Science.gov

Sample records for programme trendrapportage eos

  1. Strategising for the future Indian EO programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Kalyanraman, S.; Joseph, George; Navalgund, R. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    2002-07-01

    The Indian Earth Observations Program, over the past three decades, has been mainly driven by the national need of natural resources management, infrastructure development, environment monitoring and disaster management support. With an array of seven Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS), national development support has been supported, through a well-knit institutional framework of a National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), a wide variety of applications developed as an inter-agency effort over the past 20 years. Now, the capacity of the programme has been extended into the global arena and IRS is providing operational data services to the global user community. The future Earth Observation Systems will have to take into consideration the aspects related to the commercialisation and standardisation of programmes world-over; transitioning into a business environment; data continuity and the need to monitor processes rather than events. Technological changes are also going to re-define many of the concepts of observation from space and issues like spatial resolution, spectral resolution and temporal resolution may no more be a concern for observation systems. ISRO is presently defining a strategy for the Indian EO Programme that will chart the progress with a vision for the next 25 years. Based on a thorough analysis, the observation needs of the future are planned and presently systems design and implementation are underway. The Need Analysis has been done keeping in mind the Global change applications; Mapping and Cartographic applications; Natural Resources and Environmental management applications etc. Issues related to defining the space and data acquisition as a national "public good", costing of data products and services and evolving a commercial remote sensing policy have been addressed for providing the overall thrust of the Indian Earth Observations program. The paper discusses the strategy adopted for assessing the future user requirements

  2. EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, Ghassem; Dozier, Jeff

    Market: Students and researchers in geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics. This book reports on the timely Earth Observing System (EOS) Program's wide range of scientific investigations, observational capabilities, vast data and information system, and educational activities. Because its primary goal is to determine the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change, this program provides the scientific knowledge needed by world leaders to formulate sound and equitable environmental policies.

  3. Future Perspective and Long-Term Strategy of the Indian EO Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    the future. The continuity of the EO services in India is the fundamental requirement for sustenance and further development of the technology and its utilisation, the stage is now set for transitioning the EO technology by initiating policy adjustments for the commercial use of space-based EO. Orientation needs to change from a "facility concept", which was the adage for the "promotional" era, to "Services concept" for the RS technology. The orientation also needs to change from RS data to Spatial Information and GIS databases. Demand for information would increase with a larger involvement of players in the developmental activities and catering to the information needs is what would be the driver for the commercial development. To that extent, the commercial development of Spatial Information needs to be thrusted forward and RS technology will be the back-bone for this information services initiative, because EO has the capability to provide accurate and timely information at large-scales in a repeated manner which is directly amenable to GIS manipulation. The thrust has to be towards developing an independent sector for Spatial Information with the active involvement of users, private entrepreneurs and other agencies to develop space-based RS market segments. This paper discusses the policy adjustments that will be required to be done for developing a viable and effective commercial EO programme in the country with a major thrust of initial government and industry partnership ultimately leading to a true industry sector for Spatial Information services.

  4. Operational Copernicus services - state of programme and the role of EO research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Peter; Rohn, Michael; Pinty, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Year 2014 is a major milestone for the EU Copernicus programme (formerly GMES), for funding Europe's operational system of satellites and geo-information services. Copernicus services shall provide accurate, up-to-date and globally-available information related to the state of land, sea/ocean, atmosphere and climate change, as well as emergency response and security in support of European policies. 2014 sees the transition of services to fully operational state, looking back on some 10 years of development, evolving through research and making "laboratory" prototypes operational for the marine and atmosphere services. First integration of capabilities in dedicated GMES service projects started in early 2004 leading to operational maturity around 2011-2013. Several scientific and research challenges have been identified along the way, addressing very different stages of evolution, which need to be tackled collaborating with different partners and in different environments. The geoscience community and their funding programmes are faced with a range of opportunities arising from the presence of an operational space data and information programme such as Copernicus, a demand which also the EU research and innovation programme is striving to meet in Horizon 2020. The last ten years have shown how the step from research prototypes to operational service chains requires specific and dedicated attention to this innovation step, shaping validated and proven products to users' demands. Special efforts are required in order for users to accept the innovative potential which new laboratory products promise. Specific attention needs to be given to processes in the users' workflows which incorporate the EO information - a step which often is underestimated in the formulation of R&D plans. Service activities in a real-life environment, and the ever advancing new sensors set new research problems for researchers. The arrival of the Sentinel satellites will challenge running

  5. Eos Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-08

    At eastern end of Valles Marineris is Eos Chasma. In Eos, the canyon system transitions into a region of chaos and then into major outflow channels. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey shows the transition into chaos.

  6. EOS standards

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, Carl W

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  7. EOS Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Earth Observing System (EOS) directory is divided into two main sections: white and yellow pages. The white pages list alphabetically the names and addresses -- including e-mail, phone, and fax when available -- of all individuals involved with EOS, from graduate students to panel members to program management and more. The yellow pages list the names, affiliation, and phone number of participants divided by project management, program management, individual project participants, interdisciplinary investigations (listed alphabetically by PI), the Science Executive Committee, various panels, platforms, working groups, fellowships, and contractors.

  8. EOS workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, Franz; Karspeck, Milan; Millot, Michel; Maurice, Kelly; Jackson, Matt

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work done from mid-1989 until January 1992 to develop a prototype set of tools for the analysis of EOS-type images. Such images are characterized by great multiplicity and quantity. A single 'snapshot' of EOS-type imagery may contain several hundred component images so that on a particular pixel, one finds multiple gray values. A prototype EOS-sensor, AVIRIS, has 224 gray values at each pixel. The work focused on the ability to utilize very large images and continuously roam through those images, zoom and be able to hold more than one black and white or color image, for example for stereo viewing or for image comparisons. A second focus was the utilization of so-called 'image cubes', where multiple images need to be co-registered and then jointly analyzed, viewed, and manipulated. The target computer platform that was selected was a high-performance graphics superworkstation, Stardent 3000. This particular platform offered many particular graphics tools such as the Application Visualization System (AVS) or Dore, but it missed availability of commercial third-party software for relational data bases, image processing, etc. The project was able to cope with these limitations and a phase-3 activity is currently being negotiated to port the software and enhance it for use with a novel graphics superworkstation to be introduced into the market in the Spring of 1993.

  9. The EOS polar platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald; Hobish, Mitchell K.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is presented. The EOS will be part of the Mission to Planet Earth that will include a series of flight and scientific experiments. The initial polar-orbiting platform, EOS-A, will carry a suite of instruments designed to examine earth system processes at and near the planet's surface, and the interactions between various subsystems. Some of the instruments that will provide specialized data for geologists, meteorologists, biochemists, biologists, and physicists are described. Thus, EOS will provide an opportunity for technologists and scientists to examine the earth to a level of detail not previously attainable.

  10. Water Resource Monitoring Based on EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze Middle Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathais; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  11. Water Resource Monitoring Based n EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze River Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathias; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  12. EOS mapping accuracy study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, R. B.; Eppes, T. A.; Ouellette, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate various image positioning methods for possible use in the earth observatory satellite (EOS) program and other earth resource imaging satellite programs. The primary goal is the generation of geometrically corrected and registered images, positioned with respect to the earth's surface. The EOS sensors which were considered were the thematic mapper, the return beam vidicon camera, and the high resolution pointable imager. The image positioning methods evaluated consisted of various combinations of satellite data and ground control points. It was concluded that EOS attitude control system design must be considered as a part of the image positioning problem for EOS, along with image sensor design and ground image processing system design. Study results show that, with suitable efficiency for ground control point selection and matching activities during data processing, extensive reliance should be placed on use of ground control points for positioning the images obtained from EOS and similar programs.

  13. Eos Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-16

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of of Eos Chasma.

  14. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  15. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; hide

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  16. Eos visible imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the proposed Earth Observing System (Eos) optical imagers are examined. These imagers include: moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS); geoscience laser ranging system (GLRS); high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS); the intermediate thermal infrared spectrometer (ITIR); multi-angle imaging spectrometer (MISR); earth observing scanning polarimeter (EOSP); and the lightening imaging sensor (LIS).

  17. EOS Aura Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  18. The 1991 EOS reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dokken, David (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are covered: (1) The Global Change Research Program; (2) The Earth Observing System (EOS) goal and objectives; (3) primary EOS mission requirements; (4) EOS science; (5) EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) architecture; (6) data policy; (7) international cooperation; (8) plans and status; (9) the role of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; (10) The Global Fellowship Program; (11) management of EOS; (12) mission elements; (13) EOS instruments; (14) interdisciplinary science investigations; (15) points of contact; and (16) acronyms and abbreviations.

  19. Eos Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-01

    Context image The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Eos Chasma. Orbit Number: 18300 Latitude: -14.9443 Longitude: 312.7 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-01-29 02:31. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20227

  20. Archiving tools for EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindrilaru, Elvin-Alin; Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Duellmann, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Archiving data to tape is a critical operation for any storage system, especially for the EOS system at CERN which holds production data for all major LHC experiments. Each collaboration has an allocated quota it can use at any given time therefore, a mechanism for archiving "stale" data is needed so that storage space is reclaimed for online analysis operations. The archiving tool that we propose for EOS aims to provide a robust client interface for moving data between EOS and CASTOR (tape backed storage system) while enforcing best practices when it comes to data integrity and verification. All data transfers are done using a third-party copy mechanism which ensures point-to- point communication between the source and destination, thus providing maximum aggregate throughput. Using ZMQ message-passing paradigm and a process-based approach enabled us to achieve optimal utilisation of the resources and a stateless architecture which can easily be tuned during operation. The modular design and the implementation done in a high-level language like Python, has enabled us to easily extended the code base to address new demands like offering full and incremental backup capabilities.

  1. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  2. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoebert, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Barnett, J.; Gille, J.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.; Waters, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2004. The Aura mission is designed to attack three science questions: (1) Is the ozone layer recovering as expected? (2) What are the sources and processes that control tropospheric pollutants? (3) What is the quantitative impact of constituents on climate change? Aura will answer these questions by globally measuring a comprehensive set of trace gases and aerosols at high vertical and horizontal resolution. Fig. 1 shows the Aura spacecraft and its four instruments.

  3. Porous carbon EOS: numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliverdiev, A.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Vinci, T.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of direct simulation of laser-driven shock experiments aiming at determining the equation of state (EOS) of carbon using the "relative" impedance mismatch method. In particular, using tabulated carbon EOS (SESAME library, material number 7830), we have found some difficulties in reducing the initial density of the material in simulations with porous carbon. We have therefore calculated a new EOS for porous carbon with a reduced bulk modulus.

  4. Eos Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region.

    Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  5. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 15 or more eosinophils per high-powered microscopic field warrants a diagnosis of EoE. A patient may ... Eosinophilic Esophagitis EoE- How do we diagnose? APFED’s Educational Webinar Series © American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders (APFED) ...

  6. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  7. Eos Chasma Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image shows several landslides within Eos Chasma. Many very large landslides have occurred within different portions of Valles Marineris. Note where the northern wall has failed in a upside-down bowl shape, releasing the material that formed the landslide deposit.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 318.6 East (41.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Eos Chasma Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image shows several landslides within Eos Chasma. Many very large landslides have occurred within different portions of Valles Marineris. Note where the northern wall has failed in a upside-down bowl shape, releasing the material that formed the landslide deposit.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 318.6 East (41.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Observational constraints on EoS parameters of emergent universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Bikash Chandra; Thakur, Prasenjit

    2017-04-01

    We investigate emergent universe model using recent observational data of the background as well as the growth tests. The flat emergent universe model obtained by Mukherjee et al. is permitted with a non-linear equation of state (in short, EoS) (p=Aρ -B ρ^{1/2}), where A and B are constants (here in our analysis A=0 is considered). We carried out analysis considering the Wang-Steinhardt ansatz for growth index (γ ) and growth function (f defined as f=Ωm^{γ } (a)). The best-fit values of the EoS and growth parameters are determined making use of chi-square minimization technique. Here we specifically determined the best-fit value and the range of value of the present matter density (Ω m) and Hubble parameter (H0). The best-fit values of the EoS parameters are used to study the evolution of the growth function f, growth index γ , state parameter ω and deceleration parameter (q) for different red shift parameter z. The late accelerating phase of the universe in the EU model is accommodated satisfactorily.

  10. Bridging EO Research, Operations and Collaborative Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Building flexible and responsive processing and delivery systems is key to getting EO information used by researchers, policy agents and the public. There are typically three distinct processes we tackle to get product uptake: undertake research, operationalise the validated research, and deliver information and garner feedback in an appropriate way. In many cases however, the gaps between these process elements are large and lead to poor outcomes. Good research may be "lost" and not adopted, there may be resistance to uptake by government or NGOs of significantly better operational products based on EO data, and lack of accessibility means that there is no use of interactive science outputs to improve cross disciplinary science or to start a dialog with citizens. So one of the the most important tasks, if we wish to have broad uptake of EO information and accelerate further research, is to link these processes together in a formal but flexible way. One of the ways to operationalize research output is by building a platform that can take research code and scale it across much larger areas. In remote sensing, this is typically a system that has access to current and historical corrected imagery with a processing pipeline built over the top. To reduce the demand on high level scientific programmers and allowing cross disciplinary researchers to hack and play and refine, this pipeline needs to be easy to use, collaborative and link to existing tools to encourage code experimentation and reuse. It is also critical to have efficient, tight integration with information delivery and extension components so that the science relevant to your user is available quickly and efficiently. The rapid expansion of open data licensing has helped this process, but building top-down web portals and tools without flexibility and regard for end user needs has limited the use of EO information in many areas. This research reports on the operalization of a scale independent time series

  11. Wonders of Eos Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 October 2003

    The slopes and floor of Eos Chasma, a portion of the vast Valles Marineris canyon complex, are located near an early landing site for the MER rovers. Sadly, this site was eliminated due to serious concerns about winds. Nevertheless, this site contains some marvelous geology. Layered rocks abound in the walls of the canyon as well as in the large streamlined material on the floor. The streamlined island appears to have been formed in a massive flood episode. Alluvial fans can also be seen at the base of the slopes. One fan has a deeply entrenched channel that was most likely carved out by water; however, it may be possible that dry avalanches created this channel.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -13.5, Longitude 317.8 East (42.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  13. Wonders of Eos Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 October 2003

    The slopes and floor of Eos Chasma, a portion of the vast Valles Marineris canyon complex, are located near an early landing site for the MER rovers. Sadly, this site was eliminated due to serious concerns about winds. Nevertheless, this site contains some marvelous geology. Layered rocks abound in the walls of the canyon as well as in the large streamlined material on the floor. The streamlined island appears to have been formed in a massive flood episode. Alluvial fans can also be seen at the base of the slopes. One fan has a deeply entrenched channel that was most likely carved out by water; however, it may be possible that dry avalanches created this channel.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -13.5, Longitude 317.8 East (42.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Complete EOS for PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph S

    2009-10-08

    PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic-bonded explosive based on triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB). A complete equation of state (EOS) is constructed for unreacted PBX 9502 suitable for reactive burn models, i.e., high pressure regime in which material strength is unimportant. The PBX EOS is composed of two parts: a complete EOS for TATB and a porosity model which allows for variations in the initial PBX density. The TATB EOS is based on a cold curve and a thermal model for lattice vibrations. The heat capacity, and hence thermal model, is determined by the vibrational spectrum from Raman scattering. The cold curve is calibrated to diamond anvil cell data for isothermal compression using a two-piece Keane fitting form. Hugoniot data for PBX 9502 is used as a consistency check.

  15. HDF-EOS Web Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A shell script has been written as a means of automatically making HDF-EOS-formatted data sets available via the World Wide Web. ("HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in the first of the two immediately preceding articles.) The shell script chains together some software tools developed by the Data Usability Group at Goddard Space Flight Center to perform the following actions: Extract metadata in Object Definition Language (ODL) from an HDF-EOS file, Convert the metadata from ODL to Extensible Markup Language (XML), Reformat the XML metadata into human-readable Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Publish the HTML metadata and the original HDF-EOS file to a Web server and an Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeN-DAP) server computer, and Reformat the XML metadata and submit the resulting file to the EOS Clearinghouse, which is a Web-based metadata clearinghouse that facilitates searching for, and exchange of, Earth-Science data.

  16. HDF-EOS 5 Validator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the task of determining whether an HDF-EOS 5 file is valid in that it conforms to specifications for such characteristics as attribute names, dimensionality of data products, and ranges of legal data values. ["HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in "Converting EOS Data From HDF-EOS to netCDF" (GSC-15007-1), which is the first of several preceding articles in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs.] Previously, validity of a file was determined in a tedious and error-prone process in which a person examined human-readable dumps of data-file-format information. The present software helps a user to encode the specifications for an HDFEOS 5 file, and then inspects the file for conformity with the specifications: First, the user writes the specifications in Extensible Markup Language (XML) by use of a document type definition (DTD) that is part of the program. Next, the portion of the program (denoted the validator) that performs the inspection is executed, using, as inputs, the specifications in XML and the HDF-EOS 5 file to be validated. Finally, the user examines the output of the validator.

  17. Compact star matter: EoS with new scaling law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Jaehyun

    In this paper, we present a simple discussion on the properties of compact stars using an EoS obtained in effective field theory anchored on scale and hidden-local symmetric Lagrangian endowed with topology change and a unequivocal prediction on the deformation of the compact star, that could be measured in gravitational waves. The objective is not to offer a superior or improved EoS for compact stars but to confront with a forthcoming astrophysical observable, the given model formulated in what is considered to be consistent with the premise of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The model so obtained is found to satisfactorily describe the observation of a two-solar mass neutron star [P. B. Demorest et al., Nature 467 (2010) 1081, J. Antoniadis et al., Science 340 (2013) 1233232] with a minimum number of parameters. Specifically, the observable we are considering in this paper is the tidal deformability parameter λ (equivalently the Love number k2), which affects gravitational wave forms at the late period of inspiral stage. The forthcoming aLIGO and aVirgo observations of gravitational waves from binary neutron star system will provide a valuable guidance for arriving at a better understanding of highly compressed baryonic matter.

  18. The EducEO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Steffen; Dias, Eduardo; Zeug, Guenther; Vescovi, Fabio; See, Linda; Sturn, Tobias; McCallum, Ian; Stammes, Piet; Snik, Frans; Hendriks, Elise

    2015-04-01

    The ESA funded EducEO project is aimed at demonstrating the potential of citizen science and crowdsourcing for Earth Observation (EO), where citizen science and crowdsourcing refer to the involvement of citizens in tasks such as data collection. The potential for using citizens in the calibration and validation of satellite imagery through in-situ measurements and image recognition is largely untapped. The EducEO project will aim to achieve good integration with networks such as GLOBE (primary and secondary education) and COST (higher education) to involve students in four different applications that will be piloted as part of the EducEO project. The presentation will provide a brief overview and initial results of these applications, which include: the iSpex tool for measuring air pollution using an iPhone; a game to classify cropland and deforested areas from high resolution satellite imagery; an application to monitor areas of forest change using radar data from Sentinel-1; and the collection of in-situ yield and production data from both farmers (using high-tech farming equipment) and students. In particular initial results and future potential of the serious game on land cover and forest change monitoring will be discussed.

  19. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends from NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approx. 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS-Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  20. Microscopic EoS for High Density Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J. R.

    2009-05-07

    The density and temperature dependence of energy per particle of a system (the Equation of State--EoS) is a fundamental ingredient of all models of nuclear matter and stars. As baryons and leptons form the main components of all stars, knowledge of nuclear physics and weak interactions is essential for correct understanding of the birth, life and death of stars. We compare results obtained with EOS's based on a selection of well established nucleon-nucleon effective interactions with new results from the quark-meson coupling model and the Oxford quark model based effective potential. Properties of cold non-rotating neutron stars, calculated on the basis of the models, are presented and discussed.

  1. EO system concepts in the littoral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Iersel, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface targets, such as jetskis and fast inshore attack crafts, is increasing. In the littoral environment, the understanding of its complexity and the efficient use of the limited reaction time, are essential for successful operations. Present-day electro-optical sensor suites, also incorporating Infrared Search and Track systems, can be used for varying tasks as detection, classification and identification. By means of passive electro-optical systems, infrared and visible light sensors, improved situational awareness can be achieved. For long range capability, elevated sensor masts and flying platforms are ideally suited for the surveillance task and improve situational awareness. A primary issue is how to incorporate new electro-optical technology and signal processing into the new sensor concepts, to improve system performance. It is essential to derive accurate information from the high spatial-resolution imagery created by the EO sensors. As electro-optical sensors do not have all-weather capability, the performance degradation in adverse scenarios must be understood, in order to support the operational use of adaptive sensor management techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach taken at TNO in the design and assessment of system concepts for future IRST development. An overview of our maritime programme in future IRST and EO system concepts including signal processing is presented.

  2. A webmapping platform for publishing, sharing, and managing EO-derived data for forest protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viergever, Karin; Andrade, Pedro R.; Cardoso, Manoel; Castillo, Miguel; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Middlemiss, Sarah; Milodowski, David; Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Ometto, Jean; Morel, Veronique; Tipper, Richard; Williams, Mathew

    2016-10-01

    Ecometrica, together with partners in the UK, Mexico and Brazil, have collaborated on a UK Space Agency international partnership space programme (IPSP) project to advance EO applications in forests. A key objective was to improve EO derived information management for forest protection. Ecometrica's cloud-based mapping platform was used to establish regional EO Labs within the partner organizations: ECOSUR (Mexico), INPE and FUNCATE (Brazil) and the University of Edinburgh (UK). The regional networks of EO Labs have provided a unified view of forestry-related data that is easy to access. In Mexico and Brazil the EO Labs enabled collaboration between research organisations and NGOs to develop applications for monitoring forest change in specified study areas and has enabled the compilation of previously unavailable regional EO and other spatial datasets into products that can be used by researchers, NGOs and state governments. Data on forest loss was linked to dynamic earth system models developed by the University of Edinburgh and INPE, utilising the EO Labs to provide an intuitive and powerful environment in which non-expert end- users can investigate the results from the huge datasets produced by multi-run model simulations. This paper demonstrates and discusses examples of mapping applications created on Ecometrica EO Labs by ECOSUR, INPE and the University of Edinburgh as part of this project, illustrating how cloud technology can enhance the field of forest protection.

  3. Investigation of EO transition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, G. G.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic ideas on the nature of electric monopole transitions and their experimental realisation are presented. Some feeling for the sensitivity obtainable for X=B(EO)/B(E2) ratios are discussed. Examples of measurements performed using the electron spectrometer BILL are described to demonstrate their relevance in testing nuclei models. These include even-even and odd-even nuclei such as nuclei close to Z=50, rare-earth nuclei, Pt-Os isotopes and the actinides.

  4. Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7467 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin...EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin by Yolin Huang Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for...State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yolin Huang 5d

  5. HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 Compatibility Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    The HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 Compatibility Library contains C-language functions that provide uniform access to HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 files through one set of application programming interface (API) calls. ("HDFEOS 2" and "HDF-EOS 5" are defined in the immediately preceding article.) Without this library, differences between the APIs of HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 would necessitate writing of different programs to cover HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5. The API associated with this library is denoted "he25." For nearly every HDF-EOS 5 API call, there is a corresponding he25 API call. If a file in question is in the HDF-EOS 5 format, the code reverts to the corresponding HDF-EOS 5 call; if the file is in the HDF-EOS 2 format, the code translates the arguments to HDF-EOS 2 equivalents (if necessary), calls the HDFEOS 2 call, and retranslates the results back to HDF-EOS 5 (if necessary).

  6. The EOS TPC analysis shell

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.L.

    1991-03-01

    Key features of the general purpose event-based-data analysis shell (TAS) for the EOS TPC at LBL are described including the code development/code management procedures used. The architecture is designed with a view towards a distributed and multi-processing environment. TAS is interfaced seamlessly with the CERN PAW program and provides a consistent environment for both on-line and off-line analysis. The data model used is relational tables and the data structure definitions are maintained in a commercial database (INFORMIX). The interface for analysis modules is specified and enhances group participation in the development process. The use of commercial database as a data dictionary for both the table definitions and parameters used in the TAS kernel is extremely useful and productive. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. The NASA EOS User Services Offices: Supporting Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, E.; Schumacher, J.; Harrison, S.; Jones, C.; Klaassen, A.; Morris, K.; Sandoval, M.; Scott, D.; Wolf, V.; Farnham, J.

    2004-12-01

    The primary goal for NASA's Sun-Earth System Division is to use satellite remote sensing to examine the Sun and Earth as a single connected system. Within the Sun-Earth System Division, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is composed of a series of satellites, scientific research, and a data collection and management system known as EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). EOSDIS has nine discipline-specific data centers that manage, document, archive, and distribute a variety of Earth system science data. The data centers provide an assortment of services to their data users via their User Services Offices (USO). The nine USOs communicate regularly by email, phone, and teleconference, and have meetings twice a year during which they analyze, discuss, and determine how to better serve the Earth science community. The sharing of information among USO representatives within the User Services Working Group (USWG) results in an understanding of user needs and problems with data sets within EOS. By identifying these needs, we can improve our services and data distribution methods for users, and advocate solutions on behalf of the user community to the EOS project. Each User Services Office provides timely assistance answering a variety of user questions about its data and services, assists users with their data orders, provides referrals to other data centers, and establishes data subscriptions when applicable. USO troubleshoots problems with data sets and data distribution, recommends and supports tools for data subsetting, searching and ordering, handling, and manipulation, and communicates user needs to data and software developers. The USO is each data center's interface to the public, and has many resources available to assist the user, including data set guide documents, science team members, and programmers. Additionally, the USWG represents the nine data centers in the OneNASA outreach effort. Users will always find ready support for NASA Earth science data

  8. Converting from XML to HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program recreates an HDF-EOS file from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) representation of the contents of that file. This program is one of two programs written to enable testing of the schemas described in the immediately preceding article to determine whether the schemas capture all details of HDF-EOS files.

  9. Summary of EOS flight dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Folta, David C.

    1995-01-01

    From a flight dynamics perspective, the Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft present a number of challenges to mission designers. The Flight Dynamics Support Branch of NASA GSFC has examined a number of these challenges, including managing the EOS constellation, disposing of the spacecraft at the end-of-life (EOL), and achieving the appropriate mission orbit given launch vehicle and ascent propulsion constraints. The EOS program consists of a number of spacecraft including EOS-AM, an ascending node spacecraft, EOS-PM, a descending node spacecraft, the EOS Chemistry mission (EOS-CHEM), the EOS Altimetry Laser (EOS-LALT), and the EOS-Altimetry Radar (EOS-RALT). The orbit characteristics of these missions are presented. In order to assure that downlinking data from each spacecraft will be possible without interference between any two spacecraft, a careful examination of the relationships between spacecraft and how to maintain the spacecraft in a configuration which would minimize these communications problems must be made. The FDSB has performed various analyses to determine whether the spacecraft will be in a position to interfere with each other, how the orbit dynamics will change the relative positioning of the spacecraft over their lifetimes, and how maintenance maneuvers could be performed, if needed, to minimize communications problems. Prompted by an activity at NASA HQ to set guidelines for spacecraft regarding their end-of-life dispositions, much analysis has also been performed to determine the spacecraft lifetime of EOS-AM1 under various conditions, and to make suggestions regarding the spacecraft disposal. In performing this analysis, some general trends have been observed in lifetime calculations. The paper will present the EOS-AM1 lifetime results, comment on general reentry conclusions, and discuss how these analyses reflect on the HQ NMI. Placing the EOS spacecraft into their respective mission orbits involves some intricate maneuver planning to

  10. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  11. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  12. Vector Data Model: A New Model of HDF-EOS to Support GIS Applications in EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, E.; Edmonds, R d

    2001-05-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Information System (ESDIS) project has an active program of research and development of systems for the storage and management of Earth science data for Earth Observation System (EOS) mission, a key program of NASA Earth Science Enterprise. EOS has adopted an extension of the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) as the format of choice for standard product distribution. Three new EOS specific datatypes - point, swath and grid - have been defined within the HDF framework. The enhanced data format is named HDF-EOS. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used by Earth scientists in EOS data product generation, visualization, and analysis. There are two major data types in GIS applications, raster and vector. The current HDF-EOS handles only raster type in the swath data model. The vector data model is identified and developed as a new HDFEOS format to meet the requirements of scientists working with EOS data products in vector format. The vector model is designed using a topological data structure, which defines the spatial relationships among points, lines, and polygons. The three major topological concepts that the vector model adopts are: a) lines connect to each other at nodes (connectivity), b) lines that connect to surround an area define a polygon (area definition), and c) lines have direction and left and right sides (contiguity). The vector model is implemented in HDF by mapping the conceptual model to HDF internal data models and structures, viz. Vdata, Vgroup, and their associated attribute structures. The point, line, and polygon geometry and attribute data are stored in similar tables. Further, the vector model utilizes the structure and product metadata, which characterize the HDF-EOS. Both types of metadata are stored as attributes in HDF-EOS files, and are encoded in text format by using Object Description Language (ODL) and stored as global attributes in HDF-EOS files. EOS has developed a series of routines for storing

  13. EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    McKenna, C; Wade, R; Faria, R; Yang, H; Stirk, L; Gummerson, N; Sculpher, M; Woolacott, N

    2012-01-01

    -term health benefits from reduced radiation exposure with EOS are very small and there was a lack of data on other potential patient health benefits. The implications of any changes in the quality and nature of the EOS image compared with standard X-ray, for patient health outcomes, needs to be assessed. Given the higher cost of an EOS machine, utilisation is the major determinant of cost-effectiveness. Estimates of patient throughput at national level suggest that EOS is not cost-effective. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

  14. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  15. EOS ASTER thermal infrared band vicarious calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F.; Tonooka, H.; Hook, S.; Abtahi, A.; Alley, R.; Thompson, T.; Hoover, G.; Zadourian, S.

    2001-01-01

    Calibration of the 5 EOS ASTER instrument emission bands (90 m pixels at surface) is being checked during the operational life of the mission using field measurements simultaneous with the image acquisition.

  16. EOS ASTER thermal infrared band vicarious calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F.; Tonooka, H.; Hook, S.; Abtahi, A.; Alley, R.; Thompson, T.; Hoover, G.; Zadourian, S.

    2001-01-01

    Calibration of the 5 EOS ASTER instrument emission bands (90 m pixels at surface) is being checked during the operational life of the mission using field measurements simultaneous with the image acquisition.

  17. Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

  18. EOS for critical slurry and solution systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiPeso, G; Peterson, P

    1998-10-27

    In a fire involving fissile material, the mixture of the fissile material ash with fire fighting water may lead to a criticality excursion if there are nearby sumps that permit a critical geometry. The severity of the resulting energy release and pressure pulse is dependent on the rate at which the mixing occurs. To calculate these excursions, a non-equilibrium equation of state for the water ash mixture or slurry is needed that accounts for the thermal non-equilibrium that occurs due to finite heat transfer rates. We are developing the slurry EOS as well as a lumped neutronic and hydrodynamic model to serve as a testing ground for the non-equilibrium EOS before its incorporation into more sophisticated neutronic-hydrodynamics codes. Though the model lacks spatial dependence, it provides estimates of energy release and pressure pulses for various mixture assembly rates. We are also developing a non-equilibrium EOS for critical solution systems in which the fissile material is dissolved in water, which accounts for chemical non-equilibrium due to finite mass transfer rates. In contrast to previously published solution EOS, our solution EOS specifically accounts for mass diffusion of dissolved radiolytic gas to bubble nucleation sites. This EOS was developed to check our overall modeling against published solution excursion experiments and to compare solution excursions with slurry excursions initiated under the same conditions. Preliminary results indicate a good match between solution EOS calculations and experiments involving premixed 60-80 g U/l solutions for both low rate and high rate reactivity insertions. Comparison between slurry and solution calculations for the same composition show comparable energy release and pressure peaks for both low and high rate reactivity insertions with the slurry releasing less energy but generating more pressure than the solution for the amount of energy released. Calculations more appropriate to actual fire fighting scenarios

  19. The EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is proposed as a 1991 new initiative by NASA as part of the Mission to Planet Earth. One of the key components of the EOS program is the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Two independent Phase B studies of EOSDIS were conducted from January 1989 through April 1990. Some of the key challenges faced by EOSDIS are: satisfying the data and information needs of a diverse multidisciplinary scientific community integrating product generation algorithms for over two dozen instruments, keeping up with an orbital average data rate of over 50 Mb/sec and assuring prompt generation of standard products, reprocessing data as product generation algorithms change, and storing, and managing information about tens of Petabytes of data over the 15-year life of the mission.

  20. The EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is proposed as a 1991 new initiative by NASA as part of the Mission to Planet Earth. One of the key components of the EOS program is the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Two independent Phase B studies of EOSDIS were conducted from January 1989 through April 1990. Some of the key challenges faced by EOSDIS are: satisfying the data and information needs of a diverse multidisciplinary scientific community integrating product generation algorithms for over two dozen instruments, keeping up with an orbital average data rate of over 50 Mb/sec and assuring prompt generation of standard products, reprocessing data as product generation algorithms change, and storing, and managing information about tens of Petabytes of data over the 15-year life of the mission.

  1. EO-1 Prototyping for Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. K.; Middleton, E.; Ungar, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ong, L.; Huemmrich, K. F.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) Mission, launched in November, 2000 as part of NASA’s New Millennium Program, is in it’s eight year of operation. From the start it was recognized that a key criteria for evaluating the EO-1 technology and outlining future Earth science mission needs is the ability of the technology to characterize terrestrial surface state and processes. EO-1 is participating in a broad range of investigations, demonstrating the utility of imaging spectroscopy in applications relating to forestry, agriculture, species discrimination, invasive species, desertification, land-use, vulcanization, fire management, homeland security, natural and anthropogenic hazards and disaster assessments and has provided characterization for a variety of instruments on EOS platforms. By generating a high spectral and spatial resolution data set for the corral reefs and islands, it is contributing for realizing the goals of the National Decadal survey and providing an excellent platform for testing strategies to be employed in the HyspIRI mission. The EO1 Mission Science Office (MSO) is developing tools and prototypes for new science products, addressing the HyspIRI goals to assess vegetation status and health and provide vegetation spectral bio-indicators and biophysical parameters such as LAI and fAPAR at <100 m spatial resolution. These are being used to resolve variability in heterogeneous areas (e.g. agriculture, narrow shapes, urban and developed lands) and for managed ecosystems less than 10 km2. A set of invariable reference targets (e.g. sun, moon, deserts, Antarctica) are being characterised to allow cross-calibration of current and future EO sensors, comparison of land products generated by multiple sensors and retroactive processing of time series data. Such products are needed to develop Science Requirements for the next generation of hyperspectral satellite sensors and to address global societal needs.

  2. Early-EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, George H.; Hunolt, Gregory W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), an integral part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, will provide simultaneous observations from a suite of instruments in low-earth orbit. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) will handle the data from those instruments, as well as provide access to observations and related information from other earth science missions. The Early-EOSDIS Program will provide initial improved support for global change research by building upon present capabilities and data, and will establish a working prototype EOSDIS for selected archiving, distribution, and information management functions by mid-1994.

  3. Early-EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, George H.; Hunolt, Gregory W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), an integral part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, will provide simultaneous observations from a suite of instruments in low-earth orbit. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) will handle the data from those instruments, as well as provide access to observations and related information from other earth science missions. The Early-EOSDIS Program will provide initial improved support for global change research by building upon present capabilities and data, and will establish a working prototype EOSDIS for selected archiving, distribution, and information management functions by mid-1994.

  4. EOS Laser Atmosphere Wind Sounder (LAWS) investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, George D.

    1991-01-01

    The related activities of the contract are outlined for the first year. These include: (1) attend team member meetings; (2) support EOS Project with science related activities; (3) prepare and Execution Phase plan; and (4) support LAWS and EOSDIS related work. Attached to the report is an appendix, 'LAWS Algorithm Development and Evaluation Laboratory (LADEL)'. Also attached is a copy of a proposal to the NASA EOS for 'LAWS Sampling Strategies and Wind Computation Algorithms -- Storm-Top Divergence Studies. Volume I: Investigation and Technical Plan, Data Plan, Computer Facilities Plan, Management Plan.'

