Science.gov

Sample records for programa arena para

  1. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  2. A comprehensive smoking cessation program for the San Francisco Bay Area Latino community: Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Stable, E J; Marín, B V; Marín, G

    1993-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among Latinos compared to whites is higher among men (30.9% versus 27.9%), but lower among women (16.3% versus 23.5%). More acculturated Latina women, however, smoke more. Compared to other smokers, Latinos report consuming about half the average number of cigarettes per day. Up to a quarter of Latino smokers of less than 10 cigarettes per day may be underreporting consumption. The association between smoking and depression has also been found in Latinos. Program Goals. The Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar (Programa) goals are: 1) to evaluate attitudinal, behavioral, and cultural differences between Latino and white smokers; 2) to integrate these findings into a comprehensive, culturally-appropriate smoking cessation intervention; and 3) to implement the intervention in a defined community in order to decrease cigarette smoking prevalence, increase behaviors that may lead smokers to quit, and promote a nonsmoking environment. Program Components. Heightened concern about health effects of smoking, the importance of social smoking, and the influence of the family on behavior are integrated in the Programa components: 1) the promotion of a full-color, Spanish-language, self-help, smoking cessation guide (Guia), distributed at no charge; 2) an anti-smoking, Spanish-language, electronic media campaign; 3) community involvement; 4) quit smoking contests; 5) smoking cessation, individual, telephone consultations (consultas); and 6) collaboration with health care personnel. Results. Effectiveness of the Programa is being evaluated by annual, cross-sectional, random digit dialing telephone surveys compared to two baseline surveys. After 19 months of intervention, the proportion who had heard of the Programa increased from 18.5% to 44.0%, and over one third of less acculturated smokers had the Guia. Future directions will emphasize smoking prevention among youth, prevention of relapse among quitters, and depression prevention.

  3. A comprehensive smoking cessation program for the San Francisco Bay Area Latino community: Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Stable, E J; Marín, B V; Marín, G

    1993-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among Latinos compared to whites is higher among men (30.9% versus 27.9%), but lower among women (16.3% versus 23.5%). More acculturated Latina women, however, smoke more. Compared to other smokers, Latinos report consuming about half the average number of cigarettes per day. Up to a quarter of Latino smokers of less than 10 cigarettes per day may be underreporting consumption. The association between smoking and depression has also been found in Latinos. Program Goals. The Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar (Programa) goals are: 1) to evaluate attitudinal, behavioral, and cultural differences between Latino and white smokers; 2) to integrate these findings into a comprehensive, culturally-appropriate smoking cessation intervention; and 3) to implement the intervention in a defined community in order to decrease cigarette smoking prevalence, increase behaviors that may lead smokers to quit, and promote a nonsmoking environment. Program Components. Heightened concern about health effects of smoking, the importance of social smoking, and the influence of the family on behavior are integrated in the Programa components: 1) the promotion of a full-color, Spanish-language, self-help, smoking cessation guide (Guia), distributed at no charge; 2) an anti-smoking, Spanish-language, electronic media campaign; 3) community involvement; 4) quit smoking contests; 5) smoking cessation, individual, telephone consultations (consultas); and 6) collaboration with health care personnel. Results. Effectiveness of the Programa is being evaluated by annual, cross-sectional, random digit dialing telephone surveys compared to two baseline surveys. After 19 months of intervention, the proportion who had heard of the Programa increased from 18.5% to 44.0%, and over one third of less acculturated smokers had the Guia. Future directions will emphasize smoking prevention among youth, prevention of relapse among quitters, and depression prevention

  4. Arena Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péronne, M.-L.; Baudouin, C.; Pospieszalska-Surdej, A.; Vauglin, I.

    In the frame of ARENA and in the spotlight of the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY) and the 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA), two extremely visible opportunities to focus public interest and participation were/are to highlight: - Antarctica as a most remote and fascinating continent dedicated to science and - Astronomy & astrophysics as a most profound and enthralling science. Developed by the ARENA consortium since its creation in 2006, the ARENA public outreach web site (European audience EN/FR), the ARENA leaflet (EN/FR)are both telling about the importance of maintaining and expanding programmes to answer astrophysical fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the Universe.

  5. A Sound Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gary F.; Riley, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a new arena configuration, the Alpha design, seeks to make facilities more multidimensional, with enhanced acoustics that offer superior entertainment as well as sports uses. Discusses the design's various configurations and its unique features in terms of shape and volume, loudspeakers, private suites, lighting, support spaces,…

  6. Arena entry stair to left and stair to arena top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arena entry stair to left and stair to arena top level entry bridge at right. Drop siding is on second floor of recreation center. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  8. EL PROGRAMA CITI: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LA CAPACITACIÓN EN ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul

    2011-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817

  9. The selection-arena hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Stearns, S C

    1987-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis offers one answer to a puzzling question. Why do some organisms produce many more fertilized zygotes than are actually reared to hatching, birth, or release-then neglect, discard, resorb, or eat some of them, or allow them to eat each other? It makes four assumptions: (1) zygotes are cheap; (2) after conception the investment of parental time, energy, or risk into offspring continues; (3) offspring vary in fitness; (4) variation in offspring fitness can be identified by the mother at an early stage of the life cycle. If these assumptions hold, then one general prediction follows: the parent should overproduce zygotes, identify those with lower expected fitness, then either kill and reabsorb them, let them be eaten by sibs, or simply stop feeding them in order to invest in more promising offspring. The explanation appears to apply to a wide range of phenomena whose common cause had not previously been appreciated. These include: (1) polyovulation in some bats, tenrecs, the plains viscacha, and the pronghorn antelope; (2) cases of recurrent, consecutive, spontaneous abortions in humans; (3) some cases of surplus flower production and fruit abortion; (4) sex-ratio adjustment in red deer, mice, and coypus; (5) some types of cannibalism, including possible cases in mice, sharks, and wasps. Some cases that might be explained by the selection arena hypothesis are also plausibly explained by other causes, including bet-hedging reproductive investment in the face of unpredictable food supplies, and inter-specific or inter-familial aggression as an alternative to parent-offspring or sib-sib cannibalism. PMID:2961604

  10. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  11. Entrance terrace with recreation center portion to left and arena ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Entrance terrace with recreation center portion to left and arena portion to right. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Interior of arena, showing roof structure over seating area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of arena, showing roof structure over seating area. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. OVERVIEW OF ARENA PORTION OF FACILITY 161 SHOWING THE TWO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF ARENA PORTION OF FACILITY 161 SHOWING THE TWO SOUTHEAST DOORWAYS TO THE ARENA SEATING AREA WITH SEMI-CIRCULAR PATIO. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Programa De Educacion Interamericana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station.

    PROGRAMA DE EDUCACION INTERAMERICANA is a project of Texas A&M University in liaison with the Bryan Independent School District. The objectives of the program are to improve the knowledge and understanding of Texas teachers and students about other American cultures. Study teams of educators research and, in midsummer, travel to selected…

  15. Exploring Digital Encounters in the Public Arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Ava Fatah Gen.; Kostakos, Vassilis; Penn, Alan

    In this chapter, we explore the types of encounters that technology enables. We consider the differences between digital and nondigital encounters through two pilot studies carried out in the city of Bath, United Kingdom. We investigate how technology can be appropriated for shared interactions that support conscious (or unconscious) social encounters, and highlight the importance of space and the role of place in providing temporal and spatial mechanisms facilitating different types of shared encounters. Here, we apply a method based on intervention through "sensing and projecting" Bluetooth names and digital identity in the public arena, and describe initial observations about people's reaction toward the projection of their Bluetooth names in public. In particular, we note the significance of constructing socially meaningful relations between people mediated by these technologies. We discuss initial results and outline issues raised in detail before finally describing the ongoing work.

  16. INTERIOR DETAIL OF THE ARENA EXIT GATE AND VERTICAL LOUVERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL OF THE ARENA EXIT GATE AND VERTICAL LOUVERS AT THE TOP OF THE BLEACHER SEATING. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ARENA MAIN ENTRY. NOTE THE VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ARENA MAIN ENTRY. NOTE THE VERTICAL LOUVERS AT THE TOP OF THE BLEACHER SEATING. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Reproducibility responsibilities in the HPC arena

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R; McLay, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Expecting bit-for-bit reproducibility in the HPC arena is not feasible because of the ever changing hardware and software. No user s application is an island; it lives in an HPC eco-system that changes over time. Old hardware stops working and even old software won t run on new hardware. Further, software libraries change over time either by changing the internals or even interfaces. So bit-for-bit reproducibility should not be expected. Rather a reasonable expectation is that results are reproducible within error bounds; or that the answers are close (which is its own debate.) To expect a researcher to reproduce their own results or the results of others within some error bounds, there must be enough information to recreate all the details of the experiment. This requires complete documentation of all phases of the researcher s workflow; from code to versioning to programming and runtime environments to publishing of data. This argument is the core statement of the Yale 2009 Declaration on Reproducible Research [1]. Although the HPC ecosystem is often outside the researchers control, the application code could be built almost identically and there is a chance for very similar results with just only round-off error differences. To achieve complete documentation at every step, the researcher, the computing center, and the funding agencies all have a role. In this thesis, the role of the researcher is expanded upon as compared to the Yale report and the role of the computing centers is described.

  19. 6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  20. Arena retrofit includes ground-source heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The venue for Sacramento`s first professional basketball games was the {open_quotes}old Arco Arena,{close_quotes} built in 1985 just north of the downtown area and converted to offices after a large, permanent arena was constructed. In 1994, the {open_quotes}old arena{close_quotes} was acquired by a California general partnership called Del Paso Venture. To heat and cool the 3-story, 211,000-square foot structure, Del Paso has installed a ground-source heat pump system. The project is significant for the ground-source heat pump industry, because this is the first ground-source heat pump site ever designed specifically for the energy load of the building it will serve. Other projects have been calculated by rule-of-thumb. The installation and cost of the heat pump system are discussed.

  1. Connections 2014: Taking Stock of the Civic Arena. Annual Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Melinda, Ed.; Holwerk, David, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Each issue of this annual newsletter focuses on a particular area of the Kettering Foundation's research. The 2014 issue focuses on taking stock of the civic arena, which includes organized projects in civic renewal, civic engagement, civic education, and civic capacity building in communities. This issue contains the following articles that…

  2. The Knowledge Arena: A Learning Environment That Underpins Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleese, Ray; Grabinger, Scott; Fisher, Kathleen

    This paper uses a theoretical framework for concept mapping as an instance of a learning environment - the knowledge arena - and examines it against an existing framework for active learning called REAL (Rich Environment for Active Learning). The paper is intended to help in the understanding of environments for learning. Section 1 defines a…

  3. Competitive Arenas and Schools' Logics of Action: A European Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the impact of competitive arenas on schools' logics of action in six local European contexts (London, Paris, Lille, Charleroi, Budapest and Lisbon). It first examines how competitive processes affect different schools' activities (recruitment, provision of options, promotion, tracking, provision for children with special…

  4. Arena geometry and path shape: when rats travel in straight or in circuitous paths?

    PubMed

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-12-01

    We show here that the global geometry of the environment affects the shape of the paths of travel in rats. To examine this, individual rats were introduced into an unfamiliar arena. One group of rats (n=8) was tested in a square arena (2 m × 2 m), and the other group (n=8) in a round arena (2 m diameter). Testing was in a total darkness, since in the absence of visual information the geometry is not perceived immediately and the extraction of environment shape is slower. We found that while the level of the rats' activity did not seem to differ between both arenas, path shape differed significantly. When traveling along the perimeter, path shape basically followed the arena walls, with perimeter paths curving along the walls of the round arena, while being straight along the walls of the square arena. A similar impact of arena geometry was observed for travel away from the arena walls. Indeed, when the rats abandoned the arena walls to crosscut through the center of the arena, their center paths were circuitous in the round arena and relatively straight in the square arena. We suggest that the shapes of these paths are exploited for the same spatial task: returning back to a familiar location in the unsighted environment.

  5. Arena geometry and path shape: when rats travel in straight or in circuitous paths?

    PubMed

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-12-01

    We show here that the global geometry of the environment affects the shape of the paths of travel in rats. To examine this, individual rats were introduced into an unfamiliar arena. One group of rats (n=8) was tested in a square arena (2 m × 2 m), and the other group (n=8) in a round arena (2 m diameter). Testing was in a total darkness, since in the absence of visual information the geometry is not perceived immediately and the extraction of environment shape is slower. We found that while the level of the rats' activity did not seem to differ between both arenas, path shape differed significantly. When traveling along the perimeter, path shape basically followed the arena walls, with perimeter paths curving along the walls of the round arena, while being straight along the walls of the square arena. A similar impact of arena geometry was observed for travel away from the arena walls. Indeed, when the rats abandoned the arena walls to crosscut through the center of the arena, their center paths were circuitous in the round arena and relatively straight in the square arena. We suggest that the shapes of these paths are exploited for the same spatial task: returning back to a familiar location in the unsighted environment. PMID:21840341

  6. Occupational and recreational noise exposure from indoor arena hockey games.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Cory J; Brazile, William J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Occupational and recreational noise exposures were evaluated at two sporting arenas hosting collegiate hockey games (Venue 1) and semi-professional hockey (Venue 2). A total of 54 personal noise dosimetry samples were taken over the course of seven home hockey games: 15 workers and 9 fans at Venue 1, and 19 workers and 11 fans at Venue 2. None of the sampled workers were overexposed to noise based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria. However, 40% and 57% of workers at Venue 1 and 33% and 91% of fans at Venue 2 were overexposed based on ACGIH noise exposure criteria. Noise exposures for fans were significantly different between venues, but worker noise exposures between venues were not significantly different. In addition, extensive area noise monitoring was conducted at each venue to further characterize the stadium noise on a location-by-location basis. Mean equivalent sound pressure levels ranged from 81 to 96 dBA at Venue 1 and from 85 to 97 dBA at Venue 2. Mean noise peak levels ranged from 105 to 124 dBA at Venue 1, and from 110 to 117 dBA at Venue 2. These data reflect the potential for overexposure at indoor hockey events and are useful in characterizing occupational noise exposure of indoor arena support staff and may also provide a foundation for future noise control research in indoor sports arenas. PMID:23145529

  7. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  8. Route finding by rats in an open arena.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rebecca A; Reid, Alliston K

    2005-01-31

    Rats were repeatedly exposed to an open arena containing two depletable food sources in a discrete-trials procedure. Their movement patterns were recorded and compared to adaptive foraging tactics such as minimizing distance or energy expenditure, thigmotaxis, and trail following. They were also compared to the predictions of the associative route-finder model of Reid and Staddon [Reid, A.K., Staddon, J.E.R., 1998. A dynamic route finder for the cognitive map. Psychol. Rev. 105 (3), 585-601]. We manipulated the presence/absence of food, goal cups, and a wooden runway to determine the influence of local and distal stimuli (visual, olfactory, and tactile) on movement patterns. Increased experience in the arena produced decreases in travel distance and time to the food sources. Local and distal stimuli influenced movement patterns in ways compatible with visual beacons and trail following. The route-finder model accurately predicted movement patterns except those that were influenced by local and distal stimuli. These results show how certain stimuli influence movement and provide a guide for the incorporation of local and distal stimuli in a future version of the dynamic route-finder model.

  9. ARENA - A Collaborative Immersive Environment for Virtual Fieldwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasnitschka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Whenever a geoscientific study area is not readily accessible, as is the case on the deep seafloor, it is difficult to apply traditional but effective methods of fieldwork, which often require physical presence of the observer. The Artificial Research Environment for Networked Analysis (ARENA), developed at GEOMAR | Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel within the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean", provides a backend solution to robotic research on the seafloor by means of an immersive simulation environment for marine research: A hemispherical screen of 6m diameter covering the entire lower hemisphere surrounds a group of up to four researchers at once. A variety of open source (e.g. Microsoft Research World Wide Telescope) and commercial software platforms allow the interaction with e.g. in-situ recorded video, vector maps, terrain, textured geometry, point cloud and volumetric data in four dimensions. Data can be put into a holistic, georeferenced context and viewed on scales stretching from centimeters to global. Several input devices from joysticks to gestures and vocalized commands allow interaction with the simulation, depending on individual preference. Annotations added to the dataset during the simulation session catalyze the following quantitative evaluation. Both the special simulator design, making data perception a group experience, and the ability to connect remote instances or scaled down versions of ARENA over the Internet are significant advantages over established immersive simulation environments.

  10. The changing Arena: New DOE waste management orders

    SciTech Connect

    Albenesius, E L; Kluk, A F

    1988-01-01

    There are five orders that address waste management within the Department of Energy (DOE); three of these orders are being revised, which emphasize the rapidly changing arena in which the department is contending in this field. The need to change the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Order arose from the Superfund amendments of 1986 (SARA) with its hammer provisions in Section 120 for compliance at Federal facilities. The need to change the Hazardous and Mixed Waste Management Order was accelerated by the promulgation by DOE of the new mixed waste rule on May 1, 1987, (1) and cancellation of the obsolete existing order on October 5, 1987. The new rule requires coregulation of all DOE mixed waste with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the respective authorized states. 5 refs.

  11. Applying biological data in the forensic and policy arenas.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J

    2006-07-01

    Of the biological measures in the field of traumatic stress studies, the script-driven imagery paradigm has yielded the most consistent data. Approximately, two-thirds of individuals with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened psychophysiologic reactivity while listening to audiotaped descriptions of their traumatic autobiographical memories. Nevertheless, these findings do not necessarily indicate the presence of PTSD or even that the memories are genuine. For example, people reporting (presumably) false memories of having been abducted by space aliens similarly exhibit heightened reactivity, even though they do not suffer from PTSD. To enhance the validity of diagnostic decision making in the forensic and policy arenas, we can use the methods of historians, specifically, consulting archival records to verify trauma histories and supplement biological data.

  12. A Nationwide Study to Examine the Nature and Scope of the Sport Arena Management Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robert W.

    This study examined the exact nature and scope of the sport arena management profession in terms of field growth and employment opportunities, salary potentials, and education requirements. Specific job performance competencies and related educational course work required for professionally trained sport arena managers were identified. Findings…

  13. How do features of dressage arenas influence training surface properties which are potentially associated with lameness?

    PubMed

    Murray, Rachel C; Walters, Juli; Snart, Hannah; Dyson, Sue; Parkin, Tim

    2010-11-01

    Results from a previous study indicated that there are specific arena surface characteristics that are associated with an increased likelihood of lameness in dressage horses. It is important to understand what modifiable arena factors lead to these detrimental surface characteristics. The aim of this study was to describe the use of training surfaces and arenas for United Kingdom dressage horses and to investigate any relationships between arena/surface variables and detrimental surface characteristics. Data from a questionnaire returned by 22.5% of all 11,363 registered members of British Dressage were used for the study. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed with each of the previously identified surface characteristics as dependent variables. Respondents reported that the majority of arenas were privately owned, sized 20 × 40 m and had a sand and rubber surface. The results indicated that wax-coated and sand and rubber surfaces were associated with less detrimental surface properties than sand, sand and PVC, woodchips or grass. Woodchips were most strongly associated with the detrimental characteristic of slipping, and sand with tripping. The findings indicated that any arena surface should have a base, with limestone the recommended surface, and that crushed concrete was best avoided. This information supported previous studies in racehorses that indicated that surface maintenance is essential, especially when many horses are using an arena daily. Problems were less likely if an arena was privately owned.

  14. VIEW OF THE ARENA STAGE/KREEGER THEATER AT 1101 SIXTH STREET; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE ARENA STAGE/KREEGER THEATER AT 1101 SIXTH STREET; HARRY WEESE & ASSOCIATES DESIGNED THE ARENA STAGE IN 1961 AND THE KREEGER THEATER IN 1970 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  16. Modeling Drosophila Positional Preferences in Open Field Arenas with Directional Persistence and Wall Attraction

    PubMed Central

    Soibam, Benjamin; Goldfeder, Rachel L.; Manson-Bishop, Claire; Gamblin, Rachel; Pletcher, Scott D.; Shah, Shishir; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Roman, Gregg W.

    2012-01-01

    In open field arenas, Drosophila adults exhibit a preference for arena boundaries over internal walls and open regions. Herein, we investigate the nature of this preference using phenomenological modeling of locomotion to determine whether local arena features and constraints on movement alone are sufficient to drive positional preferences within open field arenas of different shapes and with different internal features. Our model has two components: directional persistence and local wall force. In regions far away from walls, the trajectory is entirely characterized by a directional persistence probability, , for each movement defined by the step size, , and the turn angle, . In close proximity to walls, motion is computed from and a local attractive force which depends on the distance between the fly and points on the walls. The directional persistence probability was obtained experimentally from trajectories of wild type Drosophila in a circular open field arena and the wall force was computed to minimize the difference between the radial distributions from the model and Drosophila in the same circular arena. The two-component model for fly movement was challenged by comparing the positional preferences from the two-component model to wild type Drosophila in a variety of open field arenas. In most arenas there was a strong concordance between the two-component model and Drosophila. In more complex arenas, the model exhibits similar trends, but some significant differences were found. These differences suggest that there are emergent features within these complex arenas that have significance for the fly, such as potential shelter. Hence, the two-component model is an important step in defining how Drosophila interact with their environment. PMID:23071591

  17. Geometry, features, and panoramic views: ants in rectangular arenas.

    PubMed

    Wystrach, Antoine; Cheng, Ken; Sosa, Sebastian; Beugnon, Guy

    2011-10-01

    When tested in rectangular arenas, the navigational behavior of the ant Gigantiops destructor can produce results similar to vertebrates. Such results are usually interpreted as supporting the ability of animals to segregate spatial geometry and features. Here, we combine a detailed analysis of ants' paths with panoramic images taken from the ant's perspective that can serve as a basis for developing view-based matching models. The corner choices observed in ants were better predicted by the use of panoramic views along with a simple matching process [rotational image difference function (rIDF)] than by models assuming segregation of geometry and features (G/F). Our view-based matching model could also explain some aspects of the ants' path (i.e., initial direction, length) resulting from the different visual conditions, suggesting that ants were using such a taxon-like strategy. Analyzed at the individual level, the results show that ants' idiosyncratic paths tend to evolve gradually from trial to trial, revealing that the ants were partially updating their route memory after each trial. This study illustrates the remarkable flexibilities that can arise from the use of taxon-like strategies and stresses the importance of considering them in vertebrates.

  18. Reproductive mode and the shifting arenas of evolutionary conflict.

    PubMed

    Furness, Andrew I; Morrison, Keenan R; Orr, Teri J; Arendt, Jeff D; Reznick, David N

    2015-12-01

    In sexually reproducing organisms, the genetic interests of individuals are not perfectly aligned. Conflicts among family members are prevalent since interactions involve the transfer of limited resources between interdependent players. Intrafamilial conflict has traditionally been considered along three major axes: between the sexes, between parents and offspring, and between siblings. In these interactions, conflict is expected over traits in which the resulting phenotypic value is determined by multiple family members who have only partially overlapping fitness optima. We focus on four major categories of animal reproductive mode (broadcast spawning, egg laying, live bearing, and live bearing with matrotrophy) and identify the shared phenotypes or traits over which conflict is expected, and then review the empirical literature for evidence of their occurrence. Major transitions among reproductive mode, such as a shift from external to internal fertilization, an increase in egg-retention time, modifications of embryos and mothers for nutrient transfer, the evolution of postnatal parental care, and increased interaction with the kin network, mark key shifts that both change and expand the arenas in which conflict is played out. PMID:26284738

  19. Reproductive mode and the shifting arenas of evolutionary conflict.

    PubMed

    Furness, Andrew I; Morrison, Keenan R; Orr, Teri J; Arendt, Jeff D; Reznick, David N

    2015-12-01

    In sexually reproducing organisms, the genetic interests of individuals are not perfectly aligned. Conflicts among family members are prevalent since interactions involve the transfer of limited resources between interdependent players. Intrafamilial conflict has traditionally been considered along three major axes: between the sexes, between parents and offspring, and between siblings. In these interactions, conflict is expected over traits in which the resulting phenotypic value is determined by multiple family members who have only partially overlapping fitness optima. We focus on four major categories of animal reproductive mode (broadcast spawning, egg laying, live bearing, and live bearing with matrotrophy) and identify the shared phenotypes or traits over which conflict is expected, and then review the empirical literature for evidence of their occurrence. Major transitions among reproductive mode, such as a shift from external to internal fertilization, an increase in egg-retention time, modifications of embryos and mothers for nutrient transfer, the evolution of postnatal parental care, and increased interaction with the kin network, mark key shifts that both change and expand the arenas in which conflict is played out.

  20. Solving the energy dilemma at Seven Bridges Ice Arena

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.

    1996-08-01

    Seven Bridges Ice Arena with three ice skating rinks is among the largest ice skating facilities in the US. A complete fitness center, pro shop, second level observation gallery, restaurant, aerobics room, dance studio and children`s play room round out the 120,000 ft{sup 2} (11,215 m{sup 2}) world class facility. The Olympic Hockey League ice rink has seating for 800 spectators; and the National Hockey League ice rink has 1,200 spectator seats. The collegiate ice sheet has participant seating only. When building the one-year-old facility, the management initially solicited HVAC design/build system plans based on the usual Package Roof Top (RTU) heat/cool units or split system parameters. Such a plan could have been a disaster because high energy costs have contributed directly to the closing of 20 rinks in the Chicago area. This article describes a HVAC system that would take advantage of every Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECO) possible to ensure the economic well being of this property. This included a plan that uses the refrigeration for both cooling and heating, which eliminated the need for commercial packaged units.

  1. Un programa innovador busca ayudar a las personas que cuidan a pacientes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un programa educativo del City of Hope Cancer Center que ofrece a los profesionales de salud la información y las herramientas necesarias para ayudar a los familiares a saber cómo cuidarse a si mismos y a sus seres queridos con cáncer.

  2. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman; Martin, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant) and plains zebra (a non-ruminant), using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no seasonal variation

  3. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Owen-Smith, Norman; Martin, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant) and plains zebra (a non-ruminant), using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no seasonal variation

  4. New Acoustic Arena Qualified at NASA Glenn's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    A new acoustic arena has been qualified in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This arena is outfitted specifically for conducting fan noise research with the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) test rig. It features moveable walls with large acoustic wedges (2 by 2 by 1 ft) that create an acoustic environment usable at frequencies as low as 250 Hz. The arena currently uses two dedicated microphone arrays to acquire fan inlet and exhaust far-field acoustic data. It was used successfully in fiscal year 2003 to complete three ANCF tests. It also allowed Glenn to improve the operational efficiency of the four test rigs at AAPL and provided greater flexibility to schedule testing. There were a number of technical challenges to overcome in bringing the new arena to fruition. The foremost challenge was conflicting acoustic requirements of four different rigs. It was simply impossible to construct a static arena anywhere in the facility without intolerably compromising the acoustic test environment of at least one of the test rigs. This problem was overcome by making the wall sections of the new arena movable. Thus, the arena can be reconfigured to meet the operational requirements of any particular rig under test. Other design challenges that were encountered and overcome included structural loads of the large wedges, personnel access requirements, equipment maintenance requirements, and typical time and budget constraints. The new acoustic arena improves operations at the AAPL facility in several significant ways. First, it improves productivity by allowing multiple rigs to operate simultaneously. Second, it improves research data quality by providing a unique test area within the facility that is optimal for conducting fan noise research. Lastly, it reduces labor and equipment costs by eliminating the periodic need to transport the ANCF into and out of the primary AAPL acoustic arena. The investment to design, fabricate, and

  5. The Emergence of Black Carbon into the Climate Policy Arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, D. G.; Bond, T. C.

    2002-05-01

    Until a few years ago, aerosols such as black carbon were solely in the domain of atmospheric research. We did not fully understand their roles in atmospheric chemistry or absorption of radiation. The only policy relevance concerned fine particles in general, and the regulation of inhalable particulate matter in the developed world signaled that high local concentrations in cities were a public health issue. But gradually the importance of aerosols spread to regional scale. We learned that aerosols play important roles in regional air quality concerns such as regional haze, visibility impairment, and reduced insolation. Finally, the importance of aerosols reached global scale, as it was realized that their role in climate modification is significant. Within the last year, the importance of black carbon has come to the forefront. Work by Hansen, Jacobson and others has elevated the contribution of black carbon to perhaps the second most important global warming species after carbon dioxide. This is beginning to have profound repercussions in the policy arena and in the world of research planning. In his speech of June 11, 2001, President Bush specifically mentioned black soot as an important pollutant not addressed by the Kyoto Protocol. Then, on February 14, 2002, he unveiled a new U.S. Climate Change Strategy that called for a National Aerosol-Climate Interactions Program (NACIP) to define and evaluate the role of aerosols that absorb solar radiation, such as black carbon and mineral dust. The result has been the formulation of a much more policy-focused agenda to supersede the more academic aerosol research programs of previous years. But black carbon poses an array of problems not previously faced in air pollution control regimes: it is exceedingly difficult to measure accurately, a large portion of the global budget arises from biomass burning, the fuel-derived sources are largely domestic stoves used for cooking and heating, and the primary emitting countries

  6. The making of the interprofessional arena in the United Kingdom: a social and political history.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    This article offers a critical sociological rendering of the making of the interprofessional arena in the United Kingdom. It offers an interpretation of the conditions that led to the formation, expansion and development of the interprofessional arena using a social worlds/arenas lens of secondary data. I propose that the making of the interprofessional arena has been achieved in three historiographical phases. First, the "recognition of the professionalisation conundrum" that led to the intuitive assumption that interprofessional education (IPE) could lead to improved collaboration in practice and improved outcomes. Second, the "legitimisation" of the interprofessional assumption through the development of networks, building consensus, nurturing an evidence base and negotiating with policymakers. Third, "Talking up and acting up" the interprofessional agenda by developing global communities of practice, pandering to a neoliberal agenda, disseminating exemplars of good practice and encouraging practical changes within diverse settings. Articulating these historical "moments" may allow us insights into the conditions that have created the contemporary interprofessional arena and offer us ways of considering how present conditions may re-shape the discourses that constitute the interprofessional arena of the future.

  7. The making of the interprofessional arena in the United Kingdom: a social and political history.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    This article offers a critical sociological rendering of the making of the interprofessional arena in the United Kingdom. It offers an interpretation of the conditions that led to the formation, expansion and development of the interprofessional arena using a social worlds/arenas lens of secondary data. I propose that the making of the interprofessional arena has been achieved in three historiographical phases. First, the "recognition of the professionalisation conundrum" that led to the intuitive assumption that interprofessional education (IPE) could lead to improved collaboration in practice and improved outcomes. Second, the "legitimisation" of the interprofessional assumption through the development of networks, building consensus, nurturing an evidence base and negotiating with policymakers. Third, "Talking up and acting up" the interprofessional agenda by developing global communities of practice, pandering to a neoliberal agenda, disseminating exemplars of good practice and encouraging practical changes within diverse settings. Articulating these historical "moments" may allow us insights into the conditions that have created the contemporary interprofessional arena and offer us ways of considering how present conditions may re-shape the discourses that constitute the interprofessional arena of the future. PMID:24354499

  8. RICA: a reliable and image configurable arena for cyborg bumblebee based on CAN bus.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fan; Zheng, Nenggan; Xue, Lei; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a reliable and image configurable flight arena, RICA, for developing cyborg bumblebees. To meet the spatial and temporal requirements of bumblebees, the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is adopted to interconnect the LED display modules to ensure the reliability and real-time performance of the arena system. Easily-configurable interfaces on a desktop computer implemented by python scripts are provided to transmit the visual patterns to the LED distributor online and configure RICA dynamically. The new arena system will be a power tool to investigate the quantitative relationship between the visual inputs and induced flight behaviors and also will be helpful to the visual-motor research in other related fields.

