to the environment. On the other hand, if it is an anaerobic process occurs during the operation, it will produce a greenhouse gas- CH4 -and smells bad.

  4. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  5. RCRA delisting of agent-decontaminated waste and remediation waste at Dugway Proving Ground: A program update

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; O`Neill, H.J.

    1996-03-01

    In July 1988, the state of Utah issued regulations that declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues were designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). These residues are not listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which is the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. The RCRAI regulations (40 CFR 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. In 1994, the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command FECOM initiated a project with the Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to demonstrate that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous waste and to achieve delisting. The initial focus is on delisting agent-decontaminated residues and soil with a history of contamination at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. An overview of the DPG delisting program was presented at the 1995 American Defense Preparedness Association Environmental Symposium. Since that time, much progress has been made. The purpose of this paper is to review the DPG delisting program and discuss overall progress. Emphasis is placed on progress with regard to analytical methods that will be used to demonstrate that the target residues do not contain hazardous amounts of chemical agent.

  6. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  7. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, Donald A.

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the normal'' municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan's programs. Focusing on the Plan's household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  8. Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely.

  9. Summary of LLNL`s accomplishments for the FY93 Waste Processing Operations Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grasz, E.; Domning, E.; Heggins, D.; Huber, L.; Hurd, R.; Martz, H.; Roberson, P.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1994-04-01

    Under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Technology Development (OTD)-Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), the Waste Processing Operations (WPO) Program was initiated in FY92 to address the development of automated material handling and automated chemical and physical processing systems for mixed wastes. The Program`s mission was to develop a strategy for the treatment of all DOE mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes. As part of this mission, DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was charged with the development of innovative waste treatment technologies to surmount shortcomings of existing baseline systems. Current technology advancements and applications results from cooperation of private industry, educational institutions, and several national laboratories operated for DOE. This summary document presents the LLNL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER and WM) Automation and Robotics Section`s contributions in support of DOE`s FY93 WPO Program. This document further describes the technological developments that were integrated in the 1993 Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) Demonstration held at SRTC in November 1993.

  10. Review of progress in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.B.; Johnson, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is reviewed, illustrating the progress that has been made in assessing the concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Research is being conducted into used fuel storage and transportation, fuel waste immobilization, site characterization and selection methods, and performance assessment modelling. Details of achievements in these areas are outlined, and results of the most recent interim assessment are discussed.

  11. U.S. program assessing nuclear waste disposal in space - A 1981 status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Best, R. E.; Compton, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts, current studies, and technology and equipment requirements for using the STS for space disposal of selected nuclear wastes as a complement to geological storage are reviewed. An orbital transfer vehicle carried by the Shuttle would kick the waste cannister into a 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit. One flight per week is regarded as sufficient to dispose of all high level wastes chemically separated from reactor fuel rods from 200 GWe nuclear power capacity. Studies are proceeding for candidate wastes, the STS system suited to each waste, and the risk/benefits of a space disposal system. Risk assessments are being extended to total waste disposal risks for various disposal programs with and without a space segment, and including side waste streams produced as a result of separating substances for launch.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste characterization and certification program - an overview of capabilities and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z.; Sinkule, B.J.; Janecky, D.R.; Gavett, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has full capability to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for its projected opening. LANL TRU waste management operations also include facilities to repackage both drums of waste found not to be certifiable for WIPP and oversized boxes of waste that must be size reduced for shipment to WIPP. All characterization activities and repackaging are carried out under a quality assurance program designed to meet Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) requirements. The flow of waste containers through characterization operations, the facilities used for characterization, and the electronic data management system used for data package preparation and certification of TRU waste at LANL are described.

  13. Summary of non-US national and international radioactive waste management programs 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.; Stout, L.A.; Hsieh, K.A.