  5. Validating the autonomous EO-1 science agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cichy, Benjamin; Chien, Steve; Rabideau, Gregg; Tran, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the validation process for the Autonomous Science Agent, a software agent that is currently flying onboard NASA EO-1 spacecraft. The agent autonomously collects, analyzes, and reacts to onboard science data. The Autonomous Science Agent has been designed using a layered architectural approach with specific redundant safeguards to reduce the risk of an agent malfunction to the EO-1 spacecraft. This safe design has been thoroughly validated by informal validation methods supplemented by sub-system and system-level testing. This paper describes the analysis used to define agent safety, elements of the design that increase the safety of the agent, and the process used to validate agent safety.

  6. MISR EOS Validation Site Data Ordering

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-02

    ... EOS Validation data files are orderable through the  MISR Order Tool . Log in to the MISR Order Tool Select product(s) ... be subset for the chosen site. You can further customize your files by following instructions in the interface. ...

  7. EOS Data Products Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L. (Editor); Greenstone, Reynold (Editor); Closs, James (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Data Products Handbook provides brief descriptions of the data products that will be produced from a range of missions of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and associated projects. Volume 1, originally published in 1997, covers the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Terra mission (formerly named EOS AM-1), and the Data Assimilation System, while this volume, Volume 2, covers the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT), Aqua, Jason-1, Landsat 7, Meteor 3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). the Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), the Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Quik-TOMS), and the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) missions. Volume 2 follows closely the format of Volume 1, providing a list of products and an introduction and overview descriptions of the instruments and data processing, all introductory to the core of the book, which presents the individual data product descriptions, organized into 11 topical chapters. The product descriptions are followed by five appendices, which provide contact information for the EOS data centers that will be archiving and distributing the data sets, contact information for the science points of contact for the data products, references, acronyms and abbreviations, and a data products index.

  8. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is the centerpiece of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It is a pivotal part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and hence of the international effort to understand global change and the increasing demands of human activity. EOS consists of a space-based observing system, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and a scientific research program. The space component consists of two series of polar-orbiting spacecraft, the first scheduled for launch in 1998, that will collect data for 15 years. EOS is completing its conceptual design phase and is preparing to enter the design phase with the selection and construction of the instruments for the first platform. EOSDIS will allow researchers to quickly and easily access data about the Earth system. Development of EOSDIS has already begun; it will support research and analysis with existing data. Geophysical and biological products will be created from the satellite data to be used to a broad range of the scientific community. NASA has also committed to providing smaller missions - called Earth Probes - dedicated to near-term observations of specific Earth processes. The scientific research program was initiated in 1990, with funding for 28 interdisciplinary teams, to begin development of models that will use EOS data and define the data requirements from the instruments, nine facility instruments and their science teams, 23 instrument investigations and definition studies for a synthetic-aperture radar.

  9. Data links for the EOS TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1990-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5MBytes/s/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Recent observational constraints on EoS parameters of a class of emergent Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, P.

    2017-08-01

    Emergent Universe (EU) model is investigated here using the recent observational data of the background tests. The background test data comprise observed Hubble data, baryon acoustic oscillation data, cosmic microwave background shift data and Union compilation(2.1) data. The flat EU model obtained by Mukherjee et al is permitted with a non-linear equation of state (in short, EoS) (p=Aρ -Bρ ^{{1}/{2}}), where A and B are constants. The best-fit values and permitted range of values of the EoS parameters are determined in general EU model and in specific EU model (A=0) by using chi-square minimization technique. The best-fit values of the EoS parameters are used to study the evolution of the squared adiabatic sound speed c^2s, state parameter ω and deceleration parameter q for different red-shifts z. The present age of the Universe t0 has been determined in general EU model as well as for EU model with A=0. The late accelerating phase of the Universe in the EU model is accommodated satisfactorily.

  11. 2016 Mission Operations Working Group: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    EO-1 Mission Status for the Constellation Mission Operations Working Group to discuss the EO-1 flight systems, mission enhancements, debris avoidance maneuver, orbital information, 5-year outlook, and new ground stations.

  12. 76 FR 31892 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Chapter III Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: In accordance with Executive Order (E.O.) 13563, ``Improving... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 18, 2011, the President issued E.O. 13563, ``Improving Regulation...

  13. A European Collaborative EO Summer School for the Education of Undergraduate and Masters Level Students- FORMAT-EO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Rosemarie; Remedios, John; Tramutoli, Valerio; Gil, Artur; Cuca, Branka

    2014-05-01

    An Erasmus intensive programme has been successfully funded to run a Europe-lead summer school in Earth Observation for the years 2013 and 2014. The summer school, FORMAT-EO (FORmation of Multi-disciplinary Approaches to Training in Earth Observation) has been proposed and implemented by a consortium of eight partner institutions from five European countries. The consortium was facilitated through the NEREUS network. In the summer of 2013, 21 students from seven European institutions took part in the two week intensive course which involved a total of 28 teachers from six institutions. Students were from a variety of backgrounds including aeronautical engineering MSc students and PhD students in the areas of marine biology, earthquake engineering and measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. The aims of FORMAT-EO were: To give students exposure to the wider applications of Earth Observation To highlight the interdisciplinary, collaborative and international nature of Earth Observation To offer an intensive course to better equip students with specialist skills required for a career in this field To provide expert advice on the development of careers in the EO market Partners were invited not only to recruit students for the course but to also teach at the school based on their specific area of expertise. This approach to the teaching provided a timetable which was wide-ranging and covered topics from EU policies for Earth Observation to fire detection from space and an introduction to interaction between radiation and matter. An important aspect of the course was the interactive nature of much of the teaching. A topic was introduced to the students through a lecture followed by an interactive tutorial providing students with hands-on experience of working with EO data and specialist software. The final days of the summer school were spent on group project work which required students to use all of the skills that they acquired during the course to challenge a

  14. Autonomous Science on the EO-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; hide

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.

  15. Autonomous Science on the EO-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Hengemihle, J.; Agostino, J. D.; Bote, R.; Trout, B.; Shulman, S.; Ungar, S.; Gaasbeck, J. Van; Boyer, D.; Griffin, M.; Burke, H.; Greeley, R.; Doggett, T.; Williams, K.; Baker, V.

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.

  16. EOS integrated payload articulation and identification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Milman, Mark; Bayard, David S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an autonomous control concept for pointing and articulation of science instruments on the EOS NASA/NOAA platforms intended to be operational by the late 1990s. Key features of this concept include advanced control adaptation and tuning strategies which provide performance robustness over a wide range of system uncertainties and mission time criticality. System identification-control modification paradigms are synthesized to form an adaptation continuum over this extended regime of autonomous operations.

  17. The EOS CERES Global Cloud Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berendes, T. A.; Welch, R. M.; Trepte, Q.; Schaaf, C.; Baum, B. A.

    1996-01-01

    To detect long-term climate trends, it is essential to produce long-term and consistent data sets from a variety of different satellite platforms. With current global cloud climatology data sets, such as the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Experiment (ISCCP) or CLAVR (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), one of the first processing steps is to determine whether an imager pixel is obstructed between the satellite and the surface, i.e., determine a cloud 'mask.' A cloud mask is essential to studies monitoring changes over ocean, land, or snow-covered surfaces. As part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program, a series of platforms will be flown beginning in 1997 with the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and subsequently the EOS-AM and EOS-PM platforms in following years. The cloud imager on TRMM is the Visible/Infrared Sensor (VIRS), while the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the imager on the EOS platforms. To be useful for long term studies, a cloud masking algorithm should produce consistent results between existing (AVHRR) data, and future VIRS and MODIS data. The present work outlines both existing and proposed approaches to detecting cloud using multispectral narrowband radiance data. Clouds generally are characterized by higher albedos and lower temperatures than the underlying surface. However, there are numerous conditions when this characterization is inappropriate, most notably over snow and ice of the cloud types, cirrus, stratocumulus and cumulus are the most difficult to detect. Other problems arise when analyzing data from sun-glint areas over oceans or lakes over deserts or over regions containing numerous fires and smoke. The cloud mask effort builds upon operational experience of several groups that will now be discussed.

  18. GMRT-EoR Project Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; GMRT-EoR Team

    2013-01-01

    The GMRT-EoR project has continued the multi-year campaign to measure the neutral hydrogen 21cm fluctuations at z=8.5, probing the reionization epoch using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in India. We have acquired new data and continued to improve our analysis strategy and process. To cope with the stringent foreground subtraction requirement, our team has developed a new method for component separation; I will present updates on the latest analysis and future prospects.

  19. EOS situational data shared service mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, L.; Xu, Q.; Lan, C. Z.; Shi, Q. S.; Lu, W. J.; Wu, W. Q.

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of aerospace and remote sensing technology, various high-resolution Earth Observation Systems (EOS) are widely used in economic, social, military and other fields and playing an increasingly prominent role in the construction of Digital Earth and national strategic planning. The normal operation of the system is the premise of high quality data acquisition. Compared with the ground observation mode, EOS itself and the surrounding environment are more complex, and its operation control mainly depends on all kinds of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data acquisition and analysis. SSA data has more extensive sources, larger volume, stronger time-effectiveness and more complicated structure than traditional geographical spatial data. For effective data sharing and utilization, combined with the analysis of data types and structures, a SSA data sharing identity language SSDSML is designed based on the extensible mark-up language XML, which realizes a comprehensive description of satellites and their attributes, space environment, ground stations, etc. Then EOS situational data shared service mechanism is established and provides a powerful data support for the normal operation of the system.

  20. EOS ODL Metadata On-line Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Rabi, M.; Bane, B.; Ullman, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have recently developed and deployed an EOS ODL metadata on-line viewer. The EOS ODL metadata viewer is a web server that takes: 1) an EOS metadata file in Object Description Language (ODL), 2) parameters, such as which metadata to view and what style of display to use, and returns an HTML or XML document displaying the requested metadata in the requested style. This tool is developed to address widespread complaints by science community that the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) metadata files in ODL are difficult to read by allowing users to upload and view an ODL metadata file in different styles using a web browser. Users have the selection to view all the metadata or part of the metadata, such as Collection metadata, Granule metadata, or Unsupported Metadata. Choices of display styles include 1) Web: a mouseable display with tabs and turn-down menus, 2) Outline: Formatted and colored text, suitable for printing, 3) Generic: Simple indented text, a direct representation of the underlying ODL metadata, and 4) None: No stylesheet is applied and the XML generated by the converter is returned directly. Not all display styles are implemented for all the metadata choices. For example, Web style is only implemented for Collection and Granule metadata groups with known attribute fields, but not for Unsupported, Other, and All metadata. The overall strategy of the ODL viewer is to transform an ODL metadata file to a viewable HTML in two steps. The first step is to convert the ODL metadata file to an XML using a Java-based parser/translator called ODL2XML. The second step is to transform the XML to an HTML using stylesheets. Both operations are done on the server side. This allows a lot of flexibility in the final result, and is very portable cross-platform. Perl CGI behind the Apache web server is used to run the Java ODL2XML, and then run the results through an XSLT processor. The EOS ODL viewer can be accessed from either a PC or a Mac using Internet

  1. Visualization, Analysis and Subsetting Tools for EOS Aura Data Products in HDF-EOS5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J.; Ahmad, S.; Gopalan, A.; Smith, P.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aura data products are among the first to use the new version 5 of the Hierarchical Data Format for the Earth Observing System, or HDF-EOS5. This presentation discusses the common HDF-EOS5 file layout that is adopted for most of the EOS Aura standard data products. Details of the various tools that can be used to access, visualize and subset these data will also be provided. Aura, the NASA Earth Observing System's atmospheric chemistry mission, was successfully launched July 15, 2004. The Aura spacecraft includes four instruments: the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Data from the HIRDLS, MLS and OMI will be archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), while TES data will be archived at the NASA Langley Research Center DAAC. For more information see http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  2. EO-1 analysis applicable to coastal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Hsiao-hua K.; Misra, Bijoy; Hsu, Su May; Griffin, Michael K.; Upham, Carolyn; Farrar, Kris

    2003-09-01

    The EO-1 satellite is part of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). It consists of three imaging sensors: the multi-spectral Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Hyperion and Atmospheric Corrector. Hyperion provides a high-resolution hyperspectral imager capable of resolving 220 spectral bands (from 0.4 to 2.5 micron) with a 30 m resolution. The instrument images a 7.5 km by 100 km land area per image. Hyperion is currently the only space-borne HSI data source since the launch of EO-1 in late 2000. The discussion begins with the unique capability of hyperspectral sensing to coastal characterization: (1) most ocean feature algorithms are semi-empirical retrievals and HSI has all spectral bands to provide legacy with previous sensors and to explore new information, (2) coastal features are more complex than those of deep ocean that coupled effects are best resolved with HSI, and (3) with contiguous spectral coverage, atmospheric compensation can be done with more accuracy and confidence, especially since atmospheric aerosol effects are the most pronounced in the visible region where coastal feature lie. EO-1 data from Chesapeake Bay from 19 February 2002 are analyzed. In this presentation, it is first illustrated that hyperspectral data inherently provide more information for feature extraction than multispectral data despite Hyperion has lower SNR than ALI. Chlorophyll retrievals are also shown. The results compare favorably with data from other sources. The analysis illustrates the potential value of Hyperion (and HSI in general) data to coastal characterization. Future measurement requirements (air borne and space borne) are also discussed.

  3. Bigplate: an oblique angle explosive EOS test

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S; Avara, R; Fried, L; Janzen, J; McGuire, E; Souers, P C; Wu, B

    1998-04-16

    Bigplate is an advanced explosive equation of state (EOS) test. It consists of a point detonator driving a large disc (100 mm radius) of explosive, which pushes a 0.5 mm thick copper or tantalum plate. The plate is observed by a five-beam Fabry-Perot interferometer, which has beams at 0, 10, 20,40 and 80 mm on the plate. A short Fabry gives the jump-off to high accuracy; a long Fabry runs out to I0-15 microsec. A detailed error analysis is given, with the final velocity measurements considered good to ±0.066 mm/microsec. Jump-offs are measured to 0.01-0.02 microsec. Spall is seen in all shots, which creates a time delay on both the first and second velocity plateaus. A 0.1 microsec delay in jump-off of unknown origin is also seen at 80 mm. In order of decreasing explosive ideality, the explosives tired have been LX-14, LX-04 and LX-17. To partially negate the time delays, the data and code runs are overlaid at each radial position between the first and second plateaus. Traditional JWL's model LX-14 and LX-04 within accuracy, but not so for LX-17. The spall may be partly modeled using the pmin model but high resolution zoning is required. At longer times, spall does not appear to affect the explosive energetics. Because it includes diagonal zone crossing, Bigplate occupies a location between simple plate and cylinder tests and truly complex geometries. Hence, an EOS that fails Bigplate is not likely to move on to more complex issues. Bigplate is an excellent test bed for radically new EOS's, and the initial LX-17 runs done with Equilibrium and KINETIC CHEETAH are promising.

  4. Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An executive summary of a study on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) was presented. It was concluded that the overall costs of space systems could be reduced significantly by the development of a modular shuttle compatible standard spacecraft, and the use of that spacecraft with the Shuttle Transportation System. It was also demonstrated that the development of the standard spacecraft is feasible, desirable, and cost effective if applied to a series of missions. The ability to initially retrieve, refurbish, and reuse the spacecraft and its payload, and ultimately to perform in-orbit servicing, would result in significant cost savings. A number of specific conclusions and recommendations were also suggested.

  5. Share Your Opinion With Other Eos Readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2006-11-01

    Earlier this year, Robert Kitchen (Eos, 87(24), 235, 2006) drew attention to declining interest in Earth science education in public schools. The reason for a lack of interest in teaching Earth sciences in public schools may involve more than just the attitudes of parents who may wish for their children a better preparation for advanced placement courses later on. Part of the problem may lie with our present mind-set that technology can solve all the world's problems, from poverty, to better health, and to prosperity.

  6. EOS image data processing system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, J.; Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Image Processing System (IPS) requirements and configuration are defined for NASA-sponsored advanced technology Earth Observatory System (EOS). The scope included investigation and definition of IPS operational, functional, and product requirements considering overall system constraints and interfaces (sensor, etc.) The scope also included investigation of the technical feasibility and definition of a point design reflecting system requirements. The design phase required a survey of present and projected technology related to general and special-purpose processors, high-density digital tape recorders, and image recorders.

  7. Measuring femoral and rotational alignment: EOS system versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Folinais, D; Thelen, P; Delin, C; Radier, C; Catonne, Y; Lazennec, J Y

    2013-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is currently the reference standard for measuring femoral and tibial rotational alignment. The EOS System is a new biplanar low-dose radiographic device that allows 3-dimensional lower-limb modelling with automated measurements of femoral and tibial rotational alignment (torsion). Femoral and tibial torsion measurements provided by the EOS System are equivalent to those obtained using CT. In a retrospective analysis of 43 lower limbs in 30 patients, three senior radiologists measured femoral and tibial torsion on both CT and EOS images. Agreement between CT and EOS values was assessed by computing Pearson's correlation coefficient and interobserver reproducibility by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Femoral torsion was 13.4° by EOS vs. 13.7° by CT (P=0.5) and tibial torsion was 30.8° by EOS vs. 30.3° by CT (P=0.4). Strong associations were found between EOS and CT values for both femoral torsion (P=0.93) and tibial torsion (P=0.89). With EOS, the ICC was 0.93 for femoral torsion and 0.86 for tibial torsion; corresponding values with CT were 0.90 and 0.92. The EOS system is a valid alternative to CT for lower-limb torsion measurement. EOS imaging allows a comprehensive evaluation in all three planes while substantially decreasing patient radiation exposure. Level III, case-control. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. P(DMS-co-EO)/P(EPI-co-EO) blend as a polymeric electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo Fonseca, C.; Cezare, T. T.; Neves, S.

    A new polymer electrolyte comprising the blend of poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-ethylene oxide) (P(DMS-co-EO)), and poly(epichlorohydrin-co-ethylene oxide) (P(EPI-co-EO)), with different concentrations of LiClO 4 is described. The polymer electrolyte was prepared by a solution-cast technique. The electrochemical properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The maximum ionic conductivity ( σ=1.2×10 -4 S cm -1) was obtained for the P(DMS-co-EO)/P(EPI-co-EO) 15/85 and 20/80 blends with 6 wt.% LiClO 4. These same films had a wide electrochemical stability, higher than 5 V at room temperature. A stable passive layer at the interface between the polymer electrolyte and lithium metal was formed within the first few days and maintained during the follow storage period. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the blends showed a transparent polymer electrolyte in the visible region.

  9. Asian Dust Storm Monitoring Using EOS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X.; Qu, J.; Wang, W.; Kafatos, M.

    2004-12-01

    Dust storm is a severe environmental problem in eastern Asia, especially in Mongolia and northern China. Strong dust storms often occur during spring and earlier summer in this region because of desertification, windy conditions, and drought. To study the dust source, mechanism of dust transport, and effect to weather and environment, efficient approaches for dust storm detection and monitoring are critical, many efforts have been taken with ground measurements and satellite remote sensing. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are two of the key instruments for Earth observation of NASA EOS Aqua (EOS PM) satellite, MODIS covers the entire earth surface every 1 to 2 days and acquiring data in 36 spectral bands with spectral coverage from visible bands to thermal infra-red bands and spatial resolution of 250m, 500m, and 1km, it¡_s very suitable for dust storm detection and monitoring while AIRS provide high spectral thermal measurements. We already investigated the spectral features of Asian dust storms, identified MODIS sensitive bands to dust and designed spectral indices with infra-red band and thermal band measurements from MODIS and AIRS in our previous studies. With four overpasses (two daytime and two nighttime) of MODIS (Terra and Aqua MODIS) each day and two overpasses of AIRS, we can detect Asian dust storm, and monitor the movement and transport of dust. We demonstrated our approaches with comprehensive analysis of dust storms in Mongolia and eastern China. Key words: Dust storm monitoring, remote sensing, MODIS and AIRS

  10. New RADIOM algorithm using inverse EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquet, Michel; Sokolov, Igor; Klapisch, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    The RADIOM model, [1-2], allows one to implement non-LTE atomic physics with a very low extra CPU cost. Although originally heuristic, RADIOM has been physically justified [3] and some accounting for auto-ionization has been included [2]. RADIOM defines an ionization temperature Tz derived from electronic density and actual electronic temperature Te. LTE databases are then queried for properties at Tz and NLTE values are derived from them. Some hydro-codes (like FAST at NRL, Ramis' MULTI, or the CRASH code at U.Mich) use inverse EOS starting from the total internal energy Etot and returning the temperature. In the NLTE case, inverse EOS requires to solve implicit relations between Te, Tz, and Etot. We shall describe these relations and an efficient solver successively implemented in some of our codes. [4pt] [1] M. Busquet, Radiation dependent ionization model for laser-created plasmas, Ph. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993).[0pt] [2] M. Busquet, D. Colombant, M. Klapisch, D. Fyfe, J. Gardner. Improvements to the RADIOM non-LTE model, HEDP 5, 270 (2009).[0pt] [3] M.Busquet, Onset of pseudo-thermal equilibrium within configurations and super-configurations, JQSRT 99, 131 (2006)

  11. Sizing the science data processing requirements for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, Stephen W.; Chang, Hyo D.; Krupp, Brian; Lu, Yun-Chi

    1991-01-01

    The methodology used in the compilation and synthesis of baseline science requirements associated with the 30 + EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments and over 2,400 EOS data products (both output and required input) proposed by EOS investigators is discussed. A brief background on EOS and the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is presented, and the approach is outlined in terms of a multilayer model. The methodology used to compile, synthesize, and tabulate requirements within the model is described. The principal benefit of this approach is the reduction of effort needed to update the analysis and maintain the accuracy of the science data processing requirements in response to changes in EOS platforms, instruments, data products, processing center allocations, or other model input parameters. The spreadsheets used in the model provide a compact representation, thereby facilitating review and presentation of the information content.

  12. Realtime Decision Making on EO-1 Using Onboard Science Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu

    2004-01-01

    Recent autonomy experiments conducted on Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) using the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) flight software has been used to classify key features in hyperspectral images captured by EO-1. Furthermore, analysis is performed by this software onboard EO-1 and then used to modify the operational plan without interaction from the ground. This paper will outline the overall operations concept and provide some details and examples of the onboard science processing, science analysis, and replanning.

  13. DEMO: The autonomous sciencecraft experiment onboard the EO-1 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), currently flying onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, integrates several autonomy software technologies enabling autonomous science analysis and mission planning.

  14. The ASY-EOS Experiment at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, P.; Chartier, M.; Cozma, M. D.; De Filippo, E.; Le Fèvre, A.; Gannon, S.; Gašparić, I.; Kiš, M.; Kupny, S.; Leifels, Y.; Lemmon, R. C.; Li, Q.; Łukasik, J.; Marini, P.; Pawłowski, P.; Trautmann, W.; Acosta, L.; Adamczyk, M.; Al-Ajlan, A.; Al-Garawi, M.; Al-Homaidhi, S.; Amorini, F.; Auditore, L.; Aumann, T.; Ayyad, Y.; Baran, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bassini, R.; Benlliure, J.; Boiano, C.; Boisjoli, M.; Boretzky, K.; Brzychczyk, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Cardella, G.; Cammarata, P.; Chajecki, Z.; Chbihi, A.; Colonna, M.; Czech, B.; Di Toro, M.; Famiano, M.; Greco, V.; Grassi, L.; Guazzoni, C.; Guazzoni, P.; Heil, M.; Heilborn, L.; Introzzi, R.; Isobe, T.; Kezzar, K.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kurz, N.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Lasko, P.; Lombardo, I.; Lynch, W. G.; Matthews, Z.; May, L.; Minniti, T.; Mostazo, M.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Pleskac, R.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Reifarth, R.; Reisdorf, W.; Riccio, F.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Rossi, D.; Santoro, S.; Simon, H.; Skwirczynska, I.; Sosin, Z.; Stuhl, L.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Veselsky, M.; Vigilante, M.; Wieloch, A.; Wigg, P.; Wolter, H. H.; Wu, P.; Yennello, S.; Zambon, P.; Zetta, L.; Zoric, M.

    2016-05-01

    The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  15. GDAL Enhancements for Interoperability with EOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdale, M.; Mathews, T. J.; Tisdale, B.; Sun, M.; Yang, C. P.; Lee, H.; Habermann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) data products have been difficult to consume by GIS tools, weather commercial or open-source. This has resulted in a reduced acceptance of these data products by GIS and general user communities. Common problems and challenges experienced by these data users include difficulty when: Consuming data products from NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that pre-date modern application software with commercial and open-source geospatial tools; Identifying an initial approach for developing a framework and plug-ins that interpret non-compliant data; Defining a methodology that is extensible across NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), scientific communities, and GIS communities by enabling other data centers to construct their own plug-ins and adjust specific data products; and Promoting greater use of NASA Data and new analysis utilizing GIS tools. To address these challenges and to make EOS data products more accessible and interpretable by GIS applications, a collaborative approach has been taken that includes the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), Esri, George Mason University (GMU), and the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Group to create a framework and plugins to be applied to Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). This framework and its plugins offer advantages of extensibility within NASA EOSDIS, permitting other data centers to construct their own plugins necessary to adjust their data products. In this session findings related to the framework and the development of GDAL plugins will be reviewed. Specifically, this session will offer a workshop to review documentation and training materials that have been generated for the purpose of guiding other NASA DAACs through the process of constructing plug-ins consistent with the framework as well as a review of the certification process by which the plugins can be independently verified as properly converting the

  16. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-02

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  17. Analytic EoS and PTW strength model recommendation for Starck Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.; Prime, Michael B.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an analytic EoS and PTW strength model for Starck Ta that can be consistently used between different platforms and simulations at three labs. This should provide a consistent basis for comparison of the results of calculations, but not the best implementation for matching a wide variety of experimental data. Another version using SESAME tables should follow, which will provide a better physical representation over a broader range of conditions. The data sets available at the time only include one Hopkinson bar at a strain rate of 1800/s; a broader range of high-rate calibration data would be preferred. The resulting fit gives the PTW parameter p = 0. To avoid numerical issues, p = 0:001 has been used in FLAG. The PTW parameters that apply above the maximum strain rate in the data use the values from the original publication.

  18. Anharmonic effect on the equation of state (EoS) for NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumita, Tatsuya; Yoneda, Akira

    2014-02-01

    We find clear intrinsic anharmonicity in the NaCl-B1 phase by examining the equation of state (EoS) based on previous ultrasonic velocity data for pressures up to 0.8 GPa and temperatures up to 800 K. The experimental EoS for this phase shows that its specific heat at constant volume ( C V ) is significantly smaller than that based on a harmonic model. Also, the sign of which is normally negative in the quasi-harmonic approximation, is unexpectedly positive. The thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter ( γ), which has frequently been assumed to be a single-variable function of molar volume, shows not only volume dependence but also negative temperature dependence. To understand these features of C V and γ, we introduce a thermodynamic model including positive quartic anharmonicity. To make an anharmonic model advancing the ordinarily quasi-harmonic approximation model, we introduce two parameters: anharmonic characteristic temperature ( θ a ) and its volume derivative. In the anharmonic model, the value of C V is calculated along an isochore using classical statistical mechanics and a harmonic quantum correction. At high temperatures, the decrease in C V from the Dulong-Petit limit is related to the value of T/ θ a . For infinitely large θ a , the system is approximately quasi-harmonic. The temperature dependence of γ is related to C V by the thermodynamic identity Even though our modification of the quasi-harmonic approximation is simple, our anharmonic model succeeds in reproducing the experimental γ and C V simultaneously for the NaCl-B1 phase.

  19. di-EOS - "distributed EOS": Initial experience with split-site persistency in a production service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, A. J.; Mascetti, L.; Iven, J.; Espinal Curull, X.

    2014-06-01

    In order to accommodate growing demand for storage and computing capacity from the LHC experiments, in 2012 CERN tendered for a remote computer centre. The potential negative performance implications of the geographical distance (aka network latency) within the same "site" and storage service on physics computing have been investigated. Overall impact should be acceptable, but for some access patterns might be significant. Recent EOS changes should help to mitigate the effects, but experiments may need to adjust their job parameters.

  20. The cost of Child Health Days: a case study of Ethiopia's Enhanced Outreach Strategy (EOS).

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Chuko, Tesfaye

    2008-07-01

    Child Health Days (CHDs) are twice-annual campaign-style events designed to increase the coverage of vitamin A and one or more other child health services. Although more than two dozen countries have had a CHD, little has been published about them. This paper presents an activity-based costing study of Ethiopia's version of CHDs, the Enhanced Outreach Strategy (EOS). The December 2006 round reached more than 10 million beneficiaries at an average cost per beneficiary of US$0.56. When measles is added, the cost of the package doubles. Given the way the distribution day delivery system and the service package are structured, there are economies of scope. Because most of the costs are determined by the number of delivery sites and are independent of the number of beneficiaries, other things equal, increasing the beneficiaries would reduce the average cost per beneficiary. Taking into account only the mortality impact of vitamin A, EOS saved 20,200 lives and averted 230,000 DALYs of children 6-59 months. The average cost per life saved was US$228 and the cost per DALY averted was equivalent to 6% of per capita GDP (US$9), making the EOS cost-effective, according to WHO criteria. While CHDs are generally construed as a temporary strategy for improving coverage of supply-constrained systems, inadequate attention has been paid to demand-side considerations that suggest CHDs have an important role to play in changing care-seeking behaviour, in increasing community organization and participation, and in promoting district autonomy and capacity. Recognition of these effects suggests the need for decisions about where and when to introduce, and when to end, a CHD to take into account more than 'just' health sector considerations: they are more broadly about community development. UNICEF played a key role in initiating the EOS and finances 68% of costs, raising concern about the programme's long-term sustainability.

  1. The development of the EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Thomas D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Dozier, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    The architecture of the Earth Observing System (EOS), a major component of NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, is described with emphasis on its development strategy. It is noted that the EOS is comprised of a scientific research program, a space measurement system, and an EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Details are presented concerning the EOS program and its candidate instruments. Major components of EOS include Version 0 (V0) built on existing Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), the EOSDIS core system (ECS), DAAC-unique functions, science computing facilities (SCF), and independent verification validation of the ECS. Requirements for EODIS are also reviewed noting that, among other requirements, it must keep up with an orbital average data rate of more than 30 Mbps as well as store, distribute, and manage information about tens of Petabytes of data during and after the 15-year mission.

  2. The development of the EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Thomas D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Dozier, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    The architecture of the Earth Observing System (EOS), a major component of NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, is described with emphasis on its development strategy. It is noted that the EOS is comprised of a scientific research program, a space measurement system, and an EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Details are presented concerning the EOS program and its candidate instruments. Major components of EOS include Version 0 (V0) built on existing Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), the EOSDIS core system (ECS), DAAC-unique functions, science computing facilities (SCF), and independent verification validation of the ECS. Requirements for EODIS are also reviewed noting that, among other requirements, it must keep up with an orbital average data rate of more than 30 Mbps as well as store, distribute, and manage information about tens of Petabytes of data during and after the 15-year mission.

  3. Research topics on EO systems for maritime platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; Bijl, Piet; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Eijk, Alenxander M. J.

    2014-10-01

    Our world is constantly changing, and this has its effect on worldwide military operations. For example, there is a change from conventional warfare into a domain that contains asymmetric threats as well. The availability of high-quality imaging information from Electro-Optical (EO) sensors is of high importance, for instance for timely detection and identification of small threatening vessels in an environment with a large amount of neutral vessels. Furthermore, Rules of Engagement often require a visual identification before action is allowed. The challenge in these operations is to detect, classify and identify a target at a reasonable range, while avoiding too many false alarms or missed detections. Current sensor technology is not able to cope with the performance requirements under all circumstances. For example, environmental conditions can reduce the sensor range in such a way that the operational task becomes challenging or even impossible. Further, limitations in automatic detection algorithms occur, e.g. due to the effects of sun glints and spray which are not yet well-modelled in the detection filters. For these reasons, Tactical Decision Aids will become an important factor in future operations to select the best moment to act. In this paper, we describe current research within The Netherlands on this topic. The Defence Research and Development Programme "Multifunctional Electro-Optical Sensor Suite (MEOSS)" aims at the development of knowledge necessary for optimal employment of Electro-Optical systems on board of current and future ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy, in order to carry out present and future maritime operations in various environments and weather conditions.

  4. EOS ground data systems: A description and interface overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gene

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is planned as a space-based measurement system, earth-science research program, and data and information system (EOSDIS). It will consist of several high data rate spacecraft with multiple earth sensing instruments which provide investigators with a thorough, longterm view of the earth's environment. Up to seven spacecraft may be supported at once, either in operational, checkout, or testing phases; and the average data rate from the EOS satellites in orbit at any one time is expected to be from 18 to 60 Mbps. Providing the data processing and flight operations support for EOS will be the EOSDIS Core System (ECS). The ECS will command and control the spacecraft; process and store the EOS data; provide access to the data for years; and support researchers. The data processing aspects of the ECS consist of a collection of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) which perform the product generation, data archive and distribution, and information management services. Flight operations aspects will be provided by the EOS Operations Center, by instrument control centers, and by widely distributed instrument support terminals. The communications and system management aspects will be provided by the EOSDIS Science Network and the System Management Center. In addition to the EOS satellite data, other data sets from earlier earth science missions are also to be added to designated DAAC's. Other ground data systems which will provide support to EOS for acquiring, transporting, processing, and distributing the transformed spacecraft data are currently being defined or are being upgraded for the EOS era. These systems include the Space Network consisting of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the TDRSS Ground Terminals, and the Network Control Center as well as the night Dynamics Facility, the EOS Data and Operations System, and EOS Communications. This paper briefly describes data handling by the ECS, the support data

  5. EOS Data Products Latency and Reprocessing Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Wanchoo, L.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) program has been processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data since the launch of Terra platform in 1999. The EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and Science-Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPSs) are generating over 5000 unique products with a daily average volume of 1.7 Petabytes. Initially EOSDIS had requirements to make process data products within 24 hours of receiving all inputs needed for generating them. Thus, generally, the latency would be slightly over 24 and 48 hours after satellite data acquisition, respectively, for Level 1 and Level 2 products. Due to budgetary constraints these requirements were relaxed, with the requirement being to avoid a growing backlog of unprocessed data. However, the data providers have been generating these products in as timely a manner as possible. The reduction in costs of computing hardware has helped considerably. It is of interest to analyze the actual latencies achieved over the past several years in processing and inserting the data products into the EOSDIS archives for the users to support various scientific studies such as land processes, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, cryospheric science, etc. The instrument science teams have continuously evaluated the data products since the launches of EOS satellites and improved the science algorithms to provide high quality products. Data providers have periodically reprocessed the previously acquired data with these improved algorithms. The reprocessing campaigns run for an extended time period in parallel with forward processing, since all data starting from the beginning of the mission need to be reprocessed. Each reprocessing activity involves more data than the previous reprocessing. The historical record of the reprocessing times would be of interest to future missions, especially those involving large volumes of data and/or computational loads due to

  6. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andreas J.; van der Ster, Dan C.; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issues beforehand. The main idea behind this R&D is to leverage and contribute to existing building blocks in the CEPH storage stack and implement a few CERN specific requirements in a thin, customisable storage layer. A second research topic is the integration of ethernet enabled disks. This paper introduces various ongoing open source developments, their status and applicability.

  7. Processing EOS MLS Level-2 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. Van; Wu, Dong; Read, William; Jiang, Jonathan; Wagner, Paul; Livesey, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Michael; Filipiak, Mark; Pumphrey, Hugh; Shippony, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    A computer program performs level-2 processing of thermal-microwave-radiance data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The purpose of the processing is to estimate the composition and temperature of the atmosphere versus altitude from .8 to .90 km. "Level-2" as used here is a specialists f term signifying both vertical profiles of geophysical parameters along the measurement track of the instrument and processing performed by this or other software to generate such profiles. Designed to be flexible, the program is controlled via a configuration file that defines all aspects of processing, including contents of state and measurement vectors, configurations of forward models, measurement and calibration data to be read, and the manner of inverting the models to obtain the desired estimates. The program can operate in a parallel form in which one instance of the program acts a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each slave operating on a portion of the data. Optionally, the configuration file can be made to instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on state vectors formed from sets of geophysical data-product files taken as input.

  8. 76 FR 15859 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Chapters 5 and 61 Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of... Executive Order (EO) 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review.'' E.O. 132563 was signed...

  9. 76 FR 15224 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: March 15,...

  10. 76 FR 18104 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. William E....