  9. RICA: a reliable and image configurable arena for cyborg bumblebee based on CAN bus.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fan; Zheng, Nenggan; Xue, Lei; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a reliable and image configurable flight arena, RICA, for developing cyborg bumblebees. To meet the spatial and temporal requirements of bumblebees, the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is adopted to interconnect the LED display modules to ensure the reliability and real-time performance of the arena system. Easily-configurable interfaces on a desktop computer implemented by python scripts are provided to transmit the visual patterns to the LED distributor online and configure RICA dynamically. The new arena system will be a power tool to investigate the quantitative relationship between the visual inputs and induced flight behaviors and also will be helpful to the visual-motor research in other related fields. PMID:25570095

  10. Advocacy and Argumentation in the Public Arena: A Guide for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lens, Vicki

    2005-01-01

    Whether translating research findings for public consumption, or arguing for a policy position that reflects social work values, social workers engaged in cause advocacy need rhetorical skills. The author draws from the disciplines of linguistics, logic, and communications and provides a framework for making arguments in the public arena. The…

  11. Preschool as an Arena of Gender Policies: The Examples of Sweden and Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstrom, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    As many countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development have developed more universal provision for early childhood education during the last decades, preschool increasingly has become a central policy arena. Gender politics, especially with an aim to promote female labour market participation, but also policies addressing…

  12. Best Practices of Small IT Services Providers in the Federal Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Stacy Dacole

    2009-01-01

    Today, more than 139,294 (43%) small businesses registered in the CCR and DSBS databases offer IT services to the federal government. Providing IT services to the federal government is an affordable and feasible low risk approach for emerging and seasoned small IT businesses in the federal arena. This dissertation captures how successful small…

  13. Think Tanks and the Media: How the Conservative Movement Gained Entry into the Education Policy Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how the conservative movement has used both conservative think tanks and the media to gain entry into the field of education policy. The study examines how the conservative movement has attempted to use think tanks as legitimating organizations to enter the education policy arena by (a) measuring the historical growth in the…

  14. 75 FR 49926 - Arena Energy, L.P. v. Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2010), Arena Energy, L.P... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arena Energy, L.P. v. Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of...

  15. An Examination of College and University Athletic Directors' Perception of Management Models Utilized to Operate Intercollegiate Athletic Arenas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmero, Mauro R.

    2010-01-01

    Demands for enhanced accountability and effectiveness in higher education have also affected athletic departments, requiring a more cost-efficient managerial approach to the administration of athletic facilities, especially arenas. The purpose of this study was to examine athletic directors' perceptions towards the arena management models they…

  16. Structural health monitoring system of soccer arena based on optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, Victor V.; Churin, Alexey E.; Kharenko, Denis S.; Zheleznova, Maria A.; Shelemba, Ivan S.

    2014-05-01

    A structural health monitoring system based on optical sensors has been developed and installed on the indoor soccer arena "Zarya" in Novosibirsk. The system integrates 119 fiber optic sensors: 85 strain, 32 temperature and 2 displacement sensors. In addition, total station is used for measuring displacement in 45 control points. All of the constituents of the supporting structure are subjects for monitoring: long-span frames with under floor ties, connections, purlins and foundation.

  17. Revisiting "Who gets care?": health equity as an arena for nursing action.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Bernadette M; MacKinnon, Karen; Varcoe, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    This article revisits and reaffirms Patricia Steven's earlier work on access to healthcare as an important arena for nursing action. Many of the conditions that affect access to healthcare, such as racism and oppression, also shape inequities in health outcomes. We propose a conceptualization of social justice that is consistent with addressing the conditions that influence health inequities. We also discuss the implications of a critical and feminist conception of social justice for nursing action, education, practice, research, and policy.

  18. Revisiting "Who gets care?": health equity as an arena for nursing action.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Bernadette M; MacKinnon, Karen; Varcoe, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    This article revisits and reaffirms Patricia Steven's earlier work on access to healthcare as an important arena for nursing action. Many of the conditions that affect access to healthcare, such as racism and oppression, also shape inequities in health outcomes. We propose a conceptualization of social justice that is consistent with addressing the conditions that influence health inequities. We also discuss the implications of a critical and feminist conception of social justice for nursing action, education, practice, research, and policy. PMID:19461229

  19. Keeping gay and bisexual men safe: The arena of HIV prevention science and praxis.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam Isaiah

    2016-04-01

    Abstract In this article, I draw from an ongoing ethnographic study of HIV prevention for gay, bisexual, and 'men who have sex with men' to develop an institutional analysis of HIV behavioral intervention science and praxis. I approach this analysis through the lens of the social worlds framework, focusing on the institutional arena in which HIV behavioral interventions are devised and executed. Toward this end, I focus on two fundamental points of contention that lie at the heart of the prevention enterprise and put its social organization in high relief: (1) conceptions of health and lifestyle practices and (2) attributions of expertise. These core contentions reveal less the steady advance of normal science than an arena of actors ensconced in boundary work and jurisdictional struggles over how to engineer behavior change and reduce the scale of the HIV epidemic. Their resolution, I argue, has occurred in a historically contingent process determined by the political economy of the US HIV prevention arena and the differential structural location of its social worlds. PMID:27263237

  20. Behavioral research in pigeons with ARENA: An automated remote environmental navigation apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Leising, Kenneth J.; Garlick, Dennis; Parenteau, Michael; Blaisdell, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments established the effectiveness of an Automated Remote Environmental Navigation Apparatus (ARENA) developed in our lab to study behavioral processes in pigeons. The technology utilizes one or more wireless modules, each capable of presenting colored lights as visual stimuli to signal reward and of detecting subject peck responses. In Experiment 1, subjects were instrumentally shaped to peck at a single ARENA module following an unsuccessful autoshaping procedure. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained with a simultaneous discrimination procedure during which two modules were illuminated different colors; pecks to one color (S+) were reinforced while pecks to the other color (S−) were not. Pigeons learned to preferentially peck the module displaying the S+. In Experiment 3, two modules were lit the same color concurrently from a set of six colors in a conditional discrimination task. For three of the colors pecks to the module in one location (e.g., upper quadrant) were reinforced while for the remaining colors pecks at the other module (e.g., lower quadrant) were reinforced. After learning this discrimination, the color-reinforced location assignments were reversed. Pigeons successfully acquired the reversal. ARENA is an automated system for open-field studies and a more ecologically valid alternative to the touchscreen. PMID:19429204

  1. Earthquake geology of the northern San Andreas Fault near Point Arena, California

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Excavations into a Holocene alluvial fan provided exposures of a record of prehistoric earthquakes near Point Arena, California. At least five earthquakes were recognized in the section. All of these occurred since the deposition of a unit that is approximately 2000 years old. Radiocarbon dating allows constraints to be placed on the dates of these earthquakes. A buried Holocene (2356-2709 years old) channel has been offset a maximum of 64 {plus minus} 2 meters. This implies a maximum slip rate of 25.5 {plus minus} 2.5 mm/yr. These data suggest that the average recurrence interval for great earthquakes on this segment of the San Andreas fault is long - between about 200 and 400 years. Offset marine terrace risers near Point Arena and an offset landslide near Fort Ross provide estimates of the average slip rate since Late Pleistocene time. Near Fort Ross, an offset landslide implies a slip rate of less than 39 mm/yr. Correlation and age estimates of two marine terrace risers across the San Andreas fault near Point Arena suggest slip rates of about 18-19 mm/yr since Late Pleistocene time. Tentative correlation of the Pliocene Ohlson Ranch Formation in northwestern Sonoma County with deposits 50 km to the northwest near Point Arean, provides piercing points to use in calculation of a Pliocene slip rate for the northern San Andreas fault. A fission-track age 3.3 {plus minus} 0.8 Ma was determined for zicrons separated from a tuff collected from the Ohlson Ranch Formation. The geomorphology of the region, especially of the two major river drainages, supports the proposed 50 km Pliocene offset. This implies a Pliocene slip rate of at least 12-20 mm/yr. These rates for different time periods imply that much of the Pacific-North American plate motion must be accommodated on other structures at this latitude.

  2. High levels of airborne ultrafine and fine particulate matter in indoor ice arenas.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W

    2003-03-01

    The high prevalence of airway dysfunction among ice arena athletes may be related to rink air exposure; in particular, high concentrations of ultrafine and fine particulate matter (0.02-1.0 micro m diameter, PM(1)) from ice resurfacing machines may enhance airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. The purpose of this study was to identify levels of PM(1) emitted from ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas, and to compare [PM(1)] pre- and post-resurfacing to each other and to outdoor [PM(1)]. Multiple one Hz measurements were recorded on 28 different days as 15-s mean of PM(1).cm(-3) for 2 min at 1-1.5 m "above ice" in 10 rinks pre- and post-resurfacing, with measured airborne PM(1) outside each rink to be used individual rink references. Rink PM(1).cm(-3) was approximately 30 times greater than PM(1).cm(-3) outside the respective rinks (p <.05). Rink values were 104.2 +/- 59.3 x 10(3) PM(1).cm(-3) during prime usage, compared to outdoor values of 3.8 +/- 2.5 x 10(3) PM(1).cm(-3). Ice resurfacing increased PM(1).cm(-3) 4-fold (p <.05). No difference in PM(1) emissions between gasoline and propane powered resurfacing machines was identified. The rate of PM(1) dissipation after resurfacing was highly variable between rinks and probably dependent upon rink ventilation and resurfacing machine engine efficiency. Gas-powered edging increased PM(1).cm(-3) 18-fold and 158-fold versus pre-edging rink and outdoor values, respectively. We conclude that the primary source of airborne indoor rink PM(1) is internal combustion ice-resurfacing machines and that this poor air quality may be causal to the unique and high prevalence of airway dysfunction in ice arena athletes.

  3. Líneas Vitales: Programas y servicios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Artículos y videos sobre los programas y servicios del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la serie educativa Líneas Vitales del NCI, la cual está dirigida especialmente a poblaciones multiculturales.

  4. Advocacy and argumentation in the public arena: a guide for social workers.

    PubMed

    Lens, Vicki

    2005-07-01

    Whether translating research findings for public consumption, or arguing for a policy position that reflects social work values, social workers engaged in cause advocacy need rhetorical skills. The author draws from the disciplines of linguistics, logic, and communications and provides a framework for making arguments in the public arena. The structure and components of arguments are analyzed, and strategies for choosing persuasive empirical evidence and using values to support an argument are described. The use and misuses of language are discussed. Excerpts from published op-ed pieces are used for illustration.

  5. Arena3D: visualizing time-driven phenotypic differences in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elucidating the genotype-phenotype connection is one of the big challenges of modern molecular biology. To fully understand this connection, it is necessary to consider the underlying networks and the time factor. In this context of data deluge and heterogeneous information, visualization plays an essential role in interpreting complex and dynamic topologies. Thus, software that is able to bring the network, phenotypic and temporal information together is needed. Arena3D has been previously introduced as a tool that facilitates link discovery between processes. It uses a layered display to separate different levels of information while emphasizing the connections between them. We present novel developments of the tool for the visualization and analysis of dynamic genotype-phenotype landscapes. Results Version 2.0 introduces novel features that allow handling time course data in a phenotypic context. Gene expression levels or other measures can be loaded and visualized at different time points and phenotypic comparison is facilitated through clustering and correlation display or highlighting of impacting changes through time. Similarity scoring allows the identification of global patterns in dynamic heterogeneous data. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of the tool on two distinct biological problems of different scales. First, we analyze a medium scale dataset that looks at perturbation effects of the pluripotency regulator Nanog in murine embryonic stem cells. Dynamic cluster analysis suggests alternative indirect links between Nanog and other proteins in the core stem cell network. Moreover, recurrent correlations from the epigenetic to the translational level are identified. Second, we investigate a large scale dataset consisting of genome-wide knockdown screens for human genes essential in the mitotic process. Here, a potential new role for the gene lsm14a in cytokinesis is suggested. We also show how phenotypic patterning allows for extensive

  6. The role of civil society in health care reforms: an arena for hegemonic struggles.

    PubMed

    Filc, Dani

    2014-12-01

    The present paper argues that current mainstream understandings of civil society as ontologically different from the state and essentially positive (either normative or functionally) are problematic in order to understand the development of health care reforms. The paper proposes to ground an explanation of the role of civil society in health care reforms in a Gramscian understanding of civil society as analytically different from the state, and as an arena for hegemonic struggles. The study of health care reform in Israel serves as a case study for this claim.

  7. EnerCage: A Smart Experimental Arena With Scalable Architecture for Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Uei-Ming Jow; Peter McMenamin; Mehdi Kiani; Manns, Joseph R.; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    Wireless power, when coupled with miniaturized implantable electronics, has the potential to provide a solution to several challenges facing neuroscientists during basic and preclinical studies with freely behaving animals. The EnerCage system is one such solution as it allows for uninterrupted electrophysiology experiments over extended periods of time and vast experimental arenas, while eliminating the need for bulky battery payloads or tethering. It has a scalable array of overlapping planar spiral coils (PSCs) and three-axis magnetic sensors for focused wireless power transmission to devices on freely moving subjects. In this paper, we present the first fully functional EnerCage system, in which the number of PSC drivers and magnetic sensors was reduced to one-third of the number used in our previous design via multicoil coupling. The power transfer efficiency (PTE) has been improved to 5.6% at a 120 mm coupling distance and a 48.5 mm lateral misalignment (worst case) between the transmitter (Tx) array and receiver (Rx) coils. The new EnerCage system is equipped with an Ethernet backbone, further supporting its modular/scalable architecture, which, in turn, allows experimental arenas with arbitrary shapes and dimensions. A set of experiments on a freely behaving rat were conducted by continuously delivering 20 mW to the electronics in the animal headstage for more than one hour in a powered 3538 cm2 experimental area. PMID:23955695

  8. Se pone en marcha el programa NCORP

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) ha otorgado 53 subvenciones nuevas de 5 años a investigadores de todo el país para realizar estudios clínicos multicéntricos e investigaciones sobre la prestación de cuidados oncológicos en sus comunidades.

  9. New spatial cognition tests for mice: passive place avoidance on stable and active place avoidance on rotating arenas.

    PubMed

    Cimadevilla, J M; Fenton, A A; Bures, J

    2001-03-15

    Dry arenas are a convenient tool for assessing the spatial navigation abilities of rodents. In this paper, mice must avoid a punished sector of a dry arena from which they are expelled by a puff of compressed air. The position of the punished sector is defined relative to the coordinate system of the room. In a stable environment the mice can use both extramaze and intramaze landmarks to orient themselves accurately. However, when the shock area is defined by extramaze landmarks, continuous rotation of the arena at 1 rpm makes it impossible to solve the avoidance task using arena-based cues or idiothesis. The avoidance can only be solved by paying attention to extramaze cues. Our protocol tested spatial abilities on stable and rotating arenas. The acquisition of the task was manifested under both conditions by a significant improvement of performance within the first session (short-term memory component) and at the beginning of the 24-h delayed second session (long-term memory component).

  10. Thinking outside of the box: Transfer of shape-based reorientation across the boundary of an arena.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Matthew G; Smith, Alastair D; Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The way in which human and non-human animals represent the shape of their environments remains a contentious issue. According to local theories of shape learning, organisms encode the local geometric features of the environment that signal a goal location. In contrast, global theories of shape learning suggest that organisms encode the overall shape of the environment. There is, however, a surprising lack of evidence to support this latter claim, despite the fact that common behaviours seem to require encoding of the global-shape of an environment. We tested one such behaviour in 5 experiments, in which human participants were trained to navigate to a hidden goal on one side of a virtual arena (e.g. the inside) before being required to find the same point on the alternative side (e.g. the outside). Participants navigated to the appropriate goal location, both when inside and outside the virtual arena, but only when the shape of the arena remained the same between training and test (Experiments 1a and 1b). When the arena shape was transformed between these stages, participants were lost (Experiments 2a and 2b). When training and testing was conducted on the outside of two different-shaped arenas that shared local geometric cues participants once again explored the appropriate goal location (Experiment 3). These results provide core evidence that humans encode a global representation of the overall shape of the environments in, or around, which they navigate. PMID:27240027

  11. Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: an experiment in a circular arena.

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardo, A.; Odetti, F.; Ioalè, P.

    2001-01-01

    Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the arena, the control pigeons exited from the arena approximately in the home direction, while the anosmic pigeons' distribution was not different from random. Our data suggest that olfactory and visual cues play a critical, but interchangeable, role for orientation at familiar sites. PMID:11571054

  12. Experimental validation of a computational fluid dynamics model for IAQ applications in ice rink arenas.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Demokritou, P; Chen, Q; Spengler, J

    2001-06-01

    Many ice rink arenas have ice resurfacing equipment that uses fossil fuel as power. The combustion byproducts are a major source of contamination. Ventilation along with other pollution source control measures is the most widely applied strategy to lower the contaminant level below the threshold limit and maintain acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed and used to predict the contaminant concentrations, air velocity, and air temperature distributions in ice rinks. The numerical results agree reasonably with the corresponding experimental data for both steady-state and transient conditions. The CFD model is a useful and inexpensive tool to investigate ventilation parameters, such as air distribution methods, ventilation effectiveness, air exchange rates, and various ventilation control strategies.

  13. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    The International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Activities, ARENA 2006 was jointly hosted by the Universities of Northumbria and Sheffield at the City of Newcastle Campus of the University of Northumbria in June 2006. ARENA 2006 was the latest in a series of meetings which have addressed, either separately or jointly, the use of radio and acoustic sensors for the detection of highly relativistic particles. Previous successful meetings have taken place in Los Angeles (RADHEP, 2000), Stanford (2003) and DESY Zeuthen (ARENA 2005). A total of 50 scientists from across Europe, the US and Japan attended the conference presenting status reports and results from a number of projects and initiatives spread as far afield as the Sweden and the South Pole. The talks presented at the meeting and the proceedings contained herein represent a `snapshot' of the status of the fields of acoustic and radio detection at the time of the conference. The three day meeting also included two invited talks by Dr Paula Chadwick and Dr Johannes Knapp who gave excellent summaries of the related astroparticle physics fields of high energy gamma ray detection and high energy cosmic ray detection respectively. As well as a full academic agenda there were social events including a Medieval themed conference banquet at Lumley Castle and a civic reception kindly provided by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle and hosted at the Mansion House. Thanks must go to the International Advisory Board members for their input and guidance, the Local Organising Committee for their hard work in bringing everything together and finally the delegates for the stimulating, enthusiastic and enjoyable spirit in which ARENA 2006 took place. Lee Thompson

    International Advisory Board

    G. Anton, ErlangenD. Besson, Kansas
    J. Blümer, KarlsruheA. Capone, Rome
    H. Falcke, BonnP. Gorham, Hawaii
    G. Gratta

  14. Contested visions of American democracy: citizenship, public housing, and the international arena.

    PubMed

    Argersinger, Jo Ann E

    2010-01-01

    This essay reexamines the history of public housing and the controversy it generated from the Great Depression to the Cold War. By recasting that history in the global arena, it demonstrates that the debate over public housing versus homeownership was also a debate over the meaning of American citizenship and democracy, pointing up starkly divergent notions about what was and was not American. Through an examination of national conflicts and neglected local struggles, this article further shows that the fight over public housing was far more meaningful and volatile than traditionally assumed. Both critics and advocates of public housing drew from international experiences and imagery in positioning the home as a constitutive feature of citizenship in American democracy. Fears of Bolshevism, fascism, and communism served to internationalize issues of race, space, and housing and together shaped the decision of whether a decent home was an American right or privilege.

  15. 'Brightness in dark places': theatre as an arena for communicating life with dementia.

    PubMed

    Gjengedal, Eva; Lykkeslet, Else; Sørbø, Jan I; Sæther, Wigdis Helene

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use artistic expressions on a theatrical stage for communicating life with dementia, as portrayed in literary texts and to explore whether such communication would help relatives of people suffering from dementia gain knowledge of their situation. Life with dementia was portrayed through four theatre performances with actors reading excerpts from literary texts combined with music. Relatives were invited to the performances and to participate in focus groups following the events. Analysis revealed that the participants recognized episodes in the texts and were touched. This resulted in new knowledge. The aesthetic expression was of great significance. The use of the theatre stage as an arena for communicating knowledge became a meaningful experience. The performances enabled identification with roles on the stage, created a feeling of community with the audience and contributed to an experience of dignity.

  16. Contested visions of American democracy: citizenship, public housing, and the international arena.

    PubMed

    Argersinger, Jo Ann E

    2010-01-01

    This essay reexamines the history of public housing and the controversy it generated from the Great Depression to the Cold War. By recasting that history in the global arena, it demonstrates that the debate over public housing versus homeownership was also a debate over the meaning of American citizenship and democracy, pointing up starkly divergent notions about what was and was not American. Through an examination of national conflicts and neglected local struggles, this article further shows that the fight over public housing was far more meaningful and volatile than traditionally assumed. Both critics and advocates of public housing drew from international experiences and imagery in positioning the home as a constitutive feature of citizenship in American democracy. Fears of Bolshevism, fascism, and communism served to internationalize issues of race, space, and housing and together shaped the decision of whether a decent home was an American right or privilege. PMID:21141450

  17. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation. PMID:26583915

  18. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  19. [Perspectives and challenges of the "new" National Health Promotion Policy: to which political arena does management point?].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Tales Iuri Paz E; Sá, Ronice Maria Pereira Franco de; Araújo, José Luiz do Amaral Correia de

    2016-06-01

    The "new" National Health Promotion Policy opens up prospects and challenges for the political arena. This is the space where agreements and disagreements relating to decision-making, which will underpin its implementation, are established. This study sought to understand these questions, seeking to reflect upon the formation of arenas, in order to contribute with strategies coherent with the policy. It is a qualitative study, based on the theory of justification and its 'polities' according to Boltanski and Thévenot. Those interviewed were social actors involved with management of this policy. The analysis verified the presence of the polities such as: civic -vision and concepts; project -execution; and industrial - imposed limits. These polities define the arenas where the designated prospects and challenges appear. The configurations arising from the intersection points of these polities reveal arenas established through interests and issues resulting from agreements. It further highlights the grandeur of polities that may be found in controversies or conflicts, especially among the subcategories present in more than one polity. Critical awareness and the establishment of a clear political game are required of the social actors involved in promoting agreements and/or disagreements related to the new policy. PMID:27276537

  20. Characteristics That Differentiate Telecommuting from Non-Telecommuting Professionals in the Quality Assurance and Quality Control Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claybon, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    The interest in working from home in contrast to going to an office continues to be a growing phenomenon. This research examined personal characteristics of telecommuters and non-telecommuters including age, gender, years of working for the organization, and job satisfaction in the quality control and quality assurance arena. This study aimed to…

    1. Has Massification of Higher Education Led to More Equity? Clues to a Reflection on Portuguese Education Arena

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dias, Diana

      2015-01-01

      Massification is an undeniable phenomenon in the higher education arena. However, there have been questions raised regarding the extent to which a mass system really corresponds to an effective democratisation not only of access, but also of success. With regards to access, this article intends, through a brief analysis of the expansion of higher…

    2. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

      1998-01-01

      La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

    3. A neural-network reinforcement-learning model of domestic chicks that learn to localize the centre of closed arenas.

      PubMed

      Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

      2007-03-29

      Previous experiments have shown that when domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) are first trained to locate food elements hidden at the centre of a closed square arena and then are tested in a square arena of double the size, they search for food both at its centre and at a distance from walls similar to the distance of the centre from the walls experienced during training. This paper presents a computational model that successfully reproduces these behaviours. The model is based on a neural-network implementation of the reinforcement-learning actor - critic architecture (in this architecture the 'critic' learns to evaluate perceived states in terms of predicted future rewards, while the 'actor' learns to increase the probability of selecting the actions that lead to higher evaluations). The analysis of the model suggests which type of information and cognitive mechanisms might underlie chicks' behaviours: (i) the tendency to explore the area at a specific distance from walls might be based on the processing of the height of walls' horizontal edges, (ii) the capacity to generalize the search at the centre of square arenas independently of their size might be based on the processing of the relative position of walls' vertical edges on the horizontal plane (equalization of walls' width), and (iii) the whole behaviour exhibited in the large square arena can be reproduced by assuming the existence of an attention process that, at each time, focuses chicks' internal processing on either one of the two previously discussed information sources. The model also produces testable predictions regarding the generalization capabilities that real chicks should exhibit if trained in circular arenas of varying size. The paper also highlights the potentialities of the model to address other experiments on animals' navigation and analyses its strengths and weaknesses in comparison to other models. PMID:17255019

    4. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

      PubMed

      Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

      2015-01-01

      The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

    5. Towards A Smart Experimental Arena for Long-Term Electrophysiology Experiments

      PubMed Central

      Jow, Uei-Ming; Kiani, Mehdi; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

      2011-01-01

      Advancements in wireless power and data transmission have raised the prospects of using a variety of low power microelectronic devices such as biosensors, stimulators, and actuators in long-term uninterrupted electrophysiology experiments on small freely behaving animal subjects in large experimental arenas. This paper presents our progress towards developing such a system, called the EnerCage. This system includes a stationary unit for inductive power transmission through a scalable array of overlapping hexagonal coils, which are optimized using an accurate inductive link model and an iterative optimization process. Furthermore, the EnerCage system is equipped with an array of 3-D magnetic sensors and a smart tracking algorithm for non-line-of-sight positioning of the animal subject. EnerCage also has a small mobile unit, which is either attached to or implanted in the subject’s body. This unit includes a magnetic tracer and an efficient power management block, which is capable of closed-loop regulated inductive power delivery to the experimental device(s) of interest. An early prototype of the EnerCage system with six coils has been presented here. The coil array achieves a power efficiency of 17.8% at the worst-case horizontal misalignment of 42 mm (half of the coil radius) at a coupling distance of 70 mm with the mobile unit coil of 20 mm in radius. PMID:23853228

    6. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

      PubMed

      Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

      2016-06-01

      Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376

    7. Construction of a policy arena: the case of public health in France.

      PubMed

      Bergeron, Henri; Nathanson, Constance A

      2012-02-01

      In this article we examine the transformation over the past two decades of public health as a policy arena in France from a backwater of little interest to politicians, bureaucrats, the media, and the public into a central preoccupation of the state. Recent dramatic health crises (the scandal over HIV-contaminated blood, mad cow disease, etc.) have substantially raised the political profile of (and corresponding state investment in) public health in France, offering opportunities and incentives for political actors not traditionally associated with public health to enter the field and challenging more traditional actors to galvanize themselves and compete for this newly attractive policy terrain. We use the occasion of the passage of a public health law in 2004, labeled by its proponents as the "first" public health law in one hundred years, to show how, in a context of national struggle to contain both risks and costs, "public health" -- chameleonlike -- has taken on various meanings and forms to serve highly conflicting political interests. PMID:22003098

    8. Ultra faint dwarf galaxies: an arena for testing dark matter versus modified gravity

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lin, Weikang; Ishak, Mustapha

      2016-10-01

      The scenario consistent with a wealth of observations for the missing mass problem is that of weakly interacting dark matter particles. However, arguments or proposals for a Newtonian or relativistic modified gravity scenario continue to be made. A distinguishing characteristic between the two scenarios is that dark matter particles can produce a gravitational effect, in principle, without the need of baryons while this is not the case for the modified gravity scenario where such an effect must be correlated with the amount of baryonic matter. We consider here ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies as a promising arena to test the two scenarios based on the above assertion. We compare the correlation of the luminosity with the velocity dispersion between samples of UFD and non-UFD galaxies, finding a significant loss of correlation for UFD galaxies. For example, we find for 28 non-UFD galaxies a strong correlation coefficient of ‑0.688 which drops to ‑0.077 for the 23 UFD galaxies. Incoming and future data will determine whether the observed stochasticity for UFD galaxies is physical or due to systematics in the data. Such a loss of correlation (if it is to persist) is possible and consistent with the dark matter scenario for UFD galaxies but would constitute a new challenge for the modified gravity scenario.

    9. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus: what's new in the management arena?

      PubMed

      Kumar, Ajoy; Singh, Vibhuti

      2010-09-07

      When compared with the general population, the diabetic population is at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as predicted by the Framingham Risk Score calculations (10-year risk 20%). For this reason diabetes is considered a "coronary disease equivalent" condition, as classified by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III. Furthermore, patients with diabetes who experience a myocardial infarction have a poorer prognosis than nondiabetic patients, which contributes to their overall higher mortality. Dyslipidemia is a major underlying risk factor contributing to the excess CVD risk, and is usually more atherogenic in the presence of diabetes. It is uniquely manifested by raised levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smaller, denser, and more atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles. Recent trials have suggested the need for more aggressive treatment of dyslipidemia in this subpopulation than the current recommendations by the NCEP-ATP III. This review addresses the newer developments in the diabetes arena in terms of our current understanding of atherogenic dyslipidemia in diabetes and data from the latest randomized trials addressing its management.

    10. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Thompson, Lee

      2007-06-01

      The International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Activities, ARENA 2006 was jointly hosted by the Universities of Northumbria and Sheffield at the City of Newcastle Campus of the University of Northumbria in June 2006. ARENA 2006 was the latest in a series of meetings which have addressed, either separately or jointly, the use of radio and acoustic sensors for the detection of highly relativistic particles. Previous successful meetings have taken place in Los Angeles (RADHEP, 2000), Stanford (2003) and DESY Zeuthen (ARENA 2005). A total of 50 scientists from across Europe, the US and Japan attended the conference presenting status reports and results from a number of projects and initiatives spread as far afield as the Sweden and the South Pole. The talks presented at the meeting and the proceedings contained herein represent a `snapshot' of the status of the fields of acoustic and radio detection at the time of the conference. The three day meeting also included two invited talks by Dr Paula Chadwick and Dr Johannes Knapp who gave excellent summaries of the related astroparticle physics fields of high energy gamma ray detection and high energy cosmic ray detection respectively. As well as a full academic agenda there were social events including a Medieval themed conference banquet at Lumley Castle and a civic reception kindly provided by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle and hosted at the Mansion House. Thanks must go to the International Advisory Board members for their input and guidance, the Local Organising Committee for their hard work in bringing everything together and finally the delegates for the stimulating, enthusiastic and enjoyable spirit in which ARENA 2006 took place. Lee Thompson

      International Advisory Board

      G. Anton, ErlangenD. Besson, Kansas
      J. Blümer, KarlsruheA. Capone, Rome
      H. Falcke, BonnP. Gorham, Hawaii
      G. Gratta

    11. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena

      PubMed Central

      Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

      2015-01-01

      The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26083385

    12. Climate Scientists In The Public Arena: Who's Got Our Backs? (Invited)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mann, M. E.