    1980-03-01

    Many nations and international agencies are working to develop improved technology and industrial capability for nuclear fuel cycle and waste management operations. The effort in some countries is limited to research in university laboratories on treating low-level waste from reactor plant operations. In other countries, national nuclear research institutes are engaged in major programs in all phases of the fuel cycle and waste management, and there is a national effort to commercialize fuel cycle operations. Since late 1976, staff members of Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been working under US Department of Energy sponsorship to assemble and consolidate openly available information on foreign and international nuclear waste management programs and technology. This report summarizes the information collected on the status of fuel cycle and waste management programs in selected countries making major efforts in these fields as of the end of January 1980.

  14. Summary of non-US national and international radioactive waste management programs 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.

    1981-06-01

    Many nations and international agencies are working to develop improved technology and industrial capability for neuclear fuel cycle and waste management operations. The effort in some countries is limited to research in university laboratories on treating low-level waste from reactor plant operations. In other countries, national nuclear research institutes are engaged in major programs in all phases of the fuel cycle and waste management, and there is a national effort to commercialize fuel cycle operations. Since late 1976, staff members of Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been working under US Department of Energy sponsorship to assemble and consolidate openly available information on foreign and international nuclear waste management programs and technology. This report summarizes the information collected on the status of fuel cycle and waste management programs in selected countries making major efforts in these fields as of the end of May 1981.

  15. Minimization of organic and metallic industrial waste via lemna minor concentration. Final report, 1 September 1991-1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers-Irons, G.L.

    1992-12-30

    In recent years, new strict environmental laws have required improved and cost-effective water purification methods by Air Force complexes. Naturally assisted primary units (microbiological) and secondary units (macrophyte) could bring waste treatment systems into tighter compliance. Aquatic macrophytes which have rapid growth rates and absorb large quantities of nutrients could provide a practical and economic method for more complete wastewater maintenance, hazardous waste clean-up or river, lake and ground water purification. This work has shown that Lemna minor, or Common Duckweed, can successfully and thoroughly accumulate organics and metals from Air Force wastewaters.

  16. I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2010-09-01

    The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a “once-through” option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were

  17. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Hanford Mission Plan specifically addresses the tank waste issue and clarifies the link with other initiatives, such as improving management practices and the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE/RL-91-31). This document captures the results of decision making regarding the application of systems engineering at the Hanford Site, external involvement policy, and site end-state goals. Section 3.5 of the Hanford Mission Plan on Decisions and Directives provides an integrating discussion of the actions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE policy, guidance, and decisions associated with binding agreements such as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Two significant components of the Hanford Mission Plan 1994 planning basis are (1) the decisions regarding the disposition of onsite material inventory, and the key programs and interfaces to accomplish this; and (2) the Program Interface Issues section, which identified issues that stretch across program boundaries.

  18. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Ideker, V.L.; Doyle, G.M.

    1994-02-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP`s waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP`s RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators` understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations.

  19. ICESHEET 1.0: a program to produce paleo-ice sheet reconstructions with minimal assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, Evan J.; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Lea, James; Fransner, Oscar J.; Noormets, Riko; Dowdeswell, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a program that produces paleo-ice sheet reconstructions using an assumption of steady-state, perfectly plastic ice flow behaviour. It incorporates three input parameters: ice margin, basal shear stress and basal topography. Though it is unlikely that paleo-ice sheets were ever in complete steady-state conditions, this method can produce an ice sheet without relying on complicated and unconstrained parameters such as climate and ice dynamics. This makes it advantageous to use in glacial-isostatic adjustment ice sheet modelling, which are often used as input parameters in global climate modelling simulations. We test this program by applying it to the modern Greenland Ice Sheet and Last Glacial Maximum Barents Sea Ice Sheet and demonstrate the optimal parameters that balance computational time and accuracy.

  20. OPTIM: Computer program to generate a vertical profile which minimizes aircraft fuel burn or direct operating cost. User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A profile of altitude, airspeed, and flight path angle as a function of range between a given set of origin and destination points for particular models of transport aircraft provided by NASA is generated. Inputs to the program include the vertical wind profile, the aircraft takeoff weight, the costs of time and fuel, certain constraint parameters and control flags. The profile can be near optimum in the sense of minimizing: (1) fuel, (2) time, or (3) a combination of fuel and time (direct operating cost (DOC)). The user can also, as an option, specify the length of time the flight is to span. The theory behind the technical details of this program is also presented.