  11. A simple and generalised P-T-V EoS for continuous phase transitions, implemented in EosFit and applied to quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Ross J.; Alvaro, Matteo; Miletich, Ronald; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2017-05-01

    Continuous phase transitions in minerals, such as the α-β transition in quartz, can give rise to very large non-linear variations in their volume and density with temperature and pressure. The extension of the Landau model in a fully self-consistent form to characterize the effects of pressure on phase transitions is challenging because of non-linear elasticity and associated finite strains, and the expected variation of coupling terms with pressure. Further difficulties arise because of the need to integrate the resulting elastic terms over pressure to achieve a description of the P-T-V equation of state. We present a fully self-consistent simplified description of the equation of state of minerals with continuous phase transitions based on a purely phenomenological adaptation of Landau theory. The resulting P-T-V EoS includes the description of the elastic softening occurring in both phases with the minimum number of parameters. By coupling the volume and elastic behaviour of the mineral, this approach allows the EoS parameters to be determined by using both volume and elastic data, and avoids the need to use data at simultaneous P and T. The transition model has been incorporated in to the EosFit7c program, which allows the parameters to be determined by simultaneous fitting of both volume and elastic data, and all types of equation of state calculations to be performed. Quartz is used as an example, and the parameters to describe the full P-T-V EoS of both α- and β-quartz are determined.

  12. Seasonal spectral dynamics and carbon fluxes at core EOS sites using EO-1 Hyperion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomasino, D.; Campbell, P.; Price, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fluxes of water and carbon into the atmosphere are critical components in order to monitor and predict climate change. Spatial heterogeneity and seasonal changes in vegetation contribute to ambiguities in regional and global CO2 and water cycle dynamics. Satellite remote sensing is essential for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of various vegetation types for the purposes of determining carbon and water fluxes. Satellite data from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was acquired for five Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) sites, Mongu (Zambia, Africa), Konza Prairie (Kansas, USA), Duke Forest (North Carolina, USA), Barrow (Alaska, USA) and Sevilleta (New Mexico, USA). Each EOS site represented a distinct vegetative ecosystem type; hardwood forest, grassland, evergreen forest, lichens, and shrubland/grassland respectively. Satellite data was atmospherically corrected using the Atmosphere CORrection Now (ACORN) model and subsequently, the spectral reflectance data was extracted in the vicinity of existing flux towers. The EO-1 Hyperion sensor proved advantageous because of its high and continuous spectral resolution (10 nm intervals from 355 to 2578 nm wavelengths). The high spectral resolution allowed us calculate biophysical indices based on specific wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum that are associated with alterations in foliar chemistry and plant membrane structure (i.e., vegetation stress) brought upon by many environmental factors. Previous studies have focused on relationships within a specific site or vegetation community. This study however, incorporated many sites with different vegetation types and various geographic locations throughout the world. Monitoring the fluctuations in vegetation stress with contemporaneous environmental conditions and carbon flux measurements from each site will provide better insight into water and carbon flux dynamics in many different biomes. Noticeable spectral signatures were identified based on site specific

  13. EOS production on the Space Station. [Electrophoresis Operations/Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.; Gleason, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a conceptual integration of the equipment for EOS (Electrophoresis Operations/Space) on the Space Station in the early 1990s. Electrophoresis is a fluid-constituent separation technique which uses forces created by an electrical field. Aspects covered include EOS equipment and operations, and Space Station installations involving a pressurized module, a resupply module, utility provisions and umbilicals and crew involvement. Accommodation feasibility is generally established, and interfaces are defined. Space Station production of EOS-derived pharmaceuticals will constitute a significant increase in capability compared to precursor flights on the Shuttle in the 1980s.

  14. Applications of the EOS SAR to monitoring global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schier, Marguerite; Way, Jobea; Holt, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    The SAR employed by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a multifrequency multipolarization radar which can conduct global monitoring of geophysical and biophysical parameters. The present discussion of the EOS SAR's role in global monitoring emphasizes geophysical product variables applicable to global hydrologic, biogeochemical, and energy cycle models. EOS SAR products encompass biomass, wetland areas, and phenologic and environmental states, in the field of ecosystem dynamics; soil moisture, snow moisture and extent, and glacier and ice sheet extent and velocity, in hydrologic cycle studies; surface-wave fields and sea ice properties, in ocean/atmosphere circulation; and the topography, erosion, and land forms of the solid earth.

  15. Eos, Koronis, and Maria Family Asteroids: Infrared (JHK) Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Owensby, Pamela D.; Gradie, Jonathan C.; Bell, Jeffrey F.; Tedesco, Edward F.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared photometry at 1.2, 1.6, and 2.2 micrometer (JHK) is reported for 56 asteroids in the Eos, Koronis and, Maria dynamical families. These data are consistent with similar surface composition for all of the asteroids of each family. The infrared colors within each family cluster in the region observed for the S taxonomic class, but Eos asteroids may belong to a separable K class. Asteroid 243 Ida, which was observed by the Galileo spacecraft, is a typical member of the Koronis family. The average infrared colors of the Maria family are slightly redder than those of the Eos and Koronis families.

  16. Applications of the EOS SAR to monitoring global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schier, Marguerite; Way, Jobea; Holt, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    The SAR employed by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a multifrequency multipolarization radar which can conduct global monitoring of geophysical and biophysical parameters. The present discussion of the EOS SAR's role in global monitoring emphasizes geophysical product variables applicable to global hydrologic, biogeochemical, and energy cycle models. EOS SAR products encompass biomass, wetland areas, and phenologic and environmental states, in the field of ecosystem dynamics; soil moisture, snow moisture and extent, and glacier and ice sheet extent and velocity, in hydrologic cycle studies; surface-wave fields and sea ice properties, in ocean/atmosphere circulation; and the topography, erosion, and land forms of the solid earth.

  17. EOS-AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles W.; Keys, Denney J.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wannemacher, Hari E.; Vaidyanathan, Harry

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of die tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-1 cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 18,202 LEO cycles completed as of September 1, 1997. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell, 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 amperes (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three, 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battery, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operating at +30 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements through the first 18

  18. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  19. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  20. Comparison of EO1 Landsat-7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI images over Rochester, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

    2002-08-01

    We present a comparison of images from the ETM+ sensor on Landsat-7 and the ALI instrument on EO-1 over a test site in Rochester, NY. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, grass fields, to urban areas. The nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected just one minute apart on 25 August, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each image with the 6S atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by a Cimel sun photometer within the Aerosol Robotic Network (Aeronet), along with ozone density derived from NCEP data. We present three-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement. We present ETM+ and ALI reflectance spectra for water, grass, and urban targets. We make a more detailed comparison for our forest site, where we use measured geometric and optical properties as input to the SAIL canopy reflectance model, which we compare to the ETM+, ALI, and EO-1 Hyperion reflectance spectra.

  1. Effects of EoS in viscous hydro + cascade model for the RHIC Beam Energy Scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Iu.; Bleicher, M.; Huovinen, P.; Petersen, H.

    2016-12-01

    A state-of-the-art 3+1 dimensional cascade + viscous hydro + cascade model vHLLE+UrQMD has been applied to heavy ion collisions in RHIC Beam Energy Scan range √{sNN} = 7.7 , … , 200 GeV. Based on comparison to available experimental data it was estimated that an effective value of shear viscosity over entropy density ratio η / s in hydrodynamic stage has to decrease from η / s = 0.2 to 0.08 as collision energy increases from √{sNN} = 7.7 to 39 GeV, and to stay at η / s = 0.08 for 39 ≤√{ s} ≤ 200 GeV. In this work we show how an equation of state with first order phase transition affects the hydrodynamic evolution at those collision energies and changes the results of the model as compared to "default scenario" with a crossover type EoS from chiral model.

  2. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  3. Important change in service for international Eos delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treby, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In direct response to member feedback about delays in delivery time and an overwhelming preference to read Eos online, print issues of Eos will no longer be mailed to members who have a delivery address outside the United States, effective with the 10 January 2012 issue. Our international members will continue to have access to the Eos electronic edition as well as recently introduced Web-only content. In addition, members who no longer receive a print copy of Eos will receive weekly e-alerts telling them when the newest issue is available online (several days before the cover date). Members with a mailing address in the United States also have the choice to opt out of the printed copy. Not only will this change allow us to better serve the needs of our international members, but also the cost savings will permit AGU to significantly increase investment in the other programs, products, and services that members value.

  4. ASPEN: EO-1 Mission Activity Planning Made Easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Govindjee, Anita; Yan, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Fukunaga, Alex

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the application of an automated planning and scheduling system to the NASA Earth Orbitin 1 (EO-1) missions. The planning system, ASPEN, is used to autonomously schedule the daily activites of the satellite.

  5. Toward a complete EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Robert R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Based on NASA EOS data panel analyses, an architectural concept is described in terms of elemental composition, top-level functions, and external and internal interfaces. This concept has been evaluated through the use of realistic user-generated scenarios consistent with existing plans for the 1990s and the Space Station. Developmental approaches for the requisite EOS data and information system are presented and a hybrid methodology for implementing this system is discussed.

  6. Toward a complete EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Robert R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Based on NASA EOS data panel analyses, an architectural concept is described in terms of elemental composition, top-level functions, and external and internal interfaces. This concept has been evaluated through the use of realistic user-generated scenarios consistent with existing plans for the 1990s and the Space Station. Developmental approaches for the requisite EOS data and information system are presented and a hybrid methodology for implementing this system is discussed.

  7. EOS7R: Radionuclide transport for TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K.

    1995-11-01

    EOS7R provides radionuclide transport capability for TOUGH2. EOS7R extends the EOS7 module (water, brine, and optional air) to model water, brine, parent component, daughter component, and optional air and heat. The radionuclide components follow a first-order decay law, and may adsorb onto the solid grains. Volatilization of the decaying components is modeled by Henry`s Law. The decaying components are normally referred to as radionuclides, but they may in fact by any trace components that decay, adsorb, and volatilize. The decay process need not be radioactive decay, but could be any process that follows a first-order decay law, such as biodegradation. EOS7R includes molecular diffusion for all components in gaseous and aqueous phases using a simplified binary diffusion model. When EOS7R is used with standard TOUGH2, transport occurs by advection and molecular diffusion in all phases. When EOS7R is coupled with the dispersion module T2DM, one obtains T2DMR, the radionuclide transport version of T2DM. T2DMR models advection, diffusion, and hydrodynamic dispersion in rectangular two-dimensional regions. Modeling of radionuclide transport requires input parameters specifying the half-life for first-order decay, distribution coefficients for each rock type for adsorption, and inverse Henry`s constants for volatilization. Options can be specified in the input file to model decay in inactive grid blocks and to read from standard EOS7 INCON files. The authors present a number of example problems to demonstrate application and accuracy of TOUGH2/EOS7R. One-dimensional simulation results agree well with analytical solutions. For a two-dimensional salt-dome flow problem, the final distribution of daughter radionuclide component is complicated by the presence of weak recirculation caused by density effects due to salinity.

  8. The Polar HDF-EOS Data Imaging and Subsetting Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalsa, S. S.; Weaver, R. L.

    2001-05-01

    The Polar HDF-EOS Data Imaging and Subsetting (PHDIS) Tool realizes the promise of HDF-EOS, the standard data format selected by NASA for its EOS data products. Focused especially on the needs of the polar research community, the PHDIS Tool can open any HDF-EOS gridded data product that is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (LAMAZ) projection, the basis of the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) widely used for polar data products. The PHDIS Tool can also open and grid in LAMAZ any HDF-EOS swath data product. A simple and easy-to-use graphical user interface is used to open, geolocate, and visualize any number of swath or grid products in separate but dynamically linked windows. The products do not need to be at the same resolution. A box drawn in one window is simultaneously displayed in the other windows. Data in the selected region can be displayed in a new window, viewed in table format, or written to a file, for any of the data sets currently displayed. This tool provides an easy way for researchers to compare and analyze data from a variety of polar data sets. The National Snow and Ice Data Center is planning on making available the PHDIS Tool, which is written in IDL, to assist its users working with polar gridded data sets in HDF-EOS, including the MODIS Level 3 sea ice product. This presentation is the debut of the first public release of this tool.

  9. 76 FR 70927 - USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Chapter II USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O.... Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review'' (E.O.), issued on January 18, 2011... pursuant to E.O. 13563. The E.O. further directs each agency to periodically review its...

  10. 77 FR 3211 - USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 33 CFR Chapter II USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of... Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review'' (E.O.), issued on January 18, 2011... pursuant to E.O. 13563. The E.O. further directs each agency to periodically review its...

  11. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  12. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study.

    PubMed

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower assembling costs and higher utilization rates

  13. Real-tme IR/EO scene simulator (RISS) product improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Douglas C.; Simmons, Onda D.; Makar, Robert J.; Nuwer, Mark E.; Palumbo, Paul W.; Schlossman, Paul G.; Perry, Roderic C.; Chan, Louis

    2003-09-01

    Northrop Grumman Amherst Systems has continued to improve the Real-time IR/EO Scene Simulator (RISS) for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of infrared sensor systems. Several new and enhanced capabilities have been added to the system for both customer and internal development programs. A new external control capability provides control of either player trajectories or unit-under-test (UUT) orientation. The RISS Scene Rendering Subsystem (SRS) has been enhanced with support for texture transparency and increased texture memory capacity. The RISS Universal Programmable Interface (UPI) graphical user interface (GUI) has been improved to provide added flexibility and control of the real-time sensor modeling capabilities. This paper will further explore these and other product improvements.

  14. EOS-WEBSTER - Providing Satellite Imagery for Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, A. L.; Moore, B.; Braswell, R.; Hurtt, G.; Armstrong, W.; Blaha, D.; Carmell, T.; Freuder, R.; Routhier, M.; Spencer, S.

    2002-12-01

    The University of New Hampshire's WEB-based System for Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (EOS-WEBSTER) distributes a special collection of data and imagery products for the Earth Science community. This collection includes satellite imagery from several sensors including the MODIS instrument aboard TERRA. Our services have been designed so that different types of users can access and use only the data that they want. Users can search EOS-WEBSTER's collections, create spatial and temporal subsets, and order data in ASCII or binary formats. We have developed a suite of MODIS products covering Amazonia. These products serve the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Project in Amazonia (LBA), a joint project of the Brazilian government and NASA. Products include 8-day reflectances (MOD09A1), daily fire potential (MOD14A1), and 16-day NDVIs (MOD13Q1), starting in January 2001. EOS-WEBSTER takes care of obtaining the 14 MODIS tiles that cover Amazonia and stitching them together into a seamless regional coverage. Users can cookie-cut the regional data into smaller areas of interest, such as a field site, a political boundary, or a watershed, then choose an output format such as GrADS and retrieve their order by ftp or on CD-ROM. EOS-WEBSTER delivers MODIS to users whether or not they can manipulate the HDF-EOS format. These regional data sets were developed in cooperation with Eros Data Center to facilitate use of MODIS products by the LBA community. Other products and regions can be developed for other user communities if there is enough interest. Please contact us at support@eos-webster.sr.unh.edu for more information. MODIS is only one of a variety of imagery products available from EOS-WEBSTER. Other platforms include Landsat, SPOT-VEGETATION and IKONOS. We provide Landsat imagery data access to educators by supporting the Forest Watch program, an educational project that includes K-12 teachers and students in UNH research activities that assess the state-of-health of local

  15. The Integration, Testing and Flight of the EO-1 GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, David A.; Sanneman, Paul A.; Shulman, Seth E.; Sager, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Positioning System has long been hailed as the wave of the future for autonomous on-board navigation of low Earth orbiting spacecraft despite the fact that relatively few spacecraft have actually employed it for this purpose. While several missions operated out of the Goddard Space Flight Center have flown GPS receivers on board, the New Millenium Program (NMP) Earth Orbiting-1 (EO-1) spacecraft is the first to employ GPS for active, autonomous on-board navigation. Since EO-1 was designed to employ GPS as its primary source of the navigation ephemeris, special care had to be taken during the integration phase of spacecraft construction to assure proper performance. This paper is a discussion of that process: a brief overview of how the GPS works, how it fits into the design of the EO-1 Attitude Control System (ACS), the steps taken to integrate the system into the EO-1 spacecraft, the ultimate on-orbit performance during launch and early operations of the EO-1 mission and the performance of the on-board GPS ephemeris versus the ground based ephemeris. Conclusions will include a discussion of the lessons learned.

  16. (abstract) The EOS SAR Mission: A New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Earth Orbiting System Synthetic Aperture Radar (EOS SAR) program is to help develop the modeling and observational capabilities to predict and monitor terrestrial and oceanic processes that are either causing global change or resulting from global change. Specifically, the EOS SAR will provide important geophysical products to the EOS data set to improve our understanding of the state and functioning of the Earth system. The strategy for the EOS SAR program is to define the instrument requirements based on required input to geophysical algorithms, provide the processing capability and algorithms to generate such products on the required spatial (global) and temporal (3-5 days) scales, and to provide the spaceborne instrumentation with international partnerships. Initially this partnership has been with Germany; currently we are exploring broader international partnerships. A MultiSAR approach to the EOS SAR which includes a number of SARs provided by Japan, ESA, Germany, Canada, and the US in synergistic orbits could be used to attain a truly global monitoring capability using multifrequency polarimetric signatures. These concepts and several options for mission scenarios will be presented.

  17. Exponential 6 parameterization for the JCZ3-EOS

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, B.C.; Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.

    1998-07-01

    A database has been created for use with the Jacobs-Cowperthwaite-Zwisler-3 equation-of-state (JCZ3-EOS) to determine thermochemical equilibrium for detonation and expansion states of energetic materials. The JCZ3-EOS uses the exponential 6 intermolecular potential function to describe interactions between molecules. All product species are characterized by r*, the radius of the minimum pair potential energy, and {var_epsilon}/k, the well depth energy normalized by Boltzmann`s constant. These parameters constitute the JCZS (S for Sandia) EOS database describing 750 gases (including all the gases in the JANNAF tables), and have been obtained by using Lennard-Jones potential parameters, a corresponding states theory, pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and fit values using an empirical EOS. This database can be used with the CHEETAH 1.40 or CHEETAH 2.0 interface to the TIGER computer program that predicts the equilibrium state of gas- and condensed-phase product species. The large JCZS-EOS database permits intermolecular potential based equilibrium calculations of energetic materials with complex elemental composition.

  18. EO/IR ATR performance modeling to support fusion experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, Barton; Blasch, Erik; Pikas, David J.; Ross, Tim

    2007-04-01

    The identification of a target from an electro-optical or thermal imaging sensor requires accurate sensor registration, quality sensor data, and an exploitation algorithm. Combining the sensor data and exploitation, we are concerned with developing an electro-optical or infrared (EO/IR) performance model. To combat the registration issue, we need a detailed list of operating conditions (i.e. collection position) so that the sensor exploitation results can be evaluated with sensitivities to these operating conditions or collection parameters. The focus of this paper will build on the NVSED AQUIRE model2. We are also concerned with developing an EO/IR model that affords comparable operating condition parameters to a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) performance model. The choice of EO/IR modeling additions are focused on areas were Fusion Gain might be realized through an experiment tradeoff between multiple EO/IR looks for ATR exploitation fusion. The two additions to known EO/IR models discussed in the paper are (1) adjacency and (2) obscuration. The methods to account for these new operating conditions and the corresponding results on the modeled performance are presented in this paper.

  19. Concepts For An EO Land Convoy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, M. A.; Eves, S.; Remedios, J.; Humpage, N.; Hall, D.; Regan, A.

    2013-12-01

    ESA are undertaking three studies investigating possible synergistic satellite missions flying in formation with the operational Copernicus Sentinel missions and/or the METOP satellites. These three studies are focussed on:- a) ocean and ice b) land c) atmosphere Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), the University of Leicester and Astrium Ltd are undertaking the second of these studies into the synergetic observation by missions flying in formation with European operational missions, focusing on the land theme. The aim of the study is to identify and develop, (through systematic analysis), potential innovative Earth science objectives and novel applications and services that could be made possible by flying additional satellites, (possibly of small-class type), in constellation or formation with one or more already deployed or firmly planned European operational missions, with an emphasis on the Sentinel missions, but without excluding other possibilities. In the long-term, the project aims at stimulating the development of novel, (smaller), mission concepts in Europe that may exploit new and existing European operational capacity in order to address in a cost effective manner new scientific objectives and applications. One possible route of exploitation would be via the proposed Small Mission Initiative (SMI) that may be initiated under the ESA Earth Explorer Observation Programme (EOEP). The following ESA science priority areas have been highlighted during the study [1]:- - The water cycle - The carbon cycle - Terrestrial ecosystems - Biodiversity - Land use and land use cover - Human population dynamics The study team have identified the science gaps that might be addressed by a "convoy" mission flying with the Copernicus Sentinel satellites, identified the candidate mission concepts and provided recommendations regarding the most promising concepts from a list of candidates. These recommendations provided the basis of a selection process performed by ESA

  20. Reference MWA EoR Power Spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, Bryna; Pober, Jonathan; Beardsley, Adam; Morales, Miguel F.; Sullivan, Ian S.; MWA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the Epoch of Reionization using redshifted 21cm HI emission promise to provide sensitive new cosmological constraints in the next few years. The current generation of HI EoR telescopes are targeting a statistical detection of the EoR in the power spectrum of the 21cm emission. The principal challenge lies in extracting the faint cosmological signal in the face of bright foregrounds and instrumental systematics that threaten to overwhelm it.We present the UW EoR power spectrum code, the reference code for the MWA and the first power spectrum analysis to analytically propagate the error bars through the full data analysis pipeline. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the power spectrum as a diagnostic tool for identifying subtle systematics and show power spectra of the first season of MWA observations.

  1. CERNBox + EOS: end-user storage for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascetti, L.; Gonzalez Labrador, H.; Lamanna, M.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ

    2015-12-01

    CERNBox is a cloud synchronisation service for end-users: it allows syncing and sharing files on all major mobile and desktop platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOSX, Android, iOS) aiming to provide offline availability to any data stored in the CERN EOS infrastructure. The successful beta phase of the service confirmed the high demand in the community for an easily accessible cloud storage solution such as CERNBox. Integration of the CERNBox service with the EOS storage back-end is the next step towards providing “sync and share” capabilities for scientific and engineering use-cases. In this report we will present lessons learnt in offering the CERNBox service, key technical aspects of CERNBox/EOS integration and new, emerging usage possibilities. The latter includes the ongoing integration of “sync and share” capabilities with the LHC data analysis tools and transfer services.

  2. [Vaccination programmes].

    PubMed

    Varela, M Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Immunization is a highly cost-effective intervention that saves many lives. Its objective is to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases (when the characteristics of the disease and the vaccine make it possible), resulting in improvements in the health of the population. In Spain, the first vaccination schedule was introduced in 1975 and currently coverages > 95% are achieved in children aged < 2 years of age. Before deciding to introduce a vaccination programme in a community or country, a series of aspects should be considered, including the disease burden in the population, the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the changes in the dynamics of the infection when the vaccine is introduced, the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, the theoretical potential of elimination/eradication of the disease and the existence of other preventive or therapeutic measures. Once the programme has been introduced it should be subject to evaluation, considering aspects such as the coverage, effectiveness, safety and the impact on the population. This work defines different vaccination strategies for three diseases for which efficacious and safe vaccines are available: hepatitis A, influenza and varicella.

  3. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  4. Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source. CTIO 4-meter telescope, 1975. NGC 5128, a Type EO peculiar elliptical galaxy in the constellation Centaurus. This galaxy is one of the most luminous and massive galaxies known and is a strong source of both radio and X-ray radiation. Current theories suggest that the nucleus is experiencing giant explosions involving millions of stars and that the dark band across the galactic disk is material being ejected outward. Cerro Toloto 4-meter telescope photo. Photo credit: National Optical Astronomy Observatories

  5. CEMS: A New Infrastructure For EO And Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Victoria L.; Kershaw, Philip; Busswell, Geoff; Hilton, Richard; O'Neill, Alan

    2013-12-01

    CEMS, the facility for Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space, has been created as a collaboration between UK academic and industrial partners at Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK, offering Climate and Earth Observation (EO) data and services. Since going operational in September 2012, CEMS has been supporting a range of research and commercial users. Applications include production of climate-quality long- term global datasets, processing satellite observations, and development of novel algorithms and products combining EO with other environmental datasets. This paper briefly describes the CEMS infrastructure, present some example uses with initial indications of benefits of the CEMS environment, and outline plans for future evolution.

  6. Earth Observation Training and Education with ESA LearnEO!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, Valborg; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Dobson, Malcolm; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Del Frate, Fabio; Banks, Chris; Picchiani, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    For society to benefit fully from its investment in Earth observation, EO data must be accessible and familiar to a global community of users who have the skills, knowledge and understanding to use the observations appropriately in their work. Achieving this requires considerable education effort. LearnEO! (www.learn-eo.org) is a new ESA education project that contributes towards making this a reality. LearnEO! has two main aims: to develop new training resources that use data from sensors on ESA satellites to explore a variety of environmental topics, and to stimulate and support members of the EO and education communities who may be willing to develop and share new education resources in the future. The project builds on the UNESCO Bilko project, which currently supplies free software, tutorials, and example data to users in 175 countries. Most of these users are in academic education or research, but the training resources are also of interest to a growing number of professionals in government, NGOs and private enterprise. Typical users are not remote sensing experts, but see satellite data as one of many observational tools. They want an easy, low-cost means to process, display and analyse data from different satellite sensors as part of their work in environmental research, monitoring and policy development. Many of the software improvements and training materials developed in LearnEO! are in response to requests from this user community. The LearnEO! tutorial and peer-reviewed lessons are designed to teach satellite data processing and analysis skills at different levels, from beginner to advanced - where advanced lessons requires some previous experience with Earth observation techniques. The materials are aimed at students and professionals in various branches of Earth sciences who have not yet specialised in specific EO technologies. The lessons are suitable for self-study, university courses at undergraduate to MSc level, or for continued professional

  7. Musculoskeletal imaging in progress: the EOS imaging system.

    PubMed

    Wybier, Marc; Bossard, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    The EOS 2D/3D radio-imaging device (Biospace med, France) can disclose a digital radiographic image of bones with a very low radiation dose. This in turn allows in obtaining a single image of a large field of view, as wide as the full skeleton. The simultaneous capturing of spatially paired AP and lateral X-ray images is also a specificity of EOS imaging, which further provides secondary 3D (volumic) reformation of skeletal images. The main indications of this new imaging technology are assessment and follow-up of balance disorders of the spine and of the lower limbs.

  8. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  9. DEMO: the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment onboard the EO-1 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2004-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencececraft Experiment (ASE), currently flying onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, integrates several autnomoy software technologies enabling autnomous science analysis and mission planning. The experiment demonstrates the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to respond autonomously to capture short-lived science phenomena. The AAAI software demonstration will consist of two sections: a real-time display of an ASE-commanded ground contact from the EO-1 spacecraft, and a simulation of the full ASE autonomous science-response scenario.

  10. Report of the EOS oceans panel to the payload panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Freilich, Michael H.

    1992-11-01

    The atmosphere and the ocean are the two great fluids of the earth system. Changes in the coupling of these two fluids will have a profound impact on the Earth's climate and biogeochemical systems. Although changes in atmospheric composition and dynamics are the usual focus of global climate models, it is apparent that the ocean plays a critical role in modulating the magnitude and rate of these changes. The ocean is responsible for nearly half of the poleward heat flux as well as for a significant portion of the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, the processes governing the flux of materials and energy between the ocean atmosphere are poorly understood. Such processes include not only physical and chemical dynamics, but also biological processes which act to modify the chemical composition of the ocean as well as the trapping of solar energy as heat in the upper water column. Thus it is essential that the ocean be studied as a complete system of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Overlapping measurements must be made for at least 10-15 years to resolve critical low frequency fluctuations. The present EOS plan relies heavily on non-EOS entities to provide critical data sets for ocean studies. Although such partnerships are usually beneficial, there are risks that must be considered in terms of data coverage, quality, resolution, and availability. A simple replacement of an EOS sensor with a non-EOS sensor based on the fact that they both measure the same quantities will not guarantee that critical measurements will be made to address IPCC priorities in the area of ocean processes. EOS must continue to pursue appropriate methods to ensure that such partner — provided measurements meet scientific requirements. Such methods are analogous to contigencies applied in the area of schedules, cost, and performance for instrument projects. EOS must foster strong ties between US scientists and their foreign counterparts, in order to develop

  11. Practice improvement as a result of an end of life care programme for care homes.

    PubMed

    Springett, Angela

    2017-03-31

    This article explores practice outcomes from a Six Steps+ programme for end of life care (EoLC) delivered in care homes in the south of England. The education programme aims to increase staff's knowledge, skills and confidence to counter-balance their anxiety about EoLC. The Six Steps+ programme promotes a culture of high quality, compassionate, person-centred and dignified holistic care to meet the needs of residents who may have increasing complex requirements throughout their last year or more of life. Through integrated working and a reduction in avoidable hospital admissions, residents are enabled to die in their place of choice where possible. Case studies show that participating in the Six Steps+ programme increases care home staff's knowledge, skills and confidence and enhances the quality of EoLC for residents. With the cost of the education and support required essentially covered by six avoided hospital admissions throughout the one-year course, the Six Steps+ programme is an attractive and cost-effective approach to improving EoLC.

  12. Multicopy suppression of oxidant-sensitive eos1 mutation by IZH2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the involvement of Eos1 in zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshihide; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shima, Jun

    2010-05-01

    EOS1 is required for tolerance to oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; mutants are defective in the gene sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and tolerant to tunicamycin. To clarify the function of Eos1, we screened yeast genomic DNA libraries for heterologous genes that, when overexpressed from a plasmid, can suppress the hydrogen peroxide-sensitive eos1 mutation. We identified one such gene, IZH2, which has previously been reported to be a Zap1-regulated gene. However, the EOS1 and IZH2 genes do not themselves appear to be functionally interchangeable. Double disruption of the EOS1 and IZH2 genes yielded a slow-growth phenotype, suggesting that the two proteins are involved in related cellular processes. DNA microarray analysis revealed decreased expression of Zap1-regulated genes in the eos1-deletion mutant (Deltaeos1). Thus, it is likely that Eos1 is involved in zinc homeostasis.

  13. EOS Operations Systems: EDOS Implemented Changes to Reduce Operations Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; McLemore, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe in this paper the progress achieved to-date with the reengineering of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS), the experience gained in the process and the ensuing reduction of ground systems operations costs. The reengineering effort included a major methodology change, applying to an existing schedule driven system, a data-driven system approach.

  14. EOS Aura and Future Satellite Studies of the Ozone Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The EOS Aura mission, launched in 2004, provides a comprehensive assessment of the stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. This talk will focus on results from Aura including the chemistry of polar ozone depletion. The data from Aura can be directly linked to UARS data to produce long term trends in stratospheric trace gases.

  15. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  16. EOS Terra Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.

  17. NASA EO-1 Spacecraft Images Chile Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-17

    On June 14, 2011, NASA Earth Observing-1 EO-1 spacecraft obtained this image showing ash-rich volcanic plume billowing out of the vent, punching through a low cloud layer. The plume grey color is a reflection of its ash content.

  18. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  19. Downlink Probability Density Functions for EOS-McMurdo Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, P.; Jackson, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    The visibility times and communication link dynamics for the Earth Observations Satellite (EOS)-McMurdo Sound direct downlinks have been studied. The 16 day EOS periodicity may be shown with the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and the entire 16 day period should be simulated for representative link statistics. We desire many attributes of the downlink, however, and a faster orbital determination method is desirable. We use the method of osculating elements for speed and accuracy in simulating the EOS orbit. The accuracy of the method of osculating elements is demonstrated by closely reproducing the observed 16 day Landsat periodicity. An autocorrelation function method is used to show the correlation spike at 16 days. The entire 16 day record of passes over McMurdo Sound is then used to generate statistics for innage time, outage time, elevation angle, antenna angle rates, and propagation loss. The levation angle probability density function is compared with 1967 analytic approximation which has been used for medium to high altitude satellites. One practical result of this comparison is seen to be the rare occurrence of zenith passes. The new result is functionally different than the earlier result, with a heavy emphasis on low elevation angles. EOS is one of a large class of sun synchronous satellites which may be downlinked to McMurdo Sound. We examine delay statistics for an entire group of sun synchronous satellites ranging from 400 km to 1000 km altitude. Outage probability density function results are presented three dimensionally.

  20. Enhanced modeling and simulation of EO/IR sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Jonathan G.; Miller, Brian; May, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    The testing and evaluation process developed by the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) Modeling and Simulation Division (MSD) provides end to end systems evaluation, testing, and training of EO/IR sensors. By combining NV-LabCap, the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM), One Semi-Automated Forces (OneSAF) input sensor file generation, and the Night Vision Image Generator (NVIG) capabilities, NVESD provides confidence to the M&S community that EO/IR sensor developmental and operational testing and evaluation are accurately represented throughout the lifecycle of an EO/IR system. This new process allows for both theoretical and actual sensor testing. A sensor can be theoretically designed in NV-IPM, modeled in NV-IPM, and then seamlessly input into the wargames for operational analysis. After theoretical design, prototype sensors can be measured by using NV-LabCap, then modeled in NV-IPM and input into wargames for further evaluation. The measurement process to high fidelity modeling and simulation can then be repeated again and again throughout the entire life cycle of an EO/IR sensor as needed, to include LRIP, full rate production, and even after Depot Level Maintenance. This is a prototypical example of how an engineering level model and higher level simulations can share models to mutual benefit.

  1. Potential commercial uses of EOS remote sensing products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Leslie L.

    1991-01-01

    The instrument complement of the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite system will generate data sets with potential interest to a variety of users who are now just beginning to develop geographic information systems tailored to their special applications and/or jurisdictions. Other users may be looking for a unique product that enhances competitive position. The generally distributed products from EOS will require additional value added processing to derive the unique products desired by specific users. Entrepreneurs have an opportunity to create these proprietary level 4 products from the EOS data sets. Specific instruments or collections of instruments could provide information for crop futures trading, mineral exploration, television and printed medium news products, regional and local government land management and planning, digital map directories, products for third world users, ocean fishing fleet probability of harvest forecasts, and other areas not even imagined at this time. The projected level 3 product are examined that will be available at launch from EOS instruments and commercial uses of the data after value added processing is estimated.

  2. EO-1 Advanced Land Imager Technology Validation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Advanced Land Imager is intersatellite comparison. The EO-1 spacecraft is orbiting the Earth in a constellation of four spacecraft: Landsat 7 (10...events was as follows. The launch vehicle was changed from the Taurus to Delta 2 (28 Jan. 97) increasing mass allocations. The Project Office traded

  3. Science Quality Assessment in Support of EOS MISR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, S.; Crean, K.; Kahn, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument, scheduled to fly on board the first Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft, will have a data stream that produces over 100 GB of data per day, once in full operation, of information about the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface.

  4. Mission Operations of EO-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Daniel Q.

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the prior, labor and knowledge intensive mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the new autonomous operations as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment.

  5. Mission Operations of EO-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Daniel Q.

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the prior, labor and knowledge intensive mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the new autonomous operations as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment.

  6. Mission Status at Aura Science Team MOWG Meeting: EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at the 24797-16 Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Science Team Meeting (Mission Operations Work Group (MOWG)) at Rotterdam, Netherlands August 29, 2016. Presentation topics include mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, spacecraft anomalies, data capture, propellant usage and lifetime estimates, spacecraft maneuvers and ground track history, mission highlights and past spacecraft anomalies and reliability estimates.

  7. The EOSTA model for opacities and EOS calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshalom, Avraham; Oreg, Joseph

    2007-11-01

    The EOSTA model developed recently combines the STA and INFERNO models to calculate opacities and EOS on the same footing. The quantum treatment of the plasma continuum and the inclusion of the resulted shape resonances yield a smooth behavior of the EOS and opacity global quantities vs density and temperature. We will describe the combined model and focus on its latest improvements. In particular we have extended the use of the special representation of the relativistic virial theorem to obtain an exact differential equation for the free energy. This equation, combined with a boundary condition at the zero pressure point, serves to advance the LDA EOS results significantly. The method focuses on applicability to high temperature and high density plasmas, warm dens matter etc. but applies at low temperatures as well treating fluids and even solids. Excellent agreement is obtained with experiments covering a wide range of density and temperature. The code is now used to create EOS and opacity databases for the use of hydro-dynamical simulations.

  8. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  9. Recent disruption of an asteroid from the Eos family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novaković, B.; Tsirvoulis, G.