      2010-12-01

      Climate scientists have an important role to play in informing the public discourse on human-caused climate change. Our scientific expertise provides us a unique, informed perspective, and despite recent high profile attacks against climate science, the public still affords climate scientists the greatest trust to deliver an honest, unbiased assessment of the potential threats posed by climate changes. Yet, as with all areas of science where powerful special interests perceive themselves as threatened by the findings of science, scientists enter the public fray at our peril. Our efforts to communicate the science are opposed by a well-funded, highly organized disinformation effort that aims to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding. In recent years, the disinformation campaign has demonstrated a willingness to attack individual, climate scientists as a means of achieving a broader end: discrediting climate science itself. These attacks are rarely fought in legitimate scientific circles such as the peer-reviewed scientific literature or other scholarly venues, but rather through rhetorical efforts delivered by nonscientists, using ideologically aligned media outlets, special interest groups, and politicians. Scientists are massively out-funded and outmanned in this battle, and will lose if leading scientific institutions and organizations remain on the sidelines. I will discuss this dilemma, drawing upon my own experiences in the public arena of climate change.

    13. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

      PubMed

      Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

      2016-06-01

      Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

    14. Temporal and spatial strategies in an active place avoidance task on Carousel: a study of effects of stability of arena rotation speed in rats.

      PubMed

      Bahník, Štěpán; Stuchlík, Aleš

      2015-01-01

      The active place avoidance task is a dry-arena task used to assess spatial navigation and memory in rodents. In this task, a subject is put on a rotating circular arena and avoids an invisible sector that is stable in relation to the room. Rotation of the arena means that the subject's avoidance must be active, otherwise the subject will be moved in the to-be-avoided sector by the rotation of the arena and a slight electric shock will be administered. The present experiment explored the effect of variable arena rotation speed on the ability to avoid the to-be-avoided sector. Subjects in a group with variable arena rotation speed learned to avoid the sector with the same speed and attained the same avoidance ability as rats in a group with a stable arena rotation speed. Only a slight difference in preferred position within the room was found between the two groups. No difference was found between the two groups in the dark phase, where subjects could not use orientation cues in the room. Only one rat was able to learn the avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector in this phase. The results of the experiment suggest that idiothetic orientation and interval timing are not crucial for learning avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector. However, idiothetic orientation might be sufficient for avoiding the sector in the dark. PMID:26417540

    15. BioArena studies: unique function of endogenous formaldehyde and ozone in the antibiotic effect--a review.

      PubMed

      Tyihák, Erno; Móricz, Agnes M; Ott, Péter G

      2012-01-01

      The investigations demonstrated clearly a unique function and role of endogenous formaldehyde (HCHO) and ozone (O3) in the antibiotic effect of diverse molecules having different chemical structure. Elimination of HCHO and/or O3 from the layer chromatographic spots resulted in a decrease in the antimicrobial activity. On the basis of detection and measure of endogenous HCHO and O3 BioArena enables to both direct isolation and biological evaluation of new bioactive compounds.

    16. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

      PubMed

      Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

      2015-03-15

      The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior.

    17. Analysis of the Trajectory of Drosophila melanogaster in a Circular Open Field Arena

      PubMed Central

      Valente, Dan; Golani, Ilan; Mitra, Partha P.

      2007-01-01

      Background Obtaining a complete phenotypic characterization of a freely moving organism is a difficult task, yet such a description is desired in many neuroethological studies. Many metrics currently used in the literature to describe locomotor and exploratory behavior are typically based on average quantities or subjectively chosen spatial and temporal thresholds. All of these measures are relatively coarse-grained in the time domain. It is advantageous, however, to employ metrics based on the entire trajectory that an organism takes while exploring its environment. Methodology/Principal Findings To characterize the locomotor behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, we used a video tracking system to record the trajectory of a single fly walking in a circular open field arena. The fly was tracked for two hours. Here, we present techniques with which to analyze the motion of the fly in this paradigm, and we discuss the methods of calculation. The measures we introduce are based on spatial and temporal probability distributions and utilize the entire time-series trajectory of the fly, thus emphasizing the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Marginal and joint probability distributions of speed, position, segment duration, path curvature, and reorientation angle are examined and related to the observed behavior. Conclusions/Significance The measures discussed in this paper provide a detailed profile of the behavior of a single fly and highlight the interaction of the fly with the environment. Such measures may serve as useful tools in any behavioral study in which the movement of a fly is an important variable and can be incorporated easily into many setups, facilitating high-throughput phenotypic characterization. PMID:17957265

    18. Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult anurans

      PubMed Central

      2011-01-01

      Background Magnetic orientation is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in anuran amphibians. We collected Common Toads (Bufo bufo) during their migration towards their spawning pond and tested them shortly after displacement for possible magnetic orientation in arena experiments. Animals were tested in two different set-ups, in the geomagnetic field and in a reversed magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing orientation of adult anurans with a controlled magnetic field of a known strength and alignment. Results After displacement, toads oriented themselves unimodally under the geomagnetic field, following their former migration direction (d-axis). When the magnetic field was reversed, the distribution of bearings changed from a unimodal to a bimodal pattern, but still along the d-axis. The clustering of bearings was only significant after the toads reached the outer circle, 60.5 cm from their starting point. At a virtual inner circle (diameter 39 cm) and at the start of the experiment, orientation of toads did not show any significant pattern. Conclusions The experimental set-up used in our study is suitable to test orientation behaviour of the Common Toad. We speculate that toads had not enough time to relocate their position on an internal map. Hence, they followed their former migration direction. Bimodality in orientation when exposed to the reversed magnetic field could be the result of a cue conflict, between magnetic and possibly celestial cues. For maintaining their migration direction toads use, at least partly, the geomagnetic field as a reference system. PMID:21418651

    19. Formally acknowledging donor-cadaver-patients in the basic and clinical science research arena.

      PubMed

      Benninger, Brion

      2013-10-01

      Historically, in the healthcare profession, cadaveric tissue has been predominantly used for teaching the architecture of the human body. It is respectful practice in scientific writing to acknowledge colleagues who have helped to collect/analyze data and prepare manuscripts; however, it appears that we have omitted to thank those that have donated themselves for any of these projects to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the formal acknowledgment thanking those who have given the amazing gift of themselves to science. A literature search was conducted on printed and electronic anatomical and clinical journals. Anatomical and clinical conferences were attended between 2008 and 2012; posters utilizing cadaveric tissue were examined for acknowledgment. University/private institutions were contacted to ascertain if memorial services were held. Literature revealed only one journal that required acknowledgment when donor-cadaver's (DC's) were used. Poster examination revealed very few acknowledgments of DC tissue at clinical conferences. While all university programs (n = 20) held memorial services, only 6 of 20 private procurement organizations had any such event. Our surgical anatomist forefathers faced awkward conditions because cadaveric tissue was not readily available. Contemporarily, anatomists and researchers have ready access to DC's. Socially, these donations are recognized as unparalleled educational tools and gifts, yet often they are not given the appropriate recognition and are overlooked in the publishing and scientific research arena. This research suggests editors, researchers, IRB committees, nonprofit body willed programs, and for-profit procurement organizations formally recognize and/or require recognition of those who donate their bodies for research.

    20. Applying AI systems in the T and D arena. [Artificial Intelligence, Transmission and Distribution

      SciTech Connect

      Venkata, S.S.; Liu, Chenching ); Sumic, Z. Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA ); Vadari, S.V.

      1993-04-01

      The power engineering community has capitalized on various computer technologies since the early 1960s, with most successful application to solving well-defined problems that are capable of being modeled. Although computing methods have made notable progress in the power engineering arena, there is still a class of problems that is not easy to define or formulate to apply conventional computerized methods. In addition to being difficult to express in a closed mathematical form, these problems are often characterized by the absence of one or both of the following features: a predetermined decision path from the initial state to goal (ill-structured problem); a well-defined criteria for whether an obtained solution is acceptable (open-ended problem). Power engineers have been investigating the application of AI-based methodologies to power system problems. Most of the work in the past has been geared towards the development of expert systems as an operator's aid in energy control centers for bulk power transmission systems operating under abnormal conditions. Alarm processing, fault diagnosis, system restoration, and voltage/var control are a few key areas where significant research work has progressed to date. Results of this research have effected more than 100 prototype expert systems for power systems throughout the US, Japan, and Europe. The objectives of this article are to: expose engineers to the benefits of using AI methods for a host of transmission and distribution (T and D) problems that need immediate attention; identify problems that could be solved more effectively by applying AI approaches; summarize recent developments and successful AI applications in T and D.

      1. Deinococcus arenae sp. nov., a novel species isolated from sand in South Korea.

        PubMed

        Lee, Dongwook; Cha, Seho; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Seo, Taegun

        2016-07-01

        A Gram-negative strain, designated SA1(T), was isolated from a sand specimen from Yangyang Beach, South Korea. The cells of SA1(T) were observed to be red pigmented, strictly aerobic, non-motile rods. Strain SA1(T) was found to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7 (pH growth range, pH 7-9). Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of SA1(T) showed that the organism belongs to the phylum Deinococcus-Thermus and forms a branch within the genus Deinococcus, with Deinococcus actinosclerus BM2(T) as a close relative (99.8   % sequence similarity). The strain was found to be catalase positive and oxidase negative and to metabolise 2-ketogluconate, acetate, D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate, D-glucose, D-maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, D-melibiose, D-sorbitol, D-sucrose, glycogen, L-alanine, L-histidine, L-malate, L-proline and n-valerate. The guanine plus cytosine (G + C) base composition of the DNA was 69.5 mol %, as determined by the thermal denaturation method. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone with eight isoprene units (MK-8). The polar lipid profile of strain SA1(T) showed the presence of several unidentified glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids, phospholipids, aminophospholipids and unidentified lipids. In addition, the most abundant fatty acids of strain SA1(T) were identified as C15:1 ω6c, C16:1 ω7c and C17:0. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridisation and biochemical characteristics, strain SA1(T) (=KCTC 33741(T) = JCM 31047(T)) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus arenae sp. nov. is proposed.

      2. Folleto Para el Estudiante: Programa Escolar de Educacion Ecologica. (Student Handbook: Environmental Education Outdoor School Program).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

        The Spanish language version of the student handbook was developed for use with Spanish speaking students who intend to particpate in the Environmental Education Outdoor School Program in Santa Barbara County, California. After the form for the student to complete with personal information, i.e., name, school, etc., the handbook begins with a…

      3. Programa de lengua espanola: Guia para el profesor, 2 (Spanish Language Program: Teacher's Guide 2).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Martinez, Emiliano; And Others

        This teacher's guide is designed for use with "La Ciudad" and "Otros Amigos, Otras Culturas," two textbooks in the second part of the Spanish language series of readers. It contains lesson plans to enable the teacher to make better use of the texts and includes illustrations taken from each of the books themselves. (SK)

      4. Arte: Un Programa Creativo Para Ninos Pre-Escolares (Art: A Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Creative Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

        Written in Spanish and focusing on art activities for early childhood education, this manual provides guidelines for Spanish-speaking teachers of preschool and primary school children. The content of the manual is oriented to the learning styles and special interests of Spanish-speaking children. Part One defines artistic activity in the preschool…

      5. Anthropogenic impacts on continental margins: New frontiers and engagement arena for global sustainability research and action

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Liu, K. K.; Glavovic, B.; Limburg, K.; Emeis, K. C.; Thomas, H.; Kremer, H.; Avril, B.; Zhang, J.; Mulholland, M. R.; Glaser, M.; Swaney, D. P.

        2014-12-01

        There is an urgent need to design and implement transformative governance strategies that safeguard Earth's life-support systems essential for long-term human well-being. From a series of meetings of the Continental Margins Working Group co-sponsored by IMBER and LOICZ of IGBP, we conclude that the greatest urgency exists at the ocean-land interface - the continental margins or the Margin - which extends from coastlands over continental shelves and slopes bordering the deep ocean. The Margin is enduring quadruple squeeze from (i) Population growth and rising demands for resources; (ii) Ecosystem degradation and loss; (iii) Rising CO2, climate change and alteration of marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems; and (iv) Rapid and irreversible changes in social-ecological systems. Some areas of the Margin that are subject to the greatest pressures (e.g. the Arctic) are also those for which knowledge of fundamental processes remains most limited. Aside from improving our basic understanding of the nature and variability of the Margin, priority issues include: (i) investment reform to prevent lethal but profitable activities; (ii) risk reduction; and (iii) jurisdiction, equity and fiscal responsibility. However, governance deficits or mismatches are particularly pronounced at the ocean-edge of the Margin and the prevailing Law of the Sea is incapable of resolving these challenges. The "gold rush" of accelerating demands for space and resources, and variability in how this domain is regulated, move the Margin to the forefront of global sustainability research and action. We outline a research strategy in 3 engagement arenas: (a) knowledge and understanding of dynamic Margin processes; (b) development, innovation and risk at the Margin; and (c) governance for sustainability on the Margin. The goals are (1) to better understand Margin social-ecological systems, including their physical and biogeochemical components; (2) to develop practical guidance for sustainable development

      6. Development of a new method to track multiple honey bees with complex behaviors on a flat laboratory arena.

        PubMed

        Kimura, Toshifumi; Ohashi, Mizue; Crailsheim, Karl; Schmickl, Thomas; Okada, Ryuichi; Radspieler, Gerald; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

        2014-01-01

        A computer program that tracks animal behavior, thereby revealing various features and mechanisms of social animals, is a powerful tool in ethological research. Because honeybee colonies are populated by thousands of bees, individuals co-exist in high physical densities and are difficult to track unless specifically tagged, which can affect behavior. In addition, honeybees react to light and recordings must be made under special red-light conditions, which the eyes of bees perceive as darkness. The resulting video images are scarcely distinguishable. We have developed a new algorithm, K-Track, for tracking numerous bees in a flat laboratory arena. Our program implements three main processes: (A) The object (bee's) region is detected by simple threshold processing on gray scale images, (B) Individuals are identified by size, shape and spatiotemporal positional changes, and (C) Centers of mass of identified individuals are connected through all movie frames to yield individual behavioral trajectories. The tracking performance of our software was evaluated on movies of mobile multi-artificial agents and of 16 bees walking around a circular arena. K-Track accurately traced the trajectories of both artificial agents and bees. In the latter case, K-track outperformed Ctrax, well-known software for tracking multiple animals. To investigate interaction events in detail, we manually identified five interaction categories; 'crossing', 'touching', 'passing', 'overlapping' and 'waiting', and examined the extent to which the models accurately identified these categories from bee's interactions. All 7 identified failures occurred near a wall at the outer edge of the arena. Finally, K-Track and Ctrax successfully tracked 77 and 60 of 84 recorded interactive events, respectively. K-Track identified multiple bees on a flat surface and tracked their speed changes and encounters with other bees, with good performance.

      7. Development of a New Method to Track Multiple Honey Bees with Complex Behaviors on a Flat Laboratory Arena

        PubMed Central

        Kimura, Toshifumi; Ohashi, Mizue; Crailsheim, Karl; Schmickl, Thomas; Okada, Ryuichi; Radspieler, Gerald; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

        2014-01-01

        A computer program that tracks animal behavior, thereby revealing various features and mechanisms of social animals, is a powerful tool in ethological research. Because honeybee colonies are populated by thousands of bees, individuals co-exist in high physical densities and are difficult to track unless specifically tagged, which can affect behavior. In addition, honeybees react to light and recordings must be made under special red-light conditions, which the eyes of bees perceive as darkness. The resulting video images are scarcely distinguishable. We have developed a new algorithm, K-Track, for tracking numerous bees in a flat laboratory arena. Our program implements three main processes: (A) The object (bee's) region is detected by simple threshold processing on gray scale images, (B) Individuals are identified by size, shape and spatiotemporal positional changes, and (C) Centers of mass of identified individuals are connected through all movie frames to yield individual behavioral trajectories. The tracking performance of our software was evaluated on movies of mobile multi-artificial agents and of 16 bees walking around a circular arena. K-Track accurately traced the trajectories of both artificial agents and bees. In the latter case, K-track outperformed Ctrax, well-known software for tracking multiple animals. To investigate interaction events in detail, we manually identified five interaction categories; ‘crossing’, ‘touching’, ‘passing’, ‘overlapping’ and ‘waiting’, and examined the extent to which the models accurately identified these categories from bee's interactions. All 7 identified failures occurred near a wall at the outer edge of the arena. Finally, K-Track and Ctrax successfully tracked 77 and 60 of 84 recorded interactive events, respectively. K-Track identified multiple bees on a flat surface and tracked their speed changes and encounters with other bees, with good performance. PMID:24465422

      8. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs.

        PubMed

        Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Lim, Jong Deock; Matthews, Neffra A; Breithaupt, Brent H; Houck, Karen J; Gierliński, Gerard D; Surmik, Dawid; Kim, Kyung Soo; Xing, Lida; Kong, Dal Yong; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

        2016-01-01

        Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of "display arenas" or leks, and consistent with "nest scrape display" behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred. PMID:26741567

      9. BioArena system for knowing and understanding the biological world: a review with new experimental results.

        PubMed

        Tyihák, Erno; Móricz, Agnes M; Ott, Peter G; Király-Veghely, Zsuzsa; Kátay, György; Mincsovics, Emil

        2013-01-01

        A simple observation is the basis of the development of BioArena system: according to the first observations during the biological incubation after inoculation there is formaldehyde (HCHO) emission from the chromatographic spots; in this emission process, the level of HCHO molecules decreases time dependently. In fact, the antibiotic effect of an antibiotic-like compound decreases in parallel with the HCHO emission. The investigations demonstrated clearly a unique function and role of endogenous HCHO and its one main reaction product, ozone (O3), in the antiproliferative (e.g., antimicrobial) effect of different molecules with diverse chemical structures. The results in BioArena can be extended for in vivo conditions (e.g., greenhouse experiments), as well. For the pretreatment with different doses of inducers (immunostimulation-inducing molecules) there are always four bioequivalent immunostimulating response ranges (quadruple bioequivalent immune response system) in plants. The inducers (e.g., N-methylated basic amino acids, salicylic acid, cinnamic acid, and trace elements) do not participate directly in the induction of the immunostimulating effect. These new findings support a statement that HCHO and its reaction products (mainly O3), as bioreactive small molecules, are responsible for the immunostimulating activity (in vivo conditions), as well.

      10. Conditioned discrimination of magnetic inclination in a spatial-orientation arena task by homing pigeons (Columba livia).

        PubMed

        Mora, Cordula V; Acerbi, Merissa L; Bingman, Verner P

        2014-12-01

        It has been well established that homing pigeons are able to use the Earth's magnetic field to obtain directional information when returning to their loft and that their magnetic compass is based, at least in part, on the perception of magnetic inclination. Magnetic inclination has also been hypothesized in pigeons and other long-distance navigators, such as sea turtles, to play a role providing positional information as part of a map. Here we developed a behavioral paradigm which allows us to condition homing pigeons to discriminate magnetic inclination cues in a spatial-orientation arena task. Six homing pigeons were required to discriminate in a circular arena between feeders located either in a zone with a close to 0 deg inclination cue or in a zone with a rapidly changing inclination cue (-3 deg to +85 deg when approaching the feeder and +85 deg to -3 deg when moving away from the feeder) to obtain a food reward. The pigeons consistently performed this task above chance level. Control experiments, during which the coils were turned off or the current was running anti-parallel through the double-wound coil system, confirmed that no alternative cues were used by the birds in the discrimination task. The results show that homing pigeons can be conditioned to discriminate differences in magnetic field inclination, enabling investigation into the peripheral and central neural processing of geomagnetic inclination under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:25278470

      11. Not using the obvious: desert ants, Melophorus bagoti, learn local vectors but not beacons in an arena.

        PubMed

        Legge, Eric L G; Spetch, Marcia L; Cheng, Ken

        2010-11-01

        Many ant species travel large distances to find food, sometimes covering distances that are up to one million times their body length. Even when these foraging trips follow convoluted paths, the ants usually find their way back to their nest with precision (Wehner et al. in J Exp Biol 199:129-140, 1996). Ants have been shown to use both compass cues in the sky (pattern of polarised light) and landmarks on Earth to return to their nest. We present two experiments conducted on a solitary foraging ant: Melophorus bagoti in their natural habitat in the central Australian desert. Ants were trained and tested in situ. We tested foragers' ability to exit a circular arena which provided an undifferentiated panorama. Artificial visual landmarks were located near a small exit. On tests in which path integration information was not available, foragers did not use artificial landmarks as beacons. Instead, they oriented in the learned exit direction, whether or not it pointed to the nest. We suggest that M. bagoti foragers learned a context-specific local vector when cued by the context of the circular arena. Our findings present the first evidence that M. bagoti foragers learn context-specific compass directions to chart their initial path home.

      12. Conditioned discrimination of magnetic inclination in a spatial-orientation arena task by homing pigeons (Columba livia).

        PubMed

        Mora, Cordula V; Acerbi, Merissa L; Bingman, Verner P

        2014-12-01

        It has been well established that homing pigeons are able to use the Earth's magnetic field to obtain directional information when returning to their loft and that their magnetic compass is based, at least in part, on the perception of magnetic inclination. Magnetic inclination has also been hypothesized in pigeons and other long-distance navigators, such as sea turtles, to play a role providing positional information as part of a map. Here we developed a behavioral paradigm which allows us to condition homing pigeons to discriminate magnetic inclination cues in a spatial-orientation arena task. Six homing pigeons were required to discriminate in a circular arena between feeders located either in a zone with a close to 0 deg inclination cue or in a zone with a rapidly changing inclination cue (-3 deg to +85 deg when approaching the feeder and +85 deg to -3 deg when moving away from the feeder) to obtain a food reward. The pigeons consistently performed this task above chance level. Control experiments, during which the coils were turned off or the current was running anti-parallel through the double-wound coil system, confirmed that no alternative cues were used by the birds in the discrimination task. The results show that homing pigeons can be conditioned to discriminate differences in magnetic field inclination, enabling investigation into the peripheral and central neural processing of geomagnetic inclination under controlled laboratory conditions.

      13. Analyse des transferts de chaleur et de masse transitoires dans un arena a l'aide de la methode zonale

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Daoud, Ahmed

        Cette these presente les resultats d'une etude sur le mouvement de l'air et les transferts thermiques et massiques dans les arenas en regime transitoire et en 3D. Pour la partie aeraulique, il a ete question de developper un modele base sur la methode zonale qui permet de calculer les debits de l'air (dus a la ventilation et aux gradients de temperature) et de l'humidite entre les differentes zones du batiment et de determiner l'age de l'air dans chacune des zones. Pour la partie thermique, un modele de calcul du rayonnement entre les surfaces interieures du batiment qui a ete couple a TRNSYS afin de calculer sur une base annuelle les charges de chauffage et de refrigeration; ces dernieres tiennent compte des transferts radiatif et convectif, de la chaleur latente due a la condensation de l'humidite sur la glace et du surfacage. Le document presente est constitue de 7 chapitres qui peuvent etre resumes comme suit: Les chapitres 1, 2 et 3 sont consacres respectivement: a l'introduction generale, a la revue bibliographique et a la description du batiment modelise. Le chapitre 4 decrit l'approche developpee et la contribution importante qui y est apportee. Il presente l'utilisation de la methode zonale comme une alternative pratique aux methodes CFD car elle permet de realiser des simulations dynamiques sur une annee avec des temps de simulation tres courts et une precision acceptable. Il s'agit d'une approche intermediaire entre les modeles CFD et les modeles a un noeud d'air (considerant la temperature homogene dans un local). Le chapitre 5 est consacre a la methode de resolution numerique. L'outil de simulation a ete developpe en utilisant l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS: Le type 56 de ce logiciel a ete adopte comme modele energetique tandis que les autres modeles ont ete developpes et programmes en utilisant le logiciel MATLAB. Le chapitre 6 presente les resultats de simulation pour un arena sans faux plafond et avec un faux plafond et les resultats de mesures

      14. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas: position stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports Cardiology.

        PubMed

        Borjesson, Mats; Serratosa, Luis; Carre, Francois; Corrado, Domenico; Drezner, Jonathan; Dugmore, Dorian L; Heidbuchel, Hein H; Mellwig, Klaus-Peter; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole M; Papadakis, Michael; Rasmusen, Hanne; Sharma, Sanjay; Solberg, Erik E; van Buuren, Frank; Pelliccia, Antonio

        2011-09-01

        Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full implementation of the chain of survival. PMID:21672932

      15. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas: position stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports Cardiology.

        PubMed

        Borjesson, Mats; Serratosa, Luis; Carre, Francois; Corrado, Domenico; Drezner, Jonathan; Dugmore, Dorian L; Heidbuchel, Hein H; Mellwig, Klaus-Peter; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole M; Papadakis, Michael; Rasmusen, Hanne; Sharma, Sanjay; Solberg, Erik E; van Buuren, Frank; Pelliccia, Antonio

        2011-09-01

        Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full implementation of the chain of survival.

      16. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

        PubMed Central

        Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

        2012-01-01

        Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

      17. Comment [on “Science in the political arena: Taking fire from the right and the left”

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Darzi, Mike

        The points made in “Science in the Political Arena: Taking Fire From the Right and the Left” [Eos, Nov. 21, 1995, p. 480] are well taken. However, I disagree strongly with the implication that assaults on science from the right and left are of equal gravity. While the assault from the left disrupts certain scientific projects, the assault from the right, I believe, risks America's preeminence in science and the development of significant benefits to society. Although environmentalists and animal-rights activists have certainly impeded research in some cases, their activism has also spurred many other fields of research including global change and biodiversity, and encouraged the development of fresh water supplies and alternative fuel sources.

      18. Cancer immunotherapy and immune-related response assessment: The role of radiologists in the new arena of cancer treatment.

        PubMed

        Nishino, Mizuki; Tirumani, Sree H; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Hodi, F Stephen

        2015-07-01

        The recent advances in the clinical application of anti-cancer immunotherapeutic agents have opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapy is associated with a variety of important radiographic features in the assessments of tumor response and immune-related adverse events, which calls for radiologists' awareness and in-depth knowledge on the topic. This article will provide the state-of-the art review and perspectives of cancer immunotherapy, including its molecular mechanisms, the strategies for immune-related response assessment on imaging and their pitfalls, and the emerging knowledge of radiologic manifestations of immune-related adverse events. The cutting edge clinical and radiologic investigations are presented to provide future directions.

      19. [Consultations and "juntas" of physicians as an arena for doctrinal discussions in the Novator Movement (1687-1725)].

        PubMed

        Pardo Tomás, José; Martínez Vidal, Alvar

        2002-01-01

        The consultations (consultas) and meetings (juntas) of physicians represented an area of prime importance for both medical practice and doctrinal discussions. The analysis of manuscript sources -- the private correspondence of a doctor -- rarely used in this period, reveals the reality of medical practice more accurately than do doctrinal or normative texts. The difference between "consulas" and "juntas" depended on the person who took the initiative. "Consulas" arose from the practical difficulty of the physician confronted with a case which he decided to submit to the judgement of other colleagues, whose experience and prestige were greater. On the other hand the "juntas" were the initiative of the patient. In this latter case there were many different factors: institutional conflicts, professional expectations and rivalries. Nevertheless, the opinions of the patients and their circle of acquaintances were also represented. Finally, this was the arena for doctrinal discussions about the human body and disease.

      20. DC-8 being pushed out of the Arena Arctica hangar in Kiruna, Sweden for the second flight of the SAG

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        2000-01-01

        This photo shows NASA's DC-8 being pushed out of the Arena Arctica hangar in Kiruna, Sweden for the second flight of the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). One of Dryden's high-flying ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft, a civilian variant of Lockheed's U-2, and another NASA flying laboratory, Dryden's DC-8, were based north of the Arctic Circle in Kiruna, Sweden during the winter of 2000 to study ozone depletion as part of SOLVE. A large hangar built especially for research, 'Arena Arctica' housed the instrumented aircraft and the scientists. Scientists observed unusually low levels of ozone over the Arctic during recent winters, raising concerns that ozone depletion there could become more widespread as in the Antarctic ozone hole. The NASA-sponsored international mission took place between November 1999 and March 2000 and was divided into three phases. The DC-8 was involved in all three phases returning to Dryden between each phase. The ER-2 flew science collection flights between January and March, remaining in Sweden from Jan. 9 through March 16. 'The collaborative campaign will provide an immense new body of information about the Arctic stratosphere,' said program scientist Dr. Michael Kurylo, NASA Headquarters. 'Our understanding of the Earth's ozone will be greatly enhanced by this research.' NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

      1. Effects of water contamination on site selection by amphibians: experiences from an arena approach with European frogs and newts.

        PubMed

        Wagner, Norman; Lötters, Stefan

        2013-07-01

        Pesticide residues in breeding ponds can cause avoidance by at least some amphibian species. So far, outdoor experiments have been performed only with artificial pools in areas where the focus species usually occur and new colonization has been observed. Results of this kind of study are potentially influenced by natural disturbances and therefore are of limited comparability. We used an easily manufactured and standardizable arena approach, in which animals in reproductive condition for some hours had a choice among pools with different concentrations of a contaminant. Because there has been much debate on the potential environmental impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides, we investigated the impact of glyphosate isopropylamine salt (GLY-IS), Roundup LB PLUS (RU-LB-PLUS), and glyphosate's main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on individual residence time in water. The following European amphibian species were tested: Common frog (Rana temporaria), Palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus), and Alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris). The residence time in water was not significantly affected by concentrations below or slightly above the European Environmental Quality Standards for AMPA or the German "worst-case" expected environmental concentrations for GLY-IS and RU-LB-PLUS. Occasionally, microclimatic cofactors (nightly minimum ground temperature, water temperature) apparently influenced the residence time. The major drawback of such quick behavior studies is that results can only be transferred to perception and avoidance of contaminated water but not easily to site selection by amphibians. For example, testing oviposition site selection requires more natural water bodies and more time. Hence, to develop a standard procedure in risk assessment, an intermediate design between an arena approach, as presented here, and previously performed field studies should be tested.

      2. Curriculum Innovation in Portugal: The "Area Escola"--An Arena for Cross-Curricular Activities and Curriculum Development. Innodata Monographs 5.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Amaro, Gertrudes

        This monograph provides a description of the curricular area "Area-Escola" (A-E), in the context of an innovative curriculum development process, presenting the history, aims, and guidelines of this curricular area and analyzing some of the results of qualitative and quantitative studies on its impact. A-E is seen as an emerging school arena for…

      3. The Arena System: a novel shared touch-panel apparatus for the study of chimpanzee social interaction and cognition.

        PubMed

        Martin, Christopher Flynn; Biro, Dora; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

        2014-09-01

        We report on the development of a novel shared touch-panel apparatus for examining a diverse range of topics in great ape social cognition and interaction. Our apparatus-named the Arena System-is composed of a single multitouch monitor that spans across two separate testing booths, so that individuals situated in each booth have tactile access to half of the monitor and visual access to the whole monitor. Additional components of the system include a smart-film barrier able to restrict visual access between the booths, as well as two automated feeding devices that dispense food rewards to the subjects. The touch-panel, smart-film, and feeders are controlled by a PC that is also responsible for running the experimental tasks. We present data from a pilot behavioral game theory study with two chimpanzees in order to illustrate the efficacy of our method, and we suggest applications for a range of topics including animal social learning, coordination, and behavioral economics. The system enables fully automated experimental procedures, which means that no human participation is needed to run the tasks. The novel use of a touch-panel in a social setting allows for a finer degree of data resolution than do the traditional experimental apparatuses used in prior studies on great ape social interaction.