  1. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 241}Am can be found and {sup 241}Am behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  2. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 13, Curium-242

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report, Volume 13 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of curium-242 ({sup 242}Cm). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 242}Cm can be found and {sup 242}Cm behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  3. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM:HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES. CURRENT HIGHLIGHTS, FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past 13 years, the Mine Waste Technology Program has been technically driven by the National Risk Management Research Lab. A portion of the MWTP funding has been used to perform field demonstrations of innovative technologies with the potential to address mine waste issue...

  4. DOE`s integrated low-level waste management program and strategic planning

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, G.; Hwang, J.

    1993-03-01

    To meet the DOE`s commitment to operate its facilities in a safe, economic, and environmentally sound manner, and to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local rules, regulations, and agreements, DOE created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in 1989 to focus efforts on controlling waste management and cleaning up contaminated sites. In the first few years of its existence, the Office of Waste Management (EM-30) has concentrated on operational and corrective activities at the sites. In 1992, the Office of Waste Management began to apply an integrated approach to managing its various waste types. Consequently, DOE established the Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) to properly manage its complex-wide LLW in a consistent manner. The objective of the LLWMP is to build and operate an integrated, safe, and cost-effective program to meet the needs of waste generators. The program will be based on acceptable risk and sound planning, resulting in public confidence and support. Strategic planning of the program is under way and is expected to take two to three years before implementation of the integrated waste management approach.

  5. 75 FR 76633 - Oregon; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Rule promulgated and effective on January 7, 2010 (75 FR 918) under docket EPA-R10-RCRA-2009-0766... January 31, 1986 (51 FR 3779), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. EPA granted..., 2003 (68 FR 44659) from the State of Oregon's federally authorized RCRA Hazardous Waste...

  6. 75 FR 35660 - Massachusetts: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Production Waste Listing [57 FR 47376, October 15, 1992]--State: 30.132 and 30.162; Federal: CL 132--Wood..., 1985 (50 FR 3344), to implement its base hazardous waste management program. This authorized base... administer the Satellite Accumulation rule, effective November 30, 1998 (63 FR 52180). Also, on October...

  7. A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

  8. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

  9. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-20

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  10. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

  11. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  12. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Design Procedures for Land Application of Wastes - Module 6, Objectives, Script and Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to develop a general procedure to decide the feasibility of land application as a waste management alternative, given a specific problem situation. This information provides a framework within which to apply the information presented in all other modules in the program. An outline of the general procedure followed in…

  13. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  14. Promoting appreciation of the study and practice of medicine: inner workings of a Mini-Med program.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, Jacob Jay; Delisa, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the restrictions of the health care system, diminished reliance on the word of health care professionals, increased costs of medical care, and access to information online have increased consumers' interest in their own health care as well as their thirst for medical literacy. Mini-Med programs run by medical schools offer a more reliable method of learning about disease and disorders than does the indiscriminate surfing of the Internet. This article describes the efforts of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - the largest public university of the health sciences in the nation - to run and maintain such a program. The Mini-Med course provides lay students with insight into what a student undergoes while studying medicine and guides them through complex topics that range from anatomy and basic life support to the latest in stem cell research. It also provides early guidance for potential medical students, addresses patients' concerns, and gives some insight into the levels of comprehension of current medical students.