    2014-07-01

    A key difficulty with searching for partially differentiated asteroids arises from the fact that a crust covers the exterior of the body, and, consequently, should hide the melted interior. This motivates an alternative approach of examining members of asteroid families, i.e., fragments of single large bodies, many of which were in the size regime capable of igneous differentiation, that have been disrupted by catastrophic collisions. Such families could provide a stratigraphic cross section across the interior of the parent asteroid [1]. With more than 10,000 known members, the Eos dynamical family is one of the most numerous and earliest recognized asteroid families [2]. Interestingly, the estimated ˜220-km-diameter parent body [3] is well within the size range capable of differentiation. Thus, existing family members should contain fragments of the deep interior. The Eos family has the highest diversity of taxonomic classes than any other known family [4]. Many members are of K spectral type, which is uncommon outside the family, and is similar to the spectra of CV, CK, CO, and CR carbonaceous chondrites [5]. This diversity leads to the suggestion that the Eos parent body was partially differentiated [4,6]. Thus, the Eos family may not only be a remnant of a partially differentiated parent body, but it could be the source of the CV-CK meteorite group. Here we report the discovery of a young subfamily of the Eos asteroid family. It may help understanding the mineralogical nature of the Eos asteroid family and of its parent body. By applying the hierarchical clustering method [7], we find an extremely compact 16-body cluster within the borders of the Eos family. We name the cluster (6733) 1992 EF, after its largest member. The statistical significance of this new cluster is estimated to be above 99%, indicating that its members share a common origin. All members of the cluster are found to be dynamically stable over long timescales. Backward numerical orbital

  10. Topographic data requirements for EOS global change research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Version 0 activities of the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center at the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center. A relatively small part of the Version 0 funding provided by NASA is used to address topographic data issues related to EOS. These issues include identifying and improving access to existing sources of topographic data, data generation, facilitating the use of topographic data in global change research by demonstrating derivative products, and inventorying the specific topographic data requirements of EOS investigators. There is a clear need for global topographic data in EOSDIS. Only 10 percent of the global land surface is covered by high-resolution data that are available to the global change science community. Alternative sources for new data exist or have been proposed; however, none of them alone can fulfill the data requirements by the launch of the first EOS platform in 4 years. There is no operational provider of all the source data that are required. Even if appropriate global source data existed, a concerted production effort would be necessary to ensure the existence of the requisite topographic data before EOS launch. Additionally, no funding from NASA or any other agency has been appropriated for a new mapping mission or for other means of data acquisition. This effort to document requirements is an initial step toward understanding the severity of the data shortage. It is well beyond the scope of Version 0 funding and capabilities to provide the required data in the proper timeframe. The shortage of data and the lack of a plan for providing the necessary topographic data through EOSDIS in time for launch are issues that must be addressed by the EOS program.

  11. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  12. Rigorous theoretical constraint on constant negative EoS parameter [Formula: see text] and its effect for the late Universe.

    PubMed

    Burgazli, Alvina; Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    In this paper, we consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, the Universe is filled with inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Supposing that the Universe contains also the cosmological constant and a perfect fluid with a negative constant equation of state (EoS) parameter [Formula: see text] (e.g., quintessence, phantom or frustrated network of topological defects), we investigate scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics due to inhomogeneities. Our analysis shows that, to be compatible with the theory of scalar perturbations, this perfect fluid, first, should be clustered and, second, should have the EoS parameter [Formula: see text]. In particular, this value corresponds to the frustrated network of cosmic strings. Therefore, the frustrated network of domain walls with [Formula: see text] is ruled out. A perfect fluid with [Formula: see text] neither accelerates nor decelerates the Universe. We also obtain the equation for the nonrelativistic gravitational potential created by a system of inhomogeneities. Due to the perfect fluid with [Formula: see text], the physically reasonable solutions take place for flat, open and closed Universes. This perfect fluid is concentrated around the inhomogeneities and results in screening of the gravitational potential.

  13. 76 FR 40645 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Chapter 14 50 CFR Chapters I and IV Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563... cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011;...

  14. 77 FR 59567 - Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ..., 1216, 1235 RIN 1125-AA71 Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Executive Office for...), entitled ``Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563,'' on March 1,...

  15. EO-199, a specific antagonist of antiarrhythmic drugs: Assessment by binding experiments and in vivo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, E.; Harel, G.; Lipinsky, D.; Sarne, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    EO-199, a demethylated analog of the novel class I antiarrhythmic drug EO-122 was found to antagonize the antiarrhythmic activity of EO-122 and that of procainamide (Class I{sub A}). EO-199 did not block significantly the activity of a class I{sub B} antiarrhythmic agent, lidocaine. EO-199 also displaced the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)EO-122 to rate heart membranes similarly to procainamide whereas lidocaine did not. The correlation between binding experiments and pharmacological effects points to a possible subclassification of these drugs; the two chemical analogs EO-199 and EO-122, as well as procainamide (I{sub A}) but not lidocaine (I{sub B}), compete at the same site or the same state of the sodium channel. The availability of a specific antagonist might be useful for studying the mechanism of action of antiarrhythmic drugs as well as an antidote in cases of antiarrhythmics overdose intoxication.

  16. 76 FR 10526 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Chapter 14 50 CFR Chapters I and IV Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563.... Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: February...

  17. 76 FR 34177 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION... made available to the public on http://dolregs.ideascale.com . Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: June 7, 2011. e. christi...

  18. Geologic Validation of EO-1 Hyperion using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Boardman, J. W.; Huntington, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, the field of imaging spectrometry has grown rapidly as new instruments and analysis techniques have been developed. The launch of Hyperion as part of NASA's EO-1 program represents a significant landmark in the progression of the technology; the first spaceborne imaging spectrometry system. AIG, in cooperation with CSIRO, is evaluating, validating, and demonstrating use of EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data for geologic applications. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) plays a pivotal role in this effort. This manuscript describes the geologic test sites being used and progress on preparing 'ground truth' for anticipated Hyperion data collects using AVIRIS data. Preliminary findings are extrapolated to predict the effect of instrument characteristics and performance on geologic mapping using Hyperion.

  19. Enhancement to Hitran to Support the NASA EOS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Kate P.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    1998-01-01

    The HITRAN molecular database has been enhanced with the object of providing improved capabilities for the EOS program scientists. HITRAN itself is the database of high-resolution line parameters of gaseous species expected to be observed by the EOS program in its remote sensing activities. The database is part of a larger compilation that includes IR cross-sections, aerosol indices of refraction, and software for filtering and plotting portions of the database. These properties have also been improved. The software has been advanced in order to work on multiple platforms. Besides the delivery of the compilation on CD-ROM, the effort has been directed toward making timely access of data and software on the world wide web.

  20. An Overview of the EOS Data Dissemination Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H.K.; Pfister, Robin; Weinstein, Beth

    2008-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the primary data system serving the broad-scope of NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) program and a significant portion of the "heritage" Earth science data. EOSDIS was designed to support the Earth sciences within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (previously the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and Mission to Planet Earth). The EOS Program was NASA s contribution to the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) enacted by Congress in 1990 as part of the Global Change Act. ESE s objective was to launch a series of missions to help answer fundamental global change questions such as "How is Earth changing?" and "What are the consequences for life on Earth?" resulting support of this objective, EOSDIS distributes a wide variety of data to a diverse community.

  1. Enhancement to HITRAN to Support the NASA EOS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Kate P.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    1999-01-01

    The HITRAN molecular database has been enhanced with the object of providing improved capabilities for the EOS program scientists. HITRAN itself is the database of high-resolution line parameters of gaseous species expected to be observed by the EOS program in its remote sensing activities. The database is part of a larger compilation that includes IR cross-sections, aerosol indices of refraction, and software for filtering and plotting portions of the database. These properties have also been improved. The software has been advanced in order to work on multiple platforms. Besides the delivery of the compilation on CD-ROM, the effort has been directed toward making timely access of data and software on the world wide web.

  2. Wysession begins term as Eos Section Editor for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, Michael

    In mid-April, Michael Wysession, an associate professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University, embarked on a 3-year term as section editor of Eos for seismology. Wysession brings to the position a strong background in research and teaching. Below are a few remarks from Wysession.“I recently became the new seismology editor for Eos. I look forward to presenting the many exciting areas of seismological research to the entire geophysical community. I have taught at Washington University since obtaining my Ph.D. at Northwestern University in 1991. My interest in seismology began during my undergraduate years at Brown University (Sc.B., 1984), but my experience as an educator began after I graduated and taught high school math and physics in Staten Island, N.Y.

  3. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.

  4. Intelligent systems in space : the EO-1 Autonomous Sciencecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert L.; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Software (ASE) is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and runtime robust execution. Because of the deployment to the EO-1 spacecraft, the ASE software has stringent constraints of autonomy and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our operations approach. A summary of the final results of the experiment is also included. This software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events, and to downlink only the highest value science data. As a result, ground-based mission planning and analysis functions have been greatly simplified, thus reducing operations cost.

  5. Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

  6. Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Definition Phase Report, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    System definition studies were conducted of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS). The studies show that the concept of an Earth Observatory Satellite in a near-earth, sun-synchronous orbit would make a unique contribution to the goals of a coordinated program for acquisition of data for environmental research with applications to earth resource inventory and management. The technical details for the proposed development of sensors, spacecraft, and a ground data processing system are presented.

  7. NASA SNPP SIPS - Following in the Path of EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Jeanne; Hall, Alfreda; Ho, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Information System (ESDIS) Project has been operating NASA's Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Science Data Segment (SDS) since the launch in October 2011. At launch, the SDS focused primarily on the evaluation of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs) produced by the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), a National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) Program, as to their suitability for Earth system science. During the summer of 2014, NASA transitioned to the production of standard Earth Observing System (EOS)-like science products for all instruments aboard Suomi NPP. The five Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS): Land, Ocean, Atmosphere, Ozone, and Sounder were established to produce the NASA SNPP standard Level 1, Level 2, and global Level 3 products developed by the SNPP Science Teams and to provide the products to NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) for archive and distribution to the user community. The processing, archiving and distribution of data from NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb instruments will continue. With the implementation of the JPSS Block 2 architecture and the launch of JPSS-1, the SDS will receive SNPP data in near real-time via the JPSS Stored Mission Data Hub (JSH), as well as JPSS-1 and future JPSS-2 data. The SNPP SIPS will ingest EOS compatible Level 0 data from the EOS Data Operations System (EDOS) element for their data processing, enabling the continuous EOS-SNPP-JPSS Satellite Data Record.

  8. Management approach recommendations. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management analyses and tradeoffs were performed to determine the most cost effective management approach for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Phase C/D. The basic objectives of the management approach are identified. Some of the subjects considered are as follows: (1) contract startup phase, (2) project management control system, (3) configuration management, (4) quality control and reliability engineering requirements, and (5) the parts procurement program.

  9. Observations of Active Volcanoes Using the EO-1 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, L. P.; Harris, A. J.; Wright, R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Geschwind, L. R.; Donegan, S.; Garbeil, H.

    2001-12-01

    Previous satellite observations of active volcanoes have been hampered by instruments that are primarily designed to measure surface reflectance of the Earth's vegetation. Sensors detecting radiation in the near-IR and IR are frequently saturated by highly radiant active volcanic features. Two satellite instruments, Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing -1 (EO-1) offer a means to circumvent saturation issues. Hyperion is a hyperspectral instrument that collects data in 242 narrow spectral bands between 0.4 and 2.5 microns and produces images that are 7.5 km x 100 km. For each 30m x 30m pixel, accurate atmospheric corrections and multiple component thermal models for lava flows can be generated. ALI is a Landsat-like instrument having 10 spectral bands at 0.4 - 2.35 microns. One of these, the 1.2 micron band, is sensitive to high temperature thermal anomalies such as overturning lava lakes and open lava channels. ALI also has a 10-m panchromtic band that allows for greater detailed mapping of volcanic features. ALI and Hyperion analyses for Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Mt. Etna (Sicily), Santiaguito (Guatemala), Popocatepetl (Mexico), and Mayon (Philippines) will be presented. While distribution of these data sets is limited to the EO-1 Science Team, the future of NASA's high spatial resolution terrestrial observation program will likely be based on a hybrid of these EO-1 sensors.

  10. EOS calculations for hydrothermal diamond anvil cell operation.

    PubMed

    Presser, Volker; Heiss, Martin; Nickel, Klaus G

    2008-08-01

    The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) is an excellent tool for high-temperature, high-pressure (hydrothermal) experiments. For an accurate determination of pressure induced by a certain temperature in an isochoric sample chamber volume, an equation of state (EOS) of water can be used instead of direct measurement. This paper reviews the theoretic background and provides all needed equations for the application of EOS of water to HDAC experiments summarizing state-of-the-art knowledge and incorporating up-to-date thermodynamic data. The p-T conditions determined using the IAPWS-95 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water are in agreement with values obtained from direct methods or other established EOS formulations. In particular, (1) the calculation of density through the (a) melting point or (b) homogenization method along with determining (2) pressure as a function of density and temperature or (3) density as a function of pressure and temperature is explained. As a new aspect in the context of HDAC operations, the critical influence of nucleation and a strategy to overcome this problem are discussed. Furthermore, we have derived new polynomial equations, which allow the direct calculation of the fluid phase's density from the melting temperature. These are implemented in a spreadsheet program, which is freely available for interested users.

  11. On designing of LCAS over VCAT for an EOS chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Jin, Depeng; Zeng, Lieguang

    2005-02-01

    Ethernet over SDH/SONET (EOS), which connects different Ethernets through the existing SDH/SONET infrastructure, is a promising data transmission technology in today"s networks, for it successfully combines the simplicity and affordability of Ethernet with the resilience and scalability of SDH/SONET. Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) is one of the key technologies in EOS, which provides the capability to transmit and receive over several noncontiguous parallel Virtual Container (VC) fragments as a single flow and drastically improves efficiency of over 33 percent against standard concatenations. Link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) over VCAT signaling scheme further enhances VCAT to tune bandwidth dynamically at the requests of network management system without disturbing the existing traffic. In addition, the scheme will automatically decrease the capacity if some member of VCAT experiences a failure in the network, and increase the capacity when the network fault is repaired. In this paper, our design of LCAS over VCAT within an EOS chip is provided, which supports four Virtual Concatenation Groups (VCG) to adjust their bandwidth simultaneously. The block diagrams of the total design for LCAS over VCAT are also provided and several open problems that we encountered during implementation and their corresponding solutions are discussed in focus. Thoroughly functional simulations and FPGA verifications have been done to the design to prove its validity. Finally, we have the design synthesized with Synopsys"s Design Compiler, which reveals that the whole design is realizable in ASICs.

  12. Effects of EOS adiabat on hot spot dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Equation of state (EOS) and adiabat of the pusher play significant roles in the dynamics and formation of the hot spot of an ignition capsule. For given imploding energy, they uniquely determine the partition of internal energy, mass, and volume between the pusher and the hot spot. In this work, we apply the new scaling laws recently derived by Cheng et al. to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) ignition capsules and study the impacts of EOS and adiabat of the pusher on the hot spot dynamics by using the EOS adiabat index as an adjustable model parameter. We compare our analysis with the NIC data, specifically, for shots N120321 and N120205, and with the numerical simulations of these shots. The predictions from our theoretical model are in good agreements with the NIC data when a hot adiabat was used for the pusher, and with code simulations when a cold adiabat was used for the pusher. Our analysis indicates that the actual adiabat of the pusher in NIC experiments may well be higher than the adiabat assumed in the simulations. This analysis provides a physical and systematic explanation to the ongoing disagreements between the NIC experimental results and the multi-dimensional numerical simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract number W-7405-ENG-36.

  13. Eos is out of this world—literally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2011-07-01

    When the space shuttle Endeavour launched on its 25th and final flight, AGU member and astronaut Andrew J. Feustel took with him a special bit of cargo: an issue of Eos. The accompanying photograph with the image of Eos, taken on 23 May 2011, shows the 15 February issue of Eos floating in front of one of the International Space Station windows. Below and left of the issue is the wing of Endeavour; also visible is the radiator panel on the shuttle's payload bay door. The thin blue line to the right of the issue is Earth's atmosphere. The STS-134 mission, the second to last space shuttle mission, launched on 16 May and returned to Earth on 1 June. It delivered the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (a particle physics experiment module) to the International Space Station along with two communications antennas, a high-pressure gas tank, and parts for the two-armed Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (Dextre) robot. The final shuttle mission, STS-135, launched on 8 July.

  14. Development of a PPT for the EO-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Hoskins, W. Andrew; Meckel, Nicole J.

    2000-01-01

    A Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) has been developed for use in a technology demonstration flight experiment on the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) New Millennium Program mission. The thruster replaces the spacecraft pitch axis momentum wheel for control and momentum management during an experiment of a minimum three-day duration. The EO-1 PPT configuration is a combination of new technology and design heritage from similar systems flown in the 1970's and 1980's. Acceptance testing of the protoflight unit has validated readiness for flight, and integration with the spacecraft, including initial combined testing, has been completed. The thruster provides a range of capability from 90 microN-sec impulse bit at 650 sec specific impulse for 12 W input power, through 860 microN-sec impulse bit at 1400 see specific impulse for 70 W input power. Development of this thruster reinitiates technology research and development and re-establishes an industry base for production of flight hardware. This paper reviews the EO-1 PPT development, including technology selection, design and fabrication, acceptance testing, and initial spacecraft integration and test.

  15. EOS7C-ECBM Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-14

    EOS7C is an equation of state module for the TOUGH2 program for CO2 or N2 in Methane (CH4) Reservoirs. In the present work, additions have been made to the EOS7C Version 1.0 module to include the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) modifications developed by Webb (2003). In addition, the Dusty Gas Model for gas-phase diffusion (Webb 2001) has been included. The ECBM modification to the EOS7C equation of state incorporate the extended Langmuir isothem for sorbing gases, including the change in porosity associated with the sorbed gas mass. Comparison to hand calculations for pure gas and binary mixture shows very good agreement. Application to a CO2 well injection problem by Law et al. (2002). The Dusty Model modification add options to calculate gas diffusion using the Dusty-Gas Model including separate and coupled approaches. Comparison to low-permeability pure gas diffusion data shows excellent agreement. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's Law behavior for diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences between the models are small due to the relatively high permeability (10-11 m2) of the problem.

  16. EOS measurements for CH foams using smoothed laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Michel; Benuzzi, Alessandra; Faral, Bernard; Philippe, Franc; Batani, Dimitri; Scianitti, Francesca; Müller, Laura; Torsiello, Flavia; Hall, Tom; Grandjouan, Nicholas; Nazarov, Wigen

    1998-11-01

    Porous material studies are of great interest in ICF physics, e. g. as a way to suppress laser nonuniformities (1), in material physics (2), or in astrophysics where foams have already been used to simulate supernovae remnants (3). The knowledge of foam Equation of State (EOS) is therefore needed. Here we present the first EOS data of CH foams obtained with lasers. The data, in the pressure range of 0.04-4 Mbar, have been obtained by reverse mismatch impedance technique, using aluminium as the reference material and foams with densities ranging from 20 to 400 mg/cc. We performed also measurements on the plastic at normal density (1100 mc/cc). A specific target design makes it possible to measure shock velocities in aluminium and in foams on the same shot. The results are compared to SESAME EOS and QEOS model which include the initial low density effects. [1]M. Dunee et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75,3858 (1995). [2] N. Holmes, Proceedings of APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, Colorado Springs USA (1994). [3]B. Remington et al., Phys. Plasmas 4(5),1994.

  17. EoS of finite density QCD with Wilson fermions by multi-parameter reweighting and Taylor expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2012-04-01

    The equation of state (EoS), quark number density and susceptibility at nonzero quark chemical potential μ are studied in lattice QCD simulations with a clover improved Wilson fermion of 2-flavors and RG-improved gauge action. To access nonzero μ, we employ two methods: a multi-parameter reweighting (MPR) in μ and β and Taylor expansion in μ/T. The use of a reduction formula for the Wilson fermion determinant enables to study the reweighting factor in MPR explicitly and higher-order coefficients in Taylor expansion free from errors of noise method, although calculations are limited to small lattice size. As a consequence, we can study the reliability of the thermodynamical quantities through the consistency of the two methods, each of which has different origin of the application limit. The thermodynamical quantities are obtained from simulations on a 83 × 4 lattice with an intermediate quark mass( m PS /m V = 0 .8). The MPR and Taylor expansion are consistent for the EoS and number density up to μ/T ~ 0 .8 and for the number susceptibility up to μ/T ~ 0 .6. This implies within a given statistics that the overlap problem for the MPR and truncation error for the Taylor expansion method are negligible in these regions. In order to make MPR methods work, the fluctuation of the reweighting factor should be small. We derive the equation of the reweighting line where the fluctuation is small, and show that the equation of the reweighting line is consistent with the fluctuation minimum condition.

  18. A new class of LRS Bianchi type-II dark energy models with variable EoS parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Amirhashchi, Hassan; Jaiswal, Rekha

    2011-08-01

    A new class of dark energy models in a Locally Rotationally Symmetric Bianchi type-II (LRS B-II) space-time with variable equation of state (EoS) parameter and constant deceleration parameter have been investigated in the present paper. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by applying a variation law for generalized Hubble's parameter given by Berman: Nuovo Cimento 74:182 (1983) which generates two types of solutions for the average scale factor, one is of power-law type and other is of the exponential-law form. Using these two forms, Einstein's field equations are solved separately that correspond to expanding singular and non-singular models of the universe respectively. The dark energy EoS parameter ω is found to be time dependent and its existing range for both models is in good agreement with the three recent observations of (i) SNe Ia data (Knop et al.: Astrophys. J. 598:102 (2003)), (ii) SNe Ia data collaborated with CMBR anisotropy and galaxy clustering statistics (Tegmark et al.: Astrophys. J. 606:702 (2004)) and latest (iii) a combination of cosmological datasets coming from CMB anisotropies, luminosity distances of high redshift type Ia supernovae and galaxy clustering (Hinshaw et al.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 180:225 (2009); Komatsu et al. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 180:330 (2009)). The cosmological constant Λ is found to be a positive decreasing function of time and it approaches a small positive value at late time (i.e. the present epoch) which is corroborated by results from recent supernovae Ia observations. The physical and geometric behaviour of the universe have also been discussed in detail.

  19. SenSyF Experience on Integration of EO Services in a Generic, Cloud-Based EO Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Nuno; Catarino, Nuno; Gutierrez, Antonio; Grosso, Nuno; Andrade, Joao; Caumont, Herve; Goncalves, Pedro; Villa, Guillermo; Mangin, Antoine; Serra, Romain; Johnsen, Harald; Grydeland, Tom; Emsley, Stephen; Jauch, Eduardo; Moreno, Jose; Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    SenSyF is a cloud-based data processing framework for EO- based services. It has been pioneer in addressing Big Data issues from the Earth Observation point of view, and is a precursor of several of the technologies and methodologies that will be deployed in ESA's Thematic Exploitation Platforms and other related systems.The SenSyF system focuses on developing fully automated data management, together with access to a processing and exploitation framework, including Earth Observation specific tools. SenSyF is both a development and validation platform for data intensive applications using Earth Observation data. With SenSyF, scientific, institutional or commercial institutions developing EO- based applications and services can take advantage of distributed computational and storage resources, tailored for applications dependent on big Earth Observation data, and without resorting to deep infrastructure and technological investments.This paper describes the integration process and the experience gathered from different EO Service providers during the project.

  20. Initial Scientific Assessment of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Crucial to the success of the Earth Observing System (Eos) is the Eos Data and Information System (EosDIS). The goals of Eos depend not only on its instruments and science investigations, but also on how well EosDlS helps scientists integrate reliable, large-scale data sets of geophysical and biological measurements made from Eos data, and on how successfully Eos scientists interact with other investigations in Earth System Science. Current progress in the use of remote sensing for science is hampered by requirements that the scientist understand in detail the instrument, the electromagnetic properties of the surface, and a suite of arcane tape formats, and by the immaturity of some of the techniques for estimating geophysical and biological variables from remote sensing data. These shortcomings must be transcended if remote sensing data are to be used by a much wider population of scientists who study environmental change at regional and global scales.

  1. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A: EOS program WBS dictionary. Appendix B: EOS mission functional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The work breakdown structure (WBS) dictionary for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is defined. The various elements of the EOS program are examined to include the aggregate of hardware, computer software, services, and data required to develop, produce, test, support, and operate the space vehicle and the companion ground data management system. A functional analysis of the EOS mission is developed. The operations for three typical EOS missions, Delta, Titan, and Shuttle launched are considered. The functions were determined for the top program elements, and the mission operations, function 2.0, was expanded to level one functions. Selection of ten level one functions for further analysis to level two and three functions were based on concern for the EOS operations and associated interfaces.

  2. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  3. Science Requirements Document for OMI-EOS. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levelt, P. F.; vanderA, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boersma, F.; Brinksma, E.; Carpay, J.; Chance, K.; deHaan, J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Isaksen, I.

    2000-01-01

    A Dutch-Finnish scientific and industrial consortium is supplying the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Earth Observing System-Aura (EOS-Aura). EOS-Aura is the next NASA mission to study the Earth's atmosphere extensively, and successor to the highly successful UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) mission. The 'Science Requirements Document for OMI-EOS' presents an overview of the Aura and OMI mission objectives. It describes how OMI fits into the Aura mission and it reviews the synergy with the other instruments onboard Aura to fulfill the mission. This evolves in the Scientific Requirements for OMI (Chapter 3), stating which trace gases have to be measured with what necessary accuracy, in order for OMI to meet Aura's objectives. The most important data product of OMI, the ozone vertical column, densities shall have a better accuracy and an improved global coverage than the predecessor instruments TOMS (Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), which is a.o. achieved by a better signal to noise ratio, improved calibration and a wide field-of-view. Moreover, in order to meet its role on Aura, OMI shall measure trace gases, such as NO2, OClO, BrO, HCHO and SO2, aerosols, cloud top height and cloud coverage. Improved accuracy, better coverage, and finer ground grid than has been done in the past are goals for OMI. After the scientific requirements are defined, three sets of subordinate requirements are derived. These are: the algorithm requirements, i.e. what do the algorithms need in order to meet the scientific requirements; the instrument and calibration requirements, i.e. what has to be measured and how accurately in order to provide the quality of data necessary for deriving the data products; and the validation requirements, i.e. a strategy of how the OMI program will assure that its data products are valid in the atmosphere, at least to the required accuracy.

  4. The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, J. W.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Lau, G. K.; Pickett, H. M.; Santee, M. L.; Wu, D. L.; Boyles, M. A.; Burke, J. R.; Lay, R. R.; Loo, M. S.; Livesey, N. J.; Lungu, T. A.; Manney, G. L.; Nakamura, L. L.;  Perun, V. S.;  Ridenoure, B. P.;  Shippony, Z.;  Siegel, P. H.;  Thurstans, R. P.;  Harwood, R. S.;  Pumphrey, H. C.;  Filipiak, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments obtain measurements of atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure by observations of millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength thermal emission as the instrument field of view is scanned through the atmospheric limb. Features of the measurement technique include the ability to measure many atmospheric gases as well as temperature and pressure, to obtain measurements even in the presence of dense aerosol and cirrus, and to provide near-global coverage on a daily basis at all times of day and night from an orbiting platform. The composition measurements are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in atmospheric temperature. An accurate spectroscopic database is available, and the instrument calibration is also very accurate and stable. The first MLS experiment in space, launched on the (NASA) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in September 1991, was designed primarily to measure stratospheric profiles of ClO, O3, H2O, and atmospheric pressure as a vertical reference. Global measurement of ClO, the predominant radical in chlorine destruction of ozone, was an especially important objective of UARS MLS. All objectives of UARS MLS have been accomplished and additional geophysical products beyond those for which the experiment was designed have been obtained, including measurement of upper-tropospheric water vapor, which is important for climate change studies. A follow-on MLS experiment is being developed for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) and is scheduled to be launched on the EOS CHEMISTRY platform in late 2002. EOS MLS is designed for many stratospheric measurements, including HOx radicals, which could not be measured by UARS because adequate technology was not available, and better and more extensive upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements.

  5. Synergism requirements and concepts for SAR and HIRIS on EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, J. B.; Bruegge, C.; Diner, D.; Paris, J.; Dobson, C.; Gates, D.; Ulaby, F.; Goel, N.; Kimes, D.; Vanderbilt, V.

    1987-01-01

    A study is conducted to ascertain the synergistic advantages obtainable by combining, in the EOS orbital instrument platform, instruments for the optical and microwave measurements of biophysical properties important in ecosystem modeling. Attention is given to the comparative coverages of the SAR, HIRIS, TIMS and MODIS instruments that will be carried by the platform, and to the ongoing development of joint inversion algorithms for the modeling of the ecosystems-related data thus obtained. A three-dimensional characterization of the physical attributes of the vegetation canopy and its background surface will be attempted.

  6. EOS radiometer concepts for soil moisture remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, J.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary work with aperture synthesis concepts for EOS is reported. The effects of nonvanishing bandwidths on image reconstruction in aperture synthesis system was studied. It is found that nonvanishing bandwidths introduce errors in off-axis pixels when naive Fourier processing is used. The net effect is for bandwidth to limit sensor field-of-view. To quantify this effect a computer program was written which is documented. Example runs are included which illustrate the resultant radiometric errors and effective fields-of-view for a plausible simple sensor.

  7. Tactical EO/IE System for Ground Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    These conditions are acceptable to the EO/IR system. The system also has some product specification about the icing, salt fog, fungus resistance...CHARACTERISTICS STANDARD OPERATION TEMPERATURE -31.9 0C - +68.3°C STORAGE TEMPERATURE -45.6"C - +71.0’C ICING, SALT-FOG, FUNGUS . ENDURANCE TEMPERATURE...ClaimedClaimed Persian Gulf 1984 Saudi Arabia vs 0 Iran: 2 by 0 2 Iran Sparrow Iraq/lran 1980- Unknown Unknown Iran: 10-20 by 10 to 20 1985 Magic I Granada

  8. EOS attitude determination and next generation star tracker enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, P.; Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    The pointing knowledge required for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission is at the limit of the current generation of star trackers, with little margin. Techniques for improving the performance of existing star trackers are explored, with performance sensitivities developed for each alternative. These are extended to define the most significant performance enhancements for a next generation star tracker. Since attitude determination studies tend to be computationally intensive, an approach for using a simpler one degree of freedom formulation is contrasted with a full three degree of freedom formulation. Additionally, covariance analysis results are compared with time domain simulation performance results.

  9. The tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, increasing concern has been expressed about Global Change - the natural and anthropogenic alteration of the Earth's environment involving global greenhouse warming and the associated climate change, urban and regional atmospheric pollution, acid deposition, regional increases in tropospheric zone, and the decrease in stratospheric ozone. A common theme among these problems is that they all involve those tropospheric trace gases which are fundamental to the biosphere-troposphere interaction, the chemistry of the free troposphere itself, and troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The chemical species involved all have spectral signatures within the near and mid infrared that can now be measured by advanced techniques of remote-sensing infrared spectroradiometry. Such a system is the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), now in Phase B definition for the Earth Observing System (EOS) polar platforms. TES addresses these objectives by obtaining radiometrically calibrated, linewidth-limited spectral resolution, infrared spectra of the lower atmosphere using both natural thermal emission and reflected sunlight (where appropriate) in three different, but fully programmable, modes: a gobal mode, a pointed mode, and a limb-viewing mode. The goals of TES, its instrumentation, operational modes, sensitivity and data handling are discussed.

  10. Assessing the Agreement Between Eo-Based Semi-Automated Landslide Maps with Fuzzy Manual Landslide Delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, F.; Hölbling, D.; Friedl, B.

    2017-09-01

    Landslide mapping benefits from the ever increasing availability of Earth Observation (EO) data resulting from programmes like the Copernicus Sentinel missions and improved infrastructure for data access. However, there arises the need for improved automated landslide information extraction processes from EO data while the dominant method is still manual delineation. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) provides the means for the fast and efficient extraction of landslide information. To prove its quality, automated results are often compared to manually delineated landslide maps. Although there is awareness of the uncertainties inherent in manual delineations, there is a lack of understanding how they affect the levels of agreement in a direct comparison of OBIA-derived landslide maps and manually derived landslide maps. In order to provide an improved reference, we present a fuzzy approach for the manual delineation of landslides on optical satellite images, thereby making the inherent uncertainties of the delineation explicit. The fuzzy manual delineation and the OBIA classification are compared by accuracy metrics accepted in the remote sensing community. We have tested this approach for high resolution (HR) satellite images of three large landslides in Austria and Italy. We were able to show that the deviation of the OBIA result from the manual delineation can mainly be attributed to the uncertainty inherent in the manual delineation process, a relevant issue for the design of validation processes for OBIA-derived landslide maps.

  11. Use of EOS Data in AWIPS for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Haines, Stephanie L.; Suggs, Ron J.; Bradshaw, Tom; Darden, Chris; Burks, Jason

    2003-01-01

    Operational weather forecasting relies heavily on real time data and modeling products for forecast preparation and dissemination of significant weather information to the public. The synthesis of this information (observations and model products) by the meteorologist is facilitated by a decision support system to display and integrate the information in a useful fashion. For the NWS this system is called Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). Over the last few years NASA has launched a series of new Earth Observation Satellites (EOS) for climate monitoring that include several instruments that provide high-resolution measurements of atmospheric and surface features important for weather forecasting and analysis. The key to the utilization of these unique new measurements by the NWS is the real time integration of the EOS data into the AWIPS system. This is currently being done in the Huntsville and Birmingham NWS Forecast Offices under the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Program. This paper describes the use of near real time MODIS and AIRS data in AWIPS to improve the detection of clouds, moisture variations, atmospheric stability, and thermal signatures that can lead to significant weather development. The paper and the conference presentation will focus on several examples where MODIS and AIRS data have made a positive impact on forecast accuracy. The results of an assessment of the utility of these products for weather forecast improvement made at the Huntsville NWS Forecast Office will be presented.

  12. EOS ART: Six Artistic Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. EOS ART was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects. The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia. The paper provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand).

  13. Love and Eos make the world go round

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2012-02-01

    After 15 years of teaching environmental science, health, and safety at the College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma (not far from the Holocene Meers Fault), it was time for a change. I took a deep breath, gave up a tenured faculty position, and moved to Boulder, Colo., to work for a well-known geological society, where my office looked out on steep slabs of Pennsylvanian sandstone at the edge of the Rocky Mountains. Seven months later, I realized there was a new neighbor next door—literally on the other side of the wall of my condo. Remembering my Oklahoma manners, I went next door to welcome the new neighbor. Alan Nelson answered the door and was momentarily speechless when I introduced myself as Deborah Nelson. He quickly recovered and invited me in. We began one of those halting conversations that proceeded until I spied a copy of Eos on the coffee table. "You must be a geologist!" I proudly exclaimed, since I knew that Eos is the weekly publication of AGU. Once again, Alan, who is indeed a geologist, was at a loss for words—but with this happy discovery, the conversation was off and running.

  14. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus, T.; Gasiewski, A.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Sturm, M.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed in March 2003. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4,2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The primary instrument on the P-3B aircraft was the NOAA ETL Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) covering the same frequencies and polarizations as the AMSR-E. This paper describes the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound. Comparisons among the satellite and aircraft PSR data sets are presented.

  15. Use of EOS Data in AWIPS for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Haines, Stephanie L.; Suggs, Ron J.; Bradshaw, Tom; Darden, Chris; Burks, Jason

    2003-01-01

    Operational weather forecasting relies heavily on real time data and modeling products for forecast preparation and dissemination of significant weather information to the public. The synthesis of this information (observations and model products) by the meteorologist is facilitated by a decision support system to display and integrate the information in a useful fashion. For the NWS this system is called Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). Over the last few years NASA has launched a series of new Earth Observation Satellites (EOS) for climate monitoring that include several instruments that provide high-resolution measurements of atmospheric and surface features important for weather forecasting and analysis. The key to the utilization of these unique new measurements by the NWS is the real time integration of the EOS data into the AWIPS system. This is currently being done in the Huntsville and Birmingham NWS Forecast Offices under the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Program. This paper describes the use of near real time MODIS and AIRS data in AWIPS to improve the detection of clouds, moisture variations, atmospheric stability, and thermal signatures that can lead to significant weather development. The paper and the conference presentation will focus on several examples where MODIS and AIRS data have made a positive impact on forecast accuracy. The results of an assessment of the utility of these products for weather forecast improvement made at the Huntsville NWS Forecast Office will be presented.