      4. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs

        PubMed Central

        Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Deock Lim, Jong; Matthews, Neffra A.; Breithaupt, Brent H.; Houck, Karen J.; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Surmik, Dawid; Soo Kim, Kyung; Xing, Lida; Yong Kong, Dal; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

        2016-01-01

        Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of “display arenas” or leks, and consistent with “nest scrape display” behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred. PMID:26741567

      5. Maternal presence and rearing condition affect responses to a live predator in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae).

        PubMed

        Yoerg, S I; Shier, D M

        1997-12-01

        Experiment 1 compared the responses of wild-caught adult and captive-born adult and juvenile kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae) to a live snake. Wild-caught adult rats were less active and monitored the snake more than during a control condition; captive-born juvenile rats did not behave differently during snake and control tests. Snake-naive adult rats behaved more like the wild-caught adult rats, but not on all measures. In Experiment 2, pups were tested at 25 and 50 days of age in 4 conditions: no-snake control, alone with the snake, with a sibling and the snake, and with the mother and the snake. Pups did not behave differently during control and snake tests, but during tests with the mother, pups faced the snake less and followed the mother. Younger pups were more often near the mother than a sibling and followed the mother more when the snake was present. Development of defensive behavior may depend on both predator experience and maternal influence.

      6. Genome sequence of the Litoreibacter arenae type strain (DSM 19593T), a member of the Roseobacter clade isolated from sea sand

        PubMed Central

        Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Petersen, Jörn; Gronow, Sabine; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

        2013-01-01

        Litoreibacter arenae Kim et al. 2012 is a member of the genomically well-characterized Rhodobacteraceae clade within the Roseobacter clade. Representatives of this clade are known to be metabolically versatile and involved in marine carbon-producing and biogeochemical processes. They form a physiologically heterogeneous group of Alphaproteobacteria and were mostly found in coastal or polar waters, especially in symbiosis with algae, in microbial mats, in sediments or together with invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we describe the features of L. arenae DSM 19593T, including novel aspects of its phenotype, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 3,690,113 bp long genome consists of 17 scaffolds with 3,601 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes. This genome was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). PMID:24501650

      7. Arena 2005 Conference Summary

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Learned, John G.

        This meeting, as the reader sees in the preceding written contributions, represented an exciting new step in a budding revolution in extremely high energy cosmic ray and neutrino physics. The focus upon acoustic and radio detection techniques, reveals a rapidly expanding interest and real progress. Most of the basic ideas have been known for many years, but it is only now that they are at last beginning to be exploited. The reasons for this are several, ranging from the advance of technology to scientific focus of the community. The former comes largely from electronics and communications technology progress. The latter comes about due to the "neutrino revolution" and the campaign to understand the highest energy (GZK) cosmic rays. At least 25 projects are in various stages of dreaming through construction. Positive detections would seem not far in the future.

      8. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

        PubMed Central

        Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

        2016-01-01

        RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada.

      9. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

        PubMed Central

        Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

        2016-01-01

        RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

      10. Schoolwide Programs: Parents' Guide & Capacity-Building Materials = Programas Schoolwide: Una Guia para Padres y Materias de Capacitacion.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

        The reauthorization of Title I (Improving America's Schools Act--IASA) made the Schoolwide Program (Schoolwide) a major strategy for schools with high poverty rates and stressed the importance of parent involvement. This guide was developed to provide professional development and parent education on Schoolwide implementation in California. The…

      11. Conexiones: Guia para Padres y Estudiantes. Directorio de Servicios y Programas de Educacion Especial de las Escuelas Publicas de Boston.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Celuzza, Paul W., Ed.; Clayton, Shelley Bakst, Ed.

        Intended for handicapped students and their parents, the booklet presents a guide in Spanish to special education services in the Boston public schools. Chapter 766, the Massachusetts law guaranteeing free appropriate public education to every child, is focused on. Section 1 discusses such evaluation aspects as early childhood screening, referral,…

      12. Organizando Comites Consejeros de Padres Para Programas de Educacion Migrante (Organizing Parent Advisory Committees for Migrant Education Programs).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Gonzalez, Ramon

        In order to help parents and community members participate more effectively and better understand the importance of their involvement in the planning and administration of migrant education programs in Oregon, the English-Spanish booklet suggests general procedures for organizing, leading, and training Parent Advisory Committees (PACs), required…

      13. The role of rat posterior parietal cortex in coordinating spatial representations during place avoidance in dissociated reference frames on a continuously rotating arena (Carousel).

        PubMed

        Svoboda, Jan; Telensky, Petr; Blahna, Karel; Vodicka, Martin; Stuchlik, Ales

        2015-10-01

        On the Carousel maze, rats are trained to avoid a sector of a circular rotating arena, punishable by a mild electric foot-shock. In the room frame (RF) variant, the punishable sector remains stable relative to the room, while in the arena frame (AF) version, the sector rotates with the arena. The rats therefore need to disregard local olfactory, tactile and self-motion cues in RF condition and distal extra-maze landmarks in the AF task. In both primates and rodents, the coordination of various spatial reference frames is thought to depend on the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We have previously shown that PPC-lesioned rats can solve both variants of the Carousel avoidance task. Here we aimed to determine the effects of bilateral thermocoagulation lesion of the PPC in Long-Evans rats on the ability to transition between multiple spatial strategies. The rats were first trained in five sessions in one condition and then another five sessions in the other. The following training schemes were used: RF to AF, RF to RF reversal (sector on the opposite side), and AF to RF. We found a PPC lesion-associated impairment in the transition from the AF to RF task, but not vice versa. Furthermore, PPC lesion impaired performance in RF reversal. In accordance to the literature, we also found an impairment in navigation guided by intra-maze visuospatial cues, but not by extra-maze cues in the water maze. Therefore, the PPC lesion-induced impairment is neither specific to distant cues nor to allocentric processing. Our results thus indicate a role of the PPC in the flexibility in spatial behaviors guided by visual orientation cues. PMID:25986405

      14. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

        PubMed Central

        Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Sun, Christina J.; Andrade, Mario; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

        2016-01-01

        Resumen Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías. Llevamos a cabo 8 grupos focales con hombres gay, bisexuales y personas transgénero y entrevistas en profundidad con líderes comunitarios. Utilizamos el Método Comparativo Constante para analizar las transcripciones. Identificamos 24 factores que influyen en la salud sexual y 16 características de programas para reducir el riesgo de VIH/ITS en estas poblaciones. La identificación de factores de conductas sexuales de riesgo y de características de programas potencialmente efectivos ofrece gran potencial para desarrollar intervenciones que contribuyan a reducir el riesgo de infección por VIH/ITS en estas minorías en Guatemala. PMID:27494000

      15. Para-aortic lymphocyst.

        PubMed

        Helmkamp, B F; Krebs, H B; Isikoff, M B; Poliakoff, S R; Averette, H E

        1980-10-15

        Although numerous articles regarding the etiology, incidence, complications, and management of pelvic lymphocysts have been published in the American literature since 1958, there has been no mention of para-aortic lymphocyst as a complication of para-aortic node dissection. Two recent cases of symptomatic para-aortic lymphocyst have prompted a review of our para-aortic node dissection technique when this procedure is not combined with a more extensive pelvic lymphadenectomy. Our modification in technique is to use retroperitoneal para-aortic drainage by constant pressure-controlled suction following closure of the posterior parietal peritoneum, and the results in our first 15 patients are presented. There were no complications related to the drainage technique. Abdominal ultrasound and intravenous urography have proved to be excellent diagnostic tools in the initial evaluation and subsequent follow-up of para-aortic lymphocytes.

      16. The Typical Flight Performance of Blowflies: Measuring the Normal Performance Envelope of Calliphora vicina Using a Novel Corner-Cube Arena

        PubMed Central

        Bomphrey, Richard J.; Walker, Simon M.; Taylor, Graham K.

        2009-01-01

        Despite a wealth of evidence demonstrating extraordinary maximal performance, little is known about the routine flight performance of insects. We present a set of techniques for benchmarking performance characteristics of insects in free flight, demonstrated using a model species, and comment on the significance of the performance observed. Free-flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were filmed inside a novel mirrored arena comprising a large (1.6 m1.6 m1.6 m) corner-cube reflector using a single high-speed digital video camera (250 or 500 fps). This arrangement permitted accurate reconstruction of the flies' 3-dimensional trajectories without the need for synchronisation hardware, by virtue of the multiple reflections of a subject within the arena. Image sequences were analysed using custom-written automated tracking software, and processed using a self-calibrating bundle adjustment procedure to determine the subject's instantaneous 3-dimensional position. We illustrate our method by using these trajectory data to benchmark the routine flight performance envelope of our flies. Flight speeds were most commonly observed between 1.2 ms−1 and 2.3 ms−1, with a maximum of 2.5 ms−1. Our flies tended to dive faster than they climbed, with a maximum descent rate (−2.4 ms−1) almost double the maximum climb rate (1.2 ms−1). Modal turn rate was around 240°s−1, with maximal rates in excess of 1700°s−1. We used the maximal flight performance we observed during normal flight to construct notional physical limits on the blowfly flight envelope, and used the distribution of observations within that notional envelope to postulate behavioural preferences or physiological and anatomical constraints. The flight trajectories we recorded were never steady: rather they were constantly accelerating or decelerating, with maximum tangential accelerations and maximum centripetal accelerations on the order of 3 g. PMID:19924228

      17. Morphology and growth history of Delgada Fan: implications for the Neogene evolution of Point Arena Basin and the Mendocino Triple Junction

        USGS Publications Warehouse

        Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.; Gardner, J.V.; McCulloch, D.S.; Masson, D.

        1989-01-01

        Long-range side scan (GLORIA) sonographs and seismic reflection data acquired during a survey of the western US Exclusive Economic Zone in 1984, coupled with information from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites, provide new insights into the growth and evolution of the Delgada Fan. Construction of the fan commenced in the latest Miocene (~6 Ma) following the filling of the Neogene Point Arena Basin. The large size of the fan is incompatible with the small present-day supply of sediment to the canyon system. The GLORIA data show the Delgada Fan to be a hybrid-type fan, exhibiting characteristics of both elongate and radial fans. The morphology and volume of the fan, along with evidence for a decline in accumulation rates on the lower fan during the Quaternary period, suggest that the fan experienced an early growth phase (latest Miocene and Pliocene) characterized by relatively rapid progradation of elongate fan lobes followed by a period (Quaternary) of slower growth that has featured a shift of depocenters to sites closer to the canyons and a transition to distributary channels bordered by less prominent levees and overbank deposits. We examine the growth of Delgada Fan in relation to the Neogene evolution of the North American-Pacific plate boundary using a series of paleogeographic reconstructions based on recently published time displacement histories of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ), the San Andreas fault (SAF), and the Pacific plate, upon which the fan rests. The time displacement curves for the SAF and the MTJ suggest that the MTJ and Mendocino Fracture Zone overtook and passed Point Arena Basin at about 10 Ma when the basin lay immediately southwest of the present San Francisco Bay area. We suggest that the MTJ joined the SAF at approximately that time and location, thus making the SAF the master fault in the transform system. -from Authors

      18. MK-801 Impairs Cognitive Coordination on a Rotating Arena (Carousel) and Contextual Specificity of Hippocampal Immediate-Early Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Psychosis.

        PubMed

        Kubík, Stěpán; Buchtová, Helena; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

        2014-01-01

        Flexible behavior in dynamic, real-world environments requires more than static spatial learning and memory. Discordant and unstable cues must be organized in coherent subsets to give rise to meaningful spatial representations. We model this form of cognitive coordination on a rotating arena - Carousel where arena- and room-bound spatial cues are dissociated. Hippocampal neuronal ensemble activity can repeatedly switch between multiple representations of such an environment. Injection of tetrodotoxin into one hippocampus prevents cognitive coordination during avoidance of a stationary room-defined place on the Carousel and increases coactivity of previously unrelated neurons in the uninjected hippocampus. Place avoidance on the Carousel is impaired after systemic administration of non-competitive NMDAr blockers (MK-801) used to model schizophrenia in animals and people. We tested if this effect is due to cognitive disorganization or other effect of NMDAr antagonism such as hyperlocomotion, spatial memory impairment, or general learning deficit. We also examined if the same dose of MK-801 alters patterns of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression in the hippocampus. IEG expression is triggered in neuronal nuclei in a context-specific manner after behavioral exploration and it is used to map activity in neuronal populations. IEG expression is critical for maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We show that the same dose of MK-801 that impairs spatial coordination of rats on the Carousel also eliminates contextual specificity of IEG expression in hippocampal CA1 ensembles. This effect is due to increased similarity between ensembles activated in different environments, consistent with the idea that it is caused by increased coactivity between neurons, which did not previously fire together. Our data support the proposition of the Hypersynchrony theory that cognitive disorganization in psychosis is due to increased coactivity between unrelated

      19. MK-801 Impairs Cognitive Coordination on a Rotating Arena (Carousel) and Contextual Specificity of Hippocampal Immediate-Early Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Psychosis

        PubMed Central

        Kubík, Štěpán; Buchtová, Helena; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

        2014-01-01

        Flexible behavior in dynamic, real-world environments requires more than static spatial learning and memory. Discordant and unstable cues must be organized in coherent subsets to give rise to meaningful spatial representations. We model this form of cognitive coordination on a rotating arena – Carousel where arena- and room-bound spatial cues are dissociated. Hippocampal neuronal ensemble activity can repeatedly switch between multiple representations of such an environment. Injection of tetrodotoxin into one hippocampus prevents cognitive coordination during avoidance of a stationary room-defined place on the Carousel and increases coactivity of previously unrelated neurons in the uninjected hippocampus. Place avoidance on the Carousel is impaired after systemic administration of non-competitive NMDAr blockers (MK-801) used to model schizophrenia in animals and people. We tested if this effect is due to cognitive disorganization or other effect of NMDAr antagonism such as hyperlocomotion, spatial memory impairment, or general learning deficit. We also examined if the same dose of MK-801 alters patterns of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression in the hippocampus. IEG expression is triggered in neuronal nuclei in a context-specific manner after behavioral exploration and it is used to map activity in neuronal populations. IEG expression is critical for maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We show that the same dose of MK-801 that impairs spatial coordination of rats on the Carousel also eliminates contextual specificity of IEG expression in hippocampal CA1 ensembles. This effect is due to increased similarity between ensembles activated in different environments, consistent with the idea that it is caused by increased coactivity between neurons, which did not previously fire together. Our data support the proposition of the Hypersynchrony theory that cognitive disorganization in psychosis is due to increased coactivity between unrelated

      20. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

        PubMed

        Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

        2012-01-01

        El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar.

      1. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

        PubMed

        Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

        2012-01-01

        El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

      2. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

        PubMed Central

        Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

        2012-01-01

        El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

      3. Neuroethological validation of an experimental apparatus to evaluate oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours: Comparison between the polygonal arena with a burrow and the circular enclosure of an open-field test.

        PubMed

        Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Fisher, Isaac René; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

        2016-02-01

        Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour. On the other hand, explosive escape responses interspersed with horizontal jumps and freezing were observed after the blockade of GABAA receptors on dPAG neurons. In the polygonal arena apparatus, the escape response produced by GABAergic inhibition of DMH and PH neurons was directed towards the burrow. In contrast, the blockade of GABAA receptors in dPAG evoked non-oriented escape behaviour characterised by vigorous running and horizontal jumps in the arena. Our findings support the hypothesis that the hypothalamic nuclei organise oriented escape behavioural responses whereas non-oriented escape is elaborated by dPAG neurons. Additionally, the polygonal arena with a burrow made it easy to discriminate and characterise these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses. In this sense, the polygonal arena with a burrow can be considered a good methodological tool to discriminate between these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses and is very useful as a new experimental animal model of panic attacks. PMID:26545831

      4. Neuroethological validation of an experimental apparatus to evaluate oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours: Comparison between the polygonal arena with a burrow and the circular enclosure of an open-field test.

        PubMed

        Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Fisher, Isaac René; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

        2016-02-01

        Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour. On the other hand, explosive escape responses interspersed with horizontal jumps and freezing were observed after the blockade of GABAA receptors on dPAG neurons. In the polygonal arena apparatus, the escape response produced by GABAergic inhibition of DMH and PH neurons was directed towards the burrow. In contrast, the blockade of GABAA receptors in dPAG evoked non-oriented escape behaviour characterised by vigorous running and horizontal jumps in the arena. Our findings support the hypothesis that the hypothalamic nuclei organise oriented escape behavioural responses whereas non-oriented escape is elaborated by dPAG neurons. Additionally, the polygonal arena with a burrow made it easy to discriminate and characterise these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses. In this sense, the polygonal arena with a burrow can be considered a good methodological tool to discriminate between these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses and is very useful as a new experimental animal model of panic attacks.

      5. Tiempo para un cambio

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Woltjer, L.

        1987-06-01

        En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

      6. ER-2 #809 and DC-8 in Arena Arctica hangar in Kiruna, Sweden prior to the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Va

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        2000-01-01

        NASA ER-2 # 809 and its DC-8 shown in Arena Arctica before the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). The two airborne science platforms were based north of the Arctic Circle in Kiruna, Sweden, during the winter of 2000 to study ozone depletion as part of SOLVE. A large hangar built especially for research, 'Arena Arctica' housed the instrumented aircraft and the scientists. Scientists have observed unusually low levels of ozone over the Arctic during recent winters, raising concerns that ozone depletion there could become more widespread as in the Antarctic ozone hole. The NASA-sponsored international mission took place between November 1999 and March 2000 and was divided into three phases. The DC-8 was involved in all three phases returning to Dryden between each phase. The ER-2 flew sample collection flights between January and March, remaining in Sweden from Jan. 9 through March 16. 'The collaborative campaign will provide an immense new body of information about the Arctic stratosphere,' said program scientist Dr. Michael Kurylo, NASA Headquarters. 'Our understanding of the Earth's ozone will be greatly enhanced by this research.' ER-2s bearing tail numbers 806 and 809 are used as airborne science platforms by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, an ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The

      7. Healthy Start Programa Madrina: A Promotora Home Visiting Outreach and Education Program to Improve Perinatal Health among Latina Pregnant Women

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bill, Debra E.; Hock-Long, Linda; Mesure, Maryann; Bryer, Pamela; Zambrano, Neydary

        2009-01-01

        The purpose of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of Healthy Start Programa Madrina (HSPM), a home visiting promotora outreach and education program for Latina pregnant women and to present the 10-year findings of the program (1996-2005). Perinatal health disparities continue to persist among low-income…

      8. [Arson and (para-) suicide].

        PubMed

        Lange, E; Kirsch, M

        1988-11-01

        There have been forensic-psychiatric observations from 1963 to 1983 concerning the offenders responsibility in case of deliberate arson with 12 out of 147 suits being closely related to (para-)suicide. According the variety of relations we distinguish between fire as pure means of suicide, fire used to take along the living space or people, suicide committed in consequence of arson, furthermore arson as a symbolic suicide, and finally acting alternately with both arson as well as parasuicide.

      9. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

        PubMed

        Reimão, Sandra

        2013-11-30

        Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate.

      10. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

        PubMed

        Reimão, Sandra

        2013-11-30

        Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate. PMID:24346208

      11. Assessment of mouse anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box and open-field arena: role of equipment and procedure.

        PubMed

        Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele

        2014-06-22

        Light-dark box and open field are conventional tests for assessment of anxiety-like behavior in the laboratory mice, based on approach-avoidance conflict. However, except the basic principles, variations in the equipment and procedures are very common. Therefore, contribution of certain methodological issues in different settings was investigated. Three inbred strains (C57BL/6, 129/Sv, DBA/2) and one outbred stock (ICR) of mice were used in the experiments. An effect of initial placement of mice either in the light or dark compartment was studied in the light-dark test. Moreover, two tracking systems were applied - position of the animals was detected either by infrared sensors in square box (1/2 dark) or by videotracking in rectangular box (1/3 dark). Both approaches revealed robust and consistent strain differences in the exploratory behavior. In general, C57BL/6 and ICR mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior as compared to 129/Sv and DBA/2 strains. However, the latter two strains differed markedly in their behavior. DBA/2 mice displayed high avoidance of the light compartment accompanied by thigmotaxis, whereas the hypoactive 129 mice spent a significant proportion of time in risk-assessment behavior at the opening between two compartments. Starting from the light side increased the time spent in the light compartment and reduced the latency to the first transition. In the open field arena, black floor promoted exploratory behavior - increased time and distance in the center and increased rearing compared to white floor. In conclusion, modifications of the apparatus and procedure had significant effects on approach-avoidance behavior in general whereas the strain rankings remained unaffected.

      12. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

        Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

      13. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Surloff, Andrew

        2008-01-01

        One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

      14. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

        USGS Publications Warehouse

        Bennett, Gordon D.

        1987-01-01

        Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

      15. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

        Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

      16. Improving the Flash Flood Frequency Analysis using dendrogeomorphological evidences in the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Spanish Central System)

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Bodoque, J. M.

        2009-04-01

        The flash flood frequency analysis in mountainous catchments presents specific scientific challenges. One of the challenges is the relevant gradient in precipitation intensity with altitude. Another challenge is the lack of information from rainfall or discharge gauge stations or from documentary sources. Dendrogeomorphology studies the response in the wood growth pattern and the botanical signs on the trees affected by geomorphological processes. With regard to the flood frequency, the dendrogeomorphological evidences bring forward valuable infomation about single past events (with annual or even seasonal precision) and their occurrence periodicity. The main macro-evidence that we can find in the tree trunk is a stem scar originated by a wound in the bark of the tree. When the tree grows, this wound remains reflected in the tree ring sequence. The best way to analyze the tree ring sequence is by using a complete section of the trunk, this couldn't be possible unless the tree is cut down. Due to the unfeasibility of cutting down the trees, in Dendrogeomorphology is enough to obtain an increment core, using a Pressler borer. Nevertheless, this study has been based on complete stem sections analysis facilitated for the felling works in the riverine vegetation in the Arenal River, carried out by the Tagus River Water Authority. These felling works have allowed us to obtain sections and to analyze the stump of the tree in situ. On this way, 100 samples of Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus angustifolia located by the river along the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Ávila, northern slopes of the Gredos Mountain Range in the Spanish Central System) have been analyzed. This village is known for its historical problems of flood during extreme events. A meticulous fieldwork has been carried out. Every sample was analyzed locating its geomorphological position, the distance to the riverbed and the height of the stump in which the evidences were observed. Using a

      17. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Department of Education, Washington, DC.

        This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

      18. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

        Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

      19. Guia Legal para Ciudadanos Envejeciente: Leyes y Programas Afectando los Ciudadanos Envejeciente de Kansas. (Legal Guide for Senior Citizens: Laws and Programs Affecting Kansas Senior Citizens).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hollinger, Judith A.

        This booklet, translated into Spanish, is intended to inform (not advise) older Kansans about eligibility requirements and benefits provided by state and federal programs. Financial assistance programs discussed are Social Security, railroad retirements, veterans' benefits, unrestricted general assistance, Employee Retirement Income Security Act,…

      20. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Guia Para El Maestro (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Teacher's Guide).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

        Instructions for use of "Escaparate," the third of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by Edgewood School District's Bilingual Program, San Antonio, Texas, are given in this teacher guide. Originally intended for grades four through six, the program may be used from fourth grade to secondary school in Spanish reading and…

      1. Preguntas Y Respuestas, Programa para Ninos Migratorios Bajo el Titulo I de ESEA. 1971. (Questions and Answers, Program for Migrant Children Under ESEA Title I. 1971).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Programs for the Disadvantaged.

        Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 is specifically designed to help educationally deprived children. It was amended in 1966 to include the children of migratory agricultural workers. Today more than 235,000 migrant children receive educational and special supplementary services under Title I. Answers to some of the…

      2. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Honig, Alice Sterling

        Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

      3. Creacion de un programa de ensenanza de espanol como segunda lengua para ninos de edad prescolar (Creating a Spanish as a Second Language Program for Preschool Children).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Rosenbusch, Marcia H.

        1987-01-01

        Presents suggestions for planning a Spanish as a second language program for preschool children. The rationale and means of implementing the program are considered, and guidelines for teaching vocabulary are discussed. A variety of classroom activities are also presented. (TR)

      4. Finding an Appropriate Preschool for Your Child with Special Needs = Como Encontrar un Programa Pre-escolar para su nino con desabilidades.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bernstein, Sandra; Wonderlick, Mary; Madden, Drina

        This booklet, with English and Spanish versions, provides a step-by-step procedure to help families find an appropriate preschool program in the community for their child with disabilities. The booklet lists six steps for locating a program: (1) decide what kind of program is wanted for the child; (2) complete included form outlining child's needs…

      5. Personal de enfermería asume diversas funciones con expansión de programas de gestión para pacientes

        Cancer.gov

        Artículo sobre los profesionales de enfermería oncológica que ayudan a los pacientes durante todas las etapas de la atención oncológica, desde los exámenes de detección y el diagnóstico, hasta el tratamiento y la supervivencia.

      6. Raza de Tesoros. Programa de Lectura y Ensenanza del Lenguaje, Unidad B. Guia para el Maestro (Race of Treasures. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit B. Teacher's Guide).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

        This is the teacher's guide accompanying a reader and a workbook that are part of an ungraded language arts and reading program that can be used in classes from upper elementary through high school. The program is designed around reading selections which present aspects of history, culture, and present-day experiences of special relevance to the…

      7. Comment on "The Late Devonian Variscan suture of the Iberian Massif: A correlation of high-pressure belts in NW and SW Iberia. Tectonophysics 654, 96-100" by R. Fernández and R. Arenas

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Simancas, J. F.; Azor, A.; Martínez Poyatos, D. J.; Expósito, I.; Pérez-Cáceres, I.; González Lodeiro, F.

        2016-01-01

        A vast Variscan nappe spreading from the Allochthonous Complexes of NW Iberia to the Ossa-Morena Zone in SW Iberia has been proposed by Díez Fernández and Arenas (2015), based on the correlation of different outcrops of high-pressure and MORB-type rocks. This interpretation conflicts with well-known geological and geophysical data regarding the SW Iberian Variscides, which point to: i) major kinematic and geometric inconsistencies come up when interpreting the Ossa-Morena Zone as an allochthonous unit, ii) the outcrops of high-pressure and MORB-type rocks belong to two different sutures rather than a single one, and iii) SW Iberia is characterized by transpressional deformation related to a very oblique left-lateral continental collision, while NW Iberia features a rather frontal collision.

      8. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

        2003-08-01

        Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

      9. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

        NASA Video Gallery

        El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

      10. El Odio Se Cura: Un Programa Nacional para la Prevencion de los Crimenes de Odio para las Escuelas Intermedias (Healing the Hate: A National Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        McLaughlin, Karen A.; Brilliant, Kelly J.

        Designed for use in middle schools and youth organizations, this curriculum, in Spanish, deals with the extent of hate crime in the United States and presents strategies for reducing hate crimes among our youth. This flexible nine-unit curriculum is based on the principles that violence and prejudice are learned and therefore preventable, and that…

      11. Presentaciones escolares. Serie de programas para conmemorar acontecimientos de valor cultural para el mexico americano (School Assembly Presentations. Series of Programs to Commemorate Events of Cultural Value to the Mexican American).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Villarreal, Abelardo; And Others

        This material consists of a series of cultural presentations designed for elementary school assemblies or special programs. The activities are intended to strengthen Mexican-American children's awareness of their cultural heritage. Program scripts, poems, songs, historical narratives and skits are included to illustrate and celebrate Mexican and…

      12. Radio Nutricion: A Program for Nutrition Education with the Hispanic Community. Service Provider's Guide = Radio Nutricion: Un Programa de Educacion para la Nutricion para la Comunidad Hispana. Guia del Proveeidor de Servicios.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Association of Farmworker Opportunity Program, Arlington, VA.

        The set of materials was designed to provide nutrition instruction to Spanish-speaking farm workers using radio broadcasts. It includes audiocassette tapes of four novellas (mini-dramas) on nutrition-related topics (diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure, pregnancy, smart shopping), talk shows on the same topics, a public service…

      13. Pautas para Programas de Asesoramiento Gestional para Microempresas (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-27.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Vaughan, Gary L.

        Written in Spanish, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of…

      14. Mapping the Rural Adolescent Girls' Participation in Residential Non-Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan, India

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Sharma, Shilpa

        2002-01-01

        The present study, "Mapping Rural Adolescent Girl's Participation in Residential Non- Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan", was an attempt to understand the dimensions of rural adolescent girls' participation in the "Balika Shivir" Program. It is a six month residential non-formal education program being organized by…

      15. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

        2003-08-01

        Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

      16. Chemical properties of a para-benzyne.

        PubMed

        Amegayibor, F Sedinam; Nash, John J; Lee, Anna S; Thoen, Jason; Petzold, Christopher J; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

        2002-10-16

        5,8-Didehydroisoquinolinium ion, a para benzyne analogue, was generated in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, and its reactivity toward various neutral reagents was examined. A direct comparison of the reaction kinetics of the para benzyne, a meta isomer, and analogous monoradicals, indicates that the para benzyne is a poorer electrophile but a more reactive radical than its meta isomer.

      17. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

        2003-08-01

        O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

      18. Inclusion of Visually Impaired in the School Programme Scheduled Visit of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST). (Breton Title: Inclusão de Deficientes Visuais no Programa de Visita Escolar Programada do Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST).) Inclusión de Discapacitados Visuales en el Programa Escolar Programado del Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST)

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        de Oliveira Gonçalves, Carla; da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

        2013-07-01

        Inclusive Education in Brazil, contemplated in the 1988 Constitution and in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (9.394/96) highlights the importance and urgency of promoting inclusive education as a formative element of nationality. Inclusive Education refers to all people who are struggling in school. Inclusion should be in all educational institutions (formal and informal). Our goal in the graduation final task was to report the experience of mediation to visually impaired students of the Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) at the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), and also suggest some modifications and present new proposals for the School Visit Program (VEP) through a specially constructed apparatus, where the sky can be sensed near the latitude of Rio de Janeiro. A educação inclusiva no Brasil, contemplada na Constituição de 1988 e a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (9.394/96), destaca a importância e urgência de se promover a inclusão escolar como elemento formador da nacionalidade. A educação inclusiva diz respeito a todas as pessoas que enfrentam dificuldades na escola. A inclusão deve estar em todas as instituições educacionais (formais e não formais). Nosso objetivo, no trabalho de final de curso de licenciatura, foi apresentar o relato de experiência de mediação aos alunos deficientes visuais do Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), as modificações e novas propostas para o Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) através de um aparelho especialmente construído onde se pode perceber o céu na latitude próxima a do Rio de Janeiro. La educación inclusiva en el Brasil, contemplada en la Constitución de 1988 y en la Ley de Directrices y Bases de la Educación Nacional (9.394/96), destaca la importancia y la urgencia de promover la inclusión escolar como elemento formador de la nacionalidad. La educación inclusiva se refiere a todas las personas

      19. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

        PubMed Central

        DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

        2016-01-01

        RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

      20. Application of the NEAREST Tsunami Detection Algorithm to tide gauge data of Arena Cove, CA and Cordova, AK. An example of a synergy in the field of tsunami Early Warning within CoopEUS framework.