  15. Promoting appreciation of the study and practice of medicine: inner workings of a Mini-Med program.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, Jacob Jay; Delisa, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the restrictions of the health care system, diminished reliance on the word of health care professionals, increased costs of medical care, and access to information online have increased consumers' interest in their own health care as well as their thirst for medical literacy. Mini-Med programs run by medical schools offer a more reliable method of learning about disease and disorders than does the indiscriminate surfing of the Internet. This article describes the efforts of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - the largest public university of the health sciences in the nation - to run and maintain such a program. The Mini-Med course provides lay students with insight into what a student undergoes while studying medicine and guides them through complex topics that range from anatomy and basic life support to the latest in stem cell research. It also provides early guidance for potential medical students, addresses patients' concerns, and gives some insight into the levels of comprehension of current medical students. PMID:23762004

  16. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  17. Integrated Passive Biological Treatment System/ Mine Waste Technology Program Report #16

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 16, Integrated, Passive Biological Treatment System, funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the United States Depar...

  18. 78 FR 70255 - West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: West Virginia...

  19. A 6-month supervised employer-based minimal exercise program for police officers improves fitness.

    PubMed

    Rossomanno, Colleen I; Herrick, Jeffery E; Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a 6-month supervised, job-specific moderate exercise program in police officers on body composition, cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular and muscular fitness were assessed at baseline, after a 6-month supervised fitness program and at 12-month follow-up (18 months). One hundred sixty-five (n = 131 men and n = 34 women) young (mean ± SEM, 26.4 ± 1.9 years), overweight (BMI = 26.2 ± 1.2 kg·m) police officers participated. Aerobic exercise progressed from 3 d·wk, 20 minutes per session at 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) to 5 d·wk, 30 minutes per session at 75% of HRR at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Muscular strength training progressed using 8 different calisthenics exercises from 3 d·wk, 2 sets of 5 repetitions using the participant's own BW to 5 d·wk, 3 sets of 15 repetitions of the participant's own BW at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Cardiovascular and muscular fitness was measured using a 0.25-mile obstacle course incorporating various job-specific exercises and expressed as the physical abilities test (PAT) time. There was a significant reduction in BMI (-0.6 ± 0.2 kg·m, p < 0.001) and BW (-2.8 ± 2.3 kg) and reduction in PAT time (-11.9 ± 2.1%, p < 0.01) from baseline to 6 months. However, BMI (1.4 ± 1.1 kg·m, p < 0.001), BW (5.1 ± 3.0 kg, p < 0.01), and PAT time significantly increased (12.8 ± 2.2%, p < 0.01) from 6 to 18 months. There were no sex by time differences. The practical applications of this study indicate that a supervised, job-specific exercise program for police officers improves fitness and body composition after 6 months in both men and women, but continued supervision of exercise program may be necessary for maintenance of health benefits.

  20. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board`s view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program.

  1. Technology-aided programs for post-coma patients emerged from or in a minimally conscious state

    PubMed Central

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O’Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta; Buonocunto, Francesca; D’Amico, Fiora; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Denitto, Floriana

    2014-01-01

    Post-coma persons in a minimally conscious state (MCS) or emerged/emerging from such state (E-MCS), who are affected by extensive motor impairment and lack of speech, may develop an active role and interact with their environment with the help of technology-aided intervention programs. Although a number of studies have been conducted in this area during the last few years, new evidence about the efficacy of those programs is warranted. These three studies were an effort in that direction. Study I assessed a technology-aided program to enable six MCS participants to access preferred environmental stimulation independently. Studies II and III assessed technology-aided programs to enable six E-MCS participants to make choices. In Study II, three of those participants were led to choose among leisure and social stimuli, and caregiver interventions automatically presented to them. In Study III, the remaining three participants were led to choose (a) among general stimulus/intervention options (e.g., songs, video-recordings of family members, and caregiver interventions); and then (b) among variants of those options. The results of all three studies were largely positive with substantial increases of independent stimulation access for the participants of Study I and independent choice behavior for the participants of Studies II and III. The results were analyzed in relation to previous data and in terms of their implications for daily contexts working with MCS and E-MCS persons affected by multiple disabilities. PMID:25538593

  2. Technology-aided programs for post-coma patients emerged from or in a minimally conscious state.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta; Buonocunto, Francesca; D'Amico, Fiora; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Denitto, Floriana