  16. Plans for the development of EOS SAR systems using the Alaska SAR facility. [Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Weeks, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) program for the acquisition and processing of data from the ESA ERS-1, the NASDA ERS-1, and Radarsat and to carry out a program of science investigations using the data is introduced. Agreements for data acquisition and analysis are in place except for the agreement between NASA and Radarsat which is in negotiation. The ASF baseline system, consisting of the Receiving Ground System, the SAR Processor System and the Archive and Operations System, passed critical design review and is fully in implementation phase. Augments to the baseline system for systems to perform geophysical processing and for processing of J-ERS-1 optical data are in the design and implementation phase. The ASF provides a very effective vehicle with which to prepare for the Earth Observing System (EOS) in that it will aid the development of systems and technologies for handling the data volumes produced by the systems of the next decades, and it will also supply some of the data types that will be produced by EOS.

  17. Plans for the development of EOS SAR systems using the Alaska SAR facility. [Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Weeks, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) program for the acquisition and processing of data from the ESA ERS-1, the NASDA ERS-1, and Radarsat and to carry out a program of science investigations using the data is introduced. Agreements for data acquisition and analysis are in place except for the agreement between NASA and Radarsat which is in negotiation. The ASF baseline system, consisting of the Receiving Ground System, the SAR Processor System and the Archive and Operations System, passed critical design review and is fully in implementation phase. Augments to the baseline system for systems to perform geophysical processing and for processing of J-ERS-1 optical data are in the design and implementation phase. The ASF provides a very effective vehicle with which to prepare for the Earth Observing System (EOS) in that it will aid the development of systems and technologies for handling the data volumes produced by the systems of the next decades, and it will also supply some of the data types that will be produced by EOS.

  18. [EoRab43 regulating vesicular transport around the macronucleus in Euplotes octocarinatus].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang Jiao; Nie, Yu; Liaing, Ai Hua; Dang, Xu Hong; Wang, Wei

    2009-02-01

    Rab family proteins play a crucial role in regulating vesicular traffic in eukaryotic cells. EoRab43 is an atypical Rab gene identified in Euplotes octocarinatus. In order to understand the function of EoRab43, the 153bp fragment of the 3'-end of EoRab43 gene was subcloned into expression vector pGEX-6P-1, and the recombinant plasmid pGEX-EoRab43(153bp) was transfered into E.coli BL21 (DE3) to express the fusion protein. The fusion protein GST-EoRab43C was expressed and purified by affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were immunolized by purified GST-EoRab43C. The titer of anti-EoRab43C polyclonal antibody was detected by indirect ELISA assay and the specificity of the antibody was detected by Western blot. Immunofluorescence experiments were performed using anti-EoRab43C antibody in the cells of Euplotes. The results showed that EoRab43 displayed a punctuate pattern in the cytoplasm around the macronuclear chromosome of Euplotes.

  19. Philosophy and Architecture of the EOS Data and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, Martha

    In 2009, NASA's EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the world's largest distributed data and information system infrastructure principally supporting science, a coupled, complex network of production capabilities and data systems. Data and information are easily available through the World Wide Web from searchable, on-line data stores with sophisticated metadata schema, data dictionaries, and comprehensive scientific and technical documentation of its holdings. NASA is moving towards adoption of a service-oriented approach deploying Web services, which enable users to make connections between distributed and heterogeneous elements of environmental data and services internal to and external from EOSDIS as needed. Pertinent Web services are accessible via EOSDIS. Examples of data services include subsetting, data reformatting, and search services such as a thesaurus. The principal subject matter of this book, the MODIS and ASTER instruments, and their derived data, products and applications owe their existence and success to EOSDIS.

  20. Data compression for Eos on-board SAR processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Fang, W. C.; Curlander, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power, real-time data compressor design for the Earth Observing System (Eos) onboard synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor is presented. The implementation is based on VLSI design of a pipelined binary tree-searched vector quantizer (VQ), utilizing space-qualifiable 1.25-micron CMOS technology. The implementation exploits VLSI system design principles such as the modularity, regular data flow, simple interconnection, localized communication, simple global control, and parallel/pipelined processing. The overall system requires 30 chips with only one VLSI processing element design. The total weight is about 1.2 lbs, with an estimated power dissipation of approximately 4 watts operating at the maximum input data rate. The projected throughput rate exceeds 5 MHz.

  1. Evolution of EO/IR technology and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2013-09-01

    There is a need to assess whether different strategies can be evolved for developing EO/IR systems to support the generation of space-variant multi-domain, signature discriminating imagery without the penalty imposed by the generation and communication of large datasets. In addition it would be beneficial if such strategies could avoid challenges in relation to complexity and the cost of manufacture for both the defence and medical arenas. This paper revisits some of the constructs exploited in biological imaging systems, notably those found in the family of stomatopod crustaceans and assesses the feasibility of pursuing some of the ideas generated from that study using novel comb filter technologies in the context of emerging focal plane and optical system technologies.

  2. Terrestrial Environmental Variables Derived From EOS Platform Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Stephen J.; Czajkowski, Kevin P.; Goward, Samuel N.; Xue, Yongkang

    2001-01-01

    The three main objectives of the overall project were: 1. Adaptation of environmental constraint methods to take advantage of EOS sensors, specifically, MODIS, ASTER, and Landsat-7, in addition to the PM AVHRR observations 2. Refinement of environmental constraint methods based on fundamental scientific knowledge. 3. Assessment of spatial scaling patterns in environmental constraint measurements to evaluate the potential biases and errors that occur when estimating regional and global-scale NPP patterns with moderate to coarse satellite observations. These goals were modified because, on one hand, MODIS data did not become available until after the first year of the project and because of project staffing issues at the University of Maryland., The OSU portion of the project contained a modest amount of funding and responsibility compared to the University of Maryland and the University of Toledo.

  3. Doppler lidar wind measurements on the EOS - LAWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the efforts currently underway to prepare for the deployment of the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) instrument on an Earth Observing System (EOS) polar orbiter and on the Space Station. Attention is given to the measurement techiques, which include ground-based and airborne measurements in the atmosphere, and to the scientific and the technical issues being addressed. Global wind profiles obtained with the LAWS will effect dramatic improvement in numerical weather prediction and will be useful in determining the midtroposphere steering currents that are important in hurricane track forecasts. The global wind data will also provide information on large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics and on biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles.

  4. EOS of neutron-rich matter and pure neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manisa, Kaan

    2012-03-01

    We report the equation of state (EOS) of pure neutron matter (PNM) and neutron-rich matter (NRM) for the realistic Urbana V14 two nucleon interaction, obtained by using a Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) method. Also, many body interactions are included as a phenomenological density dependent term in the potential. The binding energy per nucleon is calculated for different densities and various isospin asymmetry parameters. Our results on NRM and PNM are compared with relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory and relativistic Hartree-Fock model with the unitary correlation operator method. The results obtained in this study show reasonable agreement with both of these relativistic Hartree-Fock approaches. We also compare the binding energies obtained in this study with those obtained by various authors employing different methods and techniques.

  5. Eos Interviews John Holdren, President Obama's Science Advisor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-12-01

    With the Obama administration about to face a Republican-led House of Representatives in January, presidential science advisor John Holdren sat down with Eos for an exclusive and wide-ranging interview following a policy speech he delivered on 13 December at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. During the interview, Holdren, who also is director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), focused on the challenging congressional and budgetary environment, the administration's priorities related to the Earth sciences, and the responsibility of scientists in helping to communicate the societal benefits of science, educate the public, and improve science education and literacy. Holdren said the Obama administration's top priorities related to the Earth sciences include improving observations of the Earth, making progress in dealing with climate change, and rebalancing NASA's focus.

  6. GDAL Enhancements for Interoperability with EOS Data (GEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdale, B.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) data products have been difficult to consume by GIS tools, weather commercial or open-source. This has resulted in a reduced acceptance of these data products by GIS and general user communities. Common problems and challenges experienced by these data users include difficulty when: Consuming data products from NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that pre-date modern application software with commercial and open-source geospatial tools; Identifying[MI1] an initial approach for developing a framework and plug-ins that interpret non-compliant data; Defining a methodology that is extensible across NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), scientific communities, and GIS communities by enabling other data centers to construct their own plug-ins and adjust specific data products; and Promoting greater use of NASA Data and new analysis utilizing GIS tools. To address these challenges and make EOS data products more accessible and interpretable by GIS applications, a collaborative approach has been taken that includes the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), Esri, George Mason University (GMU), and the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Group to create a framework and plugins to be applied to Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). This framework and its plugins offer advantages of extensibility within NASA EOSDIS, permitting other data centers to construct their own plugins necessary to adjust their data products. In this session findings related to the framework and the development of GDAL plugins will be reviewed. Specifically, this session will offer a workshop to review documentation and training materials that have been generated for the purpose of guiding other NASA DAACs through the process of constructing plug-ins consistent with the framework as well as a review of the certification process by which the plugins can be independently verified as properly converting

  7. Karst rocky desertification information extraction with EO-1 Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuemin; Wang, Kelin; Zhang, Bing; Jiao, Quanjun; Yu, Yizun

    2008-12-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a special kind of land desertification developed under violent human impacts on the vulnerable eco-geo-environment of karst ecosystem. The process of karst rocky desertification results in simultaneous and complex variations of many interrelated soil, rock and vegetation biogeophysical parameters, rendering it difficult to develop simple and robust remote sensing mapping and monitoring approaches. In this study, we aimed to use Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion hyperspectral data to extract the karst rocky desertification information. A spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach, was employed to quantify the fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare substrates. The results showed that SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) portions of the spectrum were significantly different in PV, NPV and bare rock spectral properties. It has limitations in using full optical range or only SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) region of Hyperion to decompose image into PV, NPV and bare substrates covers. However, when use the tied-SWIR, the sub-pixel fractional covers of PV, NPV and bare substrates were accurately estimated. Our study indicates that the "tied-spectrum" method effectively accentuate the spectral characteristics of materials, while the spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach is a useful tool to automatically extract mixed ground objects in karst ecosystem. Karst rocky desertification information can be accurately extracted with EO-1 Hyperion. Imaging spectroscopy can provide a powerful methodology toward understanding the extent and spatial pattern of land degradation in karst ecosystem.

  8. Detection Of Tornado Damage Tracks With EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2005-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (path length and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explored the possibility of using near real-time medium and high-resolution satellite imagery from the NASA EOS satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. MODIS and ASTER data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms; the La Plata, Maryland storm of 28 April 2002 and the Carter-Butler Counties and Madison County Missouri storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity (from F0-F4) and occurred over regions with different land use. It was found that, depending on the nature of land use, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F2 or greater) may be evident in both ASTER and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas of dense vegetation the scar patterns show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not at all obvious in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2004 Madison County, Missouri tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land use as on the severity of the tornadic storm. The imaging sensors on the NPOESS operational satellites to be launched in 2006 will continue the unique observing capabilities of the EOS instruments.

  9. Detection Of Tornado Damage Tracks With EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2005-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (path length and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explored the possibility of using near real-time medium and high-resolution satellite imagery from the NASA EOS satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. MODIS and ASTER data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms; the La Plata, Maryland storm of 28 April 2002 and the Carter-Butler Counties and Madison County Missouri storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity (from F0-F4) and occurred over regions with different land use. It was found that, depending on the nature of land use, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F2 or greater) may be evident in both ASTER and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas of dense vegetation the scar patterns show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not at all obvious in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2004 Madison County, Missouri tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land use as on the severity of the tornadic storm. The imaging sensors on the NPOESS operational satellites to be launched in 2006 will continue the unique observing capabilities of the EOS instruments.

  10. 31 CFR 585.419 - Effect of E.O. 12846 on outstanding licenses and authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of E.O. 12846 on outstanding licenses and authorizations. 585.419 Section 585.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... AND HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 585.419 Effect of E.O. 12846 on...

  11. The role of Earth Observation (EO) technologies in supporting implementation of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.

    PubMed

    MacKay, H; Finlayson, C M; Fernández-Prieto, D; Davidson, N; Pritchard, D; Rebelo, L-M

    2009-05-01

    Over one hundred wetland specialists and Earth Observation experts from around the world gathered at the European Space Agency's 'GlobWetland Symposium: Looking at wetlands from space' in Frascati, Italy, from 19 to 20 October, 2006. The aim of the Symposium was to stimulate discussion between the two communities by reviewing the latest developments in Earth Observation (EO) for the inventory, assessment and monitoring of wetlands and identify key scientific, technical and policy-relevant challenges for the future. The results provide an overview of the key areas of current research in the use of EO for mapping and managing wetlands, while also pointing out gaps that could hinder global inventory, assessment and monitoring of wetlands. This paper provides a summary of the main outputs with a focus on the role of EO technologies in supporting the implementation of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The summary contains a qualitative analysis of the state of the art and considers possible directions and priorities for future research, development and application of EO-based technologies in wetland management. In this context we: 1) highlight those applications where EO technologies are ready for wider uptake by wetland managers, and provide suggestions for supporting such uptake; 2) indicate where EO technologies and applications currently in the research and development stages could potentially be useful in wetland management; and 3) provide recommendations for new research and development of EO technologies, that can be utilized to address aspects of wetland management not covered by the range of current EO applications.

  12. Multi-channel holographic birfurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Diep, J.; Huang, K.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on multi-channel holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive Earth Observing System (EOS) data analysis are presented. The objective is to research and develop an optical bifurcating neuromorphic pattern recognition system for making optical data array comparisons and to evaluate the use of the system for EOS data classification, reduction, analysis, and other applications.

  13. Earth Observing System(EOS). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Firmware Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, R.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the Firmware Test Report for the firmware to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instrument. It describes the firmware results of the Formal Qualification Test (FQT)/Demonstrations conducted on Mar. 21, 1997, Apr. 8, 1998, and July 14, 1998, for the EOS/AMSU-A instrument.

  14. Multi-channel holographic birfurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Diep, J.; Huang, K.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on multi-channel holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive Earth Observing System (EOS) data analysis are presented. The objective is to research and develop an optical bifurcating neuromorphic pattern recognition system for making optical data array comparisons and to evaluate the use of the system for EOS data classification, reduction, analysis, and other applications.

  15. Wormlike micelles in Tween-80/CmEO3 mixed nonionic surfactant systems in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Varade, Dharmesh; Ushiyama, Kousuke; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Aramaki, Kenji

    2007-08-15

    Formation and rheological behaviour of viscoelastic wormlike micellar solution in aqueous mixed system of nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and trioxyethylene alkyl ether (C(m)EO(3), m=12, 14, and 16) was studied. The semi-dilute aqueous solution of Tween-80, in presence of C(m)EO(3) shows a sharp increase in viscosity leading to the formation of a gel-like highly viscoelastic solution reaching a maximum, but decreases beyond an intermediate concentration and finally phase separates. When C(12)EO(3) is replaced by C(14)EO(3) the micellar growth occurs more effectively. However, with further increase in alkyl chain length, i.e. with C(16)EO(3), phase separation occurs before a viscoelastic solution is formed. The effect of temperature on the water/Tween-80/C(14)EO(3) mixed surfactant system was also studied. With increase in temperature, viscosity increases more promptly and the viscosity maximum is attained at relatively lower concentration of C(14)EO(3). Enhanced one dimensional micellar growth with increase in the temperature is mainly attributed to the decrease in the spontaneous curvature of the aggregates. Structural investigation by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique of micelles in aqueous solution of Tween-80 and mixed water/Tween-80/C(m)EO(3) systems confirmed the one dimensional micellar growth in the above system.

  16. Promoting Strategic STEM Education Outreach Programming Using a Systems-Based STEM-EO Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annmarie R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a STEM Education Outreach (STEM-EO) Model for promoting strategic university outreach programming at Penn State University to the benefit of university, school district and community stakeholders is described. The model considers STEM-EO as a complex system involving overarching learning goals addressed within four outreach domains…

  17. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  18. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property and...

  19. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property and...

  20. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property and...

  1. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property and...

  2. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  3. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  4. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  5. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  6. Compaction of DNA using C12EO4 cooperated with Fe(3.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Lu; Li, Guihua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-08-01

    Nonionic surfactant, tetraethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12EO4), cannot compact DNA because of its low efficiency in neutralizing the negative charges of the phosphate groups of DNA. It is also well-known that nonionic surfactants as a decompaction agent can help DNA be released from cationic surfactant aggregates. Herein, with the "bridge" Fe(3+) of C12EO4, we found that C12EO4 can efficiently compact DNA molecules into globular states with a narrow size distribution, indicating that the cooperative Fe(3+) can transform C12EO4 molecules from decompaction agents to compaction ones. The mechanism of the interaction of DNA and C12EO4 by "bridge" Fe(3+) is that the Fe(3+)-C12EO4 complexes act as multivalent ions by cooperative and hydrophobic interaction. The improved colloidal-stability and endosome escape effect induced by C12EO4 would provide the potential applications of nonionic surfactant in the physiological characteristics of DNA complexes. Cell viability assay demonstrates that Fe(3+)-C12EO4 complexes possess low cytotoxicity, ensuring good biocompatibility. Another advantage of this system is that the DNA complexes can be de-compacted by glutathione in cell without any other agents. This suggests the metal ion-nonionic surfactant complexes as compaction agent can act as the potential delivery tool of DNA in future nonviral gene delivery systems.

  7. Follow That Satellite: EO-1 Maneuvers Into Close Formation With Landsat-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFazio, Robert L.; Owens, Skip; Good, Susan; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As the Landsat-7 (LS-7) spacecraft continued NASA's historic program of earth imaging begun over three decades ago, NASA launched the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft carrying examples of the next generation of LS instruments. The validation method for these instruments was to have EO-1 fly in a close formation behind LS-7 on the same World Reference System (WRS) path. From that formation hundreds of near-coincident images would be taken by each spacecraft and compared to evaluate improvements in the EO-1 instruments. This paper will address the mission analysis required to launch and maneuver EO-1 into the formation with LS-7 where instrument validation was to occur plus a summary of completing the formation acquisition. Each EO-1 launch opportunity that occurred on a different day of a LS-7 16-day repeat cycle required a separate and distinct maneuver profile.

  8. Understanding (Galactic) Foreground Emission: A Road To Success For The LOFAR-EoR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelic, Vibor; Lofar Eor Team

    2014-04-01

    The LOFAR-EoR experiment will use the innovative technology and capabilities of the radio telescope LOFAR to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). However, feeble cosmological radiation is swamped by the prominent foreground emission of our Galaxy and other extragalactic radio sources. This emission is two to three orders of magnitude stronger than the EoR signal. Without understanding and removing the foreground emission from the data, we will not be able to detect the cosmological radiation and probe the EoR. During my talk I will give an overview of the LOFAR-EoR experiment, its challenges, and present the most recent observational results in particular detection of peculiar structures in poalrization.

  9. Acetabular component navigation in lateral decubitus based on EOS imaging: A preliminary study of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Billaud, A; Verdier, N; de Bartolo, R; Lavoinne, N; Chauveaux, D; Fabre, T

    2015-05-01

    Acetabular component navigation classically requires palpation of the bone landmarks defining the anterior pelvic plane (APP) (anterior superior iliac spine [ASIS] and pubis), the recording of which is not very reliable when performed in lateral decubitus. The objectives of the current experimental study were: (1) to assess the clinical feasibility of NAVEOS navigation (based on EOS imaging) in lateral decubitus; and (2) to compare precision versus classical APP-based navigation (NAVAPP). Iliac plane navigation using EOS is as reliable as APP navigation. A continuous prospective series of 13 total hip replacements were implanted in lateral decubitus under APP-guided navigation (NAVAPP). Planning used preoperative EOS measurement. The ASIS, pubis and ipsilateral posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) were located and exported to the navigator. Intra-operatively, NAVEOS landmarks (acetabular center, ASIS and PSIS on the operated side) were palpated. Postoperatively, cup inclination and anteversion with respect to the APP were measured on EOS imaging (SterEOS3D software). The SterEOS3D measurements were compared to those of the performed NAVAPP and simulated NAVEOS navigations. Three patients were excluded for technical reasons. In the remaining 10, inclination on NAVAPP and SterEOS3D differed by a median 4° (range, 0-12°), and on NAVEOS versus SteEOS3D by 5° (range, 2-10°); anteversion on NAVAPP and SterEOS3D differed by a median 4.5° (range, 0-12°), and on NAVEOS versus SteEOS3D by 4° (range, 0-14°). Precision was comparable between NAVEOS and classical navigation. NAVEOS simplifies cup navigation in lateral decubitus on initial acquisition. These results require validation on a larger sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services (KES-B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas, J.; Busto, J.; Torguet, R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper recovers and describes a number of major statements with respect to the vision, mission and technological approaches of the Technological Research Project (TRP) "EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services" (project acronym KES-B), which is currently under development at the European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) under contract "16397/02/I- SB". Resulting from the on-going R&D activities, the KES-B project aims are to demonstrate with a prototype system the feasibility of the application of innovative knowledge-based technologies to provide services for easy, scheduled and controlled exploitation of EO resources (e.g.: data, algorithms, procedures, storage, processors, ...), to automate the generation of products, and to support users in easily identifying and accessing the required information or products by using their own vocabulary, domain knowledge and preferences. The ultimate goals of KES-B are summarized in the provision of the two main types of KES services: 1st the Search service (also referred to as Product Exploitation or Information Retrieval; and 2nd the Production service (also referred to as Information Extraction), with the strategic advantage that they are enabled by Knowledge consolidated (formalized) within the system. The KES-B system technical solution approach is driven by a strong commitment for the adoption of industry (XML-based) language standards, aiming to have an interoperable, scalable and flexible operational prototype. In that sense, the Search KES services builds on the basis of the adoption of consolidated and/or emergent W3C semantic-web standards. Remarkably the languages/models Dublin Core (DC), Universal Resource Identifier (URI), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology Web Language (OWL), and COTS like Protege [1] and JENA [2] are being integrated in the system as building bricks for the construction of the KES based Search services. On the other hand, the Production KES services builds on top of

  11. Spectral Evidence for Silica in Eos Chasma, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data in Eos Chasma have revealed spatially small areas, typically mounds or knobs, with materials having significant (>~35%) fractions of silica in one or more as-of-yet unidentified phases [1]. Silica, SiO2, occurs geologically in both crystalline (e.g., quartz) and amorphous (e.g., opal, glass) forms. The identification of associated minerals and the specific silica phase(s) observed in the thermal infrared data is critical to constraining the abundance estimate further. New results from THEMIS multispectral data show that if the silica is present as quartz or one of its polymorphs (e.g., tridymite, cristobalite, coesite), it is probably equal to or less than ~35% of the modal mineralogy. If the silica is present in an amorphous form with different spectral character, such as opal, this number could increase by several tens of percent. Cherts, which are quartz in rock form, exhibit a variety of microscopic textures (e.g., microcrystalline, fibrous, and "megaquartz") [2] and contain contaminating phases that produce variations in their spectra; we have identified several chert samples that also are candidate components and could be present at abundances of several tens of percent or greater. Primary and secondary silica phases are formed by a wide array of geologic processes, many of which include interactions with ambient or hydrothermal fluids and some of which are well-known preservers of biomarkers on Earth. Thus, silica enrichments on the Martian surface are likely to be important recorders of aqueous processes, and possibly biomarkers as well. As such, an area in Eos Chasma adjacent to silica-bearing deposits has been proposed as a landing site for NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory rover [3]. The majority of silica-bearing deposits are a few hundred m2 in size, and there is a paucity of high- resolution visible images with which they can be investigated. A 3-m/pixel Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of a relatively

  12. EosFit-Pinc: a GUI program to calculate pressures in host-inclusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Ross; Alvaro, Matteo; Mazzucchelli, Mattia; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    A remnant pressure in an inclusion trapped inside a host mineral is developed because the inclusion and the host have different thermal expansion and compressibilities, and the inclusion does not expand in response to P and T as would a free crystal. Instead it is restricted to expand only as much as the cavity of the host mineral, and this constriction in volume can result in inclusions exhibiting over-pressures when the host is studied at room conditions. The remnant pressure of the inclusion, measured by X-ray diffractometry, birefringence analysis or Raman spectroscopy, can then be used with the equations of state (EoS) of the host and inclusion to constrain the P and T at entrapment. This concept has been known for a long time, but satisfactory quantitative modelling of inclusion-host systems based on non-linear elasticity theory and precise EoS has only recently come available (Angel et al., 2014, 2015), even though calculations still assume isotropic elastic properties. The elasticity calculations to determine entrapment conditions involving the EoSs for both the host and the inclusion are complex if thermodynamically-realistic EoS are employed. We have therefore developed a simple GUI program, EosFit-Pinc that performs all of the necessary calculations under the assumptions of isotropic elasticity. Equations of state of the host and the inclusion can be loaded as files created by other software in the EosFit7 program suite, or imported directly from thermodynamic databases such as Thermocalc. The complete range of EoS types supported by EosFit-7 are available in EosFit-Pinc. Fluid EoS can be provided in the form of PVT tables, which allows fluid inclusions to be modelled. Once loaded, the EoS of the host and inclusion can be used to calculate the entrapment isomeke from the measured remnant pressure of the inclusion. Or the final pressure can be calculated if the entrapment conditions are known or estimated. Calculations of the isochors of both the host and

  13. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  14. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  15. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  16. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  17. Addressing EO-1 Spacecraft Pulsed Plasma Thruster EMI Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, C. M.; Davis, Mitch; Sarmiento, Charles; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. Results from PPT unit level radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests led to concerns about potential interference problems with other spacecraft subsystems. Initial plans to address these concerns included firing the PPT at the spacecraft level both in atmosphere, with special ground support equipment. and in vacuum. During the spacecraft level tests, additional concerns where raised about potential harm to the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). The inadequacy of standard radiated emission test protocol to address pulsed electromagnetic discharges and the lack of resources required to perform compatibility tests between the PPT and an ALI test unit led to changes in the spacecraft level validation plan. An EMI shield box for the PPT was constructed and validated for spacecraft level ambient testing. Spacecraft level vacuum tests of the PPT were deleted. Implementation of the shield box allowed for successful spacecraft level testing of the PPT while eliminating any risk to the ALI. The ALI demonstration will precede the PPT demonstration to eliminate any possible risk of damage of ALI from PPT operation.

  18. Global monitoring of atmospheric properties by the EOS MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being developed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is well suited to the global monitoring of atmospheric properties from space. Among the atmospheric properties to be examined using MODIS observations, clouds are especially important, since they are a strong modulator of the shortwave and longwave components of the earth's radiation budget. A knowledge of cloud properties (such as optical thickness and effective radius) and their variation in space and time, which are our task objectives, is also crucial to studies of global climate change. In addition, with the use of related airborne instrumentation, such as the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) in intensive field experiments (both national and international campaigns, see below), various types of surface and cloud properties can be derived from the measured bidirectional reflectances. These missions have provided valuable experimental data to determine the capability of narrow bandpass channels in examining the Earth's atmosphere and to aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of MODIS to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. Therefore, the primary task objective is to extend and expand our algorithm for retrieving the optical thickness and effective radius of clouds from radiation measurements to be obtained from MODIS. The secondary objective is to obtain an enhanced knowledge of surface angular and spectral properties that can be inferred from airborne directional radiance measurements.

  19. Eos Interviews Robert Van Hook, Former AGU Interim Executive Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Robert Van Hook, who served as AGU's interim executive director since January 2009, led the organization during a transition period that began with the retirement of long-serving executive director A. F. (“Fred”) Spilhaus Jr. Van Hook's tenure concluded on 30 August when Christine McEntee assumed her position as AGU's new executive director (see Eos, 91(17), 153, 156, 2010). During his tenure at AGU, which overlapped with a global economic recession, Van Hook helped to guide the organization through key structural governance changes, strategic planning, and upgrades in technology, human resources, and accounting. He also helped to revitalize public outreach and member services, among many other efforts. Van Hook, president of Transition Management Consulting, recently reflected upon his tenure, the transition period, and the future of AGU. Van Hook credits AGU's strong volunteer leadership—including past presidents Tim Killeen and Tim Grove, current president Mike McPhaden, and president-elect Carol Finn—for courage in moving the organization through a successful transition. “They were the ones who shoved the boat off from the shore. I was lucky enough to be invited into the boat,” he said. He also credits the staff for their resiliency and commitment to supporting AGU's science.

  20. EOS MLS Level 2 Data Processing Software Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, Nathaniel J.; VanSnyder, Livesey W.; Read, William G.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Froidevaux, Lucien; wang, Shuhui; Manney, Gloria L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This software accepts the EOS MLS calibrated measurements of microwave radiances products and operational meteorological data, and produces a set of estimates of atmospheric temperature and composition. This version has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The software is controlled by a Level 2 Configuration File that controls all aspects of the software: defining the contents of state and measurement vectors, defining the configurations of the various forward models available, reading appropriate a priori spectroscopic and calibration data, performing retrievals, post-processing results, computing diagnostics, and outputting results in appropriate files. In production mode, the software operates in a parallel form, with one instance of the program acting as a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each computing the results for individual chunks of data. In addition, to do conventional retrieval calculations and producing geophysical products, the Level 2 Configuration File can instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on a state vector formed from a set of geophysical product files taken as input. Combining both the retrieval and simulation tasks in a single piece of software makes it far easier to ensure that identical forward model algorithms and parameters are used in both tasks. This also dramatically reduces the complexity of the code maintenance effort.

  1. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2, or when the range of scattering angles observed is reduced by solar geometry, even though the quality of the AOD retrieval itself is much less sensitive to these factors. This presentation will review a series of studies aimed at assessing the capabilities, as well as the limitations, of MISR aerosol type retrievals involving wildfire smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash, and urban pollution, in specific cases where suborbital validation data are available. A synthesis of results, planned upgrades to the MISR Standard aerosol algorithm to improve aerosol type retrievals, and steps toward the development of an aerosol type quality flag for the Standard product, will also be covered.

  2. Land Surface Temperature Measurements from EOS MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1997-01-01

    We made modifications to the linear kernel bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models from Roujean et al. and Wanner et al. that extend the spectral range into the thermal infrared (TIR). With these TIR BRDF models and the IGBP land-cover product, we developed a classification-based emissivity database for the EOS/MODIS land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm and used it in version V2.0 of the MODIS LST code. Two V2.0 LST codes have been delivered to the MODIS SDST, one for the daily L2 and L3 LST products, and another for the 8-day 1km L3 LST product. New TIR thermometers (broadband radiometer with a filter in the 10-13 micron window) and an IR camera have been purchased in order to reduce the uncertainty in LST field measurements due to the temporal and spatial variations in LST. New improvements have been made to the existing TIR spectrometer in order to increase its accuracy to 0.2 C that will be required in the vicarious calibration of the MODIS TIR bands.

  3. Design and performance of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lencioni, Donald E.; Digenis, Constantine J.; Bicknell, William E.; Hearn, David R.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.

    1999-12-01

    An Advanced Land Imager (ALI) will be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The ALI contains a number of key NMP technologies. These include a 15 degree wide field-of-view, push-broom instrument architecture with a 12.5 cm aperture diameter, compact multispectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The focal plane contains multispectral and panchromatic (MS/Pan) detector arrays with a total of 10 spectral bands spanning the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer wavelength region. Seven of these correspond to the heritage Landsat bands. The instantaneous fields of view of the detectors are 14.2 (mu) rad for the Pan band and 42.6 (mu) rad for the MS bands. The partially populated focal plane provides a 3 degree cross-track coverage corresponding to 37 km on the ground. The focal plane temperature is maintained at 220 K by means of a passive radiator. The instrument environmental and performance testing has been completed. Preliminary data analysis indicates excellent performance. This paper presents an overview of the instrument design, the calibration strategy, and results of the pre-flight performance measurements. It also discusses the potential impact of ALI technologies to future Landsat-like instruments.

  4. A COTS-MQS shipborne EO/IR imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Mark A.; Miller, John L.; Weaver, James

    2005-05-01

    The Sea Star SAFIRE is a commercially developed, off the shelf, military qualified system (COTS-MQS) consisting of a 640 by 480 InSb infrared imager, laser rangefinder and visible imager in a gyro-stabilized platform designed for shipborne applications. These applications include search and rescue, surveillance, fire control, fisheries patrol, harbor security, and own-vessel perimeter security and self protection. Particularly challenging considerations unique to shipborne systems include the demanding environment conditions, man-machine interfaces, and effects of atmospheric conditions on sensor performance. Shipborne environmental conditions requiring special attention include electromagnetic fields, as well as resistance to rain, ice and snow, shock, vibration, and salt. Features have been implemented to withstand exposure to water and high humidity; anti-ice/de-ice capability for exposure to snow and ice; wash/wipe of external windows; corrosion resistance for exposure to water and salt spray. A variety of system controller configurations provide man-machine interfaces suitable for operation on ships. EO sensor developments that address areas of haze penetration, glint, and scintillation will be presented.

  5. Interactively Browsing NASA's EOS Imagery in Full Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Worldview is a new tool designed to interactively browse full-resolution imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. It is web-based and developed using open standards (JavaScript, CSS, HTML) for cross-platform compatibility. It addresses growing user demands for access to full-resolution imagery by providing a responsive, interactive interface with global coverage, no artificial boundaries, and views in geographic and polar projections. Currently tailored to the near real-time community, Worldview enables the rapid evaluation and comparison of imagery related to such application areas as fires, floods, and air quality. It is supported by the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that continuously ingests, mosaics, and serves approximately 21GB of imagery daily. This imagery spans over 50 data products that are available within three hours of observation from instruments aboard Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The GIBS image archive began in May 2012 and will have published approximately 4.4TB of imagery as of December 2012. Worldview facilitates rapid access to this archive and is supplemented by socioeconomic data layers from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), including products such as population density and economic risk from cyclones. Future plans include the accessibility of additional products that cover the entire Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS missions (>150TB) and the ability to download the underlying science data of the onscreen imagery.

  6. Study of Conductivity and EOS Variations in Exploding Wire Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjarlais, M. P.; Rosenthal, S. E.; Douglas, M. R.; Cochrane, K.; Spielman, R. B.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2000-10-01

    Present day Z pinches have achieved particularly impressive peak powers and total energies when initiated with a cylindrical array of many wires. The heating and the expansion of the wires in response to the high current densities is believed to play an important role in the subsequent Z pinch dynamics, especially in the seeding of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. These wires pass through complex conductivity and EOS regimes in their evolution from cold solid to liquid, vapor, and plasma, and thus represent a challenging test case for simulation codes and the accompanying physics packages. We present simulation results from the Mach II code illustrating the sensitivity of the modeled behavior to variations in the electrical conductivity and the equation of state, with special attention given to variations in the vicinity of the metal-insulator and metal-liquid-vapor transitions. For reference exploding-wire experiments, we use primarily those of Cornell University with aluminum wires in the 12 to 25 μm range.

  7. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  8. Global mapping of minor atmospheric constituents with AIRS on EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H. H.; Haskins, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating-array spectrometer on EOS. It covers the region from 650 to 3000/cm with spectral resolution of 1200. The prime objective of AIRS is the global retrieval of temperature and water vapor profiles and of surface temperatures. The wide spectral coverage of AIRS permits the measurement of a number of additional atmospheric and surface parameters. Of particular interest is the potential to produce daily global maps of the spatial distribution of the more abundant of the minor gases, e.g. ozone, CO, CH4, and N2O. This potential capability for CH4 and N2O is strongly affected by cloud residual. Using the CH4 band at 1306/cm as example, spatial averaging of AIRS data is required to measure a 10 percent change in the nominal CH4 column abundance. At 1300/cm, this requires cloud clearing at the 0.3 percent level. The mapping capability for ozone and CO in terms of rural/urban abundance patterns is not likely to be impacted with cloud-clearing residuals as high as 5 percent.

  9. Eye safe lidar and passive EO sensing for cloud monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Gustafsson, Ove; Berglund, Folke

    2016-10-01

    This study has investigated the use of an eye safe lidar (1550 nm) with equivalent performance of an ordinary military laser range finder for cloud monitoring. The aim was to combine lidar data with camera images in the visible, short wave infrared (SWIR) and infrared (IR) to better estimate the cloud density and cloud coverage. The measurement was concentrated on low clouds, mostly of the cumulus type. We found that these clouds between 0-2 km often showed a layered structure and that they often indicated a limited optical density probably allowing for observation through the cloud. This information is hard to achieve from a passive EO sensor only. This was supported both from the simulation of the lidar response from thin clouds and from inverting the measured lidar waveform. The comparison between the camera image intensities and the integrated range corrected lidar signals showed both negative and positive correlations. The highest positive correlation was obtained from comparing the lidar signal with the cloud temperature as derived from the FLIR camera. However, there were many cases when one or two of the camera intensities correlated negatively with the lidar signal. We could for example observe that under certain conditions the cloud which was dark in the SWIR appeared as white in the visible camera and vice versa. Example of lidar and image data will be presented and analyzed.