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Chierici, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Best, Mairi; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Galbraith, Nan; Heeseman, Martin; Kelly, Deborah; Pignagnoli, Luca; Pirenne, Benoit; Scofield, Oscar; Weller, Robert; Zitellini, Nevio

        2015-04-01

        The development of Tsunami modeling and Tsunami Early Warning Systems able to operate in near-source areas is a common need for many coastal regions like Mediterranean, Juan de Fuca/NE Pacific Coast of North America, Indian Ocean archipelagos and Japan. These regions with the important exception of Mediterranean and North East Atlantic are presently covered by Tsunami Warning Systems and Ocean Bottom Observatories, in the frame of EMSO, OOI and ONC ocean networks equipped with a varieties of sensors, using different technologies, data formats and detection procedures. A significant improvement in efficiency, cost saving and detection reliability can be achieved by exchanging technologies and data and by harmonizing sensors metadata and instrument settings. To undertake a step in this direction we propose to apply the Tsunami Detection Algorithm, which was developed in the framework of NEAREST EU project for open ocean data in near source areas and is presently used by NEMO-SN1 EMSO abyssal observatory, to the tide gauge data of Arena Cove, CA and Cordova, AK. We show the first results of the application of the algorithm.

      1. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

        PubMed

        Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

        2011-03-01

        El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

      2. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

        PubMed Central

        Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

        2011-01-01

        Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

      3. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

        PubMed

        Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

        2011-03-01

        El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

      4. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

        2008-09-01

        Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

      5. Medical tourism-A New Arena.

        PubMed

        Puri, S; Singh, A; Yashik

        2010-01-01

        Globalisation has given birth to medical tourism. Health and medical tourism are the fastest growing segments in not only developed nations but in developing countries too. India has become a hot destination, as the Indian medical standards match up to the highly prescribed international standards at a very low cost. However, it is an unmixed blessing; along with advantages, it has many unintended side effects also. PMID:23113017

      6. Incentives for Excellence: Agendas and Arenas.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Gress, James R., Ed.

        The articles in this monograph focus on issues identified during participation in the U.S. Department of Education 1984 Teacher Incentive Structures Program, and the 1986 Project to Design Teacher Incentive Structures. Emphasis was on designing or adapting incentive structures for possible use in the school, community, or university. The following…

      7. Looking Back at Arena of Exploration

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        2008-01-01

        NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity climbed out of 'Victoria Crater' following the tracks it had made when it descended into the 800-meter-diameter (half-mile-diameter) bowl nearly a year earlier.

        The rover's navigation camera captured this view back into the crater just after finishing a 6.8-meter (22-foot) drive that brought Opportunity out onto level ground during the mission's 1,634th Martian day, or sol (Aug. 28, 2008).

        The rover laid down the first tracks at this entry and exit point during its 1,291st sol (Sept. 11, 2007), after about a year of exploring around the outside of Victoria Crater for the best access route to the interior. On that sol, Opportunity drove a short distance into the crater and then backed out to check that the footing was good enough to trust this point as an exit route when the work in the crater was finished. Two sols later, Opportunity drove in again for its extended investigation of the rock layers exposed inside the crater.

        While inside, the rover spent several months using the contact instruments on its robotic arm to analyze the composition of the rock layers it could drive across on the surface of the upper slope. Then Opportunity drove close to the base of the 'Cape Verde' promontory that forms part of the crater rim and appears in the upper center of this image. From that perspective, the rover used its panoramic camera to examine details of layering in the 6-meter-tall (20-foot-tall) cliff.

        For scale, the distance between the parallel tracks left by the rover's wheels is about 1 meter (39 inches) from the middle of one track to the middle of the other. After getting past the top of the inner slope of the crater, the Sol 1634 drive also got through a sand ripple where the tracks appear deepest.

      8. Growing estates role in theatre arena.

        PubMed

        Baillie, Jonathan

        2010-02-01

        NHS Trust boards' growing demands for major capital purchases to offer both short-term "added value", and sound longer-term ROI, coupled with estates and facilities teams' growing involvement in specifying, installing, and subsequently maintaining, the sophisticated equipment and control systems found in modern-day operating theatres, have meant a radical re-think in approach to winning new business for Trumpf Medical Systems. MD Oliver Law explained the background and thinking to the change in strategy, and discussed the company's ambitious future plans, with HEJ's Jonathan Baillie. PMID:20198957

      9. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Badash, Lawrence

        2001-03-01

        The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

      10. Medical tourism-A New Arena

        PubMed Central

        Puri, S; Singh, A; Yashik

        2010-01-01

        Globalisation has given birth to medical tourism. Health and medical tourism are the fastest growing segments in not only developed nations but in developing countries too. India has become a hot destination, as the Indian medical standards match up to the highly prescribed international standards at a very low cost. However, it is an unmixed blessing; along with advantages, it has many unintended side effects also. PMID:23113017

      11. An Arena of Comfort during Adolescence.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Buri, John R.; And Others

        Research has consistently shown parents' nurturance, acceptance, affection, support, and attention to be positively related to their children's self-esteem. Absent in these investigations of the relationship between parental nurturance and self-esteem, however, has been a consideration of whether the nurturance bases upon which these "reflected…

      12. Edward Teller in the Public Arena

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Brown, Harold; May, Michael

        2004-08-01

        Having lived through upheavals in Hungary and Germany between the wars, Teller understood that political and military catastrophes are entirely possible. He was, perhaps, less aware that catastrophe can result from excess as well as inaction.

      13. What's New in the Library Automation Arena?

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Breeding, Marshall

        1998-01-01

        Reviews trends in library automation based on vendors at the 1998 American Library Association Annual Conference. Discusses the major industry trend, a move from host-based computer systems to the new generation of client/server, object-oriented, open systems-based automation. Includes a summary of developments for 26 vendors. (LRW)

      14. Medical tourism-A New Arena.

        PubMed

        Puri, S; Singh, A; Yashik

        2010-01-01

        Globalisation has given birth to medical tourism. Health and medical tourism are the fastest growing segments in not only developed nations but in developing countries too. India has become a hot destination, as the Indian medical standards match up to the highly prescribed international standards at a very low cost. However, it is an unmixed blessing; along with advantages, it has many unintended side effects also.

      15. Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation

        SciTech Connect

        Chu, C.C.

        1986-06-03

        A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

      16. Successful management of para-aortic lymphocyst with laparoscopic fenestration.

        PubMed

        Sarli, L; Cortellini, P; Pavlidis, C; Simonazzi, M; Sebastio, N

        2000-04-01

        Para-aortic lymphocyst occasionally follows retroperitoneal para-aortic node dissection for neoplastic diseases. We present a case in which the leakage of chylous fluid and then a para-aortic lymphocyst followed right nephrectomy and para-aortic node dissection for kidney cancer. Our method of treatment utilized conservative management of chylous ascites and laparoscopic internal drainage of the retroperitoneal lymphocyst.

      17. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

        1993-01-01

        The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

      18. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

        Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos

      19. Oxidative para-triflation of acetanilides.

        PubMed

        Pialat, Amélie; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

        2013-04-01

        Direct triflation of acetanilide derivatives with silver triflate has been accomplished under mild iodine(III)-mediated oxidative conditions. The reaction shows excellent regioselectivity for the para position and tolerates a range of ortho and meta substituents on the aromatic ring. This method is also compatible with the preparation of arylnonaflates in synthetically useful yields. PMID:23534500

      20. FDA aprueba la primera inmunoterapia para linfoma

        Cancer.gov

        La FDA ha aprobado nivolumab (Opdivo®) para el tratamiento de pacientes con el linfoma clásico de Hodgkin que ha recaído o empeorado después de recibir un trasplante autólogo hematopoyético seguido de brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®)

      1. REFORZANDO LAS CAPACIDADES EN INVESTIGACIÓN EN INFORMÁTICA PARA LA SALUD GLOBAL EN LA REGIÓN ANDINA A TRAVÉS DE LA COLABORACIÓN INTERNACIONAL

        PubMed Central

        Curioso, Walter H.; García, Patricia J.; Castillo, Greta M.; Blas, Magaly M.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Zimic, Mirko

        2011-01-01

        RESUMEN Para mejorar la salud global y bienestar de una población se requiere de recursos humanos capacitados, no solo en el campo de la medicina y salud, sino también en el campo de la informática. Desafortunadamente, los programas de entrenamiento e investigación en informática biomédica en países en desarrollo son escasos y poco documentados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar los resultados del primer Taller Internacional de Expertos en Informática para la región andina que se llevó a cabo en marzo de 2010 en Lima y que incluye la descripción de nueve casos de estudio procedentes de instituciones de América Latina. En el taller participaron 23 expertos latinoamericanos, quienes discutieron la necesidad de entrenamiento e investigación multidisciplinaria en informática biomédica en áreas prioritarias para América Latina. Además, se estableció la Red QUIPU debido a la necesidad de ampliar y consolidar una red de investigación y entrenamiento a nivel regional y global. PMID:21152740

      2. Head Start Program Performance Standards on Services for Children with Disabilities (45-CFR 1308) [and] Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start Sobre Servicios para Ninos con Discapacidades (45-CFR 1308).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

        This document consolidates, clarifies, and updates federal regulations on Head Start services for children with disabilities. The regulations are designed to complement the Head Start Program Performance Standards governing services to all enrolled children. Specifically, these regulations require Head Start programs to: (1) design comprehensive…

      3. Our Roots Feed Our Future: 30th Anniversary Conference of the Cornell Migrant Program. Presentations (May 22, 2002) = Nuestras raices nutren nuestro futuro: Conferencia del 30mo aniversario del Programa para Emigrantes de Cornell. Presentaciones (22 mayo 2002).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

        Presented in English and Spanish, this publication compiles 13 presentations at a conference celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Cornell Migrant Program. The entries examine experiences of migrant workers and children related to immigrating, finding work, enduring discrimination and police harassment, switching schools frequently, suffering…

      4. Contributions of a Social Justice Language Teacher Education Perspective to Professional Development Programs in Colombia (Contribuciones de una perspectiva de justicia social para la formación de docentes de lenguas a los programas de desarrollo profesional en Colombia)

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Sierra Piedrahita, Ana María

        2016-01-01

        In this article, the author discusses the social justice language teacher education perspective and how it can help language teachers to develop a political view of their work and effect change inside and outside their particular school contexts. To do this, she briefly analyzes various professional development programs for teachers of English in…

      5. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

        Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

      6. Oral Testimony from the Hispanic Community of Greater Boston; Programa Para el Desarrollo de un Curriculo Universitario en Estudios Etnicos Puertorriquenos y Cubanos (Program for the Development of a University Curriculum in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Studies).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Forbes, Robert J., Ed.

        The oral testimony presented in this document was designed to supplement materials, strategies, and recommendations contained in "Guidelines for the Development of a Program in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Heritage Studies at the Post-Secondary Level" (Curry College, 1976). Part 1, "The Hispanic Media," consists of interviews with various…

      7. Algunos Criterios para Evaluar Programas de Educacion Superior a Nivel de Posgrado: El Caso Particular de la Administracion Publica (Some Criteria to Evaluate Higher Education Programs at the Graduate Level: The Special Case of Public Administration).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Valle, Victor M.

        Intended as a contribution to a workshop discussion on program evaluation in higher education, the paper covers five major evaluation issues. First, it deals with evaluation concepts, explaining the purposes of evaluation; pertinent terms; and the sources of evaluation in public health procedures, the scientific method, the systems approach, and…

      8. Preparacion e Iniciacion de la Lectura en Espanol para Maestros de Programas Bilingues. Serie Tierra de Encanto (Preparation and Initiation of Reading in Spanish for Teachers of Bilingual Programs. Land of Enchantment Series).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque.

        Part of the "Land of Enchantment" series of instructional materials, this very detailed teaching manual is designed to help teachers in bilingual programs prepare students to read Spanish. It contains suggestions for developing reading readiness skills and ways to teach a basic 30-word reading vocabulary. The reading program follows five steps:…

      9. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

        Cancer.gov

        El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

      10. Para Bombay phenotype--a case report.

        PubMed

        Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Sathyabhama, S

        1997-10-01

        Bombay phenotype is peculiar in that red cells are not agglutinated by antisera A, B or H; while serum contains anti A, B and H. Existence of modifying genes at independent loci with variable expression of ABO genes is postulated. We report here a case of partial suppression where antigens could be detected by elution tests and unlike classical Bombay type, normal amount of appropriate blood group substances were present in saliva. This case of para Bombay phenotype was detected as a result of discrepancy in cell and serum group ng. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse grouping in ABO testing.

      11. An assessment of Spain's Programa AGUA and its implications for sustainable water management in the province of Almería, southeast Spain.

        PubMed

        Downward, Stuart R; Taylor, Ros

        2007-01-01

        Spain's Programa AGUA was proposed in 2004 as a replacement for the Spanish National Hydrological Plan and represented a fundamental policy shift in national water management from large inter-basin water transfers to a commitment to desalination. Twenty-one desalination facilities are planned for six provinces on the Spanish Mediterranean coast to supplement their water needs. These include the province of Almería that for the last 30 years has endured a net water abstraction overdraft leading to serious reservoir depletion and groundwater imbalances. Rising water use is a result of increasing demand to support irrigated agriculture (e.g. greenhouse horticulture) and for domestic needs (e.g. rapid urban growth and tourism development), which has led observers to question Almería's long-term water sustainability. Desalinated water alone is unlikely to be sufficient to make up these water deficits and water-users will have to accept a move to full-price water recovery by 2010 under the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive of which Spain is a signatory. Anticipated water efficiencies resulting from higher water tariffs, increasing water reuse and water infrastructure improvements (including inter-basin transfers), in conjunction with increasing use of desalinated water, are expected to address the province's current water overdraft. However, Almería will need to balance its planned initiatives against long-term estimates of projected agricultural and domestic development and the environmental consequences of adopting a desalination-supported water future.

      12. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

        PubMed

        Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

        2015-02-01

        Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

      13. ParaView: Data Analysis and Visualization Application

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Numerous

        2011-03-01

        ParaView is an open-source, multi-platform data analysis and visualization application. ParaView users can quickly build visualizations to analyze their data using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The data exploration can be done interactively in 3D or programmatically using ParaView's batch processing capabilities. ParaView was developed to analyze extremely large datasets using distributed memory computing resources. It can be run on supercomputers to analyze datasets of terascale as well as on laptops for smaller data.

      14. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

        PubMed Central

        MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

        2011-01-01

        Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

      15. ParaView for climate scientists

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Chaudhary, A.

        2012-12-01

        ParaView is an immensely popular scientific visualization framework that provides a variety of tools necessary for scientific visualization especially dealing with large data that ultimately leads to better understanding of simulation and non simulation data. The Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT), is a powerful and complete front-end to a rich set of visual-data exploration and analysis capabilities well suited for climate-data analysis problems. This talk describes integration of Paraview within UV-CDAT framework by leveraging python interface of Paraview and various new features added to uvcdat and Paraview specifically targeting climate data such as new readers, filters and parallel spatiotemporal capabilities.

      16. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

        Cancer.gov

        Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

      17. Para-Kähler-Einstein structures on Walker 4-manifolds

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Iscan, Murat; Caglar, Gulnur

        2016-11-01

        A 4-dimensional Walker manifold (M4,g,D) is a semi-Riemannian manifold (M4,g) of signature (++--) (or neutral), which admits a field of null 2-plane. The goal of this paper is to study certain almost paracomplex structures φ on 4-dimensional Walker manifolds. We discuss when these structures are integrable and when the para-Kähler forms are symplectic. We show that such a Walker 4-manifold can carry a class of indefinite para-Kähler-Einstein 4-manifolds, examples of indefinite para-Kähler 4-manifolds, and also almost indefinite para-Hermitian-Einstein 4-manifold. Finally, we give a counterexample for the almost para-Hemitian version of Goldberg conjecture.

      18. Construction of a Para-Ortho Hydrogen Test Cryostat

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Essler, J.; Haberstroh, Ch.

        2010-04-01

        In a prospective hydrogen economy it is necessary to verify the para concentration of the employed hydrogen. In case of a short storage time of about a few days only it has been shown that a partial conversion into para-hydrogen gives an optimized overall efficiency. Hence, an easy and reliable method of measuring the para-hydrogen concentration is needed. In this paper, the concept and construction of a small test cryostat are described and first results are presented. The measuring principle is based on a catalytic induced adiabatic ortho-para conversion of a hydrogen gas flow starting from a known temperature. The operation of the system only requires a certain amount of liquid nitrogen as coolant. To determine the concentration of para-hydrogen it is only necessary to measure the temperature of the gas before and after the adiabatic catalyst cell. The measuring cryostat is used for further investigation of the spontaneous para-ortho conversion in the supercritical state. In addition, the design of the cryostat allows the investigation of different catalyst materials regarding the catalytic activity and possible degradation by using a known para concentration for the measurement.

      19. Para-aortic lymph node radiation in advanced cervical cancer

        SciTech Connect

        Emami, B.; Watring, W.G.; Tak, W.; Anderson, B.; Piro, A.J.

        1980-09-01

        Thirty-six patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and with iliac or para-aortic nodes interpreted as un-equivocally positive on lymphangiography have received radiation therapy to the para-aortic area at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology at Tufts-New England Medical Center Hospital. Of 29 patients who received para-aortic area irradiation as part of their initial treatment, local control was achieved in 18 patients (62%). Overall, four patients developed major complications requiring surgical intervention. Detailed results and our current pre-treatment evaluation policy including lymphangiography, percutaneous needle biopsy and selective extra-peritoneal lymph node biopsy will be discussed.

      20. What Providers Should Know about Child Care Assistance for Families: A Targeted Effort to Reach Hispanic Families and Providers = Lo que Deben Saber los Proveedores Sobre el Programa de Ayuda de Cuidado Infantil para las Familias: Un Esfuerzo Especial para Alcanzar Familias y Proveedores Hispanos

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Child Care Bureau, 2004

        2004-01-01

        Federal and State governments can help families pay for child care. The families one serves may be eligible for this assistance, and one may receive this funding for services one provides, thus becoming a "participating provider." This paper provides answers to the following questions: (1) How can parents receive child care assistance?; (2) How do…

      1. Nutriendo la Promesa: Materiales Para la Aplicacion de las Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start. Guia Para la Utilizacion de los Materiales [y] Transparencias (Nurturing the Promise: Set of Training Materials on the Head Start Program Performance Standards. User's Guide [and] Set of Transparencies).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Educational Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

        Since 1975, the Head Start Program Performance Standards have defined the services that local programs are required to provide to enrolled children and families. With revisions effective in 1998, the Program Performance Standards translate the Head Start vision into quality practices implemented at the local level. This document is comprised of a…

      2. [Genotyping of ABO loci in para-Bombay type individuals].

        PubMed

        Zeng, Jian-Qiang; Luo, Guang-Ping

        2004-08-01

        To study the molecular genetic basis of ABO alleles in para-Bombay type individuals, samples from five para-Bombay type individuals identified by serologic tests including absorption-elution tests, saliva neutralizing or inhibitor substances tests, were genotyped by using PCR-SSP based ABO genotyping. Exon 6 and exon 7 at the ABO locus for all 5 samples were sequenced. The results showed that the ABO genotypes of five para-Bombay samples were A102B1, A102B1, A102O1, A102B1, B1O1 respectively, the direct DNA sequencing results were in accordance with the results genotyped by PCR-SSP method, No novel nucleotide mutation was found at the exon 6 and exon 7 of ABO gene. In conclusion, the ABO genotyping assay by PCR-SSP provide a simple, rapid and accurate method for determining the ABO type of para-Bombay cases.

      3. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

        SciTech Connect

        Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

        2011-09-27

        The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

      4. Parallel unstructured volume rendering in ParaView

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Moreland, Kenneth; Avila, Lisa; Fisk, Lee Ann

        2007-01-01

        ParaView is a popular open-source general-purpose scientific visualization application. One of the many visualization tools available within ParaView is the volume rendering of unstructured meshes. Volume rendering is a technique that renders a mesh as a translucent solid, thereby allowing the user to see every point in three-dimensional space simultaneously. Because volume rendering is computationally intensive, ParaView now employs a unique parallel rendering algorithm to speed the processes. The parallel rendering algorithm is very flexible. It works equally well for both volumes and surfaces, and can properly render the intersection of a volume and opaque polygonal surfaces. The parallel rendering algorithm can also render images for tiled displays. In this paper, we explore the implementation of parallel unstructured volume rendering in ParaView.

      5. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Conrath, Barney J.

        1986-01-01

        The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions.

      6. AFT No Longer a Major Player in Reform Arena

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Honawar, Vaishali

        2007-01-01

        The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has lost several of its most prominent leaders over the past decade. It has struggled with scandals at major locals. An internal survey showed low morale among its own employees. The union itself insists it is still very much on the path blazed by Albert Shanker, the AFT's late, legendary president, under…

      7. The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Reed, Matt

        2008-01-01

        In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

      8. Human homosexuality: a paradigmatic arena for sexually antagonistic selection?

        PubMed

        Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

        2015-01-29

        Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait.

      9. Oncogenic kinase fusions: an evolving arena with innovative clinical opportunities

        PubMed Central

        Tabbò, Fabrizio; Pizzi, Marco; Kyriakides, Peter W.; Ruggeri, Bruce; Inghirami, Giorgio

        2016-01-01

        Cancer biology relies on intrinsic and extrinsic deregulated pathways, involving a plethora of intra-cellular and extra-cellular components. Tyrosine kinases are frequently deregulated genes, whose aberrant expression is often caused by major cytogenetic events (e.g. chromosomal translocations). The resulting tyrosine kinase fusions (TKFs) prompt the activation of oncogenic pathways, determining the biological and clinical features of the associated tumors. First reported half a century ago, oncogenic TKFs are now found in a large series of hematologic and solid tumors. The molecular basis of TKFs has been thoroughly investigated and tailored therapies against recurrent TKFs have recently been developed. This review illustrates the biology of oncogenic TKFs and their role in solid as well as hematological malignancies. We also address the therapeutic implications of TKFs and the many open issues concerning their clinical impact. PMID:26943776

      10. Situated Legitimacy: Deliberative Arenas and the New Rural Governance

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Connelly, Steve; Richardson, Tim; Miles, Tim

        2006-01-01

        Rural governance in the UK and elsewhere has undergone far-reaching changes, as partnerships and other collaborative approaches have emerged to address the challenges of rural sustainable development. The legitimacy of this "new rural governance" is purportedly grounded in deliberation between stakeholders, but this is problematic--it is not clear…

      11. Entering the Arena: The Figured Worlds Transition of Preservice Teachers

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Saunders, Jane M.; Ash, Gwynne Ellen

        2013-01-01

        The article describes a semester-long project that draws on Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" as a resource and over-arching theme for preservice teachers taking a content area literacy course. We examine how preservice teachers learn to connect written texts to content area (disciplinary) literacy and consider ways to prepare…

      12. Adjudication of fibromyalgia syndrome: Challenges in the medicolegal arena

        PubMed Central

        Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Ste-Marie, Peter A; Mailis, Angela; Shir, Yoram

        2014-01-01

        The medicolegal challenges surrounding fibromyalgia (FM) arise from the subjectivity of symptoms, causal attribution and reported symptoms sufficiently severe to cause disablement. In the present article, the authors have endeavoured to provide clarification of some current issues by referencing the current literature, including the 2012 Canadian Fibromyalgia Guidelines. While FM is accepted as a valid condition, its diagnosis is vulnerable to misuse due to the subjectivity of symptoms. Without a defining cause, a physical or psychological event may be alleged to trigger FM, but adjudication of causation must be prudent. Although some individuals may experience severe symptoms, the prevalent societal concept of disablement due to FM must be tempered with the knowledge that working contributes to psychosocial wellbeing. Evidence provided in the present report may assist the courts in reaching decisions concerning FM. PMID:25479148

      13. Unmanned solar systems exploration - An arena for international cooperation

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Herman, D. H.; Pacault, R.

        1974-01-01

        Mission profiles for a Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) mission are considered. A profile using separate launches for a lander/ascent module and an orbiter/return system could use present technology and is appropriate for international cooperation. The achievement of clean interfaces between major building blocks and ease of controlling back contamination are advantages offered by the concept. A spatially distributed surface sample could be obtained by using multiple landers delivering samples to a common orbiter. The Pioneer Venus program, originally planned as a cooperative NASA-ESRO project, resulted in development of a standardized spacecraft bus yielding benefits at minimized cost. The first joint US-European planetary mission now planned is the launch of a Pioneer class orbiter to Jupiter in 1980. Feasibility studies are being conducted.

      14. Human homosexuality: a paradigmatic arena for sexually antagonistic selection?

        PubMed

        Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

        2015-04-01

        Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. PMID:25635045

      15. The Social Networking Arena: Battle of the Sexes

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Clipson, Timothy W.; Wilson, S. Ann; DuFrene, Debbie D.

        2012-01-01

        Social networking via texting, Facebook, Twitter, and similar media is enormously popular with students, though it often leads to communication challenges along gender lines. Research supports the fact that men and women have divergent expectations for social networking and use it differently. Students can benefit from classroom experiences that…

      16. Learning Logic in the Global Arena through Telecommunication.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Lanham, Marion; Cowan, Marlene C.

        The Information Age is a new cultural era in which the dominant resource is information. For educators attempting to prepare the increasingly diverse student body for the 1990's and beyond, the scope, magnitude, and constantly changing nature of this Information Age renders the task monumental. In an effort to create a real-world context for a…

      17. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Child, Jack

        A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

      18. Broadening Our Sights: Internationalizing Teacher Education for a Global Arena

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Olmedo, Irma; Harbon, Lesley

        2010-01-01

        This article represents the collaborative efforts of two college faculty, one in the USA and one in Australia, exploring notions of internationalization of colleges of education and research on multilingualism and teacher education. First, the paper presents experiences of interactions with international researchers in Mexico, Brazil, Germany,…

      19. Accountability in the International Arena: Stories from Five Countries.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Maia, Nelly Aleotti

        This paper discusses accountability in Brazil's education system. The first section presents facts about Brazil's size, population, geographical features, and culture, and it briefly outlines Brazil's educational system. In Brazil, basic education through junior high school is compulsory. There are enforcement laws to keep children in school. All…

      20. Quantitative Literacy in the Media: An Arena for Problem Solving

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Watson, Jane M.

        2004-01-01

        The term "quantitative literacy" is used in this article to reinforce its importance in catering for reform-based curricula in Australia. The medium chosen for the problems discussed in this paper is the newspaper. The purpose of this article is to tie together traditional views of the importance of problem solving with the current aims of…

      1. A ciliate memorizes the geometry of a swimming arena.

        PubMed

        Kunita, Itsuki; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Tero, Atsushi; Akiyama, Masakazu; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

        2016-05-01

        Previous studies on adaptive behaviour in single-celled organisms have given hints to the origin of their memorizing capacity. Here we report evidence that a protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena has the capacity to learn the shape and size of its swimming space. Cells confined in a small water droplet for a short period were found to recapitulate circular swimming trajectories upon release. The diameter of the circular trajectories and their duration reflected the size of the droplet and the period of confinement. We suggest a possible mechanism for this adaptive behaviour based on a Ca(2+) channel. In our model, repeated collisions with the walls of a confining droplet result in a slow rise in intracellular calcium that leads to a long-term increase in the reversal frequency of the ciliary beat.

      2. The HPT Value Proposition in the Larger Improvement Arena.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Wallace, Guy W.

        2003-01-01

        Discussion of human performance technology (HPT) emphasizes the key variable, which is the human variable. Highlights include the Ishikawa Diagram; human performance as one variable of process performance; collaborating with other improvement approaches; value propositions; and benefits to stakeholders, including real return on investments. (LRW)

      3. Collective Learning: Interaction and a Shared Action Arena

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Doos, Marianne; Wilhelmson, Lena

        2011-01-01

        Purpose: The paper seeks to argue for a theoretical contribution that deals with the detection of collective learning. The aim is to examine and clarify the genesis processes of collective learning. The empirical basis is a telecoms context with task-driven networking across both internal and external organisational borders.…

      4. The Arena of Educational Criticism: A Moral Issue

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Glockner, Valentine R.

        1976-01-01

        Suggests that educational reform should not be undertaken because of external pressures, out of anguish or expediency; it should, rather evolve out of a realization that answers are needed to meet essential societal needs. (Author/AM)

      5. Hybridoma technology: a view from the patent arena.

        PubMed

        Ansell, P R

        2000-08-01

        The patenting of biological molecules, such as hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies, has become an important issue in biology. While challenging cherished beliefs and practices of many biologists, it has been a central issue for hybridoma and monoclonal antibody research. PMID:10916136

      6. Competing in the World's Global Education and Technology Arenas

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Conceição, Simone C. O.

        2016-01-01

        This chapter addresses the transitions and changes occurring because of technological innovation, how these changes are affecting the workplace, and the skills needed to thrive today. It also presents generational characteristics of adult learners and strategies for adult educators and higher education institutions for effectively dealing with…

      7. Grant writing in the home health arena: the proposal.

        PubMed

        Alvarez, M E

        1999-01-01

        If at first you don't get funded, try, try, try again. Match your program with another funder. Some funders, such as private foundations, have ongoing deadlines. Grant funding is extremely competitive and can be political. Network with funders. Also network with board members, businesses, etc., who may know someone who serves on the grant funders review committee. Take a grant writing workshop and have your proposal reviewed by someone who can provide feedback. Gather grant-writing resources in the form of books, workshop materials, and Websites. Lastly, try to keep abreast of the trends in the grant field. The latest trend I have heard is an interest in having the problem statement become more positive. Focus on the strengths upon which you can build rather than the weaknesses of a community. Grant money is available from many resources in differing amounts. Test your ability at a local level. Begin developing a track record, then work to the state and federal levels. It is an exciting and challenging opportunity to better your community.

      8. Some Thoughts on the Evolving Arena of Autism Services

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dunlap, Glen

        2007-01-01

        It has been a mere four decades since autism emerged from the pernicious cul-de-sac of psychoanalytic conceptualization into the realm of constructive, systematic research, and real-life problem solving. It was in the 1960s that (1) Bernard Rimland (1964) published his ground-breaking book, "Infantile Autism"; (2) the National Society of Autistic…

      9. Sports chronobiology consultation: from the lab to the arena.

        PubMed

        Postolache, Teodor T; Hung, Tsung-Min; Rosenthal, Richard N; Soriano, Joseph J; Montes, Fernando; Stiller, John W

        2005-04-01

        This final article, coauthored by a chronobiology consultant, a sports psychologist who applied a chronobiology-based program to an Olympic national team, a clinical neurologist, a performance data analyst, a training-conditioning coach from a major league baseball team who applied chronobiology principles to major league pitchers, and a substance abuse expert, discusses practical aspects of a sports chronobiology consultation, including the goals and current arsenal of available interventions. Short vignettes of actual cases are presented for edification, and references are made to appropriate reviews found elsewhere in this issue.

      10. Rival Theories of Newsreading in the Electronic Newspaper Arena.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dozier, David M.

        Emerging videotex news services--systems for distributing textual information on television screens that permit direct competition with pulp newspapers--are presently rooted in a limited theory of newsreading. The first of two rival theories of newsreading applicable to electronic newspapers is "uses and gratifications" research--the belief that…

      11. Bile pigments: newcomers to the cell signaling arena.

        PubMed

        Maines, Mahin D

        2003-01-01

        The article highlighted in this issue is "2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Accumulation of Biliverdin and Hepatic Peliosis in Rats," by Marjo Nittynen, Jouni T. Tuomisto, Seppo Auriola, Raimo Pohjanvirta, Paula Syrjälä, Ulla Simanainen, Matti Viluksela, and Jouko Tuomisto (pp. 112-123).

      12. The Lost Children: A Military Concept for the Educational Arena.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        McClure, James M.