    2014-01-01

    Post-coma persons in a minimally conscious state (MCS) or emerged/emerging from such state (E-MCS), who are affected by extensive motor impairment and lack of speech, may develop an active role and interact with their environment with the help of technology-aided intervention programs. Although a number of studies have been conducted in this area during the last few years, new evidence about the efficacy of those programs is warranted. These three studies were an effort in that direction. Study I assessed a technology-aided program to enable six MCS participants to access preferred environmental stimulation independently. Studies II and III assessed technology-aided programs to enable six E-MCS participants to make choices. In Study II, three of those participants were led to choose among leisure and social stimuli, and caregiver interventions automatically presented to them. In Study III, the remaining three participants were led to choose (a) among general stimulus/intervention options (e.g., songs, video-recordings of family members, and caregiver interventions); and then (b) among variants of those options. The results of all three studies were largely positive with substantial increases of independent stimulation access for the participants of Study I and independent choice behavior for the participants of Studies II and III. The results were analyzed in relation to previous data and in terms of their implications for daily contexts working with MCS and E-MCS persons affected by multiple disabilities.

  3. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program: Remedial Actions Planning Program Quality Assurance Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to describe the quality assurance (QA) requirements for the RAP Program by identifying the quality elements to be controlled and specifying how they will be controlled. The activities for which control elements will be identified include those relating to: preparation, review, and approval of plans, reports, and studies; execution of field and analytical work by subcontractors and other agents; control of subcontractors and other agents during other phases of work; and actions internal to the RAP Program to ensure proper execution of projects.

  4. Implementing a Mobility Program to Minimize Post-Intensive Care Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ramona O; Mitchell, Lorie; Thomsen, George E; Schafer, Michele; Link, Maggie; Brown, Samuel M

    2016-01-01

    Immobility in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with neuromuscular weakness, post-intensive care syndrome, functional limitations, and high costs. Early mobility-based rehabilitation in the ICU is feasible and safe. Mobility-based rehabilitation varied widely across 5 ICUs in 1 health care system, suggesting a need for continuous training and evaluation to maintain a strong mobility-based rehabilitation program. Early mobility-based rehabilitation shortens ICU and hospital stays, reduces delirium, and increases muscle strength and the ability to ambulate. Long-term effects include increased ability for self-care, faster return to independent functioning, improved physical function, and reduced hospital readmission and death. Factors that influence early mobility-based rehabilitation include having an interdisciplinary team; strong unit leadership; access to physical, occupational, and respiratory therapists; a culture focused on patient safety and quality improvement; a champion of early mobility; and a focus on measuring performance and outcomes. PMID:27153308

  5. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  6. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  7. A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

  8. Defense Transuranic Waste Program. Transuranic waste transportation assessment and guidance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The Transportation Assessment and Guidance Report (TAGR) is designed to provide DOE-managed defense sites with guidance and citable analyses addressing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for qualifying and transporting transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico.

  9. Preliminary waste acceptance criteria for the ICPP spent fuel and waste management technology development program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.

  10. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies.

  11. The Waste Wise Schools Program: Evidence of Educational, Environmental, Social and Economic Outcomes at the School and Community Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patricia; Sharpley, Brian; Malcolm, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Waste Wise Schools Program was established by EcoRecycle Victoria to implement waste and litter education in Victorian schools. It is now operating in over 900 schools in Victoria and 300 schools in other Australian states / territories. This paper provides detailed case studies of two active schools in the Waste Wise Schools Program and…