  10. EO/IR/Laser illumination sensors for perimeter security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natelson, David

    2007-04-01

    The integration of varied types of EO, IR, and Laser Illumination sensors used for perimeter security greatly improves the data that is available to the process of classifying potential threats. A key component of the design of layered sets of sensors is to understand the method in which detection, recognition, and identification distances are defined by each vendor. Historically, it has been challenging to compare each vendor's stated values as each type of sensor has unique characteristics that hinder the process of performing a so called "apples to apples" comparison. This results in more costly field testing and software simulations that attempt to model real world deployments. What we do know is that solutions are desired where multiple sensors are used to provide information to the Detection, Recognition through Identification process, as well as, associated human or software-based threat assessment and reaction processes. Perimeter security typically involves several layers of detection and investigation. Many entities have invested in detection sensors only to find out that they lack integrated or queued investigative sensors that provide a better return on investment for their systems. When you add night vision sensors to the mix, the challenges increase. This paper will examine sensor technologies and integration/command control/analytics technologies that are attempting to tie things together. The latest technologies including queued sensors and advances in detection/analytics using PTZ sensors will be covered.

  11. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  12. La edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    Las familias de asteroides son el producto de la disrupción colisional de objetos destruídos por impactos ocurridos en el cinturón principal. Las colisiones posteriores han modificado los tamaños y las órbitas de los miembros de estas familias, por lo que las distribuciones que vemos hoy en día pueden ser muy diferentes de aquellas producidas inmediatamente después de la fragmentación del objeto original. En esta hipótesis, puede ser difícil reconstruir la evolución colisional de la familia basándose sólo en las actuales distribuciones y puede ser necesario hacer ciertas suposiciones para obtener información sobre las condiciones iniciales. En este trabajo se deriva una estimación de la edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis obtenida de una simulación de la evolución colisional de un cuerpo original teórico para cada familia usando un modelo de distribución para el cinturón propuesto por Gil-Hutton (1996).

  13. Making Debris Avoidance Decisions for ESMO's EOS Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will cover the aspects of making debris risk decisions from the NASA Mission Director's perspective, specifically for NASA Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Earth Observing System (EOS) mission set. ESMO has been involved in analyzing potential debris risk conjunctions with secondary objects since the inception of this discipline. Through the cumulated years of experience and continued exposure to various debris scenarios, ESMO's understanding of the problem and process to deal with this issue has evolved. The presentation will describe the evolution of the ESMO process, specifically as it relates to the maneuver execution and spacecraft risk management decision process. It will briefly cover the original Drag Make-Up Maneuver, several day, methodical manually intensive, ramp up waive off approach, to the present day more automated, pre-canned onboard command, tools based approach. The presentation will also cover the key information needed to make debris decisions and challenges in doing so while still trying to meet science goals, constellation constraints and manage resources. A slide or two at the end of the presentation, will be devoted to discussing what further improvements could be helpful to improve decision making and future process improvement plans challenges.

  14. [Evaluation of a two-year intensive outpatient care programme for adolescents with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Hemmerle, Michael J; Röpcke, Bernd; Eggers, Christian; Oades, Robert D

    2010-09-01

    The Trialog project offers patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) a two-year programme of residential outpatient care following discharge from a clinic. The programme aims to support their further recovery and independence and encompasses interactive and psycho-educational multifamily care, coping with persistent symptoms, development of socio-emotional competence, independent house keeping, and support of school and vocational training. To evaluate psychopathology along with social and neuropsychological function for 12 participants over a period of 2 years. Their progress was compared with that of 12 EOS patients who did not attend Trialog following discharge. Participants showed a significantly greater decrease of positive and negative symptoms, as opposed to an increase in positive symptoms in the comparison group. Measures of social function, neuropsychological indicators of memory, (selective) attention, and psychomotor speed improved more than in the comparison subjects. Neither group showed changes in measures of intelligence or in the subjective quality of life. First analyses raise hope that monitoring participant performance in the programme of the "Trialog project" will improve the treatment and care of EOS-patients in the critical first years following the onset of schizophrenia.

  15. Does predation risk influence habitat use by northern redbelly dace Phoxinus eos at different spatial scales?

    PubMed

    Dupuch, A; Magnan, P; Bertolo, A; Dill, L M; Proulx, M

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between spatial variations in predation risk and abundance of northern redbelly dace Phoxinus eos at both macroscale (littoral v. pelagic zones) and microscale (structured v. open water habitats in the littoral zone) of Canadian Shield lakes. Minnow traps were placed in both structured and open water habitats in the littoral zone of 13 Canadian Shield lakes, and estimates of the relative predation risk of P. eos in both the pelagic and the littoral zones were obtained from tethering experiments. Results showed that (1) the mean abundance of P. eos in the littoral zone was positively correlated with the relative predation risk in the pelagic zone, (2) P. eos preferentially used structured over open water habitats in the littoral zone and (3) this preference was not related to the relative predation risk in the littoral zone but decreased as the relative predation risk increased in the pelagic zone. At the lake level, these results support the hypothesis that P. eos enter the littoral zone to avoid pelagic piscivores. At the littoral zone level, the results do not necessarily contradict the widely accepted view that P. eos preferentially use structured over open habitats to reduce their predation risk, but suggest that flexibility in antipredator tactics (e.g. shelter use v. shoaling) could explain the spatial distribution of P. eos between structured and open water habitats.

  16. Characterization of a Rab11 homologue, EoRab11a, in Euplotes octocarinatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangjiao; Nie, Yu; Dang, Xuhong; Liang, Aihua; Chai, Baofeng; Wang, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Rab GTPases are crucial in the regulation of intracellular vesicular trafficking. A novel Rab GTPase gene, EoRab11a (GenBank accession no. EF061065), was isolated and identified from Euplotes octocarinatus cells in this study. It contains an ORF of 696-bp nucleotides, encoding 231 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 26.8 kDa. Alignment of EoRab11a with other Rab11 proteins from other eukaryotes demonstrated that these proteins shared 53-61% identity at the amino acid level. The recombinant EoRab11a was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal chelate affinity chromatography and iron chromatography. The GTPase activity of EoRab11a was 0.0024 min(-1) detected by HPLC at 30 degrees C. Three mutations were generated at amino acids Ser21 and Gly22 positions in the G1 domain of EoRab11a. All three mutants, S21P, S21G and G22R, increased the GTPase activity in vitro. Immunofluorescence microscopy results indicated that EoRab11a was localized on the phagosomal membrane during phagocytosis of E. octocarinatus. These data show that EoRab11a possesses GTP hydrolysis activity and may participate in vesicle transport events during phagocytosis of E. octocarinatus.

  17. A New Semi-Analytical On-Hugoniot EOS of Materials with Known Shock Velocity Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Kadono, Toshihiko

    2011-06-01

    Accurate equation of state (EOS) is essential for understanding a variety of geologic processes associated with shock compression of materials. A number of highly sophisticated EOS's have been proposed (e.g., MANEOS and SESAME), covering a wide range of P-T conditions. However, they are complex and require many model parameters. Also, there are many occasions when only terminal thermodynamic variables after adiabatic decompression are needed. For example, when the terminal molecular composition of an impact-induced vapor is necessary, only the initial entropy gain and chemical reaction processes under low-P-T conditions need to be calculated. Then, only an on-Hugoniot EOS and a low-P-T EOS are necessary. To meet such demand, we derive a new semi-analytical on-Hugoniot EOS, which requires only the Hugoniot shock velocity parameters and specific heat. Comparison with experimental data indicates that this EOS can reproduce on-Hugoniot entropy and temperature of ice and quartz very well, despite of its small number of model parameters. Our new EOS will be useful for studying chemical reactions in shock-induced vapor plumes.

  18. Earth observing system. Data and information system. Volume 2A: Report of the EOS Data Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with a rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an Earth Observing System data and information system that can evolve to meet the Earth Observing System's needs in the 1990s. The Earth Observing System (Eos), defined by the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, consists of a suite of instruments in low Earth orbit acquiring measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior; an information system to support scientific research; and a vigorous program of scientific research, stressing study of global-scale processes that shape and influence the Earth as a system. The Eos data and information system is conceived as a complete research information system that would transcend the traditional mission data system, and include additional capabilties such as maintaining long-term, time-series data bases and providing access by Eos researchers to relevant non-Eos data. The Working Group recommends that the Eos data and information system be initiated now, with existing data, and that the system evolve into one that can meet the intensive research and data needs that will exist when Eos spacecraft are returning data in the 1990s.

  19. Evaluating Length: The Use of Low-dose Biplanar Radiography (EOS) and Tantalum Bead Implantation.

    PubMed

    Garner, Matthew R; Dow, Matthew; Bixby, Elise; Mintz, Doug N; Widmann, Roger F; Dodwell, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Low-dose biplanar radiography (EOS) is an appealing imaging modality for use in children given its low radiation and ease of use. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of EOS compared with CT scanogram for measurement of leg length and to assess interrater and intrarater reliability of measured interbead distances for EOS and CT scanogram after insertion of tantalum beads into lamb femurs. Tantalum beads (0.8 mm) were inserted into the cortex on both the medial and lateral sides of 10 skeletally immature lamb femurs. CT scanogram and EOS imaging were obtained. Measurements of total length and distance between bead pairs were recorded on anteroposterior and lateral views by 2 orthopaedic surgeons on 2 separate occasions. Pearson correlations were performed for statistical comparisons. EOS measurements showed near-perfect correlation to those of CT scanogram (r>0.96, P<0.001). Intrarater reliability was excellent for all measurements with EOS (r>0.98, P<0.001) and CT scanogram (r>0.99, P<0.001) as was interrater reliability for EOS (r>0.98, P<0.001) and CT scanogram (r>0.99, P<0.001). EOS is comparable with CT scanogram in the assessment of limb length and the distance between 2 radiopaque markers. Reliability was excellent for all measurements. The combination of EOS imaging and tantalum bead implantation may be an effective way to evaluate physeal growth following procedures such as epiphysiodesis and physeal bar resection. Level II—diagnostic

  20. Eos Negatively Regulates Human γ-globin Gene Transcription during Erythroid Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai-Chuan; Zhao, Hua-Lu; Wu, Zhi-Kui; Zhang, Jun-Wu

    2011-01-01

    Background Human globin gene expression is precisely regulated by a complicated network of transcription factors and chromatin modifying activities during development and erythropoiesis. Eos (Ikaros family zinc finger 4, IKZF4), a member of the zinc finger transcription factor Ikaros family, plays a pivotal role as a repressor of gene expression. The aim of this study was to examine the role of Eos in globin gene regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR detected a gradual decrease in Eos expression during erythroid differentiation of hemin-induced K562 cells and Epo-induced CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HPCs). DNA transfection and lentivirus-mediated gene transfer demonstrated that the enforced expression of Eos significantly represses the expression of γ-globin, but not other globin genes, in K562 cells and CD34+ HPCs. Consistent with a direct role of Eos in globin gene regulation, chromatin immunoprecipitaion and dual-luciferase reporter assays identified three discrete sites located in the DNase I hypersensitivity site 3 (HS3) of the β-globin locus control region (LCR), the promoter regions of the Gγ- and Aγ- globin genes, as functional binding sites of Eos protein. A chromosome conformation capture (3C) assay indicated that Eos may repress the interaction between the LCR and the γ-globin gene promoter. In addition, erythroid differentiation was inhibited by enforced expression of Eos in K562 cells and CD34+ HPCs. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that Eos plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of the γ-globin gene during erythroid differentiation. PMID:21829552

  1. Eos negatively regulates human γ-globin gene transcription during erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Chuan; Zhao, Hua-Lu; Wu, Zhi-Kui; Zhang, Jun-Wu

    2011-01-01

    Human globin gene expression is precisely regulated by a complicated network of transcription factors and chromatin modifying activities during development and erythropoiesis. Eos (Ikaros family zinc finger 4, IKZF4), a member of the zinc finger transcription factor Ikaros family, plays a pivotal role as a repressor of gene expression. The aim of this study was to examine the role of Eos in globin gene regulation. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR detected a gradual decrease in Eos expression during erythroid differentiation of hemin-induced K562 cells and Epo-induced CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HPCs). DNA transfection and lentivirus-mediated gene transfer demonstrated that the enforced expression of Eos significantly represses the expression of γ-globin, but not other globin genes, in K562 cells and CD34+ HPCs. Consistent with a direct role of Eos in globin gene regulation, chromatin immunoprecipitaion and dual-luciferase reporter assays identified three discrete sites located in the DNase I hypersensitivity site 3 (HS3) of the β-globin locus control region (LCR), the promoter regions of the Gγ- and Aγ- globin genes, as functional binding sites of Eos protein. A chromosome conformation capture (3C) assay indicated that Eos may repress the interaction between the LCR and the γ-globin gene promoter. In addition, erythroid differentiation was inhibited by enforced expression of Eos in K562 cells and CD34+ HPCs. Our results demonstrate that Eos plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of the γ-globin gene during erythroid differentiation.

  2. Space-shuttle interfaces/utilization. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The economic aspects of space shuttle application to a representative Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) operational mission in the various candidate Shuttle modes of launch, retrieval, and resupply are discussed. System maintenance of the same mission capability using a conventional launch vehicle is also considered. The studies are based on application of sophisticated Monte Carlo mission simulation program developed originally for studies of in-space servicing of a military satellite system. The program has been modified to permit evaluation of space shuttle application to low altitude EOS missions in all three modes. The conclusions generated by the EOS system study are developed.

  3. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 7: EOS system definition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design concept and operational aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are presented. A table of the planned EOS missions is included to show the purpose of the mission, the instruments involved, and the launch date. The subjects considered in the analysis of the EOS development are: (1) system requirements, (2) design/cost trade methodology, (3) observatory design alternatives, (4) the data management system, (5) the design evaluation and preferred approach, (6) program cost compilation, (7) follow-on mission accommodation, and (8) space shuttle interfaces and utilization. Illustrations and block diagrams of the spacecraft configurations are provided.

  4. Altered esophageal histamine receptor expression in Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE): implications on disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Merves, Jamie; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna Modayur; Benitez, Alain J; Muir, Amanda B; Lee, Anna J; Lim, Diana M; Dods, Kara; Mehta, Isha; Ruchelli, Eduardo D; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Spergel, Jonathan M; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic disorder, whose pathobiology is incompletely understood. Histamine-producing cells including mast cells and basophils have been implicated in EoE. However, very little is currently known about the role of histamine and histamine receptor (HR) expression and signaling in the esophageal epithelium. Herein, we characterized HR (H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R) expression in human esophageal biopsies and investigate the role of histamine signaling in inducible cytokine expression in human esophageal epithelial cells in vitro. HR expression was quantified in esophageal biopsies from non-EoE control (N = 23), inactive EoE (<15 eos/hpf, N = 26) and active EoE (>15 eos/hpf, N = 22) subjects using qRT-PCR and immunofluorescent localization. HR expression and histamine-mediated cytokine secretion were evaluated in human primary and telomerase-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells. H1R, H2R, and H4R expression were increased in active EoE biopsies compared to inactive EoE and controls. H2R was the most abundantly expressed receptor, and H3R expression was negligible in all 3 cohorts. Infiltrating eosinophils expressed H1R, H2R, and H4R, which contributed to the observed increase in HR in active subjects. H1R and H2R, but not H3R or H4R, were constitutively expressed by primary and immortalized cells, and epithelial histamine stimulation induced GM-CSF, TNFα, and IL-8, but not TSLP or eotaxin-3 secretion. Epithelial priming with the TLR3 ligand poly (I:C) induced H1R and H2R expression, and enhanced histamine-induced GM-CSF, TNFα, and IL-8 secretion. These effects were primarily suppressed by H1R antagonists, but unaffected by H2R antagonism. Histamine directly activates esophageal epithelial cytokine secretion in vitro in an H1R dependent fashion. However, H1R, H2R and H4R are induced in active inflammation in EoE in vivo. While systemic antihistamine (anti-H1R) therapy may not induce clinical remission in EoE, our study

  5. Molecular Solid EOS based on Quasi-Harmonic Oscillator approximation for phonons

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-02

    A complete equation of state (EOS) for a molecular solid is derived utilizing a Helmholtz free energy. Assuming that the solid is nonconducting, phonon excitations dominate the specific heat. Phonons are approximated as independent quasi-harmonic oscillators with vibrational frequencies depending on the specific volume. The model is suitable for calibrating an EOS based on isothermal compression data and infrared/Raman spectroscopy data from high pressure measurements utilizing a diamond anvil cell. In contrast to a Mie-Gruneisen EOS developed for an atomic solid, the specific heat and Gruneisen coefficient depend on both density and temperature.

  6. Validation of an instrument for measuring psychosocial and organisational work constraints detrimental to health among hospital workers: the NWI-EO questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bonneterre, Vincent; Ehlinger, Virginie; Balducci, Franck; Caroly, Sandrine; Jolivet, Anne; Sobaszek, Annie; de Gaudemaris, Régis; Lang, Thierry

    2011-05-01

    Quality of care, job satisfaction and the health of registered nurses (RNs) are associated with their exposure to psychosocial and organisational work factors (POWFs). To develop and validate an extended version of the Revised Nursing Work Index (NWI-R), the NWI-EO (Extended Organisation) tool specifically designed for occupational physicians and those involved in prevention programmes in healthcare institutions to assess the perception of POWFs, and then to determine priorities for preventive action to improve work organisation at the hospital staff level. The tool was validated in the ORSOSA study, a multicentre French cohort of RNs and NAs (n=4085) recruited in 214 work units of 7 French university hospitals. A total of 34 items (19 candidate items developed by a focus group and 15 items from the NWI-R) were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) based on a randomised split-half of the data. In addition, construct validity, test-retest reliability, internal consistency and concurrent validity were assessed. Response rate was 91%. Twenty-two items were selected (9 of the 15 NWI-R items and 13 of the 19 candidate items) by PCA, resulting in an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the common variance. The stability of the factorial structure of this 22-item NWI-EO questionnaire was confirmed by PCA on the other half-sample as well as by PCA on subgroups (age, gender, occupational group, specialty area, hospital). Reliability, assessed by internal consistency and test-retest, was satisfactory. Concurrent validity with two external measurements of organisational characteristics of work units was also observed. The NWI-EO was found to have good psychometric properties. Several POWFs accessible to prevention programmes can be evaluated with this tool: poor communication in the work unit, lack of support from senior nurses, inadequate staffing to perform duties, poor relationships between workers, frequency of interruptions during tasks, low level of

  7. NASA's Eos ClearingHOuse: Integrating Access to Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, M. T.; Pfister, R.; Wichman, K.

    2002-12-01

    ECHO (The Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) is being developed to provide flexibility to NASA's EOS to better meet the needs of the science community. ECHO is a clearinghouse of metadata, representing the data offerings of participating data providers. ECHO is being built with the goal of being an enabling system: Enabling a variety of Data Providers to participate. Enabling access to an ever-changing variety of Earth Science Data. Enabling access to an ever-growing suite of services, provided by the Science Community, which improves the usefulness of this data, including the binding of those services to the data represented in the clearinghouse. The purpose of this enabling philosophy is to support current Science efforts, but also to give the opportunity for creative organizations and individuals to break the traditional paradigm for discovering and leveraging Earth Science Data and Services in completely new ways. This presentation will focus on ECHO's approach to integrating Data Services from varied Service Providers, and facilitating access to those services by the user community. ECHO can be viewed as a typical Service oriented architecture. The fundamental interactions that it supports are (abstractly) Publish, Find and Bind. ECHO provides interfaces and mechanisms that allow organizations to publish their services. Using these interfaces, Service Providers can effectively "plug-in" their capabilities. There are mechanisms that allow the correlation of their service to the data types in the clearinghouse. ECHO's user community can find, or discover, services through a separate set of interfaces. Bindings are the mechanisms that support the invocation of services by ECHO's user community. ECHO supports binding either directly between the user and the service provider, or indirectly by using ECHO as a Service Broker. ECHO is supporting all of these Service capabilities by leveraging the contemporary (and evolving) "standards" of Web Services. Web

  8. Extended ecosystem signatures with application to Eos synergism requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, M. Craig; Sarabandi, Kamal

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective is to define the advantages of synergistically combining optical and microwave remote sensing measurements for the determination of biophysical properties important in ecosystem modeling. This objective was approached in a stepwise fashion starting with ground-based observations of controlled agricultural and orchard canopies and progressing to airborne observations of more natural forest ecosystems. This observational program is complemented by a parallel effort to model the visible reflectance and microwave scattering properties of composite vegetation canopies. The goals of the modeling studies are to verify our basic understanding of the sensor-scene interaction physics and to provide the basis for development of inverse models optimized for retrieval of key biophysical properties. These retrieval algorithms can then be used to simulate the expected performance of various aspects of Eos including the need for simultaneous SAR and HIRIS observations or justification for other (non-synchronous) relative timing constraints and the frequency, polarization, and angle of incidence requirements for accurate biophysical parameter extractions. This program completed a very successful series of truck-mounted experiments, made remarkable progress in development and validation of optical reflectance and microwave scattering models for vegetation, extended the scattering models to accommodate discontinuous and periodic canopies, developed inversion approaches for surface and canopy properties, and disseminated these results widely through symposia and journal publications. In addition, the third generation of the computer code for the microwave scattering models was provided to a number of other US, Canadian, Australian, and European investigators who are currently presenting and publishing results using the MIMICS research code.

  9. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  10. A High-Resolution Foreground Model for the MWA EoR1 Field: Model and Implications for EoR Power Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procopio, P.; Wayth, R. B.; Line, J.; Trott, C. M.; Intema, H. T.; Mitchell, D. A.; Pindor, B.; Riding, J.; Tingay, S. J.; Bell, M. E.; Callingham, J. R.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, Bi-Qing; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Morgan, J.; Offringa, A.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wu, Chen; Zheng, Q.

    2017-08-01

    The current generation of experiments aiming to detect the neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) is likely to be limited by systematic effects associated with removing foreground sources from target fields. In this paper, we develop a model for the compact foreground sources in one of the target fields of the MWA's EoR key science experiment: the `EoR1' field. The model is based on both the MWA's GLEAM survey and GMRT 150 MHz data from the TGSS survey, the latter providing higher angular resolution and better astrometric accuracy for compact sources than is available from the MWA alone. The model contains 5 049 sources, some of which have complicated morphology in MWA data, Fornax A being the most complex. The higher resolution data show that 13% of sources that appear point-like to the MWA have complicated morphology such as double and quad structure, with a typical separation of 33 arcsec. We derive an analytic expression for the error introduced into the EoR two-dimensional power spectrum due to peeling close double sources as single point sources and show that for the measured source properties, the error in the power spectrum is confined to high k ⊥ modes that do not affect the overall result for the large-scale cosmological signal of interest. The brightest 10 mis-modelled sources in the field contribute 90% of the power bias in the data, suggesting that it is most critical to improve the models of the brightest sources. With this hybrid model, we reprocess data from the EoR1 field and show a maximum of 8% improved calibration accuracy and a factor of two reduction in residual power in k-space from peeling these sources. Implications for future EoR experiments including the SKA are discussed in relation to the improvements obtained.

  11. Behaviour of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-nonylphenol ethoxylates (4-NP1EO, 4-NP2EO) in oxidative water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Lenz, K; Beck, V; Fuerhacker, M

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as natural and synthetic hormones or industrial chemicals can adversely affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. As such substances can be present in raw water used for drinking-water production, they potentially pose a health risk to humans. In this study laboratory tests were performed to determine removal efficiencies of selected oxidative drinking water treatment processes, namely ozonation (1.4 mg/l O3) and chlorination, using sodium hypochlorite (0.5 mg/l NaClO) and chlorine dioxide (0.4-0.6 mg/l ClO2) under conditions applied in technical plants. 500-300,000 ng/l of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-nonylphenol-n-ethoxylates (NPnEO) were selected for investigations and measured by HPLC/FLD and HPLC/MS. To investigate possible oxidation by-products, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were determined and estrogenic activities were assessed with the help of an estrogen receptor binding assay (YES). Ozonation and chlorination with ClO2 removed both 4-NP and BPA below detection limits, corresponding with AOX and estrogenic activity. Concerning NPnEO ozonation removed NP1EO and NP2EO up to 28% and 30%, respectively, whereas ClO2 showed high removal efficiencies, eliminating >94% and 92%, respectively. NaCIO removed 4-NP and BPA below detection limits, but estrogenic activities increased and AOX could be measured. NP1EO and NP2EO were only marginally reduced corresponding to the slight decrease of estrogenic potential.

  12. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  13. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  14. IFLA's Programme of ISBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    The article outlines the evolution, development, and current operational programme of the ISBD's (International Standard Bibliographic Description) within the framework of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations). (Author/JAB)

  15. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  16. EOS Aura Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP (Boulder, CO) April 13, 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.; Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation reflects EOS Aura mission status, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage, orbit maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment events, orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  17. EOS Aqua Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP April 13, 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reflects the EOS Aqua mission status, spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, orbital maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment high interest events, ground track error, spacecraft orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  18. Advanced E-O test capability for Army Next-Generation Automated Test System (NGATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, S.; Grigor, J.; King, D. F.; Matis, G.; McHugh, S.; McKechnie, J.; Nehring, B.

    2015-05-01

    The Future E-O (FEO) program was established to develop a flexible, modular, automated test capability as part of the Next Generation Automatic Test System (NGATS) program to support the test and diagnostic needs of currently fielded U.S. Army electro-optical (E-O) devices, as well as being expandable to address the requirements of future Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force E-O systems. Santa Barbara infrared (SBIR) has designed, fabricated, and delivered three (3) prototype FEO for engineering and logistics evaluation prior to anticipated full-scale production beginning in 2016. In addition to presenting a detailed overview of the FEO system hardware design, features and testing capabilities, the integration of SBIR's EO-IR sensor and laser test software package, IRWindows 4™, into FEO to automate the test execution, data collection and analysis, archiving and reporting of results is also described.

  19. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.; Glavich, T.; Rider, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an imaging infrared Fourier transform spectrometer scheduled to be launched into polar sun-synchronous orbit on the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM satellite in December 2002.

  20. Progress of Icelandic Lava Flows Charted by NASA EO-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-09

    On the night of Sept. 6, 2014 NASA Earth Observing 1 EO-1 spacecraft observed the ongoing eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland. Partially covered by clouds, this scene shows the extent of the lava flows that have been erupting.

  1. Eos mediates Foxp3-dependent gene silencing in CD4+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fan; Yu, Hong; Dang, Eric V; Barbi, Joseph; Pan, Xiaoyu; Grosso, Joseph F; Jinasena, Dinili; Sharma, Sudarshana M; McCadden, Erin M; Getnet, Derese; Drake, Charles G; Liu, Jun O; Ostrowski, Michael C; Pardoll, Drew M

    2009-08-28

    CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis by suppressing aberrant or excessive immune responses. The core genetic program of Tregs and their ability to suppress pathologic immune responses depends on the transcription factor Foxp3. Despite progress in understanding mechanisms of Foxp3-dependent gene activation, the molecular mechanism of Foxp3-dependent gene repression remains largely unknown. We identified Eos, a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Ikaros family, as a critical mediator of Foxp3-dependent gene silencing in Tregs. Eos interacts directly with Foxp3 and induces chromatin modifications that result in gene silencing in Tregs. Silencing of Eos in Tregs abrogates their ability to suppress immune responses and endows them with partial effector function, thus demonstrating the critical role that Eos plays in Treg programming.

  2. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  3. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  4. Bearings Only Tracking with Fusion from Heterogenous Passive Sensors: ESM/EO and Acoustic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    Bearings-Only Tracking with Fusion from Heterogenous Passive Sensors: ESM/EO and Acoustic Rong Yang, Gee Wah Ng DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science...moving or stationary platform. The two sensors are an ESM/EO with negligible propagation delay and an acoustic sensor with significant propagation...delay. Since target range information is contained in the acoustic propagation delay, the problem is therefore observable even when the platform is

  5. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  6. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  7. Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate (SLN) Based Linearized Electro-Optic (EO) Modulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    AFRL-SN-RS-TR-2006-15 Final Technical Report January 2006 STOICHIOMETRIC LITHIUM NIOBATE (SLN) BASED LINEARIZED ELECTRO - OPTIC (EO...LITHIUM NIOBATE (SLN) BASED LINEARIZED ELECTRO - OPTIC (EO) MODULATOR 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr Stuart Kingsley, Dr Sri Sriram 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C...SUBJECT TERMS electro - optic modulator, linearization, directional coupler, variable coupling, optical waveguide, Mach-Zehnder, photonic link, lithium

  8. Reliability and Reproducibility of Subject Positioning with EOS Low-Dose Biplanar X-ray.

    PubMed

    Goodbody, Christine; Kedem, Paz; Thompson, Michaela; Do, Huong T; Mintz, Douglas N; Widmann, Roger F; Dodwell, Emily R

    2017-10-01

    EOS low-dose biplanar X-ray used with tantalum bead implantation is an appealing imaging modality to evaluate limb length and physeal growth due its relatively low radiation exposure, excellent inter- and intra-observer reliability, and minimal magnification/shrinkage error. The purpose of this study was to establish the error in total length and inter-bead distances using EOS and tantalum beads due to variable positioning in the EOS gantry, by assessing variation in measurements made on the same subject repeatedly positioning by one positioner (intra-positioner measurement error) and variation in measurements made on the same subject with positioning by multiple positioners (inter-positioner measurement error). Tantalum bead markers were placed about the distal femoral physis of a cadaveric lamb femur. Three investigators positioned the femur in the EOS gantry 10 times, totaling 30 EOS scans. Total limb length and inter-bead distances were measured on AP and lateral views; mean and standard error were calculated. A random effects analysis of variance for nested data was used to determine the proportion of variation due to differences between positioners and differences between positioning by the same positioner. Intra-positioner measurement error ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 mm. Inter-positioner measurement error ranged from 0.00 to 0.09 mm. EOS has relatively low radiation and allows standing assessment of limb length and alignment. In this study, length measurements and inter-bead distances demonstrated minimal error due to positioning in the EOS gantry, documenting that there is minimal error from positioning, minimal magnification/shrinkage error, and exceptional inter and intra-rater reliability. EOS is the preferred method for length and angular measurements, and with tantalum beads, is ideal for measuring growth about the physis.

  9. Do CAS measurements correlate with EOS 3D alignment measurements in primary TKA?

    PubMed

    Meijer, Marrigje F; Boerboom, Alexander L; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Reininga, Inge H F; Stevens, Martin

    2016-02-25

    Objective of this study was to compare intraoperative computer-assisted surgery (CAS) alignment measurements during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with pre- and postoperative coronal alignment measurements using EOS 3D reconstructions. In a prospective study, 56 TKAs using imageless CAS were performed and coronal alignment measurements were recorded twice: before bone cuts were made and after implantation of the prosthesis. Pre- and postoperative coronal alignment measurements were performed using EOS 3D reconstructions. Thanks to the EOS radiostereography system, measurement errors due to malpositioning and deformity during acquisition are eliminated. CAS measurements were compared with EOS 3D reconstructions. Varus/valgus angle (VV), mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA) and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA) were measured. Significantly different VV angles were measured pre- and postoperatively with CAS compared to EOS. For preoperative measurements, mLDFA did not differ significantly, but a significantly larger mMPTA in valgus was measured with CAS. Results of this study indicate that differences in alignment measurements between CAS measurements and pre- and postoperative EOS 3D are due mainly to the difference between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing position and potential errors in validity and reliability of the CAS system. EOS 3D measurements overestimate VV angle in lower limbs with substantial mechanical axis deviation. For lower limbs with minor mechanical axis deviation as well as for mMPTA measurements, CAS measures more valgus than EOS. Eventually the results of this study are of clinical relevance, since it raises concerns regarding the validity and reliability of CAS systems in TKA. IIb.

  10. EOS suspension test for the assessment of spinal flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Caroline; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of spinal flexibility is essential for the planning of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Various radiographic methods have been used but none of them has shown any superiority. The new low-dose stereography system EOS (EOS imaging, Paris, France) captures whole body images in a single scan without vertical distortion. EOS is now used in routine clinical use for AIS follow-up. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and the reproducibility of a new suspension test during the EOS imaging for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. Fifty AIS patients scheduled for surgery were prospectively included. For each patient, a standard EOS radiograph was obtained, then a suspension test in the EOS and a classic traction test on the cotrel frame were performed. The examinations were compared in terms of radiation exposure, tolerance, mean traction force, and Cobb angle reduction for each curve. Axial and sagittal reductions during suspension were analyzed on three-dimensional EOS reconstructions. The tolerance of the suspension test was lower than the traction test but it was less operator dependent. Radiation exposure was 7 times lower during the suspension test. Cobb angle reductions achieved in the proximal and main curves by the two tests were similar. The traction test achieved greater reduction of the distal curve. Flexibility in the axial plane and in the sagittal plane was analyzed with the suspension test. The reduction in apical rotation was not correlated with the reduction in Cobb angle. The EOS suspension test can be used for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. It gives a global vision of the deformity with new flexibility indices in the axial and sagittal planes.

  11. Eos and the Youth: A Case of Inverted Roles in Rape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipla, Anthi

    This article examines scenes of Eos pursuing/abducting youths on 5th-century Athenian vases. Eos, the personification of Dawn, is the only woman assuming the role of a pursuer in rape. The theme strangely becomes very popular with vase painters to a degree comparable to ephebes pursuing a woman. The iconography of the scenes is systematically analysed and evaluated. All theories explaining the popularity of the theme from its presumable use as a parable for death are considered. Eos is moreover compared to other winged figures in pursuit that are popular in the same period, especially Sphinx and Eros. Conversely, it is illustrated how Eos' pursuits of youths are thoroughly coined on the same model as ephebe rape scenes. These may have been so popular because they expressed prevalent social notions about how women, like animals,would need subduing/taming by the ephebe, future citizen hunters, before they could assume their appropriate place in society. With Eos the hunter becomes the prey of a wild woman, who has transgressed the control limits set by the social system. Eos is promoted as the ultimate model of what a woman should not be.

  12. Flexibility analysis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on side-bending images using the EOS imaging system.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, C; Ilharreborde, B; Mazda, K

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of preoperative flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is essential to classify the curves, determine their structurality, and select the fusion levels during preoperative planning. Side-bending x-rays are the gold standard for the analysis of preoperative flexibility. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and performance of side-bending images taken in the standing position using the EOS imaging system. All patients who underwent preoperative assessment between April 2012 and January 2013 for AIS were prospectively included in the study. The work-up included standing AP and lateral EOS x-rays of the spine, standard side-bending x-rays in the supine position, and standing bending x-rays in the EOS booth. The irradiation dose was measured for each of the tests. Two-dimensional reducibility of the Cobb angle was measured on both types of bending x-rays. The results were based on the 50 patients in the study. No significant difference was demonstrated for reducibility of the Cobb angle between the standing side-bending images with the EOS imaging system and those in the supine position for all types of Lenke deformation. The irradiation dose was five times lower during the EOS bending imaging. The standing side-bending images in the EOS device contributed the same results as the supine images, with five times less irradiation. They should therefore be used in clinical routine. 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Applications of NASA EOS Data in Policy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilruth, P.; Kalluri, S.; Bergman, R.; Plante, R.