        1983-01-01

        Applies the military concepts of triage and the "enfants perdus" (those beyond hope) to the educational setting, arguing that some students in a typical high school are beyond helping in any meaningful educational sense and that the only reasonable course of action is to cease attempts to educate them. (Author/SB)

      13. Nutrigenomics: exploiting systems biology in the nutrition and health arena.

        PubMed

        van Ommen, Ben; Stierum, Rob

        2002-10-01

        Nutritional sciences are discovering the application of the so-called "omics" sciences. Propelled by the recent unravelling of the human genome and the coinciding technological developments, genotyping, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are now available to nutritional research. In the future we are likely to see new screening tools for the selection of bioactive nutrients, new biomarkers for the in vivo efficacy of nutrients, and better insight into the influence of genetic polymorphisms on nutrient metabolism. However, are these promises just based on biotechnological hype or is a real fundamental change in human nutritional sciences at hand?

      14. Sustainable risk management for an evolving healthcare arena.

        PubMed

        Cole, Sarah A; Chaudhary, Raj; Bang, Derek A

        2014-06-01

        A sustainable risk management approach includes the use of extensive scenario analyses to mitigate the risk of reduced revenues from changes in payment and volume. A successful risk management program helps organizations prioritize strategies for risks that are likely to have the biggest impact on their business. Continually strengthening controls and mitigating risks through a risk management program can help to build an effective security and compliance program.

      15. Synthesis and conformational analysis of macrocyclic dihydroxystilbenes linked between the para-para positions.

        PubMed

        Mateo, Carmen; López, Vilmarí; Medarde, Manuel; Peláez, Rafael

        2007-01-01

        A new family of diphenylethanes has been synthesized as conformationally restricted analogues of antimitotic combretastatins. The two phenyl rings are linked between the para-phenolic positions through a 3-oxapentamethylene or hexamethylene chain. The key macrocyclization step was achieved in moderate yields by using an intramolecular McMurry pinacol coupling of linked aromatic dialdehydes, except for the nitro-substituted compounds. The relative stereochemistry of the isomeric pinacols was determined by a combination of spectroscopic, chemical derivatization, and molecular-modeling approaches. The NMR spectra of these compounds (with a polyoxygenated crownophane skeleton) indicate severe conformational restrictions relative to their parent combretastatins; the rotation of the phenyl rings is hampered by interactions of their substituents and the linker and the conformational restrictions imposed by the substituted bridge.

      16. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Gradoville, Michael Stephen

        2013-01-01

        This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

      17. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

        SciTech Connect

        Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

        2010-06-01

        Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

      18. Hox and ParaHox genes: a review on molluscs.

        PubMed

        Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Barucca, Marco

        2014-12-01

        Hox and ParaHox genes are involved in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans during embryo development. Body plan evolution and diversification are affected by variations in the number and sequence of Hox and ParaHox genes, as well as by their expression patterns. For this reason Hox and ParaHox gene investigation in the phylum Mollusca is of great interest, as this is one of the most important taxa of protostomes, characterized by a high morphological diversity. The comparison of the works reviewed here indicates that species of molluscs, belonging to different classes, share a similar composition of Hox and ParaHox genes. Therefore evidence suggests that the wide morphological diversity of this taxon could be ascribed to differences in Hox gene interactions and expressions and changes in the Hox downstream genes rather than to Hox cluster composition. Moreover the data available on Hox and ParaHox genes in molluscs compared with those of other Lophotrochozoa shed light on the complex and controversial evolutionary histories that these genes have undergone within protostomes.

      19. β-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

        2010-11-01

        Complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

      20. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Ostrov, P. G.

        Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

      1. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

        Cancer.gov

        Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

      2. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      3. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

        EPA Science Inventory

        ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

      4. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      5. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      6. Para-alkyl-substituted phenylcyclopropanes in reaction with dinitrogen tetroxide

        SciTech Connect

        Smirnova, M.M.; Geiderikh, A.V.; Mochalov, S.S.; Shabarov, Yu.S.

        1988-11-10

        The reaction of para-alkyl-substituted phenylcyclopropanes with dinitrogen tetroxide was studied. In solvents with various polarities at /minus/30/degree/C dinitrogen tetroxide only reacts with the three-carbon ring. Here the initially formed adducts are only stable at low temperatures; with increase in temperature they are converted into p-alkylcinnamaldehydes and 5-(p-alkylphenyl)isoxazolines.

      7. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

        Cancer.gov

        Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

      8. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

        Cancer.gov

        Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

      9. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      10. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      11. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

        SciTech Connect

        Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

        2011-01-01

        The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

      12. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

        2011-07-01

        The advent of large cosmological sky surveys—ushering in the era of precision cosmology—has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

      13. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

      14. Cabozantinib y lenvatinib para cáncer renal

        Cancer.gov

        Artículo del blog del NCI sobre la aprobación reciente de la FDA de cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) y de lenvatinib (Lenvima®) para el tratamiento de pacientes cuyo cáncer avanzado de riñón ha evolucionado después de tratamiento con terapias antiangiogénicas.

      15. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

        1987-05-01

        El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

      16. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

        Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

        The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

      17. 40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

        2011-07-01

        ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9520 Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as methylated-para-rosaniline salt of...

      18. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

        Cancer.gov

        Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

      19. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

        PubMed Central

        Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

        2013-01-01

        Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

      20. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

        PubMed

        Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

        2014-01-01

        Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

      1. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

        PubMed Central

        Litewka, Sergio

        2011-01-01

        La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

      2. Creating and managing lookmarks in ParaView.

        SciTech Connect

        Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.; Stanton, Eric T.

        2004-06-01

        This paper describes the integration of lookmarks into the ParaView visualization tool. Lookmarks are pointers to views of specific parts of a dataset. They were so named because lookmarks are to a visualization tool and dataset as bookmarks are to a browser and the World Wide Web. A lookmark can be saved and organized among other lookmarks within the context of ParaView. Then at a later time, either in the same ParaView session or in a different one, it can be regenerated, displaying the exact view of the data that had previously been saved. This allows the user to pick up where they left off, to continue to adjust the view or otherwise manipulate the data. Lookmarks facilitate collaboration between users who wish to share views of a dataset. They enable more effective data comparison because they can be applied to other datasets. They also serve as a way of organizing a user's data. Ultimately, a lookmark is a time-saving tool that automates the recreation of a complex view of the data.

      3. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

        PubMed

        Litewka, Sergio

        2005-01-01

        La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.

      4. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

        PubMed

        Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

        2014-01-01

        Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

      5. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

        PubMed Central

        Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

        2016-01-01

        Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

      6. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

        2011-07-01

        interpretación, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluación diagnóstica que la mayoría de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos científicos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 º grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significación de los conceptos científicos propuestos para la enseñanza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluación diagnóstica han servido como referencia para la organización del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia didáctica a las características de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento también pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avaliação diagnóstica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento prévio de conceitos científicos, necessários à compreensão do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6ª série do Ensino Fundamental. A ação pedagógica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos prévios, do estudante, antes de ensiná-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avaliação diagnóstica foi composta por 25 questões, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpretação, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribuídos pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avaliação diagnóstica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos científicos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6ª série. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representações relevantes que contribuíram para a (re)significação dos conceitos científicos propostos

      7. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

        SciTech Connect

        Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

        2013-06-10

        The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

      8. Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI anuncia becas de investigación para tecnologías portátiles

        Cancer.gov

        El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI (CGH) anunció el otorgamiento de subvenciones que apoyarán el desarrollo y la validación de tecnologías portátiles y de bajo costo para mejorar la detección temprana, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer.

      9. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

        2011-07-01

        interpretación, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluación diagnóstica que la mayoría de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos científicos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 º grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significación de los conceptos científicos propuestos para la enseñanza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluación diagnóstica han servido como referencia para la organización del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia didáctica a las características de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento también pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avaliação diagnóstica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento prévio de conceitos científicos, necessários à compreensão do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6ª série do Ensino Fundamental. A ação pedagógica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos prévios, do estudante, antes de ensiná-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avaliação diagnóstica foi composta por 25 questões, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpretação, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribuídos pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avaliação diagnóstica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos científicos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6ª série. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representações relevantes que contribuíram para a (re)significação dos conceitos científicos propostos

      10. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

        2007-01-01

        The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

      11. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

        PubMed

        Litewka, Sergio

        2005-01-01

        La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

      12. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

        SciTech Connect

        2015-09-04

        RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

      13. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

        2015-09-04

        RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize andmore » enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results

      14. Para-hydrogen narrow filament evaporation at low temperature

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Elizarova, T. G.; Gogolin, A. A.; Montero, S.

        2012-11-01

        Undercooling of liquid para-hydrogen (pH2) below its freezing point at equilibrium (13.8 K) has been shown recently in flowing micro-filaments evaporating in low density background gas [M. Kühnel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245301 (2011)]. An hydrodynamical model accounting for this process is reported here. Analytical expressions for the local temperature T of a filament, averaged over its cross section, are obtained as a function of distance z to the nozzle. Comparison with the experiment is shown. It is shown also that the thermocapillary forces induce a parabolic profile of velocity across the jet.

      15. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

        PubMed Central

        Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

        2015-01-01

        Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

      16. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

        PubMed Central

        Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

        2015-01-01

        Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

      17. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

        PubMed Central

        Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

        2016-01-01

        The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

      18. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

        SciTech Connect

        Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

        2007-02-23

        Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

      19. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

        SciTech Connect

        Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

        2010-07-01

        Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

      20. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

        Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

      1. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

        PubMed

        Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

        2013-10-01

        The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

      2. Artesanias Mexico - Americanas. Programa Piloto de Entrenamiento Para El Asociado Bilingue y Bicultural En El Desarrollo del Nino: Guia XIII [Arts and Crafts of Mexico and the Americas. Pilot Program for the Training of Bilingual and Bicultural Teachers for the Cognitive Development of the Child: Guide XIII].

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        de Celis, Margarita

        This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the thirteenth in a series of 16, provides creative experiences with arts and crafts for young children. Designed for preschool teachers and paraprofessional trainees, the Spanish text offers a variety of craft activities. A list of materials necessary, step-by-step directions and…

      3. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

        This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

      4. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

        This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

      5. Juegos - Cuentos - Cantos - Y - Rimas. Programa Piloto de Entrenamiento Para El Asociado Bilinque y Bicultural En El Desarrollo del Nino: Guia XII [Games - Stories - Songs -And - Rhymes. Pilot Program for the Training of Bilingual and Bicultural Teachers for the Cognitive Development of the Child: Guide XII].

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        de Celis, Margarita

        This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the twelfth in a series of 16, is designed for preschool teachers and paraprofessional trainees and contains (in four separate sections) games, stories, songs and rhymes in Spanish that can be used in a bilingual, multicultural classroom setting. The module, written in Spanish, offers…

      6. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela

        2010-01-01

        This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing…

      7. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

        This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…

      8. "On Air": Participation in an Online Radio Show to Foster Speaking Confidence. A Cooperative Learning-Based Strategies Study ("Al aire": participación en un programa de radio en línea para fomentar la confianza al hablar. Un estudio basado en estrategias de aprendizaje cooperativo)

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Lemos Tello, Nubia Consuelo

        2012-01-01

        The daily observation of class sessions has enabled me to recognize that students possess a feeling of self-distrust in oral activities. For this reason, I designed a study carried out with a group of twelve eighth graders. This article illustrates an action research project conducted to enhance students' confidence when speaking on an online…

      9. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

        Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

        En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

      10. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature.

        PubMed

        Patil, Siddangouda B; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S; Biradar, Ashok N

        2015-01-01

        Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

      11. [Study on structure, charge and spectrum for para-halogenated diphenyl ethers through density functional theory].

        PubMed

        Jiang, Long; Cai, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Qiao; Li, Yu

        2013-11-01

        The present paper mainly researched the molecular geometry, charge distribution and spectrum vibration of diphenyl ether and its 3 kinds of para-halogenated diphenyl ethers based on density functional theory (DFT). The infrared and Raman spectrum vibration frequency for para-halogenated diphenyl ethers was calculated based on respective optimal molecular geometry with the same method which was carried out at the B3LYP/6-31(d) level, then spectrum vibration of para-halogenated diphenyl ethers was assigned in detail for the first time. Combined with charge distribution of diphenyl ether and by the nuclear magnetic resonance and Milliken charge distribution, the authors also analyzed the effect of different para-halogenated substituent on charge distribution, at last the vibration mechanism and change rule of of para-halogenated diphenyl ethers' characteristic vibrations were analyzed in the view of charge distribution innovatively. From the research we can see that the more the electronegativity of para-halogenated substituent, the bigger the atomic radius, and the longer the C-X bond, the easier they are degraded in the environment; para-halogenated substituent affected the charge distribution greatly especially to para-carbon relative to ether bond, and meta-carbon was controlled by the combination electronic effect of para-halogenated substituent and oxygen atom, meanwhile ortho-carbon didn't have distinct change; charge gap between bond atoms played significant role in the stability of bonds and vibration frequency of characteristic vibration, and the larger the electronegativity of para-halogenated substituent, the larger the vibration frequency. PMID:24555401

      12. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

        DOE PAGES

        Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

        2015-11-03

        The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

      13. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

        SciTech Connect

        Lin, J I

        2011-01-25

        The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

      14. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

        SciTech Connect

        Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

        2007-01-31

        We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

      15. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

        SciTech Connect

        Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

        1995-06-01

        When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

      16. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

        DOEpatents

        Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

        1998-01-01

        A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

      17. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

        DOEpatents

        Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

        1999-01-01

        A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

      18. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

        DOEpatents

        Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

        1998-04-21

        A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

      19. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

        DOEpatents

        Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

        1999-05-25

        A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

      20. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

        PubMed

        Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

        2003-09-01

        The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies.

      1. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

        PubMed

        Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

        2003-09-01

        The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies. PMID:14504782

      2. Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

        2012-01-01

        The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

      3. Programa Actual 1991 (Current Programme 1991).

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

        This annual report for the Bernard van Leer Foundation describes the foundation's activities during 1990. The foundation seeks to promote the development of human resources in communities with social, economic, and cultural problems, focusing its efforts on the needs of young children. The first part of the publication contains a general…

      4. Listening to Students: How I Came to Love My Low-Residency Program

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Atwood, Megan

        2009-01-01

        Finding an academic program that caters to children's literature is hard. Many people consider children's literature no more sophisticated than its audience--an arena for those who cannot hack it either as writers or as teachers of adult literature. This author, however, found a new program--a "low residency program"--at Hamline University in St.…

      5. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

        SciTech Connect

        Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

        2008-07-15

        We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

      6. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

        PubMed

        Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

        2006-03-15

        The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa.

      7. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

        PubMed

        Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

        2006-03-15

        The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa. PMID:16331637

      8. Blood transfusion in the para-Bombay phenotype.

        PubMed

        Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E

        1990-08-01

        The H-deficient phenotypes found in Chinese so far, have all been secretors of soluble blood group substances in saliva. The corresponding isoagglutinin activity (e.g. anti-B in OB(Hm) persons) has been found to be weak in all cases. To determine the clinical significance of these weak isoagglutinins 51Cr red cell survival tests were performed on three OB(Hm) individuals transfused with small volumes (4 ml) of groups B and O RBC. Rapid destruction of most of the RBC occurred whether or not the isoagglutinins of the OB(Hm) individuals were indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) reactive. When a larger volume (54 ml packed RBC) of group B cells (weakly incompatible by IAGT) was transfused to another OB(Hm) individual with IAGT active anti-HI, the survival of the transfused RBC was 93% at 24 h, with 30% of the RBC remaining in the circulation at 28 d in contrast to 76% as would be expected if the survival was normal. Therefore when whole units of blood of normal ABO blood groups, compatible by IAGT, are transfused, the survival is expected to be almost normal. These weak isoagglutinins may not be very clinically significant and we suggest that when para-Bombay blood is not available, the compatibility testing for OA(Hm) persons should be performed with group A and group O packed RBC; OB(Hm) with group B and group O packed RBC: OAB(Hm) with groups A, B, AB and O packed RBC. For cross matching, the indirect antiglobulin test by a prewarmed technique should be used.

      9. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

      10. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

      11. Enabling ITK-based processing and 3D Slicer MRML scene management in ParaView.

        PubMed

        Enquobahrie, Andinet; Bowers, Michael; Ibanez, Luis; Finet, Julien; Audette, Michel; Kolasny, Anthony

        2012-02-28

        This paper documents on-going work to facilitate ITK-based processing and 3D Slicer scene management in ParaView. We believe this will broaden the use of ParaView for high performance computing and visualization in the medical imaging research community. The effort is focused on developing ParaView plug-ins for managing VTK structures from 3D Slicer MRML scenes and encapsulating ITK filters for deployment in ParaView. In this paper, we present KWScene, an open source cross-platform library that is being developed to support implementation of these types of plugins. We describe the overall design of the library and provide implementation details and conclude by presenting a concrete example that demonstrates the use of the KWScene library in computational anatomy research at Johns Hopkins Center for Imaging Science.

      12. Efficient ortho-para conversion of H2 on interstellar grain surfaces

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Bron, Emeric; Le Petit, Franck; Le Bourlot, Jacques

        2016-04-01

        Context. Fast surface conversion between ortho- and para-H2 has been observed in laboratory studies, and it has been proposed that this mechanism plays a role in the control of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium. Observations of rotational lines of H2 in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) have indeed found significantly lower ortho-para ratios than expected at equilibrium. The mechanisms controlling the balance of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium thus remain incompletely understood, while this ratio can affect the thermodynamical properties of the gas (equation of state, cooling function). Aims: We aim to build an accurate model of ortho-para conversion on dust surfaces based on the most recent experimental and theoretical results, and to validate it by comparison to observations of H2 rotational lines in PDRs. Methods: We propose a statistical model of ortho-para conversion on dust grains with fluctuating dust temperatures. It is based on a master equation approach. This computation is then coupled to full PDR models and compared to PDR observations. Results: We show that the observations of rotational H2 lines indicate a high conversion efficiency on dust grains and that this high efficiency can be accounted for if taking dust temperature fluctuations into account with our statistical model of surface conversion. Simpler models that neglect the dust temperature fluctuations do not reach the high efficiency deduced from the observations. Moreover, this high efficiency induced by dust temperature fluctuations is very insensitive to the values of the model's microphysical parameters. Conclusions: Ortho-para conversion on grains is thus an efficient mechanism in most astrophysical conditions and can play a significant role in controlling the ortho-para ratio.

      13. Para-Selective Halogenation of Nitrosoarenes with Copper(II) Halides.

        PubMed

        van der Werf, Angela; Selander, Nicklas

        2015-12-18

        The para-selective direct bromination and chlorination of nitrosoarenes with copper(II) bromide and chloride is reported. Under mild reaction conditions, a range of halogenated arylnitroso compounds are obtained in moderate to good yields with high regioselectivity. Additionally, the versatility of the method is demonstrated by the development of a one-pot procedure to obtain the corresponding para-halogenated aniline- and nitrobenzene derivatives. PMID:26606695

      14. Plastic debris ingestion by sea turtle in Paraíba, Brazil.

        PubMed

        Mascarenhas, Rita; Santos, Robson; Zeppelini, Douglas

        2004-08-01

        Coastal gill net entanglement and debris intake are important threats to the survival of sea turtles. Two sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea and Chelonia mydas) were found stranded along the coast of Paraíba. After necropsy, plastic debris were found in the stomach. The debris is described. This is the first record of this sort of problem for the Paraíba littoral.

      15. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

        2003-08-01

        Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao

      16. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

        PubMed Central

        Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

        2016-01-01

        Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA

      17. Competing ParA structures space bacterial plasmids equally over the nucleoid.

        PubMed

        Ietswaart, Robert; Szardenings, Florian; Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

        2014-12-01

        Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable.

      18. Comparison of Divalent Transition Metal Ion ParaCEST MRI Contrast Agents

        PubMed Central

        Dorazio, Sarina J.; Olatunde, Abiola O.; Tsitovich, Pavel B.

        2013-01-01

        Transition metal ion-based paraCEST agents (TM-CEST) are a promising new class of compounds for MRI contrast. Members in this class of compounds include paramagnetic complexes of FeII, CoII and NiII. The development of the coordination chemistry for these paraCEST agents is presented with an emphasis on the choice of azamacrocycle backbone and pendent groups with the goals of controlling oxidation state, spin state and stability of the complexes. CEST spectra and images are compared for different macrocyclic complexes containing amide or heterocyclic pendent groups. The potential of paraCEST agents that function as pH and redox-activated MRI probes is discussed. PMID:24253281

      19. Production and characterization of para-hydrogen gas for matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.; Ramanathan, N.; Gopi, R.

        2016-08-01

        Normal hydrogen (n-H2) has 3:1 ortho/para ratio and the production of enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) from normal hydrogen is useful for many applications including matrix isolation experiments. In this paper, we describe the design, development and fabrication of the ortho-para converter that is capable of producing enriched p-H2. The p-H2 thus produced was probed using infrared and Raman techniques. Using infrared measurement, the thickness and the purity of the p-H2 matrix were determined. The purity of p-H2 was determined to be >99%. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and acetylene (C2H2) were studied in p-H2 and n-H2 matrices and the results were compared with the conventional inert matrices.

      20. Modelos Teoricos de Linhas de Recombinacao EM Radio Frequencias Para Regioes H II

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Abraham, Z.; Cancoro, A. C. O.

        1987-05-01

        Foram feitos modelos de linhas de recombinção provenientes de regiões HII nas frequências de rádio para distintos números quãnticos. Estes modelos consideram regrões H II esfericamente simétricas com variações radiais na densidade e temperatura eletrônica, efeitos de colisoes inelásticas dos eletrons (alargarnento por pressão), e afastarnento do equiliíbrio termodinâmico local. 0 bojetivo é construir o perfil da linha para cada ponto da nuvern e obter o valor médio resultante da sua convoluçã com o feixe da antena de tarnanho comparável corn o tarnanho angular da nuvern para posterIor cornpara o corn

      1. Amplificadores en bandas para receptores de uso radioastronómicos

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Bava, A. J.; Sanz, A. J.

        Está en curso de realización en el IAR un cabezal de receptor, en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz. Este receptor, conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamientos actuales del IAR y con los futuros proyectos de procesamientos, permitirán las observaciones de las líneas de la molécula de CH, de gran interés astrofísico, y las observaciones en el continuo que complementarán las realizadas en 1420 MHz. En este trabajo, se presentan el diseño de los amplificadores de bajo ruido, que van a conformar las primeras etapas del receptor de 3.3 GHz. El desarrollo de los mismos se realizó teniendo en cuenta que la temperatura del sistema, según consideraciones observacionales, deberá ser de 60oK. Por tal motivo se realizó un diseño de bajo ruido utilizando como elemento activo un HEMT. Tanto los métodos de diseño, como el circuito final, fueron realizados y comprobados con programas de simulación, permitiendo de esta forma obtener el amplificador deseado.

      2. Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes.

        PubMed

        Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Leininger, Sven; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, David E K; Adamska, Maja

        2014-10-30

        Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome. PMID:25355364

      3. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

        SciTech Connect

        Kares, Robert John

        2014-10-31

        In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

      4. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage

        PubMed Central

        Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

        2012-01-01

        Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

      5. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

        PubMed Central

        Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

        2015-01-01

        Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

      6. Simulation Studies of the Vibrational Dynamics of para-HYDROGEN Clusters

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Faruk, Nabil F.; Yang, Jing; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

        2011-06-01

        This paper discusses the construction and application of reduced-dimensional potential energy surfaces for use in performing simulation of para-hydrogen clusters. Simple spherical averaging and `adiabatic-hindered-rotor' averaging treatments of the angular degrees of freedom are considered and compared. The resulting one-dimensional surface is used in quantum Monte Carlo simulations of para-hydrogen clusters of varying sizes. Energetic, and structural properties are computed and compared to previously published results, and vibrational frequency shifts are predicted and compared to available experimental measurements. H. Li, P.N. Roy and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 104305 (2010).

      7. Large scale visualization on the Cray XT3 using ParaView.

        SciTech Connect

        Rogers, David; Geveci, Berk; Eschenbert, Kent; Neundorf, Alexander; Marion, Patrick; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Greenfield, John

        2008-05-01

        Post-processing and visualization are key components to understanding any simulation. Porting ParaView, a scalable visualization tool, to the Cray XT3 allows our analysts to leverage the same supercomputer they use for simulation to perform post-processing. Visualization tools traditionally rely on a variety of rendering, scripting, and networking resources; the challenge of running ParaView on the Lightweight Kernel is to provide and use the visualization and post-processing features in the absence of many OS resources. We have successfully accomplished this at Sandia National Laboratories and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center.

      8. [Acute silicosis. An infrequent pneumoconiosis].

        PubMed

        Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Soto-de la Fuente, Andrés Eduardo; Soto-Vera, Eduardo Andrés; Leo-Méndez, Rodolfo

        2015-01-01

        Introducción: la silicosis aguda fue descrita inicialmente en 1900 por Betts. Se le denomina también silicoproteinosis alveolar. Es una forma infrecuente de neumoconiosis producida al utilizar chorro de arena (sandblast) para pulir. Caso clínico: masculino de 27 años, trabajó 4 años en un expendio de vidrios, esmerilándolos por medio de chorro de arena. Padecimiento de 4 años con disnea de esfuerzos rápidamente progresiva hasta mínimos esfuerzos, tos seca, emetizante y disneizante, con expectoración hialina 50 ml diarios, pérdida de 20 kg de peso en 1 año y dolor torácico generalizado de tipo pungitivo intenso. Frecuencia respiratoria 36X´ frecuencia cardiaca 120X´, estertores crepitantes basales bilaterales. En la telerradiografía de tórax se observa festón de Mengeaux en hemidiafragma derecho y en el vértice derecho, opacidades redondeadas entre 3 y 10 mm de diámetro tipo 2/2 r/r de la Clasificación de la OIT, 2000. En el pulmón izquierdo las opacidades confluyen formando un silicoma tipo B e imágenes en panal de abeja. Silueta cardiaca deshilachada y cardiomegalia grado 1. Fallece a los 5 años de iniciado su padecimiento. Conclusiones: se deben prohibir estas operaciones o aplicar programa de higiene industrial con uso de respirador autónomo.

      9. ParA2, a Vibrio cholerae chromosome partitioning protein, forms left-handed helical filaments on DNA.

        PubMed

        Hui, Monica P; Galkin, Vitold E; Yu, Xiong; Stasiak, Alicja Z; Stasiak, Andrzej; Waldor, Matthew K; Egelman, Edward H

        2010-03-01

        Most bacterial chromosomes contain homologs of plasmid partitioning (par) loci. These loci encode ATPases called ParA that are thought to contribute to the mechanical force required for chromosome and plasmid segregation. In Vibrio cholerae, the chromosome II (chrII) par locus is essential for chrII segregation. Here, we found that purified ParA2 had ATPase activities comparable to other ParA homologs, but, unlike many other ParA homologs, did not form high molecular weight complexes in the presence of ATP alone. Instead, formation of high molecular weight ParA2 polymers required DNA. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that ParA2 formed bipolar helical filaments on double-stranded DNA in a sequence-independent manner. These filaments had a distinct change in pitch when ParA2 was polymerized in the presence of ATP versus in the absence of a nucleotide cofactor. Fitting a crystal structure of a ParA protein into our filament reconstruction showed how a dimer of ParA2 binds the DNA. The filaments formed with ATP are left-handed, but surprisingly these filaments exert no topological changes on the right-handed B-DNA to which they are bound. The stoichiometry of binding is one dimer for every eight base pairs, and this determines the geometry of the ParA2 filaments with 4.4 dimers per 120 A pitch left-handed turn. Our findings will be critical for understanding how ParA proteins function in plasmid and chromosome segregation.

      10. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      11. Cáncer de pene—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de pene, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      12. Cáncer de páncreas—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      13. Cáncer de testículo—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de testículo, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

      14. Cáncer de vulva—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vulva, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      15. Cáncer de paratiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de paratiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      16. [Fut1 gene mutation for para-bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China].

        PubMed

        Huang, Hao-Bou; Fan, Li-Ping; Wai, Shi-Jin; Zeng, Feng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Rong

        2010-10-01

        This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China. The para-Bombay blood type of this individual was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of this individual was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then the PCR product was cloned into T vector. The mutation in coding region of fut1 gene was identified by TA cloning, so as to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual. The results indicated that the full coding region of fut1 gene was successfully amplified by PCR. AG deletion at position 547-552 on 2 homologous chromosomes was detected by TA cloning method, leading to a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that genetic mutation of fut1 gene in this para-bombay blood type individual was h1h1 homozygotic type.

      17. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

      18. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

      19. On the disentangling modes of ortho- and para-braids in mitosing mammalian spermatogonia.

        PubMed

        Matioli, G T

        1994-10-01

        This note complements a previous one (1), regarding in particular, mitotic separation of replica homologs from their templates, in mammalian spermatogonia. Topological differences between Ortho- and Para-braids determine different modes of antipodal segregation of paired homologs prior to onset of meiosis.

      20. Cáncer de intestino delgado—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de intestino delgado, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      1. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

      2. Estudios ALCHEMIST para el cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial

        Cancer.gov

        ALCHEMIST comprende tres estudios clínicos integrados de medicina de precisión diseñados para identificar a personas con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen ciertos cambios genéticos poco comunes.

      3. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

        PubMed Central

        Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

        2013-01-01

        In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

      4. Cáncer de tiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      5. Cáncer de ano—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de ano, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      6. Cáncer de útero—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

      7. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      8. Cáncer de la corteza suprarrenal—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de corteza suprarrenal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      9. Cáncer de uretra—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de uretra, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      10. Cáncer de vejiga—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de vejiga, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

      11. DFT calculations for the structure and properties of polychlorodibenzo-para-dioxine anion-radicals

        SciTech Connect

        Borisov, Yurii A.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Mazunov, V. A.; Nekrasov, Yu S.

        2005-07-31

        Borisov, YA., BC. Garrett, VA. Mazunov, and YS. Nekrasov. 2005. “ DFT calculations for the structure and properties of polychlorodibenzo-para-dioxine anion-radicals,” Journal of Structural Chemistry 46 (4): 591-595. http://www.springerlink.com/content/d361t549815667u7/fulltext.pdf

      12. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

        2011-01-01

        The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to assess this…

      13. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

        Cancer.gov

        Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

      14. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

      15. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

        Cancer.gov

        El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

      16. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas.

      17. Para-Professionals in Further Education: Changing Roles in Vocational Delivery

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Scott, Gill

        2005-01-01

        Roles and structures within further education colleges seem to be in constant change and development; roles are becoming blurred, and lecturers are taking on more management tasks. Alongside this has been the development of para-professional roles, using non-lecturers to undertake teaching tasks. This can allow for the greater involvement of…

      18. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

        Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

        Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

      19. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

        Cancer.gov

        Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

      20. Cáncer de hueso—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de hueso (óseo), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

      1. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

      2. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Paolantonio, Mario Di

        2011-01-01

        Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,…

      3. CoCEST: cobalt(II) amide-appended paraCEST MRI contrast agents.

        PubMed

        Dorazio, Sarina J; Olatunde, Abiola O; Spernyak, Joseph A; Morrow, Janet R

        2013-11-01

        The first examples of air-stable Co(II) paraCEST MRI contrast agents are reported. Amide NH protons on the complexes give rise to CEST peaks that are shifted up to 112 ppm from the bulk water resonance. One complex has multiple CEST peaks that may be useful for ratiometric mapping of pH.