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory contact-handled Transuranic Waste Certification Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Smith, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is required by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A to package its transuranic (TRU) waste to comply with waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TRU wastes are defined in DOE Order 5820.A as those radioactive wastes that are contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides having half-lives greater than 20 years and concentrations greater than 100 nCi/g at the time of the assay. In addition, ORNL handles U{sup 233}, Cm{sup 244}, and Cf{sup 252} as TRU waste radionuclides. The ORNL Transuranic Waste Certification Program was established to ensure that all TRU waste at ORNL is packaged to meet the required transportation and storage criteria for shipping to and storage at the WIPP. The objective of this document is to describe the methods that will be used at ORNL to package contact handled-transuranic (CH-TRU) waste to meet the criteria set forth in the WIPP certification requirements documents. This document addresses newly generated (NG) CH-TRU waste. Stored CH-TRU will be repackaged. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at ORNL, along with details on data management for CH-TRU waste. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. Techniques used for waste data collection, records control, and data archiving are defined. Procedures for the procurement and handling of waste containers are also described along with related quality control methods. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Four themes that underlie the high-level nuclear waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1982, after years of deliberation and in response to mounting pressures from environmental, industrial, and other groups, the US Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, which was signed into law by the President in January 1983. That legislation signified a major milestone in the nation's management of high-level nuclear waste, since it represented a consensus among the nation's lawmakers to tackle a problem that had evaded solution for decades. Implementation of the NWPA has proven to be exceedingly difficult, as attested by the discord generated by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) geologic repository and monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility siting activities. The vision that motivated the crafters of the 1982 act became blurred as opposition to the law increased. After many hearings that underscored the public's concern with the waste management program, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act), which steamlined and focused the program, while establishing three independent bodies: the MRS Review Commission, the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, and the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator. Yet, even as the program evolves, several themes characterizing the nation's effort to solve the waste management problem continue to prevail. The first of these themes has to do with social consciousness, and the others that follow deal with technical leadership, public involvement and risk perceptions, and program conservatism.

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  15. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  16. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup programs

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.

    1993-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental clean up is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not just controlled, concentrated, and moved from one media to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in waste water sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over two billion dollars has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy for fiscal year 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to manage and dispose of these wastes.

  17. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-02-25

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids.

  18. Commission operation. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-09-01

    Since Congress enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the states have prepared to meet their responsibilities for management of low-level radioactive waste by entering into regional compacts. This option document is intended to provide a framework for the operation of a compact commission formed as the governing body of a low-level radioactive waste compact. The document is designed to be easily modified to meet the needs of various regional compacts. The ideas and format presented were taken in general from the Federal Administrative procedures Act, various state administrative procedures, and the state regulatory agencies' rules of procedure. Requirements of filing, time frames, and standard language are written from a legal perspective.

  19. FY-94 buried waste integrated demonstration program report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) needs and objectives. This document summarizes previous demonstrations and describes the FY-94 BWID technology development and demonstration activities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD), BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process.

  20. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ..., and Demonstration (RD&D) permits (69 FR 13242). This rule allows for variances from specified criteria... tentative approval of Arizona's RD&D permit program modification. (76 FR 9772). Following the close of the... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental...

  1. 75 FR 918 - Oregon: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... (51 FR 3779), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. EPA granted authorization for changes to Oregon's program on March 30, 1990, effective on May 29, 1990 (55 FR 11909); August 5, 1994... State law. D. What Were the Comments on EPA's Proposed Rule? On November 18, 2009 (74 FR 59497),...

  2. 75 FR 58328 - Nebraska: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... promulgation of the Zinc Fertilizer Rule on July 24, 2002 (67 FR 48393). Specifically, the commenter argued..., 1985 (50 FR 3345), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. EPA granted authorization for changes to Nebraska's program on October 4, 1985, effective December 3, 1988 (53 FR 38950);...

  3. 75 FR 65432 - New Mexico: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... authorization on January 25, 1985 (50 FR 1515) to implement its base hazardous waste management program. New Mexico received authorization for revisions to its program on February 9, 1990 (55 FR 4604) effective April 10, 1990; March 19, 1990 (55 FR 10076); July 11, 1990 (55 FR 28397) effective July 25,...

  4. Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

  5. 76 FR 2618 - Minnesota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... February 11, 1985 (50 FR 3756) to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization for changes to Minnesota's program on July 20, 1987, effective September 18, 1987 (52 FR 27199); on April 24, 1989, effective June 23, 1989 (54 FR 16361) amended June 28, 1989 (54 FR 27170); on...