    2002-05-01

    Under a contract with NASA, Raytheon and its university partners are exploring policy relevant applications of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) data. Two case studies of these applications are presented, along with a summary of lessons learned with the goal of improving program administration. Two of 11 Synergy projects, or InfoMarts, are presented. The first deals with the use of Landsat data for estimating evapotranspiration within the Snake River Basin, and the second addresses applications in range management in the Southwest using Landsat and MODIS data. All eleven InfoMarts are developing and implementing self-sustainability plans. The objective is to formulate a strategy for achieving sustainability in 5 years or less. Self-sustainability models proposed by our partners vary widely and are influenced by several factors, including the institutional linkage to the university system where they are based, whether the university is a land-grant institution, etc. In any institutional setting, a good understanding of user needs tends to shorten the cycle of the sustainability model development. We suggest that it is possible to further accelerate the time frame for establishing sustainable use of NASA products by encouraging our InfoMart partners to adapt to a rigorous schedule of contract deliverables and reporting. For example, the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) has the responsibility of monitoring water usage in order to sustain the availability of water in a dry climate. IDWR has accelerated the conversion from traditional, labor-intensive field data collection to a more efficient monitoring program through the use of NASA data, based on a water balance model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL). Project authorities claim that the normal time for introduction and adoption of new technology at IDWR is at least 5 years. During the Synergy program, the time to adoption has been reduced to about 3-4 years due to project authorities

  14. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  15. A high reliability survey of discrete Epoch of Reionization foreground sources in the MWA EoR0 field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, P. A.; Line, J.; Morales, M. F.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Jacobs, D. C.; Pober, J. C.; Sullivan, I. S.; Webster, R. L.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, J. S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Sethi, S. K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-10-01

    Detection of the epoch of reionization H I signal requires a precise understanding of the intervening galaxies and AGN, both for instrumental calibration and foreground removal. We present a catalogue of 7394 extragalactic sources at 182 MHz detected in the RA = 0 field of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization observation programme. Motivated by unprecedented requirements for precision and reliability we develop new methods for source finding and selection. We apply machine learning methods to self-consistently classify the relative reliability of 9490 source candidates. A subset of 7466 are selected based on reliability class and signal-to-noise ratio criteria. These are statistically cross-matched to four other radio surveys using both position and flux density information. We find 7369 sources to have confident matches, including 90 partially resolved sources that split into a total of 192 sub-components. An additional 25 unmatched sources are included as new radio detections. The catalogue sources have a median spectral index of -0.85. Spectral flattening is seen towards lower frequencies with a median of -0.71 predicted at 182 MHz. The astrometric error is 7 arcsec compared to a 2.3 arcmin beam FWHM. The resulting catalogue covers ˜1400 deg2 and is complete to approximately 80 mJy within half beam power. This provides the most reliable discrete source sky model available to date in the MWA EoR0 field for precision foreground subtraction.

  16. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Delivering on the Dream, Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Johnson, Patricia; Case, Warren F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the successful operations of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites over the past 10 years and the plans for the future. Excellent operations performance has been a key factor in the overall success of EOS. The EOS Program was conceived in the 1980s and began to take shape in the early 1990s. EOS consists of a series of satellites that study the Earth as an interrelated system. It began with the launch of Terra in December 1999, followed by Aqua in May 2002, and Aura in July 2004. A key EOS goal is to provide a long-term continuous data set to enable the science community to develop a better understanding of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes and their interactions. EOS has produced unprecedented amounts of data which are used all over the world free of charge. Mission operations have resulted in data recovery for Terra, Aqua, and Aura that have consistently exceeded mission requirements. The paper describes the ground systems and organizations that control the EOS satellites, capture the raw data, and distribute the processed science data sets. The paper further describes how operations have evolved since 1999. Examples of this evolution include (a) the implementation of new mission safety requirements for orbital debris monitoring; (b) technology upgrades to keep facilities at the state of the art; (c) enhancements to meet changing security requirements; and (d) operations management of the 2 international Earth Observing Constellations of 11 satellites known as the "Morning Constellation" and the "A-Train". The paper concludes with a view into the future based on the latest spacecraft status, lifetime projections, and mission plans.

  17. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Delivering on the Dream, Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Johnson, Patricia; Case, Warren F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the successful operations of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites over the past 10 years and the plans for the future. Excellent operations performance has been a key factor in the overall success of EOS. The EOS Program was conceived in the 1980s and began to take shape in the early 1990s. EOS consists of a series of satellites that study the Earth as an interrelated system. It began with the launch of Terra in December 1999, followed by Aqua in May 2002, and Aura in July 2004. A key EOS goal is to provide a long-term continuous data set to enable the science community to develop a better understanding of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes and their interactions. EOS has produced unprecedented amounts of data which are used all over the world free of charge. Mission operations have resulted in data recovery for Terra, Aqua, and Aura that have consistently exceeded mission requirements. The paper describes the ground systems and organizations that control the EOS satellites, capture the raw data, and distribute the processed science data sets. The paper further describes how operations have evolved since 1999. Examples of this evolution include (a) the implementation of new mission safety requirements for orbital debris monitoring; (b) technology upgrades to keep facilities at the state of the art; (c) enhancements to meet changing security requirements; and (d) operations management of the 2 international Earth Observing Constellations of 11 satellites known as the "Morning Constellation" and the "A-Train". The paper concludes with a view into the future based on the latest spacecraft status, lifetime projections, and mission plans.

  18. State Agency Applications of EOS Data in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.

    2001-05-01

    Texas offers a good model for the introduction of remotely sensed data products into the daily operations of state agencies by virtue of its large size and population. The diversity of the Texas landscape coupled with the long distances traveled to perform site inspections place special burdens on the land resource agencies responsible for monitoring crop conditions, water availability, environmental hazards and other natural resource issues. To assist these agencies, the Texas Synergy team has adopted a two-phase approach that incorporates framework geospatial data products designed for the broad user community with remote sensing applications developed for user-specific analyses. A key element to the success of the effort is the development of remote sensing products within a Texas Reference Frame that corresponds to the components of the high-resolution National Spatial Data Infrastructure developed by the state, such as 1-meter CIR digital orthophotographs, digital elevation models, and vector layers for hypsography, hydrography, soils, transportation and boundaries. Users accustomed to working with NSDI products can easily begin to include recently-collected EOS data presented within the same reference frame. Examples of statewide data products made available through the Texas Synergy project are AVHRR NDVI and MODIS imagery, Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes and SPOT 10-meter panchromatic image tiles. Delivery of the products involves a number of mechanisms from CD distribution to Internet FTP downloads, but increasingly relies upon Internet map services, such as ESRI's ArcIMS. Beyond release of the base imagery products, the Texas Synergy team has worked with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Texas Soil and Water Conservation Board, Texas Department of Agriculture, Texas Water Development Board, National Park Service and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service on a wide range of data applications. Throughout 1999-2000, the magnitude of drought conditions was

  19. An Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip; Quaife, Tristan; Kaminski, Tomas; Styles, Jon

    2013-04-01

    In order to monitor the land surface, EO data provides the means of achieving global coverage in a timely fashion. Different sensors orbit the Earth acquiring data at different times and with different spectral and spatial properties. Blending all these observations presents a considerable challenge. Purely statistical methods based on machine learning techniques require accurate and extensive ground truth for "training" models. The complexities of the processes that take place in the scene result in limited usefulness of these models outside their training region or period. Models that describe the physical processes that give rise to the measurements, based on radiative transfer theory, offer a more robust way of interpreting the recorded data and relating it to surface properties such as leaf area index, chlorophyll concentration, etc. Unfortunately, the information content in the signals is rarely sufficient to unambigously determine the many parameters that are required in typical radiative transfer models. To improve on this, the use of prior information is required. Typically, this information is given as parameter ranges, or maybe even distributions, which can have a positive effect in the so-called "inverse problem". Data assimilation techniques allow one to use models of the land surface as priors, to constrain the inverse problem. These models can be very useful in improving the ability of inverting the observations, as the models can give very valuable information on the dynamics of some parameters, like LAI. However, some parameters that have a strong bearing on the observations (some pigments, leaf angle distributions...) have no analogues in typical DGVMs. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate the use of weak constraint 4DVAR data assimilation to the problem of inverting optical RT models. We demonstrate that the use of this technique results in important gains in parameter uncertainty reduction for a typical satellite mission, including

  20. Spatial resolution enhancement of EO-1 ALI bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2006-09-01

    spectral characteristics, they do not take into account the resolution ratio of the input images. Usually the spatial resolution of the panchromatic image is two (Landsat 7, Spot 1-4) or four times (Ikonos, Quickbird) better than the size of the multispectral images. This paper is an attempt to fuse high-resolution panchromatic and low-resolution multispectral bands of the EO-1 ALI sensor. ALI collects nine multispectral bands with 30m resolution and a panchromatic band with 3 times better resolution (10m). ALI has a panchromatic band narrower than the respective band of Landsat7. It has also two narrower bands in the spectral range of Landsat7 band 4. It has also an extra narrower band near the spectral range of Landsat7 band 1. In this study we compare the efficiency of seven fusion techniques and more especially the efficiency of Gram Schmidt, Modified IHS, PCA, Pansharp, Wavelet and LMM (Local Mean Matching) LMVM (Local Mean and Variance Matching) fusion techniques for the fusion of ALI data. Two ALI images collected over the same area have been used. In order to quantitatively measure the quality of the fused images we have made the following controls: Firstly, we have examined the optical qualitative result. Then, we examined the correlation between the original multispectral and the fused images and all the statistical parameters of the histograms of the various frequency bands. All the fusion techniques improve the resolution and the optical result. In contrary to the fusion of other data (ETM, Spot5, Ikonos and Quickbird) all the algorithms provoke small changes to the statistical parameters.

  1. Rejuvenation of agriculture in India: Cost benefits in using EO products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, V.; Parihar, J. S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2008-07-01

    India is looking for rejuvenating its sagging agricultural production and productivity by integrating high technology space inputs for both irrigated and rainfed areas. The Earth Observations (EO) products today serve as major inputs to policy, planning and targeted interventions, contributing to building social capitals, natural resources assets and environmental gains on the long-term basis. The benefits are mostly indirect and often difficult to quantify in terms of money. The cost benefit analysis of EO products is therefore an involved exercise and not many examples exist globally. The present paper, taking into account major national as well as some local level agriprojects in India, highlights the criticality of EO products in terms of their short-term as well as long-term economic and social values. Three aspects viz., catalytic, timeliness and enabling have been analyzed to visualize the role of EO products in a holistic fashion. In the catalytic role, EO inputs have been found to play a role in the successful implementation of major natural resources development projects. The cost of EO inputs may be of less than 2-5% to the total cost of the development projects, but the nature of such inputs are critical and catalytic. For example, a major project on reclamation of around 0.6 Mha sodic soils in Indo-Gangetic Plans costs US89 million where EO products costs less than 2%; but demonstrates their catalytic roles in terms of identification, monitoring and evaluation and as inputs to mid-course corrections. The second aspect is timeliness in terms of opportunity cost. In India, Forecasting Agricultural Output Using Space-borne, Agro-meteorological and Land Observations (FASAL) project is carried out for in-season multiple crop production forecasting in support of strategic decision on trade, price and procurements. In the past, timely forecasts from FASAL have been found to be accurate and helpful for the country to plan many of its activities, including

  2. Comparison of 3-dimensional spinal reconstruction accuracy: biplanar radiographs with EOS versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Diana A; Doan, Josh; Newton, Peter O

    2012-07-15

    Experimental study for systematic evaluation of 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from low-dose digital stereoradiography. To assess the accuracy of EOS (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions compared with 3D computed tomography (CT) and the effect spine positioning within the EOS unit has on reconstruction accuracy. Scoliosis is a 3D deformity, but 3D morphological analyses are still rare. A new low-dose radiation digital stereoradiography system (EOS) was previously evaluated for intra/interobserver variability, but data are limited for 3D reconstruction accuracy. Three synthetic scoliotic phantoms (T1-pelvis) were scanned in upright position at 0°, ±5°, and ±10° of axial rotation within EOS and in supine position using CT. Three-dimensional EOS reconstructions were superimposed on corresponding 3D computed tomographic reconstructions. Shape, position, and orientation accuracy were assessed for each vertebra and the entire spine. Additional routine planer clinical deformity measurements were compared: Cobb angle, kyphosis, lordosis, and pelvic incidence. Mean EOS vertebral body shape accuracy was 1.1 ± 0.2 mm (maximum 4.7 mm), with 95% confidence interval of 1.7 mm. Different anatomical vertebral regions were modeled well with root-mean-square (RMS) values from 1.2 to 1.6 mm. Position and orientation accuracy of each vertebra were high: RMS offset was 1.2 mm (maximum 3.7 mm) and RMS axial rotation was 1.9° (maximum 5.8°). There was no significant difference in each of the analyzed parameters (P > 0.05) associated with varying the rotational position of the phantoms in EOS machine. Planer measurements accuracy was less than 1° mean difference for pelvic incidence, Cobb angle (mean 1.6°/maximum 3.9°), and sagittal kyphosis (mean less than 1°, maximum 4.9°). The EOS image acquisition and reconstruction software provides accurate 3D spinal representations of scoliotic spinal deformities. The results of this study provide spinal

  3. Aspects of detection and tracking of ground targets from an airborne EO/IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bhashyam; Sithiravel, Rajiv; Daya, Zahir; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam

    2015-05-01

    An airborne EO/IR (electro-optical/infrared) camera system comprises of a suite of sensors, such as a narrow and wide field of view (FOV) EO and mid-wave IR sensors. EO/IR camera systems are regularly employed on military and search and rescue aircrafts. The EO/IR system can be used to detect and identify objects rapidly in daylight and at night, often with superior performance in challenging conditions such as fog. There exist several algorithms for detecting potential targets in the bearing elevation grid. The nonlinear filtering problem is one of estimation of the kinematic parameters from bearing and elevation measurements from a moving platform. In this paper, we developed a complete model for the state of a target as detected by an airborne EO/IR system and simulated a typical scenario with single target with 1 or 2 airborne sensors. We have demonstrated the ability to track the target with `high precision' and noted the improvement from using two sensors on a single platform or on separate platforms. The performance of the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) is investigated on simulated data. Image/video data collected from an IR sensor on an airborne platform are processed using an image tracking by detection algorithm.

  4. AFDM: An advanced fluid-dynamics model. Volume 6: EOS-AFDM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Henneges, G.; Kleinheins, S.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) documents the modeling of the equation of state (EOS) in the code. The authors present an overview of the basic concepts underlying the thermodynamics modeling and resulting EOS, which is a set of relations between the thermodynamic properties of materials. The AFDM code allows for multiphase-multimaterial systems, which they explore in three phase models: two-material solid, two-material liquid, and three-material vapor. They describe and compare two ways of specifying the EOS of materials: (1) as simplified analytic expressions, or (2) as tables that precisely describe the properties of materials and their interactions for mechanical equilibrium. Either of the two EOS models implemented in AFDM can be selected by specifying the option when preprocessing the source code for compilation. Last, the authors determine thermophysical properties such as surface tension, thermal conductivities, and viscosities in the model for the intracell exchanges of AFDM. Specific notations, routines, EOS data, plots, test results, and corrections to the code are available in the appendices.

  5. Integrating ground-based EO data in satellite-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.V.; Daugherty, P.; Yow, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    Earth observation (EO) and other forms of geo-referenced data are typically thought of as being ``satellite data.`` It is true that the majority of EO data are satellite oriented; thus, most on-line EO data systems are designed primarily for satellite image data. However, there is A small but significant minority of EO data that is not satellite image data; i.e., it is ground-based or terrestrial data Unfortunately, many on-line systems designed for satellite data do not take into account the somewhat different nature of associated ground-based data, Data queries that work most of the time but fail because the system has not taken into account less common data are not robust enough for today`s users. In order to avoid embarrassing problems, EO system designers must be aware of the nature of ground- based data. In this paper we describe some of our insights on this subject in the hope that the designers of other systems may learn from our experience.

  6. Eos, MITF, and PU.1 recruit corepressors to osteoclast-specific genes in committed myeloid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Sharma, Sudarshana M; Bronisz, Agnieszka; Srinivasan, Ruchika; Sankar, Uma; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2007-06-01

    Transcription factors MITF and PU.1 collaborate to increase expression of target genes like cathepsin K (Ctsk) and acid phosphatase 5 (Acp5) during osteoclast differentiation. We show that these factors can also repress transcription of target genes in committed myeloid precursors capable of forming either macrophages or osteoclasts. The direct interaction of MITF and PU.1 with the zinc finger protein Eos, an Ikaros family member, was necessary for repression of Ctsk and Acp5. Eos formed a complex with MITF and PU.1 at target gene promoters and suppressed transcription through recruitment of corepressors CtBP (C-terminal binding protein) and Sin3A, but during osteoclast differentiation, Eos association with Ctsk and Acp5 promoters was significantly decreased. Subsequently, MITF and PU.1 recruited coactivators to these target genes, resulting in robust expression of target genes. Overexpression of Eos in bone marrow-derived precursors disrupted osteoclast differentiation and selectively repressed transcription of MITF/PU.1 targets, while small interfering RNA knockdown of Eos resulted in increased basal expression of Ctsk and Acp5. This work provides a mechanism to account for the modulation of MITF and PU.1 activity in committed myeloid progenitors prior to the initiation of osteoclast differentiation in response to the appropriate extracellular signals.

  7. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  8. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  9. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  10. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  11. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  12. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  13. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  14. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  15. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  16. Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

    The Farmers Training and Functional Literacy Programme, initiated by the government of India in 1968, was an effort to translate into practice the concept of linking education (not only vocational training) to development, particularly for increasing production. The project, a joint enterprise of three government ministries, provides participating…

  17. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  18. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  19. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  20. Status of Current and Future Remote Sensing with EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing-One (EO-1) satellite, launched in November of 2000, will complete six full years of operation near the end of this year. Observations from the Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer on board EO-1 have contributed to over 300 papers in refereed journals, conference proceeds and other presentations. Hyperion has been used to study a variety of natural and anthropogenic phenomena including hazards and catastrophes, agricultural health and productivity, ecological disturbance/development, and land use/land cover change. As an example, Hyperion has been used in hazard and catastrophe studies to monitor and assess effects of tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mudslides, tornadoes, hurricanes, wild-fires (natural and human ignited), oil spills, and the aftermath of world trade center bombing. This presentation summarizes the current status of EO-1 Hyperion in terms of key scientific findings to date and future plans for operation of this instrument through 2007.

  1. EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.

  2. Polystyrene Foam EOS as a Function of Porosity and Fill Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulford, Roberta; Swift, Damian

    2009-06-01

    An accurate EOS for polystyrene foam is necessary for analysis of numerous experiments in shock compression, inertial confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Plastic to gas ratios vary between various samples of foam, according to the density and cell-size of the foam. A matrix of compositions has been investigated, allowing prediction of foam response as a function of the plastic-to-air ratio. The EOS code CHEETAH allows participation of the air in the decomposition reaction of the foam, Differences between air-filled, nitrogen-blown, and CO2-blown foams are investigated, to estimate the importance of allowing air to react with plastic products during decomposition. Results differ somewhat from the conventional EOS, which are generated from values for plastic extrapolated to low densities.

  3. Payload accommodations on future environmental sensing spacecraft: lessons learned from EOS and the future with NPOESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, Leopold J.; Coyle, Kellie A.

    2005-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) spacecraft design is based on the Northrop Grumman T430 that has legacy to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Aura. The EOS conceived and was structured to achieve cost/schedule savings over multiple builds by adhering to rigorous requirements and minimizing changes to accommodate instruments. The larger sized NPOESS bus has been enhanced to support 14 or more sensors in common locations for the 3 NPOESS orbit planes. Spacecraft deck space and other spacecraft resources such as mass, power and data accommodation have been reserved for "Instruments of Opportunity" that may be selected and inserted into the baseline mission schedule at later dates. This poster will examine the EOS lessons learned from Aqua and Aura and report on the progress of the pre-planned product improvement (P3I) payload accommodations for NPOESS.

  4. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  5. Status of Current and Future Remote Sensing with EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing-One (EO-1) satellite, launched in November of 2000, will complete six full years of operation near the end of this year. Observations from the Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer on board EO-1 have contributed to over 300 papers in refereed journals, conference proceeds and other presentations. Hyperion has been used to study a variety of natural and anthropogenic phenomena including hazards and catastrophes, agricultural health and productivity, ecological disturbance/development, and land use/land cover change. As an example, Hyperion has been used in hazard and catastrophe studies to monitor and assess effects of tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mudslides, tornadoes, hurricanes, wild-fires (natural and human ignited), oil spills, and the aftermath of world trade center bombing. This presentation summarizes the current status of EO-1 Hyperion in terms of key scientific findings to date and future plans for operation of this instrument through 2007.

  6. An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcada, E.; Albani, M.; Beruti, V.

    2009-04-01

    The need for accessing historical Earth Observation (EO) data series strongly increased in the last ten years, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. This trend is likely to increase even more in the future in particular for the growing interest on global change monitoring that requires data time-series spanning 20 years and more, and for the need to support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Content of EO data archives is extending from a few years to decades and their scientific value is continuously increasing hence is well recognized the need to preserve them without time limitation and to keep the archived EO data well accessible and exploitable as they constitute a humankind asset. The large amount of new Earth Observation missions upcoming in the next years will moreover lead to a major increase of EO data volumes. This fact, together with the increased demands from the scientific user community, marks a challenge for Earth Observation satellite operators, Space Agencies and EO data providers regarding coherent data preservation and optimum availability and accessibility of the different data products. Traditionally in Europe, there has been poor cooperation in this field with no common approach for long term preservation and access to EO space data even if cooperation and sharing are key aspects to be pursued for the benefit of the user community. Single organizations have difficulties to afford data preservation in the long term that calls for the need of optimising costs and efforts, identifying commonalities. In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated a coordination action to share among all the European (and Canadian) stakeholders a common approach to the long term preservation of Earth Observation data. During 2007, the Agency started consultations with its Member States presenting an EO Long Term Data Preservation (LTDP) strategy targeting the preservation of all European

  7. Point Response Characteristics for the CERES/EOS-PM, FM3 & FM4 instruments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paden, Jack; Smith, G. Louis; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the point source functions (PSF s) of the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES,) Earth Observing System (EOS,) afternoon platform (PM,) Flight Model 3 (FM3,) and Flight Model 4 (FM4) scanning instruments. The PSF (also known as the Point Response Function, or PRF) is vital to the accurate geo-location of the remotely sensed radiance measurements acquired by the instrument. This paper compares the characteristics of the FM3 and FM4 instruments with the earlier Proto Flight Model (PFM) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) platform, and the FM1 and FM2 Models on the EOS morning orbiting (AM) platform, which has recently been renamed "Terra". All of the PSF s were found to be quite comparable, and the previously noted "spreading" characteristic of the window (water vapor) channel PSF is analyzed Keywords: PSF, PRF, CERES, TRMM, EOS, Earth Radiation Budget

  8. Earth Observing System (EOS) Communication (Ecom) Modeling, Analysis, and Testbed (EMAT) activiy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Vishal

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Earth Observing System (EOS) Communication (Ecom) Modeling, Analysis, and Testbed (EMAT) activity performed by Code 540 in support of the Ecom project. Ecom is the ground-to-ground data transport system for operational EOS traffic. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) Communications (Nascom) Division, Code 540, is responsible for implementing Ecom. Ecom interfaces with various systems to transport EOS forward link commands, return link telemetry, and science payload data. To understand the complexities surrounding the design and implementation of Ecom, it is necessary that sufficient testbedding, modeling, and analysis be conducted prior to the design phase. These activities, when grouped, are referred to as the EMAT activity. This paper describes work accomplished to date in each of the three major EMAT activities: modeling, analysis, and testbedding.

  9. EOS low-dose radiography: a reliable and accurate upright assessment of lower-limb lengths.

    PubMed

    Escott, Benjamin G; Ravi, Bheeshma; Weathermon, Adam C; Acharya, Jay; Gordon, Christopher L; Babyn, Paul S; Kelley, Simon P; Narayanan, Unni G

    2013-12-04

    Children with lower-limb-length discrepancy require repeated radiographic assessment for monitoring and as a guide for management. The need for accurate assessment of length and alignment is balanced by the need to minimize radiation exposure. We compared the accuracy, reliability, and radiation dose of EOS, a novel low-dose upright biplanar radiographic imaging system, at two different settings, with that of conventional radiographs (teleoroentgenograms) and computed tomography (CT) scanograms, for the assessment of limb length. A phantom limb in a standardized position was assessed ten times with each of four different imaging modalities (conventional radiographs, CT scanograms, EOS-Slow, EOS-Fast). A radiation dosimeter was placed on the phantom limb, on a portion closest to the radiation source for each modality, in order to measure skin-entrance radiation dose. Standardized measurements of bone lengths were made on each image by consultant orthopaedic surgeons and residents and then were assessed for accuracy and reliability. The mean absolute difference from the true length of the femur was significantly lower (most accurate) for the EOS-Slow (2.6 mm; 0.5%) and EOS-Fast (3.6 mm; 0.8%) protocols as compared with CT scanograms (6.3 mm; 1.3%) (p < 0.0001), and conventional radiographs (42.2 mm; 8.8%) (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in accuracy between the EOS-Slow and EOS-Fast protocols (p = 0.48). The mean radiation dose was significantly lower for the EOS-Fast protocol (0.68 mrad; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.75 mrad) compared with the EOS-Slow protocol (13.52 mrad; 95% CI, 13.45 to 13.60 mrad) (p < 0.0001), CT scanograms (3.74 mrad; 95% CI, 3.67 to 3.82 mrad) (p < 0.0001), and conventional radiographs (29.01 mrad; 95% CI, 28.94 to 29.09 mrad) (p < 0.0001). Intraclass correlation coefficients showed excellent (>0.90) agreement for conventional radiographs, the EOS-Slow protocol, and the EOS-Fast protocol. Upright

  10. Project to Interface Climate Modeling on Global and Regional Scales with Earth Observing (EOS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This ten-year NASA IDS project began in 1990. Its initial work plan adopted the NASA provided timeline that data would become available for new Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms beginning in 1995. Over its first phase, it was based at NCAR, which had submitted the original proposal and involved activities of a substantial number of co-investigators at NCAR who engaged in research over several areas related to the observations expected to be received from the EOS platforms. Their focus was the theme of use of EOS data for improving climate models for projecting global change. From the climate system viewpoint, the IDS addressed land, clouds-hydrological cycle, radiative fluxes and especially aerosol impacts, ocean and sea-ice, and stratosphere. Other research addressed issues of data assimilation, diagnostic analyses, and data set development from current satellite systems, especially use of SAR data for climate models.

  11. Attitude Accuracy Study for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesikar, James D., II; Garrick, Joseph C.

    1996-01-01

    Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft will take measurements of the Earth's clouds, oceans, atmosphere, land, and radiation balance. These EOS spacecraft are part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mission to Planet Earth, and consist of several series of satellites, with each series specializing in a particular class of observations. This paper focuses on the EOS AM-1 spacecraft, which is the first of three satellites constituting the EOS AM series (morning equatorial crossing) and the initial spacecraft of the EOS program. EOS AM-1 has a stringent onboard attitude knowledge requirement, of 36/41/44 arc seconds (3 sigma) in yaw/roll/pitch, respectively. During normal mission operations, attitude is determined onboard using an extended Kalman sequential filter via measurements from two charge coupled device (CCD) star trackers, one Fine Sun Sensor, and an Inertial Rate Unit. The attitude determination error analysis system (ADEAS) was used to model the spacecraft and mission profile, and in a worst case scenario with only one star tracker in operation, the attitude uncertainty was 9.7/ll.5/12.2 arc seconds (3 sigma) in yaw/roll/pitch. The quoted result assumed the spacecraft was in nominal attitude, using only the 1-rotation per orbit motion of the spacecraft about the pitch axis for calibration of the gyro biases. Deviations from the nominal attitude would show greater attitude uncertainties, unless calibration maneuvers which roll and/or yaw the spacecraft have been performed. This permits computation of the gyro misalignments, and the attitude knowledge requirement would remain satisfied.

  12. Geometrical values of the normal and arthritic hip and knee detected with the EOS imaging system.

    PubMed

    Than, Peter; Szuper, Kinga; Somoskeöy, Szabolcs; Warta, Vilmos; Illés, Tamás

    2012-06-01

    EOS 2D/3D is an integrated, low-dose orthopedic digital radioimaging solution, which, due to its groundbreaking properties, has recently shown an increasing application in scoliosis surgery. Its integrated sterEOS 3D software allows creation of patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) lower limb models, and can produce geometrical parameters in 3D. Currently there are a limited number of reports on EOS for lower limb applications. Three-dimensional reconstructions of 256 hip and knee joints of 128 healthy subjects, as well as 53 hips and 46 knees of 69 patients with hip or knee arthritis, were evaluated based on orthogonal EOS two-dimensional (2D) images. Measurements for hips included femur and tibia length, total length of the extremity, femoral antetorsion and offset, femoral neck length, neck-shaft and hip-knee-shaft (HKS) angles. Lower limb alignment in both frontal and sagittal planes were determined in normal and arthritic knees. Values were compared with those obtained by standard methods published by others. Normal hip and knee geometrical parameters were found in our healthy subjects. In osteoarthritic cases, values for neck-shaft angle, femoral antetorsion, femur length and total length of the extremity were shown to decrease non-significantly. Evaluation of lower limb alignment in healthy and arthritic knees showed normal values in healthy subjects apart from three cases with an average six degrees varus. Arthritic knees were most frequently found to have a varus angulation, with the exception of 11 cases with normal or valgus alignment. EOS 2D/3D with its sterEOS 3D reconstruction is useful for a comprehensive 3D examination of the lower limb. In the near future it may be suitable for daily routine diagnostics of orthopedic lower limb deformities as a primary examination method.

  13. EOS(®) biplanar X-ray imaging: concept, developments, benefits, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Elias; Assi, Ayman; El Rachkidi, Rami; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-02-01

    In 1992, Georges Charpak invented a new type of X-ray detector, which in turn led to the development of the EOS(®) 2D/3D imaging system. This system takes simultaneous anteroposterior and lateral 2D images of the whole body and can be utilized to perform 3D reconstruction based on statistical models. The purpose of this review is to present the state of the art for this EOS(®) imaging technique, to report recent developments and advances in the technique, and to stress its benefits while also noting its limitations. The review was based on a thorough literature search on the subject as well as personal experience gained from many years of using the EOS(®) system. While EOS(®) imaging could be proposed for many applications, it is most useful in relation to scoliosis and sagittal balance, due to its ability to take simultaneous orthogonal images while the patient is standing, to perform 3D reconstruction, and to determine various relationships among adjacent segments (cervical spine, pelvis, and lower limbs). The technique has also been validated for the study of pelvic and lower-limb deformity and pathology in adult and pediatric populations; in such a study it has the advantage of allowing the measurement of torsional deformity, which classically requires a CT scan. The major advantages of EOS(®) are the relatively low dose of radiation (50-80 % less than conventional X-rays) that the patient receives and the possibility of obtaining a 3D reconstruction of the bones. However, this 3D reconstruction is not created automatically; a well-trained operator is required to generate it. The EOS(®) imaging technique has proven itself to be a very useful research and diagnostic tool.

  14. Leveraging community support for Education and Outreach: The IRIS E&O Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The IRIS E&O Program was initiated 10 years ago, some 15 years after the creation of the IRIS Consortium, as IRIS members increasingly recognized the fundamental need to communicate the results of scientific research more effectively and to attract more students to study Earth science. Since then, IRIS E&O has received core funding through successive 5-year cooperative agreements with NSF, based on proposals submitted by IRIS. While a small fraction of the overall Consortium budget, this consistent funding has allowed the development of strong, long-term elements within the E&O Program, including summer internships, IRIS/USGS museum displays, seismographs in schools, IRIS/SSA Distinguished Lecture series, and professional development for middle school and high school teachers. Reliable funding has allowed us to develop expertise in these areas due to the longevity of the programs and the continuous improvement resulting from ongoing evaluations. Support from Consortium members, including volunteering time and expertise, has been critical for the program, as the Consortium has to continually balance the value of E&O products versus equipment and data services for seismology research. The E&O program also provides service to the Consortium, such as PIs being able to count on and leverage IRIS resources when defining the broader impacts of their own research. The reliable base has made it possible to build on the core elements with focused and innovative proposals, allowing, for example, the expansion of our internship program into a full REU site. Developing collaborative proposals with other groups has been a key strategy where IRIS E&O's long-term viability can be combined with expertise from other organizations to develop new products and services. IRIS can offer to continue to reliably deliver and maintain products after the end of a 2-3 year funding cycle, which can greatly increase the reach of the project. Consortium backing has also allowed us to establish an

  15. Orbit/launch vehicle tradeoff studies. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) design, performance, and cost factors which affect the choices of an orbit and a launch vehicle is presented. Primary emphasis is given to low altitude (300 to 900 nautical miles) land resources management applications for which payload design factors are defined. The subjects considered are: (1) a mission model, (2) orbit analysis and characterization, (3) characteristics and capabilities of candidate conventional launch vehicles, and space shuttle support. Recommendations are submitted for the EOS-A mission, the Single Multispectral Scanner payload, the Single Multispectral Scanner plus Thematic Mapper payload, the Dual Multispectral Scanner payload, and the Dual Multispectral Scanner plus Thematic Mapper payload.

  16. Using EO-1 Hyperion Images to Prototype Environmental Products for Hyspiri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Zhang, Qingyuan; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Mandl, Daniel J.; Frye, Stuart W.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2010, the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite Mission will successfully complete a decade of Earth imaging by its two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments are serving as prototypes for new orbital sensors, and the EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German mission, EnMAP. We provide an overview of the mission's lifetime. We briefly describe calibration & validation activities and overview the technical and scientific accomplishments of this mission. Some examples of the Mission Science Office (MSO) products are provided, as is an example of a image collected for disaster monitoring.

  17. Capitalizing on Education and Outreach (E/O) Expertise to Broaden Impacts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girguis, P. R.; Herren, C.; Decharon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Academic scientists have a number of avenues through which they can participate in education and outreach (E/O) programs to address the mandate for broader impacts. As a principal investigator (PI) at an R1 institution, I (Girguis) have both developed and participated in a variety of E/O programs that span the spectrum from ad hoc groups (e.g. informal high school internships in my laboratory) to regional efforts (e.g. Harvard’s Microbial Science Initiative) and national organizations (e.g. RIDGE 2000; Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence, COSEE). Each of these E/O efforts required varying degrees of preparation and participation by my laboratory members (e.g. graduate students and postdoctoral researchers) and I, and yielded different outcomes and products. Ad hoc programs typically require a higher degree of effort on the part of the PI and have a high, though local, impact on the audience. These programs can be personally rewarding for the PI, who likely has played a major role in developing the program. In contrast, working with regional and national groups requires PIs to understand the nature of each program to successfully integrate within the existing structure. The net time and effort invested by scientists in larger-scale E/O efforts may be equal to that of ad hoc programs. However, interaction with high-quality program facilitators ensures that the outcomes are grounded in best educational practices and that outputs are educator-vetted, well maintained (online or through publications), and broadly disseminated. In addition, program facilitators also collect and analyze evaluation data to provide constructive feedback to PIs, enabling the latter to refine their presentation styles and content levels to improve future E/O efforts. Thus involvement with larger programs can effectively broaden one’s impact. During this presentation, we will present one scientist’s perspective on the advantages and limitations of these different modes of E/O

  18. Using EO-1 Hyperion Images to Prototype Environmental Products for Hyspiri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Zhang, Qingyuan; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Mandl, Daniel J.; Frye, Stuart W.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2010, the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite Mission will successfully complete a decade of Earth imaging by its two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments are serving as prototypes for new orbital sensors, and the EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German mission, EnMAP. We provide an overview of the mission's lifetime. We briefly describe calibration & validation activities and overview the technical and scientific accomplishments of this mission. Some examples of the Mission Science Office (MSO) products are provided, as is an example of a image collected for disaster monitoring.

  19. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A) configuration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanaugh, J.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes methods and procedures Aerojet will follow in the implementation of configuration control for each established baseline. The plan is written in response to the GSFC EOS CM Plan 420-02-02, dated January 1990, and also meets he requirements specified in DOD-STD-480, DOD-D 1000B, MIL-STD-483A, and MIL-STD-490B. The plan establishes the configuration management process to be used for the deliverable hardware, software, and firmware of the EOS/AMSU-A during development, design, fabrication, test, and delivery. This revision includes minor updates to reflect Aerojet's CM policies.