      4. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

        SciTech Connect

        Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

        1983-04-01

        Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

      5. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

        EPA Science Inventory

        Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

      6. Intact cluster and chordate-like expression of ParaHox genes in a sea star

        PubMed Central

        2013-01-01

        Background The ParaHox genes are thought to be major players in patterning the gut of several bilaterian taxa. Though this is a fundamental role that these transcription factors play, their activities are not limited to the endoderm and extend to both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues. Three genes compose the ParaHox group: Gsx, Xlox and Cdx. In some taxa (mostly chordates but to some degree also in protostomes) the three genes are arranged into a genomic cluster, in a similar fashion to what has been shown for the better-known Hox genes. Sea urchins possess the full complement of ParaHox genes but they are all dispersed throughout the genome, an arrangement that, perhaps, represented the primitive condition for all echinoderms. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this group of genes we cloned and characterized all ParaHox genes, studied their expression patterns and identified their genomic loci in a member of an earlier branching group of echinoderms, the asteroid Patiria miniata. Results We identified the three ParaHox orthologs in the genome of P. miniata. While one of them, PmGsx is provided as maternal message, with no zygotic activation afterwards, the other two, PmLox and PmCdx are expressed during embryogenesis, within restricted domains of both endoderm and ectoderm. Screening of a Patiria bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library led to the identification of a clone containing the three genes. The transcriptional directions of PmGsx and PmLox are opposed to that of the PmCdx gene within the cluster. Conclusions The identification of P. miniata ParaHox genes has revealed the fact that these genes are clustered in the genome, in contrast to what has been reported for echinoids. Since the presence of an intact cluster, or at least a partial cluster, has been reported in chordates and polychaetes respectively, it becomes clear that within echinoderms, sea urchins have modified the original bilaterian arrangement. Moreover, the sea star

      7. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

        2003-08-01

        Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

      8. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

        PubMed

        Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

        1999-01-01

        Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria.

      9. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks

        PubMed Central

        Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim

        2016-01-01

        ABSTRACT Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr‐Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr‐Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr‐Lox genes and the Acr‐Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co‐opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

      10. Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

        SciTech Connect

        Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François

        2014-06-14

        Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm{sup −1}. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H{sub 2} molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) and para-H{sub 2}( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H{sub 2}( j ⩾ 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H{sub 2} rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

      11. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks.

        PubMed

        Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

        2016-03-01

        Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr-Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr-Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr-Lox genes and the Acr-Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co-opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

      12. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

        PubMed

        Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

        1999-01-01

        Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

      13. Peptides and small molecules of the plant-pathogen apoplastic arena

        PubMed Central

        Mott, G. Adam; Middleton, Maggie A.; Desveaux, Darrell; Guttman, David S.

        2014-01-01

        Plants reside within an environment rich in potential pathogens. Survival in the presence of such threats requires both effective perception of, and appropriate responses to, pathogenic attack. While plants lack an adaptive immune system, they have a highly developed and responsive innate immune system able to detect and inhibit the growth of the vast majority of potential pathogens. Many of the critical interactions that characterize the relationship between plants and pathogens are played out in the intercellular apoplastic space. The initial perception of pathogen invasion is often achieved through specific plant receptor-like kinases that recognize conserved molecular patterns presented by the pathogen or respond to the molecular debris caused by cellular damage. The perception of either microbial or damage signals by these receptors initiates a response that includes the production of peptides and small molecules to enhance cellular integrity and inhibit pathogen growth. In this review, we discuss the roles of apoplastic peptides and small molecules in modulating plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:25506352

      14. "You Have to Be in the Arena to Score a Goal"

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Stanistreet, Paul

        2010-01-01

        This article discusses the Women Making a Difference programme that has provided hundreds of women in Wales the skills they need to become decision-makers in their communities. The project is all about tapping into women's desire to make a difference in their communities, and getting women who, in most cases, are already active at grassroots level…

      15. Obstacles to "race equality" in the English National Health Service: Insights from the healthcare commissioning arena.

        PubMed

        Salway, Sarah; Mir, Ghazala; Turner, Daniel; Ellison, George T H; Carter, Lynne; Gerrish, Kate

        2016-03-01

        Inequitable healthcare access, experiences and outcomes across ethnic groups are of concern across many countries. Progress on this agenda appears limited in England given the apparently strong legal and policy framework. This disjuncture raises questions about how central government policy is translated into local services. Healthcare commissioning organisations are a potentially powerful influence on services, but have rarely been examined from an equity perspective. We undertook a mixed method exploration of English Primary Care Trust (PCT) commissioning in 2010-12, to identify barriers and enablers to commissioning that addresses ethnic healthcare inequities, employing:- in-depth interviews with 19 national Key Informants; documentation of 10 good practice examples; detailed case studies of three PCTs (70+ interviews; extensive observational work and documentary analysis); three national stakeholder workshops. We found limited and patchy attention to ethnic diversity and inequity within English healthcare commissioning. Marginalization of this agenda, along with ambivalence, a lack of clarity and limited confidence, perpetuated a reinforcing inter-play between individual managers, their organisational setting and the wider policy context. Despite the apparent contrary indications, ethnic equity was a peripheral concern within national healthcare policy; poorly aligned with other more dominant agendas. Locally, consideration of ethnicity was often treated as a matter of legal compliance rather than integral to understanding and meeting healthcare needs. Many managers and teams did not consider tackling ethnic healthcare inequities to be part-and-parcel of their job, lacked confidence and skills to do so, and questioned the legitimacy of such work. Our findings indicate the need to enhance the skills, confidence and competence of individual managers and commissioning teams and to improve organizational structures and processes that support attention to ethnic inequity. Greater political will and clearer national direction is also required to produce the system change needed to embed action on ethnic inequity within healthcare commissioning. PMID:26851409

      16. Natural leathers from natural materials: progressing toward a new arena in leather processing.

        PubMed

        Saravanabhavan, Subramani; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

        2004-02-01

        Globally, the leather industry is currently undergoing radical transformation due to pollution and discharge legislations. Thus, the leather industry is pressurized to look for cleaner options for processing the raw hides and skins. Conventional methods of pre-tanning, tanning and post-tanning processes are known to contribute more than 98% of the total pollution load from the leather processing. The conventional method of the tanning process involves the "do-undo" principle. Furthermore, the conventional methods employed in leather processing subject the skin/ hide to a wide variation in pH (2.8-13.0). This results in the emission of huge amounts of pollution loads such as BOD, COD, TDS, TS, sulfates, chlorides and chromium. In the approach illustrated here, the hair and flesh removal as well as fiber opening have been achieved using biocatalysts at pH 8.0, pickle-free natural tanning employing vegetable tannins, and post-tanning using environmentally friendly chemicals. Hence, this process involves dehairing, fiber opening, and pickle-free natural tanning followed by ecofriendly post-tanning. It has been found that the extent of hair removal and opening up of fiber bundles is comparable to that of conventionally processed leathers. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic analysis and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally chrome-tanned leathers through physical and hand evaluation. The process also exhibits zero metal (chromium) discharge and significant reduction in BOD, COD, TDS, and TS loads by 83, 69, 96, and 96%, respectively. Furthermore, the developed process seems to be economically viable.

      17. The plant cell nucleus: a true arena for the fight between plants and pathogens.

        PubMed

        Deslandes, Laurent; Rivas, Susana

        2011-01-01

        Communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus is a fundamental feature shared by both plant and animal cells. Cellular factors involved in the transport of macromolecules through the nuclear envelope, including nucleoporins, importins and Ran-GTP related components, are conserved among a variety of eukaryotic systems. Interestingly, mutations in these nuclear components compromise resistance signalling, illustrating the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking in plant innate immunity. Indeed, spatial restriction of defence regulators by the nuclear envelope and stimulus-induced nuclear translocation constitute an important level of defence-associated gene regulation in plants. A significant number of effectors from different microbial pathogens are targeted to the plant cell nucleus. In addition, key host factors, including resistance proteins, immunity components, transcription factors and transcriptional regulators shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and their level of nuclear accumulation determines the output of the defence response, further confirming the crucial role played by the nucleus during the interaction between plants and pathogens. Here, we discuss recent findings that situate the nucleus at the frontline of the mutual recognition between plants and invading microbes.

      18. Promoting ethical and objective practice in the medicolegal arena of disability evaluation.

        PubMed

        Martelli, M F; Zasler, N D; Johnson-Greene, D

        2001-08-01

        As providers of medical information and testimony, clinicians have ultimate responsibility for ethical conduct as it relates to this information. The authors offer the following recommendations for enhancing ethical relationships between expert clinicians and the courts. 1. Avoid or resist attorney efforts at enticement into joining the attorney-client team. Such compromises of scientific boundaries and ethical principles exist on a continuum ranging from standard attorney-client advocacy at the beginning of the expert consultation phase (e.g., promotional information at the forefront of retaining an expert, with either provision of selective or incomplete records or less than enthusiastic efforts to produce all records) and extending to completion of evaluation, when requests for changes in reports and documentation might be made. 2. Respect role boundaries and do not mix conflicting roles. Remember that the treating doctor possesses a bond with the patient but does not as a rule obtain complete preinjury and postinjury information in the context of assessing causality and apportionment. In contrast, the expert witness must conduct a thorough and multifaceted case analysis sans the physician-patient relationship in order to facilitate objectivity and allow optimum diagnostic formulations. Finally, the trial consultant's function in this adversarial process is to assist with critically scrutinizing and attacking positions of experts for the opposing side. These roles all represent inherently different interests, and mixing them can only reduce objectivity. 3. Insist on adequate time for thorough record review, evaluation, and report generation. Also insist on sufficient time and preparation for deposition and court appearances. 4. Work at building a reputation for general objectivity, reliance on multiple data sources, reaching opinions only after reviewing complete information from both sides, and completing the evaluation. 5. Spend a good amount of time actually treating the patient population being examined or being offered testimony about. This treatment should be current and should be of a similar frequency to treating practitioner specialists. Be able to discuss relevant research and scientific methodology issues competently and without notes. 6. Arrive at opinions only after reviewing all of the evidence from both sides of the adversarial fence, employing multiple data sources, completing the evaluation, and interpreting data within the full context of comprehensive historical, behavioral observation, and contextual information. Being otherwise favorable to retaining attorney interests suggests endorsement of "opinion prostitute," "scientific perjurer," or "hired gun" status. The only way a practitioner can reduce the likelihood of facing an "opinion prostitute" on the opposing side in future cases is to insist on establishing and maintaining a reputation for scientific objectivity. 7. Balance cases from plaintiff and defense attorneys. Predilection for one side or the other suggests bias and sets up predisposition to nonobjectivity. For example, a preponderance of plaintiff work suggests an overdiagnosis or uncritical sympathy bias, whereas a ratio that favors hiring by the defense suggests an underdiagnosis or skepticism bias. Perhaps Brodsky's suggested cut-off ratio of .8 for favorability findings would represent an initial cutoff for defense versus plaintiff ratio. That is, experts should do at least 20% work for the opposite side of the current case being represented. Further, it might be a reasonable expectation that data on these ratios be collected as an important method for ensuring objective opinions. 8. Ensure against excessive favorability to the side of the retaining attorney or firm. Objectivity demands that scientific opinions not be influenced by the position of the legal advocate. Importantly, Brodsky recommends using a ratio of .8 as a cut-off for detecting excessive bias. That is, practitioners should possess prerequisite objectivity to disagree with the referring attorney at least 20% of the time. We suggest that a more useful cut-off would be .75, where experts are expected to generate findings that do not support the referring attorney's position at least 25% of the time. 9. Never arrive at opinions that are inconsistent with plaintiff records, examination data, test data, behavioral presentation, and so forth, especially when such opinions are favorable to the side of the retaining attorney firm. Instead, use the following recommendations. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

      19. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

        PubMed

        Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

        2012-11-01

        This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity. PMID:23205002

      20. Obstacles to "race equality" in the English National Health Service: Insights from the healthcare commissioning arena.

        PubMed

        Salway, Sarah; Mir, Ghazala; Turner, Daniel; Ellison, George T H; Carter, Lynne; Gerrish, Kate

        2016-03-01

        Inequitable healthcare access, experiences and outcomes across ethnic groups are of concern across many countries. Progress on this agenda appears limited in England given the apparently strong legal and policy framework. This disjuncture raises questions about how central government policy is translated into local services. Healthcare commissioning organisations are a potentially powerful influence on services, but have rarely been examined from an equity perspective. We undertook a mixed method exploration of English Primary Care Trust (PCT) commissioning in 2010-12, to identify barriers and enablers to commissioning that addresses ethnic healthcare inequities, employing:- in-depth interviews with 19 national Key Informants; documentation of 10 good practice examples; detailed case studies of three PCTs (70+ interviews; extensive observational work and documentary analysis); three national stakeholder workshops. We found limited and patchy attention to ethnic diversity and inequity within English healthcare commissioning. Marginalization of this agenda, along with ambivalence, a lack of clarity and limited confidence, perpetuated a reinforcing inter-play between individual managers, their organisational setting and the wider policy context. Despite the apparent contrary indications, ethnic equity was a peripheral concern within national healthcare policy; poorly aligned with other more dominant agendas. Locally, consideration of ethnicity was often treated as a matter of legal compliance rather than integral to understanding and meeting healthcare needs. Many managers and teams did not consider tackling ethnic healthcare inequities to be part-and-parcel of their job, lacked confidence and skills to do so, and questioned the legitimacy of such work. Our findings indicate the need to enhance the skills, confidence and competence of individual managers and commissioning teams and to improve organizational structures and processes that support attention to ethnic inequity. Greater political will and clearer national direction is also required to produce the system change needed to embed action on ethnic inequity within healthcare commissioning.

      1. Spaces of Participation in Pre-School: Arenas for Establishing Power Orders?

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Lofdahl, Annica; Hagglund, Solveig

        2007-01-01

        This article reports an ethnographic study of pre-school children's social knowledge domains. Results show how the children's shared knowledge concerning social status and social differentiation in the group was strengthened and confirmed during a traditional teacher-led ring game, where they were supposed to choose a friend. We suggest that from…

      2. Science and the Nonscience Major: Addressing the Fear Factor in the Chemical Arena Using Forensic Science

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Labianca, Dominick A.

        2007-01-01

        This article describes an approach to minimizing the "fear factor" in a chemistry course for the nonscience major, and also addresses relevant applications to other science courses, including biology, geology, and physics. The approach emphasizes forensic science and affords students the opportunity to hone their analytical skills in an…

      3. Science in the political arena: Taking fire from the right and the left

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Applegate, David

        Science is under assault from both ends of the political spectrum in the form of budget cuts and an increased mistrust of scientists' motives. The title of Vannevar Bush's seminal report “Science: The Endless Frontier” has taken on new meaning as federal science agencies have experienced the frontier justice of steep budget cuts or even elimination. The Bush report, which was published 50 years ago, is the blueprint for U.S. government support of scientific research and development since World War II. Crediting scientific and technological breakthroughs with helping to win the war, Bush portrayed research and development as an engine for promoting national security and prosperity. The national security aspect has not been seriously questioned, but the role of nondefense science is being drastically redrawn by the 104th Congress over President Clinton's protests. At the same time, scientists are facing challenges from partisan politics on the left as environmental groups take confrontational stances toward scientific research, often due to poor communication. Unless these challenges are met, science could lose its unique role as a source of objective information.

      4. Health Education as an Arena for Adult Educators' Engagement in Social Justice

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hill, Lilian H.

        2011-01-01

        As American political discussion of health care access and costs escalated in view of the November 2010 election, it is clear that access to health care is inequitable. The acrimonious public debate and calls for the health care reform bill to be repealed echo the defeat of the 1993 health care reform bill, which also advocated universal health…

      5. The Trouble with Thinking like Arena: Learning to Use Simulation Software

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Rodgers, Diane M.; Moraga, Reinaldo J.

        2011-01-01

        Simulation software used for modeling has become as ubiquitous as computers themselves. Despite growing reliance on simulation in educational and workplace settings, users encounter frustration in using simulation software programs. The authors conducted a study with 26 engineering students and interviewed them about their experience learning the…

      6. A wideband dual-antenna receiver for wireless recording from animals behaving in large arenas.

        PubMed

        Lee, Seung Bae; Yin, Ming; Manns, Joseph R; Ghovanloo, Maysam

        2013-07-01

        A low-noise wideband receiver (Rx) is presented for a multichannel wireless implantable neural recording (WINeR) system that utilizes time-division multiplexing of pulse width modulated (PWM) samples. The WINeR-6 Rx consists of four parts: 1) RF front end; 2) signal conditioning; 3) analog output (AO); and 4) field-programmable gate array (FPGA) back end. The RF front end receives RF-modulated neural signals in the 403-490 MHz band with a wide bandwidth of 18 MHz. The frequency-shift keying (FSK) PWM demodulator in the FPGA is a time-to-digital converter with 304 ps resolution, which converts the analog pulse width information to 16-bit digital samples. Automated frequency tracking has been implemented in the Rx to lock onto the free-running voltage-controlled oscillator in the transmitter (Tx). Two antennas and two parallel RF paths are used to increase the wireless coverage area. BCI-2000 graphical user interface has been adopted and modified to acquire, visualize, and record the recovered neural signals in real time. The AO module picks three demultiplexed channels and converts them into analog signals for direct observation on an oscilloscope. One of these signals is further amplified to generate an audio output, offering users the ability to listen to ongoing neural activity. Bench-top testing of the Rx performance with a 32-channel WINeR-6 Tx showed that the input referred noise of the entire system at a Tx-Rx distance of 1.5 m was 4.58 μV rms with 8-bit resolution at 640 kSps. In an in vivo experiment, location-specific receptive fields of hippocampal place cells were mapped during a behavioral experiment in which a rat completed 40 laps in a large circular track. Results were compared against those acquired from the same animal and the same set of electrodes by a commercial hardwired recording system to validate the wirelessly recorded signals. PMID:23428612

      7. GCSE Art and Design: An Arena for Orthodoxy or Creative Endeavour?

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Walker, Keith; Parker, Jane

        2006-01-01

        This article explores the potential correlation between key aspects of the creative process and the requirements of GCSE Art and Design Specifications as determined and defined by stated assessment objectives. It considers approaches that might be employed to more effectively establish a link between pupils' creative endeavours and their necessary…

      8. Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Soled Phase Microextraction: Janusz Pawliszyn's Legacy in the Environmental Arena

        EPA Science Inventory

        Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has revolutionized the way samples are extracted, enabling rapid, automated, and solventless extraction of many different sample types, including air, water, soil, and biological samples. As such, SPME is widely used for environmental, food, fo...

      9. Getting Slammed: White Depictions of Race Discussions as Arenas of Violence

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        DiAngelo, Robin; Sensoy, Özlem

        2014-01-01

        For many educators who lead cross-racial discussions, creating "safe" spaces in which students can express their views is a familiar goal. Yet what constitutes safety is rarely defined or contextualized. In the absence of this contextualization, the goal of safety is most often driven by White participants who complain that they are (or…

      10. The Impact of Foreign Language Instruction in the Elementary School Arena: It Does Make a Difference.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Davis-Wiley, Patricia

        This paper presents results of a tri-level evaluation of an on-going elementary school second language Foreign Language Experience (FLEX) program and explores the potential efficacy of such a program as viewed by the learners, their parents, and the regular classroom teachers. The program was begun in Spring 1982 in kindergarten and first grade in…

      11. Social Networking and eDating: Charting the Boundaries of an Emerging Self-Service Arena

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Romm, Celia T.; Oliver, Dave

        This chapter focuses on social networking and eDating as emerging areas of self-service. Following an overview of the theoretical aspects of self-service, two models or typologies for categorizing business models in the two areas are presented, namely, one typology for social networking services and another for eDating services. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the psychological, social, legal, and other implications from the models, as well as suggestions for future research that emanate from the issues presented in the chapter.

      12. Fisheries management applications of riverine hydroacoustics: 30 years' experience with applied technology in the practical arena

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Lapointe, Michael F.

        2005-04-01

        Some examples of the successes and challenges encountered by the Pacific Salmon Commission in the application of riverine hydroacoustics to fisheries management of Fraser River sockeye salmon are reviewed. Riverine hydroacoustics estimates have been an integral part of the fisheries data collected by the Pacific Salmon Commission for over 30 years. Real time estimates of fish passage provide intra-seasonal feedback on the progress toward escapement targets and information about changing total abundance levels. This information has allowed managers to adjust fisheries schedules and improved their ability to meet catch and escapement objectives. Despite these successes, application of technology has encountered a number of challenges including: (1) the interpretation of acoustics data in determining fish targets, (2) quantification of accuracy of hydroacoustic estimates in large rivers, (3) misperceptions about estimation methods by the public, and (4) inevitable comparisons with estimates from other sources and their effect on perceived accuracy of the hydroacoustic estimates. Lessons learned from the Pacific Salmon Commission experience are summarized with the objective of helping others engaged in the application of riverine acoustics technology to fisheries management problems.

      13. Breaking into the International Arena: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences publishing Report 2013.

        PubMed

        Ghazli, Nur Farahin; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

        2014-05-01

        The most recent Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences (MJMS)-MyCite report has shown that it has achieved a level becoming of a leading national medical science journal. This editorial reports on submission and acceptance rates of MJMS throughout the year 2013 and their geographical contributors. Our rejection rate of 29.76% with a 21.95% withdrawal rate because of poor quality of content and data as well as plagiarism indicates the seriousness of this journal to maintain the integrity and quality of it's scientific data.

      14. Knowledge Exchange Processes in Organizations and Policy Arenas: A Narrative Systematic Review of the Literature

        PubMed Central

        Contandriopoulos, Damien; Lemire, Marc; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tremblay, Émile

        2010-01-01

        Context: This article presents the main results from a large-scale analytical systematic review on knowledge exchange interventions at the organizational and policymaking levels. The review integrated two broad traditions, one roughly focused on the use of social science research results and the other focused on policymaking and lobbying processes. Methods: Data collection was done using systematic snowball sampling. First, we used prospective snowballing to identify all documents citing any of a set of thirty-three seminal papers. This process identified 4,102 documents, 102 of which were retained for in-depth analysis. The bibliographies of these 102 documents were merged and used to identify retrospectively all articles cited five times or more and all books cited seven times or more. All together, 205 documents were analyzed. To develop an integrated model, the data were synthesized using an analytical approach. Findings: This article developed integrated conceptualizations of the forms of collective knowledge exchange systems, the nature of the knowledge exchanged, and the definition of collective-level use. This literature synthesis is organized around three dimensions of context: level of polarization (politics), cost-sharing equilibrium (economics), and institutionalized structures of communication (social structuring). Conclusions: The model developed here suggests that research is unlikely to provide context-independent evidence for the intrinsic efficacy of knowledge exchange strategies. To design a knowledge exchange intervention to maximize knowledge use, a detailed analysis of the context could use the kind of framework developed here. PMID:21166865

      15. Organization Theory, Political Theory, and the International Arena: Some Hope But Very Little Time.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Thayer, Frederick C.

        This paper presents background on a non-hierarchical organizational perspective. In addition, it presents guidelines for using a non-hierarchical perspective to create generally acceptable forms of international organizations. The theory on which the non-hierarchical perspective is based maintains that a form of comprehensive global planning…

      16. Beyond the Criminal Arena: The Justice Studies Program at Winston-Salem State University

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Harvey, Lynn K.; Mitchell, Alvin D.

        2006-01-01

        The justice studies program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU) is designed to produce a new breed of justice practitioners whose understanding of justice and its administration is broadened to include the political, social, economic, and cultural conditions within which issues of crime and punishment are pursued and addressed. While it…

      17. Simple and effective monitoring of the electromagnetic field in the smart cities arena

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Ares-Pena, Francisco J.; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Iodice, Antonio; Salas-Sánchez, Aarón A.

        2016-08-01

        A simple and economical method for monitoring the electromagnetic field intensity in built-up areas is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the field level over a limited number of points at street level in the city and their transmission to an operative control center, where the field values all over the city are correctly interpolated in real time. Citizens might obtain these values at their sites, via Internet, or by connecting with a dedicated call center. Numerical evaluations of the electromagnetic field intensity via the new developed model and confirming experimental results are finally presented.

      18. Elementary English Education: An Arena of Social Struggle for Professional Chinese Parents

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Chao, Xia; Xue, Mo; Xu, Ming

        2014-01-01

        In response to the national and individual needs for English instruction, China mandated English provision in elementary schools in 2001. Grounded in the work of Bourdieu, this study examines professional Chinese parents' language attitudes in relation to their social positions. It draws data from interviews with 20 professional Chinese…

      19. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

        PubMed Central

        Pal, Dilipkumar; Banerjee, Subham; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

        2012-01-01

        Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system's response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind. PMID:22470889

      20. Transnational Mobility and International Academic Employment: Gatekeeping in an Academic Competition Arena

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Cantwell, Brendan

        2011-01-01

        This article draws upon concepts developed in recent empirical and theoretical work on high skilled and academic mobility and migration including accidental mobility, forced mobility and negotiated mobility. These concepts inform a situated, qualitative study of mobility among international postdoctoral researchers in life sciences and engineering…

      1. Communication: An Arena of Development. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 19.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Budwig, Nancy, Ed.; Uzgiris, Ina C., Ed.; Wertsch, James V., Ed.

        This volume compiles papers from a 1996 conference on communication held at Clark University (Worcester, Massachusetts). The goal of the conference was to share the work and ideas regarding the development of communication and meaning comprehension. The papers are organized into three parts, covering the organization and the origins of…

      2. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

        PubMed

        Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

        2013-06-01

        Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

      3. Significant Conversations and Significant Networks--Exploring the Backstage of the Teaching Arena

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Roxa, Torgny; Martensson, Katarina

        2009-01-01

        This article presents an inquiry into conversations that academic teachers have about teaching. The authors investigated to whom they talk and the forms that these conversations take. The findings indicate that most teachers rely on a small number of significant others for conversations that are characterised by their privacy, by mutual trust and…

      4. The Many Faces of Entrepreneurship: A Discursive Battle for the School Arena

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Leffler, Eva

        2009-01-01

        Entrepreneurship and enterprise in schools are concepts that are appearing more and more frequently in local curricula for the compulsory nine-year school system in Sweden. The meanings of the concepts of entrepreneurship and enterprise in schools vary, however. Over the last few years, the concept of entrepreneurship has started to appear in…

      5. Regulating off-label drug use in India: The arena for concern

        PubMed Central

        Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh

        2015-01-01

        Off-label use of drugs is relatively common in medical practice, even if it's often not supported by strong scientific evidence. Off-label use of medicine not only involves physicians and pharmaceutical companies, but regulatory agencies and patients as well. Therapeutic options might get restricted without off-label prescribing in some patient population. Off-label uses can be useful to patients with an orphan disease where sometimes it can be the only available treatment. Permitting the promotion of drugs for off-label uses may be appropriate in instances in which a drug can improve the quality (e.g., same or better outcomes at lower cost). Although many controversies exist, experts generally agree that further efforts are needed to increase access to suitable off-label drugs for patients with rare and other diseases. However, they also concur that potential inappropriate promotion, as well as possibly dangerous prescribing practices for these drugs, should be prevented. Proponents argue that the key benefit of allowing manufacturers to distribute off-label information is that it allows more data to be readily available to physicians, enabling them to make better treatment decisions. PMID:26229747

      6. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games as Arenas for Second Language Learning

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Peterson, Mark

        2010-01-01

        This article investigates contemporary research on the use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) in language education. The development and key features of these games are explored. This is followed by an examination of the theories proposed as a basis for game-based learning, and the claims made regarding the value of…

      7. Coprophilous fungi: antibiotic discovery and functions in an underexplored arena of microbial defensive mutualism.

        PubMed

        Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B; An, Zhiqiang

        2013-10-01

        Microbial antibiotics can mediate mutualisms and interorganism communications. Herbivorous animal dung offers opportunities for discovery of new antibiotics from microbial communities that compete for a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource. Distinct lineages form a specialized community of coprophilous (dung-colonizing) fungi. Bacteria, protists, invertebrates, the mammalian digestive system, and other fungi can pose challenges to their fitness in the dung environment. The well-characterized diversity of dung fungi offers accessible systems for dissecting the function of antibiotics and for exploring fungal genomes for new antibiotics. Their potential for antibiotic discovery is evidenced by a high frequency of antifungal antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites from limited prior efforts and from mapping biosynthetic pathways in the genomes of the coprophilous fungi Podospora anserina and Sordaria macrospora.

      8. Framework for Educational Robotics: A Multiphase Approach to Enhance User Learning in a Competitive Arena

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Lye, Ngit Chan; Wong, Kok Wai; Chiou, Andrew

        2013-01-01

        Educational robotics involves using robots as an educational tool to provide a long term, and progressive learning activity, to cater to different age group. The current concern is that, using robots in education should not be an instance of a one-off project for the sole purpose of participating in a competitive event. Instead, it should be a…

      9. Comparison of impact characteristics of four different ice hockey arena dasher boards.

        PubMed

        Poutiainen, Piritta; Peltonen, Jussi; Isolehto, Juha; Avela, Janne

        2014-01-01

        During recent years the incidence of ice hockey related concussions has increased. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine how dasher board materials and structures affect impact characteristics and thereby concussion risk. The measurements were divided into two parts; 1. physiological characteristics of body checks were determined in real game measurements, and 2. simulation of body checks in the laboratory. Peak forces and stopping distances were determined from the high-speed camera data, and stiffness values were subsequently calculated. Dasher board materials and structures had a clear effect on impact characteristics. Flexible protective shielding material resulted in 17% and 16% lower peak forces, 110% and 136% greater stopping distances and 62% and 56% lower stiffness values in the straight and the corner parts of the dasher board, respectively, compared to the reference dasher board. However, the dasher board with flexible protective shielding material including metal shielding support posts between each shielding panel yielded inconsistent results. The shielding support posts were much stiffer compared to the protective shielding. The single-framed dasher board was found to be 29% and 11% more flexible than its dual-framed counterpart, and heavier protective shielding resulted in 33% and 19% higher element stiffness in the straight and the corner parts of the dasher board, respectively. In light of the results and the epidemiology of concussions, it seems that the most safe dasher board would be single-framed with light and flexible protective shielding material, and would not include shielding support posts.

      10. Automatic external defibrillators in the sports arena: the right place, the right time.

        PubMed

        Cantwell, J D

        1998-12-01

        At first glance, the idea of having automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) at sports events may seem curious, since spectator sports are the domain of young, healthy athletes. Yet athletes are not entirely free of cardiac risk. More important, there are many other people at sports events (officials, coaches, fans) who are at risk for cardiac arrest. In just one example, baseball umpire John McSherry suffered a fatal heart attack before a national TV audience during the Cincinnati Reds' home opener in April 1996.

      11. An arena for model building in the Cohen-Glashow very special relativity

        SciTech Connect

        Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Tureanu, A.

        2010-02-15

        The Cohen-Glashow Very Special Relativity (VSR) algebra is defined as the part of the Lorentz algebra which upon addition of CP or T invariance enhances to the full Lorentz group, plus the space-time translations. We show that noncommutative space-time, in particular noncommutative Moyal plane, with light- like noncommutativity provides a robust mathematical setting for quantum field theories which are VSR invariant and hence set the stage for building VSR invariant particle physics models. In our setting the VSR invariant theories are specified with a single deformation parameter, the noncommutativity scale {Lambda}{sub NC}. Preliminary analysis with the available data leads to {Lambda}{sub NC} {>=} 1-10 TeV.