  6. 76 FR 37021 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ..., (50 FR 3348), to implement its base Hazardous Waste Management Program. We granted authorization for changes to their program on November 28, 1989 (54 FR 48889) effective January 29, 1990; August 26, 1991 (56 FR 41958) effective August 26, 1991; November 7, 1994 (59 FR 55368) effective January 23,...

  7. 77 FR 13200 - Texas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... received final authorization on December 26, 1984 (49 FR 48300), to implement its Base Hazardous Waste Management Program. This authorization was clarified in a notice published March 26, 1985 (50 FR 11858). Texas received authorization for revisions to its program, effective October 4, 1985 (51 FR...

  8. 78 FR 35766 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... a Gasification .0106(a). System to Produce Synthesis Gas. 217--NESHAP: Final Standards for 73 FR... (49 FR 48694), to implement a hazardous waste management program. EPA granted authorization for changes to North Carolina's program on the following dates: March 25, 1986, effective April 8, 1986 (51...

  9. 77 FR 59758 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... (55 FR 11015, March 26, 1990). Subsequently, the EPA authorized revisions to the State's program... authorized hazardous waste management program effective February 4, 1991 (55 FR 50327, December 6, 1990), and..., 1992 (57 FR 24757, June 11, 1992), August 24, 1999 (64 FR 34133, June 25, 1999), March 8, 2005 (70...

  10. Strategies to enhance waste minimization and energy conservation within organizations: a case study from the UK construction sector.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jo; Jackson, Janet; Tudor, Terry; Bates, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of £132,000. PMID:22843348

  11. Strategies to enhance waste minimization and energy conservation within organizations: a case study from the UK construction sector.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jo; Jackson, Janet; Tudor, Terry; Bates, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of £132,000.

  12. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Pathogens - Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module is intended to help engineers evaluate the relative health risks from pathogens at land treatment sites versus conventional waste treatment systems. Among the topics considered are the following: (1) the relationship between survival time of pathogens and the chance of disease transmission to humans; (2) the factors that favor survival…

  13. THE EPA/DOE MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce between 1-2B tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heav...

  14. Assistive technology-based programs to promote communication and leisure activities by three children emerged from a minimal conscious state.

    PubMed

    Stasolla, Fabrizio; Caffò, Alessandro O; Damiani, Rita; Perilli, Viviana; Di Leone, Antonia; Albano, Vincenza

    2015-02-01

    This study proposed the use of assistive technology (AT) to promote communication and leisure opportunities by three children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Furthermore, it assessed the effects of such technology on the indices of positive participation and provided a social validation procedure. Three children emerged from a minimal conscious state and presenting extensive motor disabilities were involved. The intervention program allowed the participants to request and to choice preferred items independently and to perform literacy through a keyboard emulator. A multiple probe design across behaviors with post-intervention check was employed. Outcome measures were correct requests, understandable words, intervals with positive participation, and scores of social validation assessment. Request and choice behaviors and literacy improved significantly during intervention phases. During post-intervention check, all participants consolidated their performance. Moreover, indices of positive participation increased during intervention phases. Scores of social validation assessment showed that the combination of both behaviors was preferable to the same considered separately. AT program showed to be suitable for promoting constructive engagement and literacy behaviors by children with TBI. Future research is needed to generalize this data to a larger sample and to develop new technology for people with different levels of disabilities due to TBI.

  15. The torsion space nucleic acids molecular mechanics program DUPLEX: Surveying conformation space by potential energy minimization. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hingerty, B.E.; Broyde, S.

    1993-11-01

    It has been 21 years since the inception of the program DUPLEX. Now that ``molecular modeling`` (encompassing quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics and dynamics, and computer graphics) has become something of a trade, the time seems ripe for us to offer a brief perspective of our efforts since the beginnings of the field. The purpose in writing the program was to solve the crystal structure of Ca{sup +2}-GpC, an RNA subunit for which x-ray diffraction data had been collected by T. Sato. No trial structure was available to aid in solving the phase problem in the Fall of 1972 and we hoped to generate one by potential energy minimization. We hoped to compute not only the conformation of the GpC molecule, but also its packing scheme in the unit cell, a feat that had never before been performed for a nucleic acid subunit. Indeed, only one dinucleoside monophosphate crystal structure, that of UpA, had been previously solved and its structure was very different from that of GpC.

  16. Support for DOE program in mineral waste-form development

    SciTech Connect

    Palmour, H. III; Hare, T.M.; Russ, J.C.; Batchelor, A.D.; Paisley, M.J.; Freed, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    This research investigation relates to sintered simulation ceramic waste forms of the generic SYNROC compositional type. Though they have been formulated with simulated wastes only, they serve as prototypes for potential hot, processed, crystalline waste forms whose combined thermodynamic stability and physical integrity are considered to render them capable of long-term imobilization of high-level radwastes under deep geologic disposal conditions. The problems involved are nontrivial, largely because of the very complex nature of the radwastes: a typical waste stream would contain more than 31 cation species. When the stabilizing matrix constituents are included, the final batch composition must successfully account (and find substitutional homes for some 35 different cation species. One of the important objectives of this study thus has been to develop a computer-based method for simulating these complex ion substitutions, and for calculating the resultant phase demands and batch formulations. Primary goals of the study have been (1) use of that computer simulation capability to incorporate rationally the radwaste ions from a specific waste stream (PW-7a) into the available SYNROC lattice sites and (2) utilization of existing ceramic processing and sintering methodologies to assure (and to understand) the attainment of high density, fine microstructure, full phase development and other features of the sintered product which are known to relate directly to its integrity and leach resistance. Though improved resistance to leaching has been a continuing goal, time and budget constraints have precluded initiation of any leachability studies of these new compositions during this contract period. 27 references, 15 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-02-02

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

  18. FSILP: fuzzy-stochastic-interval linear programming for supporting municipal solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Chen, Bing

    2011-04-01

    Although many studies on municipal solid waste management (MSW management) were conducted under uncertain conditions of fuzzy, stochastic, and interval coexistence, the solution to the conventional linear programming problems of integrating fuzzy method with the other two was inefficient. In this study, a fuzzy-stochastic-interval linear programming (FSILP) method is developed by integrating Nguyen's method with conventional linear programming for supporting municipal solid waste management. The Nguyen's method was used to convert the fuzzy and fuzzy-stochastic linear programming problems into the conventional linear programs, by measuring the attainment values of fuzzy numbers and/or fuzzy random variables, as well as superiority and inferiority between triangular fuzzy numbers/triangular fuzzy-stochastic variables. The developed method can effectively tackle uncertainties described in terms of probability density functions, fuzzy membership functions, and discrete intervals. Moreover, the method can also improve upon the conventional interval fuzzy programming and two-stage stochastic programming approaches, with advantageous capabilities that are easily achieved with fewer constraints and significantly reduces consumption time. The developed model was applied to a case study of municipal solid waste management system in a city. The results indicated that reasonable solutions had been generated. The solution can help quantify the relationship between the change of system cost and the uncertainties, which could support further analysis of tradeoffs between the waste management cost and the system failure risk.

  19. International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  20. A duality theorem-based algorithm for inexact quadratic programming problems: Application to waste management under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X. M.; Huang, G. H.; Fan, Y. R.; Li, Y. P.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a duality theorem-based algorithm (DTA) for inexact quadratic programming (IQP) is developed for municipal solid waste (MSW) management under uncertainty. It improves upon the existing numerical solution method for IQP problems. The comparison between DTA and derivative algorithm (DAM) shows that the DTA method provides better solutions than DAM with lower computational complexity. It is not necessary to identify the uncertain relationship between the objective function and decision variables, which is required for the solution process of DAM. The developed method is applied to a case study of MSW management and planning. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated for supporting long-term MSW management and planning. They could provide more information as well as enable managers to make better decisions to identify desired MSW management policies in association with minimized cost under uncertainty.