      12. [The beginnings of cybernetics and its introduction into the biomedical arena in the Czech Republic].

        PubMed

        Wünsch, Z

        1998-01-01

        During fifties at most few tens of persons were in Czechoslovakia who believed in the future of computers and cybernetics. At the sixties, the Czechoslovak Cybernetics was established and in 1962 the Main Problem Committee for the Medical Cybernetics was founded at the Ministry of Health. The first tentative lectures on this topics at the Charles University Medical faculty were introduced in the late sixties. The growing interest enabled to hold national and international conferences since the middle of seventies. There is mentioned the whole spectrum of these goal-directed activities so important for the future.

      13. A bill for the relief of Javier Lopez-Urenda and Maria Leticia Arenas.

        THOMAS, 112th Congress

        Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

        2011-03-02

        03/02/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1132-1133) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

      14. A bill for the relief of Javier Lopez-Urenda and Maria Leticia Arenas.

        THOMAS, 113th Congress

        Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

        2013-03-18

        03/18/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1902-1903) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

      15. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

        2014-01-01

        The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in…

      16. Missing links in cardiology: long non-coding RNAs enter the arena.

        PubMed

        Peters, Tim; Schroen, Blanche

        2014-06-01

        Heart failure as a consequence of ischemic, hypertensive, infectious, or hereditary heart disease is a major challenge in cardiology and topic of intense research. Recently, new players appeared in this field and promise deeper insights into cardiac development, function, and disease. Long non-coding RNAs are a novel class of transcripts that can regulate gene expression and may have many more functions inside the cell. Here, we present examples on long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) function in cardiac development and give suggestions on how lncRNAs may be involved in cardiomyocyte dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, and inflammation, three hallmarks of the failing heart. Above that, we point out opportunities as well as challenges that should be considered in the endeavor to investigate cardiac lncRNAs. PMID:24619481

      17. Lesser mealworms on poultry farms: A potential arena for the dissemination of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance

        Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

        The increase in poultry production due to market demand stimulates an increase in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and thus confined raising resulting in an increased density of birds in poultry houses. The close quarters and high bird numbers generally favor the survival of insect pes...

      18. [A prototype of oligonucleotide microarray for detection of pathogens relating to arena- and Filoviridae families].

        PubMed

        Zhirnov, I V; Ryabinin, V A; Sinyakov, A N; Ternovoy, V A; Shikov, A N

        2015-01-01

        A prototype of oligonucleotide microarray for detection of Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Guanarito viruses (Arenaviridae family), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae family) was presented. An original approach founded on virus proteins (nucleocapsid protein for Junin, Guanarito, Machupo viruses and RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase for Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses) amino acid sequences analysis with subsequent transform of revealed unique peptides into due sets of oligonucleotides was used to design probes for hybridization and primers.

      19. What is preventing relevant understanding of climate science in the public, media, and policy arenas?

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Reisman, J. P.

        2012-12-01

        We need to do a critical self examination of why the communication has thus far failed to sufficiently convey relevance in order to provide a basis for public and policy-maker understanding of the science. This session will focus on major impediments to communicating relevance and the foundations of climate science in two target audiences, those that are unsure, and those that have been misled. The question of 'why' is key. Considerations focus on social psychology and confluence effects that improve, or impede, climate communications and achievement of relevant understanding. Key components of human understanding require context in order to be addressed. Understanding these components form the basis for more effective climate communications.

      20. The Managerial Tutor: A Producer of Knowledge in a Global Arena

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Fletcher, Roland

        2007-01-01

        The role of the educational professional and the speed at which educational reforms have been introduced within higher education has transformed the academic into a manager. This is explained through a variety of changes; for example, technology and the transformation of traditional workplaces being replaced by virtual workplaces through the use…

      1. Modeling the effects of value-added processing and logistics using arena

        Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

        Scarcity and cost of nonrenewable fossil fuels have been a growing focus of many energy-dependent nations, including the U.S., for the past couple of decades. There are mainly two ways to approach these problems: (1) reducing the energy dependency and/or (2) developing alternative means of energy pr...

      2. The Production of Scholarly Knowledge in the Global Market Arena: University Ranking Systems, Prestige and Power

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Collyer, Fran

        2013-01-01

        The relationships between disciplines and the institutions within which they are situated is a fertile area for researching the shaping of sociological knowledge. Applying theoretical insights from the sociology of knowledge, this article draws on an empirical study of research publications in the sociology of health and medicine to show which…

      3. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

        PubMed

        Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

        2012-11-01

        This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity.

      4. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

        SciTech Connect

        Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

        2013-03-15

        Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

      5. Two prevalent h alleles in para-Bombay haplotypes among 250,000 Taiwanese.

        PubMed

        Chen, Ding-Ping; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Wang, Wei-Ting; Peng, Chien-Ting; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Lin, Kuan-Tsou; Sun, Chien-Feng

        2004-01-01

        Alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of fucose to the C-2 position of galactose on type II precursor substrate Gal beta1-4GlcNAc beta1-R. It plays an important biological role in the formation of H antigen, a precursor oligosaccharide for both A and B antigens on red blood cells. Aberration of alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activity by gene mutations results in decreased synthesis of H antigen, leading to the para-Bombay phenotype. In this study, we collected about 250,000 blood samples in Taiwan during 5 yr and identified the subjects with para-Bombay phenotype. Then we analyzed the sequence of the alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene by direct sequencing and gene cloning methods, using the blood samples of 30 para-Bombay individuals and 30 control subjects who were randomly selected. The goals of this study were to search for new h alleles, to determine the h allele frequencies, and to test whether the sporadic theory is applicable in Taiwan. Six different h alleles (ha, 547-548 AG-del; hb, 880-881 TT-del; hc, R220C; hd, R220H; he, F174L; and hf, N327T) were observed. Two h alleles, he and hf, were newly discovered in Taiwan. The he allele has a nucleotide 522C>A point mutation, predicting the amino acid 174 substitution of Phe to Leu; the hf allele has missense mutation of nucleotide 980A>C, predicting the amino acid 327 substitution of Asn to Thr. Frequencies of the 6 alleles are ha 46.67%, hb 38.33%, hc 5.00%, hd 1.67%, he 3.33%, and hf 5.00%, respectively. These findings in the Taiwanese population confirm previous observations in other populations that the Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes are due to diverse, sporadic, nonfunctional alleles, predominantly ha and hb, leading to H deficiency of red blood cells. In contrast to previous reports of non-prevalent associations of h alleles with para-Bombay phenotype, our results suggest a regional allele preference associated with para-Bombay individuals in Taiwan.

      6. Rotational excitations in para-H2+para-H2 collisions: Full- and reduced-dimensional quantum wave packet studies comparing different potential energy surfaces

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Otto, Frank; Gatti, Fabien; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

        2008-02-01

        We study the process of rotational excitation in the collisions of para-H2 with para-H2 by propagating wave packets with the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) algorithm. Transition probabilities are then calculated by the method of Tannor and Weeks based on time-correlation functions. Calculations were carried out up to a total angular momentum of J =70 to compute integral cross sections up to 1.2eV in collision energy and thermal rate coefficients from 100to3000K. The process is studied on the full-dimensional potential energy surface of Boothroyd-Martin-Keogh-Peterson (BMKP) as well as on the rigid rotor surface of Diep and Johnson. We test the validity of the rigid rotor approximation by also considering two rigid rotor restrictions of the BMKP potential energy surface (PES). Additionally, we investigate a variant of the BMKP PES suggested by Pogrebnya and Clary [Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 523 (2002)] with reduced anisotropy. We compare our results with previous theoretical data for the cross sections and with experimental data for the rate coefficients at low temperatures.

      7. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

        PubMed Central

        Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

        2016-01-01

        In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

      8. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

        PubMed

        Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

        2016-11-01

        Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved. PMID:27505165

      9. Energy cost of paraplegic locomotion with the ORLAU ParaWalker.

        PubMed

        Nene, A V; Patrick, J H

        1989-02-01

        Ten subjects with neurological lesion levels between T4 and T9 have been evaluated in the laboratory at ORLAU using their orthosis in its mechanical form alone (without FES assist). Initially the oxygen consumption at rest was measured. Then the patients were asked to walk (orthotic gait) at their preferred constant steady speed for a period of 5 minutes. Min. VO2 was measured during the exercise. From these readings the energy cost and consumption of the patients' gait was calculated. Our results show that the ParaWalker allows more efficient walking than do bilateral long leg braces and a paraplegic 3 point gait. It also shows that higher speeds with lower energy cost walking is possible with a different orthotic approach for high or mid thoracic lesion paraplegics. We believe that the energy demands to walk with the ParaWalker are within sustainable limits.

      10. Molecular characterization of neurally expressing genes in the para sodium channel gene cluster of Drosophila

        SciTech Connect

        Hong, Chang-Sook; Ganetzky, B.

        1996-03-01

        To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. 76 refs., 11 figs.

      11. A Density Functional Approach to Para-hydrogen at Zero Temperature

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Ancilotto, Francesco; Barranco, Manuel; Navarro, Jesús; Pi, Marti

        2016-10-01

        We have developed a density functional (DF) built so as to reproduce either the metastable liquid or the solid equation of state of bulk para-hydrogen, as derived from quantum Monte Carlo zero temperature calculations. As an application, we have used it to study the structure and energetics of small para-hydrogen clusters made of up to N=40 molecules. We compare our results for liquid clusters with diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations and find a fair agreement between them. In particular, the transition found within DMC between hollow-core structures for small N values and center-filled structures at higher N values is reproduced. The present DF approach yields results for (pH_2)_N clusters indicating that for small N values a liquid-like character of the clusters prevails, while solid-like clusters are instead energetically favored for N ≥ 15.

      12. Polar Effects Control the Gas-phase Reactivity of Charged para-Benzyne Analogs

        PubMed Central

        Wittrig, Ashley M.; Archibold, Enada F.; Sheng, Huaming; Nash, John J.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

        2014-01-01

        The gas-phase reactivity of charged para-benzynes is entirely unexplored as they and/or their precursors tend to undergo ring-opening upon their generation. We report here a gas-phase reactivity study of two such benzynes, the 2,5-didehydropyridinium and 5,8-didehydroisoquinolinium cations, generated in a modified dual-linear quadrupole ion trap (DLQIT) mass spectrometer. Both biradicals were found to form diagnostic products with organic molecules, indicating the presence of two radical sites. As opposed to earlier predictions that the singlet-triplet (S-T) splitting controls the radical reactivity of such species, the 2,5-didehydropyridinium cation reacts much faster in spite of its larger S-T splitting. Calculated vertical electron affinities of the radical sites of the para-benzynes, a parameter related to the polarity of the transition states of their reactions, appears to be the most important reactivity controlling factor. PMID:25838787

      13. Active sensitization and occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by para-tertiary-butylcatechol.

        PubMed

        Estlander, T; Kostiainen, M; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

        1998-02-01

        Para-tertiary-butylcatechol (PTBC) is a rare allergen which is used in the rubber, paint and petroleum industries. We present 9 patients who were sensitized to PTBC and examined at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) between 1974 and 1995. 3 of the patients had been exposed to PTBC in their work. 2 of them also had allergic reactions to para-tertiary-butylphenol (PTBP)-formaldehyde resin and to PTBP. 5 of the patients became sensitized to PTBC from patch testing. PTBC was found to be one of the most common causes of active sensitization in our clinic. Accordingly, at the FIOH, the patch test concentration of PTBC was lowered to 0.25% and this lower concentration is recommended for general use.

      14. ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO-PARA-H{sub 2} MOLECULAR COMPLEX

        SciTech Connect

        Potapov, A. V.; Surin, L. A.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Panfilov, V. A.; Dumesh, B. S.; Raston, P. L.; Jaeger, W.

        2009-10-01

        The rotational spectrum of the CO-para-H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, produced using a molecular jet expansion, was observed with two different techniques: OROTRON intracavity millimeter-wave spectroscopy and pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Thirteen transitions in the frequency range from 80 to 130 GHz and two transitions in the 14 GHz region were measured and assigned, allowing for a precise determination of the corresponding energy level positions of CO-para-H{sub 2}. The data obtained enable further radio astronomical searches for this molecular complex and provide a sensitive test of the currently best available intermolecular potential energy surface for the CO-H{sub 2} system.

      15. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

        PubMed Central

        Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

        1996-01-01

        To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

      16. H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds.

        PubMed

        Minh, Y C; Irvine, W M; Brewer, M K

        1991-01-01

        Several H2CS ortho and para transitions have been observed toward interstellar molecular clouds, including cold, dark clouds and star-forming regions. We derive H2CS fractional abundances f(H2CS) approximately 1-2 10(-9) relative to molecular hydrogen towards TMC-1, Orion A, and NGC 7538, and approximately 5 10(-10) for L134N. The H2CS ortho-to-para ratios in TMC-1 are approximately 1.8 towards the cyanopolyyne peak and the ammonia peak, which may indicate the thermalization of H2CS on 10 K grains. We derive a ratio of approximately 3, the statistical value, for Orion (3N, 1E) and NGC 7538, while we find a value approximately 2 for Orion (KL).

      17. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C-H functionalization

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

        2016-08-01

        Efficient C-H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C-H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C-H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C-H functionalization reactions.

      18. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C–H functionalization

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

        2016-08-01

        Efficient C–H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C–H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C–H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C–H functionalization reactions.

      19. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Arnal, E. M.

        Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

      20. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

        PubMed Central

        Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

        2015-01-01

        Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869

      1. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

        PubMed

        Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

        2016-11-01

        Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved.

      2. Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.

        2013-12-01

        Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

      3. Kyste géant para-urétral feminine

        PubMed Central

        Kassogué, Amadou; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Ouattara, Zanafon; Diarra, Alkadri; Tembely, Aly; Ouattara, Kalilou; Farih, My Hassan

        2014-01-01

        Le kyste géant para-urétral féminin infecté est rarement rapporté dans la littérature. Ce kyste est différent du diverticule sous urétral sur le plan clinique, diagnostique et thérapeutique. Sa pathogénie se confond avec celle des diverticules sous urétraux. Son traitement n'est pas bien codifié, vu sa rareté. Nous rapportons un cas atypique de kyste géant para urétral infecté chez une jeune femme de 26 ans. Le kyste était symptomatique et la patiente a eu un traitement chirurgical. Nous discutons les aspects cliniques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare à travers une revue de la littérature.

      4. Repeated Topical Application of para-Phenylenediamine Induces Renal Histopathological Changes in Rats

        PubMed Central

        Bharali, Manuj Kr.; Basumatary, Rajeev; Rahman, Taibur; Dutta, Karabi

        2012-01-01

        Hemolytic anemia and rhabdomyolysis have been often reported to be an adverse effect of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity both in experimental and real-life scenario. para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a derivative of para-nitroaniline and has been found as an ingredient of almost all hair dye formulations in varying concentrations from 2% to 4% w/v. Earlier studies have reported that the accidental oral ingestion of PPD in humans can lead to acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis. In the present investigation, we have tested the chronic topical application of PPD and its effect on the renal histology of Sprague-Dawley rats. The experiment provides clear evidence that topically applied PPD induces hemolytic anemia as evident from the decrease in the total RBC count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin content apart from rhabdomyolysis which subsequently causes acute renal failure in rats. PMID:22778510

      5. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

        En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

      6. [Effect of quantum differences of ortho and para H2O spin-isomers on water properties: biophysical aspect].

        PubMed

        Pershin, S M

        2013-01-01

        Quantum differences of ortho/para H2O spin-isomers are considered as a key factor that determines water property taking into account the ortho/para conversion and the unbalanced. (1:1) ortho/para ratio in water. The biophysical mechanism of jump in the permeability of erythrocytes at the level of microcapillary at 36.6 degrees C in water-based physiological solution and at 37.4 degrees C in heavy water is proposed and discussed. PMID:25481961

      7. [Effect of quantum differences of ortho and para H2O spin-isomers on water properties: biophysical aspect].

        PubMed

        2013-01-01

        Quantum differences of ortho/para H2O spin-isomers are considered as a key factor that determines water property taking into account the ortho/para conversion and the unbalanced. (1:1) ortho/para ratio in water. The biophysical mechanism of jump in the permeability of erythrocytes at the level of microcapillary at 36.6 degrees C in water-based physiological solution and at 37.4 degrees C in heavy water is proposed and discussed. PMID:25508813

      8. ParaDiS on BlueGene/L: scalable line dynamics

        SciTech Connect

        Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Fier, J; Hiratani, M; Pierce, T; Tang, M; Rhee, M; Yates, R K; Arsenlis, A

        2004-04-29

        We describe an innovative highly parallel application program, ParaDiS, which computes the plastic strength of materials by tracing the evolution of dislocation lines over time. We discuss the issues of scaling the code to tens of thousands of processors, and present early scaling results of the code run on a prototype of the BlueGene/L supercomputer being developed by IBM in partnership with the US DOE's ASC program.

      9. Cáncer de cuello uterino—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

      10. Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4

        SciTech Connect

        Patchett, John; Ahrens, James; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave

        2009-01-01

        Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

      11. Cáncer de pulmón—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de pulmón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas

      12. ParaDiS on Blue Gene/L: stepping up to the challenge

        SciTech Connect

        Hommes, G; Arsenlis, A; Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Cook, R; Hiratani, M; Oppestrup, T; Rhee, M; Tang, M

        2006-06-09

        This paper reports on the efforts to enable fully scalable simulations of Dislocation Line Dynamics (DLD) for direct calculations of strength of crystalline materials. DLD simulations are challenging and do not lend themselves naturally to parallel computing. Through a combinations of novel physical approaches, mathematical algorithms and computational science developments, a new DLD code ParaDiS is shown to take meaningful advantage of BG/L and, by doing so, to enable discovery class science by computation.

      13. Iodine(III)-Mediated para-Selective Direct Imidation of Anilides.

        PubMed

        Pialat, Amélie; Bergès, Julien; Sabourin, Axel; Vinck, Robin; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

        2015-07-01

        The direct, nucleophilic imidation of acetanilide derivatives has been performed under mild, iodine(III)-mediated or -catalyzed conditions, employing lithium triflimide as the nitrogen source. The reaction exhibits exclusive regioselectivity for the para position and shows a good tolerance for varied functional groups at both the ortho or meta positions. Preliminary mechanistic data suggest that the LiNTf2 reagent plays a key role in the reactivity. PMID:26095155

      14. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

        PubMed

        Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

        2012-06-01

        Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference. PMID:22897105

      15. [Para-Bombay phenotype caused by combined heterozygote of two bases deletion on fut1 alleles].

        PubMed

        Ma, Kan-Rong; Tao, Shu-Dan; Lan, Xiao-Fei; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Xu, Xian-Guo; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

        2011-02-01

        This study was purposed to investigate the molecular basis of a para-Bombay phenotype for screening and identification of rare blood group. ABO and H phenotypes of the proband were identified by serological techniques. The exon 6 to exon 7 of ABO gene and full coding region of α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (fut1) gene of the proband were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the amplified fragments. The haplotype of compound heterozygote of fut1 was also identified by cloning sequencing. The results indicated that a rare para-Bombay phenotype was confirmed by serological techniques. Two deletion or insertion variant sites near nucleotide 547 and 880 were detected in fut1 gene. The results of cloning sequence showed that one haplotype of fut1 gene was two bases deletion at 547-552 (AGAGAG→AGAG), and another one was two bases deletion at position 880-882 (TTT→T). Both two variants caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that a rare para-Bombay phenotype is found and confirmed in blood donor population. The molecular basis of this individual is compound heterozygote of two bases deletion on fut1 gene which weaken the activity of α-1, 2-fucosyltransferase.

      16. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

        PubMed

        Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

        2012-06-01

        Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference.

      17. [Molecular genetic basis for para-Bombay phenotypes in two cases].

        PubMed

        He, Yang-Ming; Xu, Xian-Guo; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Yan, Li-Xing

        2007-06-01

        This study was purposed to investigate the molecular genetics basis for para-Bombay phenotype. The para-Bombay phenotype of two probands was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase gene (FUT1 and FUT2) in the probands was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplified fragments were directly sequenced, meanwhile the mutations of FUT1 were also identified by TOPO TA cloning sequence method. The results indicated that two heterozygous mutations were detected by directly sequencing in two probands: AG deletion at position 547 - 552 and C to T mutation at position 658. Two different mutations were confirmed to be true compound heterozygotes with each mutation on a separate homologous chromosome by TOPO TA cloning sequence method. AG deletion at position 547 - 552 caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. C658T mutation resulted in Arg-->Cys at amino acid position 220. It is suggested that the FUT1 mutation of two probands are compound heterozygous mutation with different chromosomes, which are named h1h3 and may be the genetics basis of para-Bombay phenotype.

      18. [Formation of para-Bombay phenotype caused by homozygous or heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene].

        PubMed

        Zhang, Jin-Ping; Zheng, Yan; Sun, Dong-Ni

        2014-02-01

        This study was aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay phenotype formation. The H antigen of these individuals were identified by serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of these individuals was amplified by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR product was identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. Analysis and comparison were used to explore the mechanisms of para-bombay phenotype formation in individuals. The results indicated that the full coding region of FUT1 DNA was successfully amplified by PCR and gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing and analysis found that h1 (547-552delAG) existed in one chromosome and h4 (35C > T) existed in the other chromosome of NO.1 individual. Meantime, h1 (547-552delAG) was found in two chromosomes of NO.2 and NO.3 individual. It also means that FUT1 gene of NO.1 individual was h1h4 heterozygote, FUT1 gene of NO.2 and NO.3 individuals were h1h1 homozygote. It is concluded that homozygous and heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene can lead to the formation of para-Bombay phenotype.

      19. Para-GMRF: parallel algorithm for anomaly detection of hyperspectral image

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Dong, Chao; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Na; Wang, Wei

        2007-12-01

        The hyperspectral imager is capable of collecting hundreds of images corresponding to different wavelength channels for the observed area simultaneously, which make it possible to discriminate man-made objects from natural background. However, the price paid for the wealthy information is the enormous amounts of data, usually hundreds of Gigabytes per day. Turning the huge volume data into useful information and knowledge in real time is critical for geoscientists. In this paper, the proposed parallel Gaussian-Markov random field (Para-GMRF) anomaly detection algorithm is an attempt of applying parallel computing technology to solve the problem. Based on the locality of GMRF algorithm, we partition the 3-D hyperspectral image cube in spatial domain and distribute data blocks to multiple computers for concurrent detection. Meanwhile, to achieve load balance, a work pool scheduler is designed for task assignment. The Para-GMRF algorithm is organized in master-slave architecture, coded in C programming language using message passing interface (MPI) library and tested on a Beowulf cluster. Experimental results show that Para-GMRF algorithm successfully conquers the challenge and can be used in time sensitive areas, such as environmental monitoring and battlefield reconnaissance.

      20. Fragrance material review on 1-(para-menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone.

        PubMed

        Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

        2013-12-01

        A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization, data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) [Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013 A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.] for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances.

      1. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

        2003-08-01

        A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

      2. El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

        Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

      3. Effects of para-substituents of styrene derivatives on their chemical reactivity on platinum nanoparticle surfaces.

        PubMed

        Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P; Lu, Jia-En; Bonny, Lewis W; Chen, Shaowei

        2016-06-01

        Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent aggregation, suggesting sufficient protection of the nanoparticles by the organic capping ligands, and the average core diameter was estimated to be 2.0 ± 0.3 nm, 1.3 ± 0.2 nm, and 1.1 ± 0.2 nm for the nanoparticles capped with 4-tert-butylstyrene, 4-methoxystyrene, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, respectively, as a result of the decreasing rate of dehydrogenation with the increasing Taft (polar) constant of the para-substituents. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited unique photoluminescence, where an increase of the Hammett constant of the para-substituents corresponded to a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission, suggesting an enlargement of the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the nanoparticle-bound acetylene moieties. Furthermore, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in acidic media, with the best performance among the series of samples observed with the 4-tert-butylstyrene-capped nanoparticles due to an optimal combination of the nanoparticle core size and ligand effects on the bonding interactions between platinum and oxygen species. PMID:27242019

      4. Interstellar processes: Ortho/para conversion, radiative association, and dissociative recombination

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Herbst, Eric

        2015-01-01

        The study of the ortho-to-para ratio of assorted gas-phase interstellar molecules such as H2, H2O, NH3, and H2O+ has gained interest in recent years, based partially on new spectral observations of light hydrides by the Herschel Space Observatory. Although these ratios can yield valuable information about the thermal history of the interstellar cloud where the molecules are found, an understanding of how the ratios are determined involves a number of often poorly studied processes, which can include both gas-phase and grain-surface reactions. In this article, we consider the processes that determine the ortho-to-para ratio of the molecular ion H2O+ in diffuse interstellar clouds and attempt to reproduce an unusual observed ratio for this ion. In addition to the study of ortho-to-para ratios, we look carefully at current uncertainties in the gas-phase formation of large neutral molecules in cold dense interstellar clouds via ion-neutral radiative association and dissociative recombination, among other processes.

      5. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

        USGS Publications Warehouse

        Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

        1988-01-01

        Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

      6. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

        2013-10-01

        The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

      7. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water.

        PubMed

        Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J; Levitt, Malcolm H

        2015-01-01

        Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51±0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon. PMID:26299447

      8. The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.

        2000-04-01

        We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

      9. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

        SciTech Connect

        Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

        2015-01-22

        The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

      10. Single crystalline nature of para-sexiphenyl crystallites grown on KCl(100).

        PubMed

        Haber, T; Oehzelt, M; Resel, R; Andreev, A; Thierry, A; Sitter, H; Smilgies, D M; Schaffer, B; Grogger, W; Resel, R

        2006-03-01

        This work focuses on studies of the single crystal nature of para-sexiphenyl structures grown on freshly cleaved KCl(100) surfaces. Two different kinds of morphologies, namely terrace like structures and needle like structures, are found by atomic force microscopy as well as by electron microscopy. Regardless of the morphology the individual crystallites show highly regular shapes. The crystalline alignment and the degree of order of the crystallites on the surface are determined by X-ray diffraction. Several epitaxial alignments of para-sexiphenyl on KCl(100) are observed and all of them are perfectly aligned on the surface. The rocking curve widths of the organic crystallites do not exceed 800" which is approximately only the four fold of the substrates' ones. The single crystalline nature of para-sexiphenyl crystallites is proven by transmission electron microscopy, diffraction patterns, dark field imaging and high resolution techniques. Single crystalline terraced mounds reach diameters of several microns and heights of 50 nm. Single crystal needles show heights and breadths of more than 100 nm and lengths of several microns. PMID:16573123

      11. Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Coffman, Robert E.

        1992-01-01

        The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

      12. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

        SciTech Connect

        Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

        2008-07-29

        The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source

      13. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

        PubMed Central

        Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

        2014-01-01

        Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

      14. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

        2003-08-01

        A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

      15. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

        2003-08-01

        A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

      16. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of Vibrational Frequency Shifts of CO in Solid para-HYDROGEN

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

        2014-06-01

        Stimulated by Fajardo's remarkable study of the rovibrational spectra of CO isotopologues trapped in solid para-hydrogen, we have performed quantum Monte Carlo simulations to predict his observed vibrational frequency shifts and inertial rotational constants using 2-body potentials based on the best available models for the pH_2-pH_2 and CO-pH_2, potential energy functions. We started by fitting an analytic `Morse/Long-Range' (MLR) function to the 1D ``adiabaic hindered rotor" version of Hinde's 5D pH_2-pH_2 potential developed by Faruk et al. We then modified it to take account of many-body effects by scaling it until it yielded the correct equilibrium lattice parameters for the fcc and hcp structures of pure solid para-hydrogen. A CO molecule was then placed at different interstitial or substitution sites in large equilibrated fcc or hcp para-hydrogen lattices, and the structural and dynamical behaviors of the micro-solvation environment around CO were simulated with a PIMC algorithm using a 2D effective pH_2-CO potential based on the 5D H_2--CO potential energy surface recently reported by Li et al., with a lattice sum of values of the 2D CO vibrational difference potential being use to predict the vibrational frequency shift. The effective rotational constants Beff for CO in different solid para-hydrogen structures were also calculated and compared with the experimental observations and with predicted Beff values for CO in large-sized para-hydrogen--CO clusters. M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). R. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys., 128, 154308 (2008). H. Li, X-L. Zhang, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 164315 (2013). R.J. Le Roy, C.C. Haugen, J. Tao and Hui Li, Mol. Phys., 109, 435 (2011) N. Faruk, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. (submitted December 2013). Y. Mizumoto and Y. Ohtsuki, Chem. Phys. Lett. 501, 304 (2011).

      17. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

        Cancer.gov

        Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

      18. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

        2010-02-01

        The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

      19. Charge-transfer complexation and photoreduction of viologen derivatives bearing the para-substituted benzophenone group in dimethyl sulfoxide

        SciTech Connect

        Tanaka, Chiho; Nambu, Yoko; Endo, Takeshi

        1992-08-20

        New viologen derivatives having the various para-substituted benzophenone groups connected with a -(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}-linkage were effectively photoreduced by dimethyl sulfoxide by the intramolecular charge transfer complex formation between the viologen and benzophenone groups through effective stacking. The photoreduction was enhanced by the introduction of electron-donating para-substituents on the benzophenone units which were favorable for the intramolecular charge transfer complexation. 6 refs., 5 figs.

      20. Effectiveness of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer Program--Bolsa Alimentação--on the variation of linear and ponderal increment in children from northeast of Brazil.

        PubMed

        Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Costa, Priscila Ribas de Farias; Silva, Maria da Conceição Monteiro da; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela de; Pitangueira, Jacqueline Costa Dias; Fonseca, Nedja Silva dos Santos; Pinheiro, Sandra Maria da Conceição; Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves dos

        2014-10-03

        Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia del programa de transferencia de ingreso brasileno - Bolsa Alimentacao (PBA) sobre la variacion media del incremento del peso e de la talla de ninos. Métodos: Cohorte de 1.847 ninos fue seguida durante 12 meses: 1.615 eran ninos PBA; 232 eran ninos no PBA. Se han registrado la pierda de 316 (14,6%) ninos durante el estudio. Se adopta el diseno casi-experimental y la estrategia antes-despues con el enfoque de eficacia para evaluar el impacto del programa sobre el estado antropometrico de los ninos. La regresion lineal multinivel fue usada en el analisis estadistico. La variacion media del incremento del crecimiento de la talla y del peso para la edad fueron los outcomes and la participacion en el programa la variable de exposicion principal. Se establecieron cuatro grupos de participacion en el programa: ninos no expuesto al programa (control interno; expuestos al programa durante 12 meses de acompanamiento, expuesto al programa solo en los ultimos 6; ninos expuestos al programa solo en los primeros 6 meses. Las medidas repetidas se obtuvieron al inicio y a los 12 meses del seguimiento. Resultados: Despues de ajustar los efectos por los factores de confusion, la exposicion al programa se asocio a una variacion media de peso por edad de 0,34 Z-score (IC = -0,44- 0,63) y talla para la edad de 0,38 Z-score (IC = 0,05-0,70) para los ninos que fueron expuestos al programa durante los 12 meses. La exposicion al programa en otros periodos de seguimiento no fue estadisticamente asociado con una variacion media de peso o la talla para la edad. Conclusiones: Transferencias directas de ingreso a la familia se asociaron con la reduccion de los deficits antropometricos en la infancia.