  20. Cumulative Radiation Exposure With EOS Imaging Compared With Standard Spine Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Luo, T David; Stans, Anthony A; Schueler, Beth A; Larson, A Noelle

    2015-03-01

    Retrospective comparative study. This study sought to estimate the total radiation exposure to scoliosis patients during the entire treatment course using standard imaging techniques versus EOS posteroanterior (PA) and anteroposterior (AP) views. EOS is a slot-scanning X-ray system designed to reduce radiation exposure in orthopedic imaging. There are few independent studies comparing organ and total effective radiation dose from standard EOS PA, AP, and lateral imaging versus conventional projection radiographs for children with spinal deformity. A total of 42 skeletally immature idiopathic scoliosis patients were treated with bracing (21) or spinal fusion (21) and were followed to skeletal maturity. The number of scoliosis radiographs (PA and lateral) for each patient was recorded. A computerized dosing model was used to calculate estimated patient and organ doses for PA and lateral scoliosis X-rays taken with EOS or computed radiography with a filter (CR) or without a filter (CRF). Assuming that each X-ray taken delivered the same radiation as the phantom calculation, the authors estimated the total effective and organ dose that each adolescent would have received using EOS, CR, or CRF. Annual background radiation is 3 mSv. Mean number of radiographs per patient was 20.9 (range, 8-43). Patients who underwent surgical treatment had a significantly greater number of X-rays than those who were braced (27.3 vs. 14.5; p < .001). Assuming all films were CR, the mean cumulative dose was estimated at 5.38 mSv. With standard EOS films, the mean cumulative estimated dose was 2.66 mSv, a decrease of 50.6%. An AP versus PA EOS radiograph resulted in an 8 times higher radiation dose to the breasts and 4 times higher dose to the thyroid. The standard EOS imaging system moderately reduced the total radiation exposure to skeletally immature scoliosis patients. Over the entire treatment course, this represented 2.72 mSv mean reduction or 0.91 years of background radiation

  1. Programmable synchronization unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.

    1984-10-01

    A Programmable Synchronization Unit (PSU, 135-726) has been designed as an element of the new timing system for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) project to provide synchronization signals needed for various apparatus in the SLC Damping Ring, or anywhere it is necessary to monitor longer than the fiducial period (approx. = 2.8 ..mu..s). A 119 MHz pulse train derived from the 476 MHz main drive line and superimposed with 360 Hz fiducial signal is the frequency source. Following a programmable delay D of up to 4.4 ..mu..s, the PSU can deliver N pulses of width W (in increments of 8.4 ns) with a pulse period of P (in increments of 58.8 ns, the damping ring half period). The device may be programmed at any time during the interfiducial period.

  2. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  3. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  4. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  5. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  6. Comparative anticonvulsant activities of the essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Leal, L Kalyne A M; de Lopes, Amanda A; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2010-05-01

    The fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus are a good source of an essential oil (EO) rich in citral, and its tea is largely used in the Brazilian folk medicine as a sedative. A similar source of EO is Cymbopogon winterianus, rich in citronellal. The literature presents more studies on the EO of C. citratus and their isolated bioactive components, but only a few are found on the EO of C. winterianus. The objective of the present study was then to study, in a comparative way, the effects of both EOs on three models of convulsions (pentylenetetrazol, pilocarpine, and strychnine) and on the barbiturate-induced sleeping time on male Swiss mice. The animals (20-30 g) were acutely treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally, of each EO, and 30 min later, the test was initiated. The observed parameters were: latency to the first convulsion and latency to death in seconds. Furthermore, the in vitro effects of the EOs were also studied on myeloperoxidase (MPO; a biomarker for inflammation) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; an index of cytotoxicity) releases from human neutrophils. The EOs radical-scavenging activities were also evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results showed that both EOs were more active on the pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion model, and C. citratus was even more efficient in increasing latency to the first convulsion and latency to death. Both parameters were potentiated in the presence of a lower dose of diazepam (reference drug) when associated to a lower dose of each EO (25 mg kg(-1)). Besides, their anticonvulsant effects were blocked by flumazenil, a known benzodiazepine antagonist. This effect was somewhat lower on the pilocarpine-induced convulsion, and better effects were seen only with the EOs' higher doses (200 mg kg(-1)). A similar result was observed on the strychnine-induced convulsion model. Both EOs potentiated the barbiturate-induced sleeping time. However, C. citratus was more efficient

  7. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  8. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  9. Programmability in AIPS++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjellming, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIPS++ is an Astronomical Information Processing System being designed and implemented by an international consortium of NRAO and six other radio astronomy institutions in Australia, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the USA. AIPS++ is intended to replace the functionality of AIPS, to be more easily programmable, and will be implemented in C++ using object-oriented techniques. Programmability in AIPS++ is planned at three levels. The first level will be that of a command-line interpreter with characteristics similar to IDL and PV-Wave, but with an intensive set of operations appropriate to telescope data handling, image formation, and image processing. The third level will be in C++ with extensive use of class libraries for both basic operations and advanced applications. The third level will allow input and output of data between external FORTRAN programs and AIPS++ telescope and image databases. In addition to summarizing the above programmability characteristics, this talk will given an overview of the classes currently being designed for telescope data calibration and editing, image formation, and the 'toolkit' of mathematical 'objects' that will perform most of the processing in AIPS++.

  10. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology.

  11. A phenomenological study of hybrid stars in which the crossover transition from quark to hadron makes the EOS stiffer in contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhao, Ya-Peng; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xin-Lian; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we make a phenomenological study of the mass-radii relationship of hybrid stars from the point of view of the smooth crossover phase transition. We find a way to construct stiff hybrid equations of state (EOSs) with soft EOSs of both the quark matter and the hadronic matter. For the hadron phase, we adopt the EOS softened by introducing hyperons that are considered to exist in the core of a neutron star. For the quark phase, we introduce a quark EOS based on the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) that is calculated in our previous work, and it is also a soft EOS. In contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition, we find that the resulting EOS is stiff and the maximum mass of the hybrid stars is still about two times of solar mass. This result indicates the rich possibilities of the crossover model.

  12. Surplus Federal Computers for Schools. As Assessment of the Early Implementation of E.O. 12999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennan, Thomas K., Jr.; And Others

    Signed in April 1996, Executive Order (E.O.) 12999, "Educational Technology: Ensuring Opportunity for All Children in the Next Century," was intended to promote the transfer of unneeded federal government computer equipment to schools and educational nonprofit organizations. This report examines the supply and distribution of surplus…

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo Assessment of the Relevance of Electronic Correlations in Defects and EOS in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, R Q; Williamson, A J; Dubois, J L; Reboredo, F A

    2008-02-07

    We have developed a highly accurate computational capability to calculate the equation of state (EOS) and defect formation energies of metallic systems. We are using a newly developed algorithm that enables the study of metallic systems with quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. To date, technical limitations have restricted the application of QMC methods to semiconductors, insulators and the homogeneous electron gas. Using this new 'QMC for metals' we can determine, for the first time, the significance of correlation effects in the EOS and in the formation energies of point defects, impurities, surfaces and interfaces in metallic systems. These calculations go beyond the state-of-the-art accuracy which is currently obtained with Density Functional Theory approaches. Such benchmark calculations can provide more accurate predictions for the EOS and the formation energies of vacancies and interstitials in simple metals. These are important parameters in determining the mechanical properties as well as the micro-structural evolution of metals in irradiated materials or under extreme conditions. We describe the development of our 'QMC for metals' code, which has been adapted to run efficiently on a variety of computer architectures including BG/L. We present results of the first accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculation of an EOS of a realistic metallic system that goes beyond the homogeneous electron gas.

  14. 76 FR 23520 - Periodic Review of Existing Regulations; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Periodic Review of Existing Regulations; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification for... Regulatory Review,'' the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is conducting a review of its...

  15. 76 FR 81541 - Request for Comments Under E.O. 12898

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is committed to Environmental Justice (EJ). President Obama has renewed agencies' Environmental Justice planning by reinvigorating Executive Order 12898 (EO 12898), which tasked Cabinet Level Federal agencies with making Environmental Justice part of their...

  16. 76 FR 36887 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Small... Order 13563, Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review, the Small Business Administration (SBA) has developed a preliminary retrospective review plan for periodically analyzing its existing significant...

  17. 78 FR 17888 - Periodic Review of Existing Regulations; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Chapter V 48 CFR Chapter 28 Periodic Review of Existing Regulations; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563... issued Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' which sets forth principles and requirements designed to promote public participation, improve integration and innovation...

  18. SensorWeb Evolution Using the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite as a Test Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Chien, Steve; Grossman, Robert; Tran, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, in addition to collecting science data from its instruments, the EO-1 mission has been used as a testbed for a variety of technologies which provide various automation capabilities and which have been used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. This paper provides an overview of the various technologies that were tested and eventually folded into normal operations. As these technologies were folded in, the nature of operations transformed. The SensorWeb software enables easy connectivity for collaboration with sensors, but the side benefit is that it improved the EO-1 operational efficiency. This paper presents the various phases of EO-1 operation over the past 12 years and also presents operational efficiency gains demonstrated by some metrics.

  19. EOS as the present and future solution for data storage at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, AJ; Sindrilaru, EA; Adde, G.

    2015-12-01

    EOS is an open source distributed disk storage system in production since 2011 at CERN. Development focus has been on low-latency analysis use cases for LHC1 and non- LHC experiments and life-cycle management using JBOD2 hardware for multi PB storage installations. The EOS design implies a split of hot and cold storage and introduced a change of the traditional HSM3 functionality based workflows at CERN. The 2015 deployment brings storage at CERN to a new scale and foresees to breach 100 PB of disk storage in a distributed environment using tens of thousands of (heterogeneous) hard drives. EOS has brought to CERN major improvements compared to past storage solutions by allowing quick changes in the quality of service of the storage pools. This allows the data centre to quickly meet the changing performance and reliability requirements of the LHC experiments with minimal data movements and dynamic reconfiguration. For example, the software stack has met the specific needs of the dual computing centre set-up required by CERN and allowed the fast design of new workflows accommodating the separation of long-term tape archive and disk storage required for the LHC Run II. This paper will give a high-level state of the art overview of EOS with respect to Run II, introduce new tools and use cases and set the roadmap for the next storage solutions to come.

  20. 76 FR 18134 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Chapter XL Reducing Regulatory Burden; Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation...

  1. 76 FR 63276 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 197 (Wednesday, October 12, 2011)] [Proposed Rules] [Pages 63276-63277] [FR Doc No: 2011-26309] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Chapter X [EP 712] Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY:...

  2. Terrestrial remote sensing science and algorithms planned for EOS/MODIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Running, S. W.; Justice, C.O.; Salomonson, V.V.; Hall, D.; Barker, J.; Kaufmann, Y. J.; Strahler, Alan H.; Huete, A.R.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Vanderbilt, V.; Wan, Z.; Teillet, P.; Carneggie, David M. Geological Survey (U.S.) Ohlen

    1994-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) will be the primary daily global monitoring sensor on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, scheduled for launch on the EOS-AM platform in June 1998 and the EOS-PM platform in December 2000. MODIS is a 36 channel radiometer covering 0·415-14·235 μm wavelengths, with spatial resolution from 250 m to 1 km at nadir. MODIS will be the primary EOS sensor for providing data on terrestrial biospheric dynamics and process activity. This paper presents the suite of global land products currently planned for EOSDIS implementation, to be developed by the authors of this paper, the MODIS land team (MODLAND). These include spectral albedo, land cover, spectral vegetation indices, snow and ice cover, surface temperature and fire, and a number of biophysical variables that will allow computation of global carbon cycles, hydrologic balances and biogeochemistry of critical greenhouse gases. Additionally, the regular global coverage of these variables will allow accurate surface change detection, a fundamental determinant of global change.

  3. System design and specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A design summary of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The systems considered in the summary are: (1) the spacecraft structure, (2) electrical power modules, (3) communications and data handling module, (4) attitude determination module, (5) actuation module, and (6) solar array and drive module. The documents which provide the specifications for the systems and the equipment are identified.

  4. Maximizing the use of EO products: how to leverage the potential of open geospatial service architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usländer, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The demand for the rapid provision of EO products with well-defined characteristics in terms of temporal, spatial, image-specific and thematic criteria is increasing. Examples are products to support near real-time damage assessment after a natural disaster event, e.g. an earthquake. However, beyond the organizational and economic questions, there are technological and systemic barriers to enable a comfortable search, order, delivery or even combination of EO products. Most portals of space agencies and EO product providers require sophisticated satellite and product knowledge and, even worse, are all different and not interoperable. This paper gives an overview about the use cases and the architectural solutions that aim at an open and flexible EO mission infrastructure with application-oriented user interfaces and well-defined service interfaces based upon open standards. It presents corresponding international initiatives such as INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community), GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and HMA (Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility) and their associated infrastructure approaches. The paper presents a corresponding analysis and design methodology and two examples how such architectures are already successfully used in early warning systems for geo-hazards and toolsets for environmentallyinduced health risks. Finally, the paper concludes with an outlook how these ideas relate to the vision of the Future Internet.

  5. Opportunities for using the EOS Imaging Spectrometers and synthetic aperture radar in ecological models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Wessman, Carol A.; Curtiss, Brian; Kasischke, Eric; Way, Jobea; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1991-01-01

    Several promising approaches to assessing biochemical and architectural properties of landscapes are outlined. Strategies for using new EOS sensors in ecological models are examined. Ways in which ecological and remote sensing models can utilize information provided by the new sensors to characterize ecological properties at coarse scales and to estimate within-ecosystem properties are addressed.

  6. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) schedule plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes Aerojet's methods and procedures used to control and administer contractual schedules for the EOS/AMSU-A program. Included are the following: the master, intermediate, and detail schedules; critical path analysis; and the total program logic network diagrams.

  7. 7 CFR 1951.231 - Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity (EO) Cooperative Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity... Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity (EO) Cooperative Loans. (a) Withdrawal of member and... for Economic Opportunity Cooperative loans must be handled under the Federal Claims Collection...

  8. Heavy ion reaction measurements with the EOS TPC (looking for central collisions with missing energy)

    SciTech Connect

    Wieman, H.H.; EOS Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    The EOS TPC was constructed for complete event measurement of heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac. We report here on the TPC design and some preliminary measurements of conserved event quantities such as total invariant mass, total momentum, total A and Z.

  9. Language Attitudes of Asturian Students in the Area of Navia-Eo (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Riaño, Xosé; Hevia-Artime, Isabel; Fernández-Costales, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a pioneering study that approaches the sociolinguistic and educational reality of the area of Navia-Eo, a region in the western part of Asturias (Spain). This research aims to provide an insight into the language attitudes and the sociolinguistic awareness of students in the final year of primary education. Using…

  10. Myh7b/miR-499 gene expression is transcriptionally regulated by MRFs and Eos.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Fan; Chung, Eunhee; Guess, Martin G; Bell, Matthew L; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2012-08-01

    The sarcomeric myosin gene, Myh7b, encodes an intronic microRNA, miR-499, which regulates cardiac and skeletal muscle biology, yet little is known about its transcriptional regulation. To identify the transcription factors involved in regulating Myh7b/miR-499 gene expression, we have mapped the transcriptional start sites and identified an upstream 6.2 kb region of the mouse Myh7b gene whose activity mimics the expression pattern of the endogenous Myh7b gene both in vitro and in vivo. Through promoter deletion analysis, we have mapped a distal E-box element and a proximal Ikaros site that are essential for Myh7b promoter activity in muscle cells. We show that the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD, Myf5 and Myogenin, bind to the E-box, while a lymphoid transcription factor, Ikaros 4 (Eos), binds to the Ikaros motif. Further, we show that through physical interaction, MyoD and Eos form an active transcriptional complex on the chromatin to regulate the expression of the endogenous Myh7b/miR-499 gene in muscle cells. We also provide the first evidence that Eos can regulate expression of additional myosin genes (Myosin 1 and β-Myosin) via the miR-499/Sox6 pathway. Therefore, our results indicate a novel role for Eos in the regulation of the myofiber gene program.

  11. An evaluation of the EOS X-ray imaging system in pelvimetry.

    PubMed

    Sigmann, M-H; Delabrousse, E; Riethmuller, D; Runge, M; Peyron, C; Aubry, S

    2014-09-01

    To demonstrate the reliability of the EOS imaging system in measuring the internal diameters of the bony pelvis. A prospective study comparing the results of the pelvimetry of 18 dry pelvises carried out on the EOS imaging system to measurements taken manually and using the two current gold standard CT methods. Pelvimetric measurements of each pelvic bone were obtained using four methods and compared: direct manual measurements, spiral and sequential CT pelvimetry, and 2D-3D low-dose biplanar X-rays. The various obstetric diameters were measured to the millimetre and compared. There was no significant difference in the different diameters assessed, with the exception of the interspinous diameter. There was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.001) between the values measured manually and by EOS for the Magnin index (Pearson = 0.98), the obstetric conjugate diameter (Pearson = 0.99), and the median transverse diameter (Pearson = 0.87). The EOS imaging system allows for an ex vivo determination of the obstetrical diameters that is reliable enough to estimate obstetric prognosis, producing comparable measurements to CT. In view of concerns about protection from radiation, this low-dose imaging technique could become, after in vivo prospective validation, the new gold standard for pelvimetry and therefore a good alternative to CT. Copyright © 2014 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Sociobiology for Social Scientists: A Critical Introduction to E.O. Wilson's Evolutionary Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugger, William M.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews recent works of E.O. Wilson on sociobiology (the evolutionary and comparative study of social animals, including humans). Topics discussed include the nature of sociobiology, explanatory hypotheses in sociobiology, subdisciplines, biological individualism and altruism, costs of social engineering, and evolutionary perspectives. (DB)

  13. Three-dimensional EOS Analysis of Apical Vertebral Rotation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Debaud, Charlotte; Zeller, Reinhard D

    2016-04-30

    Apical vertebral rotation (AVR) is increasingly recognized as one of the important radiographic parameters in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). EOS enables us to precisely measure AVR by 3-dimensional reconstruction. The objective of the present study was to describe the postoperative correction and the long-term follow-up of AVR in posterior spinal fusion with direct vertebral rotation and elucidate the factors that affected the correction. We retrospectively reviewed 153 consecutive posterior spinal fusion surgeries for AIS performed between 2009 and 2012. Among them, 55 patients who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria with complete preoperative, immediate postoperative, and last follow-up (>1 y) EOS images were included in the present study. EOS 3-dimentional reconstructions were undertaken for each patient. Postoperative AVR correction and the loss of correction were calculated. Preoperative AVR of the major curve averaged 19 degrees (SD=7 degrees), and AVR on immediate postoperative images averaged 9 degrees (SD=6 degrees, P<0.001). AVR at final follow-up averaged 11 degrees (SD=6 degrees, P=0.06). Postoperative correction was larger in all-screw construct than in hybrid construct (55% vs. 36%, P=0.03). The present study is the first study to measure AVR in a large population of AIS patients using EOS 3-dimensional reconstruction. We report the correction magnitude was significantly affected by the construct. Level IV-therapeutic study (case series).

  14. Myh7b/miR-499 gene expression is transcriptionally regulated by MRFs and Eos

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Fan; Chung, Eunhee; Guess, Martin G.; Bell, Matthew L.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The sarcomeric myosin gene, Myh7b, encodes an intronic microRNA, miR-499, which regulates cardiac and skeletal muscle biology, yet little is known about its transcriptional regulation. To identify the transcription factors involved in regulating Myh7b/miR-499 gene expression, we have mapped the transcriptional start sites and identified an upstream 6.2 kb region of the mouse Myh7b gene whose activity mimics the expression pattern of the endogenous Myh7b gene both in vitro and in vivo. Through promoter deletion analysis, we have mapped a distal E-box element and a proximal Ikaros site that are essential for Myh7b promoter activity in muscle cells. We show that the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD, Myf5 and Myogenin, bind to the E-box, while a lymphoid transcription factor, Ikaros 4 (Eos), binds to the Ikaros motif. Further, we show that through physical interaction, MyoD and Eos form an active transcriptional complex on the chromatin to regulate the expression of the endogenous Myh7b/miR-499 gene in muscle cells. We also provide the first evidence that Eos can regulate expression of additional myosin genes (Myosin 1 and β-Myosin) via the miR-499/Sox6 pathway. Therefore, our results indicate a novel role for Eos in the regulation of the myofiber gene program. PMID:22638570

  15. Language Attitudes of Asturian Students in the Area of Navia-Eo (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Riaño, Xosé; Hevia-Artime, Isabel; Fernández-Costales, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a pioneering study that approaches the sociolinguistic and educational reality of the area of Navia-Eo, a region in the western part of Asturias (Spain). This research aims to provide an insight into the language attitudes and the sociolinguistic awareness of students in the final year of primary education. Using…

  16. Transformation of HDF-EOS metadata from the ECS model to ISO 19115-based XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yaxing; Di, Liping; Zhao, Baohua; Liao, Guangxuan; Chen, Aijun

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays, geographic data, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) data, are playing an increasing role in many areas, including academic research, government decisions and even in people's every lives. As the quantity of geographic data becomes increasingly large, a major problem is how to fully make use of such data in a distributed, heterogeneous network environment. In order for a user to effectively discover and retrieve the specific information that is useful, the geographic metadata should be described and managed properly. Fortunately, the emergence of XML and Web Services technologies greatly promotes information distribution across the Internet. The research effort discussed in this paper presents a method and its implementation for transforming Hierarchical Data Format (HDF)-EOS metadata from the NASA ECS model to ISO 19115-based XML, which will be managed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Services—Web Profile (CSW). Using XML and international standards rather than domain-specific models to describe the metadata of those HDF-EOS data, and further using CSW to manage the metadata, can allow metadata information to be searched and interchanged more widely and easily, thus promoting the sharing of HDF-EOS data.

  17. 76 FR 26651 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... July 16, 2004, DOS ceased visa reissuance (visa revalidation) for the C, E, H, I, L, O, and P... Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: United States Department of State. ACTION: Request... comments within 60 days of the publication of this notice. To submit comments: By e-mail to Regulatory...

  18. Bone mineral density assessment using the EOS low-dose X-ray device: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sapin, E; Briot, K; Kolta, S; Gravel, P; Skalli, W; Roux, C; Mitton, D

    2008-11-01

    To predict bone strength in the case of osteoporosis, it could be a real benefit to assess the three-dimensional (3D) geometry and the bone mineral density (BMD) with a single low-dose X-ray device, such as the EOS system (Biospace Med, Paris, France). EOS 3D reconstructions of the spine have already been validated. Thus, this study aims at evaluating the accuracy of this low-dose system as a densitometer first ex vivo. The European Spine Phantom (ESP) (number 129) was scanned ten times using both the EOS and a Hologic device (Hologic, Inc., Massachusetts, USA). Accuracy was given by the sum of the systematic error (difference between BMDs assessed and true values given by the phantom manufacturer) and the random error (coefficient of variation). EOS BMDs and Hologic BMDs of 41 ex-vivo vertebrae were calculated and compared. The reproducibility of the method evaluating the EOS BMD was assessed giving the coefficient of variation of three measurements of the 41 vertebrae. The accuracy of the EOS system is below 5.2 per cent, versus 7.2 per cent for the Hologic system in the same conditions. EOS BMDs are significantly higher than Hologic BMDs, but they are strongly correlated. The reproducibility of the method of assessment is equal to 0.95 per cent. The EOS system is accurate for ex-vivo BMD assessments, which is promising regarding the use of this new system to predict vertebral strength.

  19. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) software assurance plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert; Smith, Claude

    1994-01-01

    This document defines the responsibilities of Software Quality Assurance (SOA) for the development of the flight software installed in EOS/AMSU-A instruments, and the ground support software used in the test and integration of the EOS/AMSU-A instruments.

  20. Integrated AMSU-A Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Command List Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauerwaas, R. V.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a complete list of EOS/AMSU-A commands for all modes of operation and testing with a description of their effects. There are no EOS/AMSU-A critical commands i.e., commands that could damage the instrument in any situation.

  1. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave SoundingUnit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Acquisition activities plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This is the acquisition activities plan for the software to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) system. This document is submitted in response to Contract NAS5-323 14 as CDRL 508. The procurement activities required to acquire software for the EOS/AMSU-A program are defined.

  2. A Comparison of Patients Absorption Doses with Bone Deformity Due to the EOS Imaging and Digital Radiology.

    PubMed

    Abrisham, Seyed Mohammad J; Bouzarjomehri, Fathollah; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza; Sobhan, Mohammad R; Gadimi, Mahdie; Omidvar, Fereshte

    2017-05-01

    This study has aimed to measure the patient dose in entire spine radiography by EOS system in comparison with the digital radiography. EOS stereo-radiography was used for frontal and lateral view spine imaging in 41 patients in a prospective analytical study. A calibrated dose area product (DAP) meter was used for calibration of the DAP in EOS system. The accuracy and precision of the system was confirmed according to the acceptance testing. The same procedure was used for 18 patients referred for lumbar spine digital radiology (overall 36 images). Although radiation fields in the EOS were almost twice of that in digital radiology, and the average peak tube voltage (kVp), current supply to the tube (mA), and the average size and age of the patients referred for EOS imaging were greater than digital radiology, however, the average DAP in EOS was 1/5 of that in digital radiology system. Also, the average dose in the EOS was about 1/20 of that in digital radiology. The patient dose in EOS imaging system was lower in comparison with digital radiology (1/20).

  3. A Comparison of Patients Absorption Doses with Bone Deformity Due to the EOS Imaging and Digital Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Abrisham, Seyed Mohammad J.; Bouzarjomehri, Fathollah; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza; Sobhan, Mohammad R.; Gadimi, Mahdie; Omidvar, Fereshte

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study has aimed to measure the patient dose in entire spine radiography by EOS system in comparison with the digital radiography. Methods: EOS stereo-radiography was used for frontal and lateral view spine imaging in 41 patients in a prospective analytical study. A calibrated dose area product (DAP) meter was used for calibration of the DAP in EOS system. The accuracy and precision of the system was confirmed according to the acceptance testing. The same procedure was used for 18 patients referred for lumbar spine digital radiology (overall 36 images). Results: Although radiation fields in the EOS were almost twice of that in digital radiology, and the average peak tube voltage (kVp), current supply to the tube (mA), and the average size and age of the patients referred for EOS imaging were greater than digital radiology, however, the average DAP in EOS was 1/5 of that in digital radiology system. Also, the average dose in the EOS was about 1/20 of that in digital radiology. Conclusion: The patient dose in EOS imaging system was lower in comparison with digital radiology (1/20). PMID:28656161

  4. Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Spacecraft 120 Volt Power Subsystem: Requirements, Development and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2000-01-01

    Built by the Lockheed-Martin Corporation, the Earth Observing System (EOS) TERRA spacecraft represents the first orbiting application of a 120 Vdc high voltage spacecraft electrical power system implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The EOS TERRA spacecraft's launch provided a major contribution to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth program while incorporating many state of the art electrical power system technologies to achieve its mission goals. The EOS TERRA spacecraft was designed around five state-of-the-art scientific instrument packages designed to monitor key parameters associated with the earth's climate. The development focus of the TERRA electrical power system (EPS) resulted from a need for high power distribution to the EOS TERRA spacecraft subsystems and instruments and minimizing mass and parasitic losses. Also important as a design goal of the EPS was maintaining tight regulation on voltage and achieving low conducted bus noise characteristics. This paper outlines the major requirements for the EPS as well as the resulting hardware implementation approach adopted to meet the demands of the EOS TERRA low earth orbit mission. The selected orbit, based on scientific needs, to achieve the EOS TERRA mission goals is a sun-synchronous circular 98.2degree inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a near circular average altitude of 705 kilometers. The nominal spacecraft orbit is approximately 99 minutes with an average eclipse period of about 34 minutes. The scientific goal of the selected orbit is to maintain a repeated 10:30 a.m. +/- 15 minute descending equatorial crossing which provides a fairly clear view of the earth's surface and relatively low cloud interference for the instrument observation measurements. The major EOS TERRA EPS design requirements are single fault tolerant, average orbit power delivery of 2, 530 watts with a defined minimum lifetime of five years (EOL). To meet

  5. Improving the Interoperability of NASA HDF and HDF-EOS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.

    2010-12-01

    HDF is a set of data formats and software libraries for storing scientific data with an emphasis on standards, storage, and I/O efficiency. The HDF-EOS version 2 (HDF-EOS2) profile and library, built on top of HDF version 4 (HDF4), define and implement the standard data format for the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS). Since the launch of Terra in 1999, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has produced more than three terabytes of EOS earth science data daily. More than five hundred data products in NASA data centers are stored in HDF. HDF5 is a newer data format. It has been embraced as an important data format for Earth science. HDF-EOS5, which is built on top of HDF5, is the primary data format for data from the Aura satellite. The new version of netCDF, netCDF-4, is built on top of HDF5. The OPeNDAP Data Access Protocol and its related software have emerged as important components of the earth science data system infrastructure. The OPeNDAP protocol is widely used to remotely access earth science data. Several third-party visualization and analysis tools that can read data from OPeNDAP servers, such as IDV, Panoply, GrADS, Ferret, NCL, MATLAB, and IDL, are widely used by many earth scientists and educators to access HDF earth science data. Ensuring easy access to HDF4, HDF5 and HDF-EOS data via OPeNDAP client tools will reduce the time for HDF users to visualize the data in their favorite way and accordingly improve their working efficiencies. In the past three years, under the support of NASA ESDIS and ACCESS projects, The HDF Group implemented the HDF4-OPeNDAP and HDF5-OPeNDAP data handlers so that many NASA HDF and HDF-EOS Swath and Grid data can be accessed by widely used visualization and analysis tools such as IDV, Panoply, GrADS, Ferret, NCL and IDL via OPeNDAP. We will share the challenges we have encountered and the solutions on how to address these challenges in the process of implementing the HDF OPeNDAP handlers. We also

  6. Preferential Secretion of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) by Terminally Differentiated Esophageal Epithelial Cells: Relevance to Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna M.; Shen, Dawen; Lee, Anna J.; Benitez, Alain; Dods, Kara; Gambanga, Fiona; Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Merves, Jamie; Noah, Yuliana; Toltzis, Sarit; Yearley, Jennifer H.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Malefyt, Rene deWaal; Muir, Amanda B.; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic Th2 and food antigen-mediated disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), an epithelial derived cytokine which bridges innate and Th2-type adaptive immune responses in other allergic conditions, is overexpressed in esophageal biopsies of EoE subjects. However, the triggers of TSLP expression in the esophageal epithelium are unknown. The objective of the current study was to characterize TSLP expression in human esophageal epithelium in EoE in vivo and to determine the role of food antigens upon epithelial TSLP expression in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we localized TSLP in esophageal biopsies of active EoE (≥15 eos/hpf), inactive EoE (<15 eos/hpf) and non-EoE control subjects, and found that TSLP expression was restricted to the differentiated suprabasal layer of the epithelium in actively inflamed EoE biopsies. Consistent with these results in vivo, inducible TSLP protein secretion was higher in CaCl2 differentiated telomerase-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) compared to undifferentiated cells of the basal phenotype, following stimulation with the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C). To determine whether food antigens could directly induce epithelial TSLP secretion, differentiated and undifferentiated primary esophageal epithelial cells from EoE and non-EoE subjects were challenged with food antigens clinically relevant to EoE: Chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA), wheat, and milk proteins beta-lactoglobulin (blg) and beta-casein. Food antigens failed to induce TSLP secretion by undifferentiated cells; in contrast, only OVA induced TSLP secretion in differentiated epithelial cells from both EoE and control cell lines, an effect abolished by budesonide and NF-κb inhibition. Together, our study shows that specific food antigens can trigger innate immune mediated esophageal TSLP secretion, suggesting that esophageal epithelial cells at the barrier surface

  7. Preferential Secretion of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) by Terminally Differentiated Esophageal Epithelial Cells: Relevance to Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE).

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna M; Shen, Dawen; Lee, Anna J; Benitez, Alain; Dods, Kara; Gambanga, Fiona; Wilkins, Benjamin J; Merves, Jamie; Noah, Yuliana; Toltzis, Sarit; Yearley, Jennifer H; Spergel, Jonathan M; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Malefyt, Rene deWaal; Muir, Amanda B; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic Th2 and food antigen-mediated disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), an epithelial derived cytokine which bridges innate and Th2-type adaptive immune responses in other allergic conditions, is overexpressed in esophageal biopsies of EoE subjects. However, the triggers of TSLP expression in the esophageal epithelium are unknown. The objective of the current study was to characterize TSLP expression in human esophageal epithelium in EoE in vivo and to determine the role of food antigens upon epithelial TSLP expression in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we localized TSLP in esophageal biopsies of active EoE (≥15 eos/hpf), inactive EoE (<15 eos/hpf) and non-EoE control subjects, and found that TSLP expression was restricted to the differentiated suprabasal layer of the epithelium in actively inflamed EoE biopsies. Consistent with these results in vivo, inducible TSLP protein secretion was higher in CaCl2 differentiated telomerase-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) compared to undifferentiated cells of the basal phenotype, following stimulation with the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C). To determine whether food antigens could directly induce epithelial TSLP secretion, differentiated and undifferentiated primary esophageal epithelial cells from EoE and non-EoE subjects were challenged with food antigens clinically relevant to EoE: Chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA), wheat, and milk proteins beta-lactoglobulin (blg) and beta-casein. Food antigens failed to induce TSLP secretion by undifferentiated cells; in contrast, only OVA induced TSLP secretion in differentiated epithelial cells from both EoE and control cell lines, an effect abolished by budesonide and NF-κb inhibition. Together, our study shows that specific food antigens can trigger innate immune mediated esophageal TSLP secretion, suggesting that esophageal epithelial cells at the barrier surface

  8. Earth Observing System (EOS) Snow and Ice Products for Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Kaminski, M.; Cavalieri, D.; Dickinson, R.; Marquis, M.; Riggs, G.; Robinson, D.; VanWoert, M.; Wolfe, R.

    2005-01-01

    Snow and ice are the key components of the Earth's cryosphere, and their influence on the Earth's energy balance is very significant due at least in part to the large areal extent and high albedo characterizing these features. Large changes in the cryosphere have been measured over the last century and especially over the past decade, and remote sensing plays a pivotal role in documenting these changes. Many of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) products derived from instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) satellites are useful for measuring changes in features that are associated with climate change. The utility of the products is continually enhanced as the length of the time series increases. To gain a more coherent view of the cryosphere and its historical and recent changes, the EOS products may be employed together, in conjunction with other sources of data, and in models. To further this goal, the first EOS Snow and Ice Products Workshop was convened. The specific goals of the workshop were to provide current and prospective users of EOS snow and ice products up-to-date information on the products, their validation status and future enhancements, to help users utilize the data products through hands-on demonstrations, and to facilitate the integration of EOS products into models. Oral and poster sessions representing a wide variety of snow and ice topics were held; three panels were also convened to discuss workshop themes. Panel discussions focused on data fusion and assimilation of the products into models. Approximately 110 people attended, representing a wide array of interests and organizations in the cryospheric community.

  9. Technology forecasting for space communication. Task one report: Cost and weight tradeoff studies for EOS and TDRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Weight and cost optimized EOS communication links are determined for 2.25, 7.25, 14.5, 21, and 60 GHz systems and for a 10.6 micron homodyne detection laser system. EOS to ground links are examined for 556, 834, and 1112 km EOS orbits, with ground terminals at the Network Test and Tracking Facility and at Goldstone. Optimized 21 GHz and 10.6 micron links are also examined. For the EOS to Tracking and Data Relay Satellite to ground link, signal-to-noise ratios of the uplink and downlink are also optimized for minimum overall cost or spaceborne weight. Finally, the optimized 21 GHz EOS to ground link is determined for various precipitation rates. All system performance parameters and mission dependent constraints are presented, as are the system cost and weight functional dependencies. The features and capabilities of the computer program to perform the foregoing analyses are described.

  10. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  11. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  12. Selection in backcross programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation. PMID:16048792

  13. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  14. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  15. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  16. The ESA GML Application Schema for EO Products: extension to new product types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Andrew; Smolders, Steven; Houbie, Frédéric; Martin, Jolyon; Marchetti, Pier Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    The Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project is a joint activity of the European and Canadian Space Agencies lead by ESA through its Ground Segment Coordination Body (GSCB). It aims to provide a seamless and harmonised access to heterogeneous Earth observation (EO) datasets from multiple mission ground segments. To achieve this goal of interoperability, the HMA project is developing standardised metadata descriptions at collection- and product-level, as well as standardised network service interfaces for data discovery, ordering, planning, user management, and data access. These interfaces will be implemented in the EO Data Access and Integration Layer (DAIL), providing an integrated, harmonised access across multiple mission ground segments. A standardised description of EO data products is provided through a GML Application Schema for EO Products, endorsed as a Best Practice paper (06-080) by the standards body, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Product-level metadata conforming to this schema may be ingested into an HMA standard catalogue service implementing the ebRIM profile of OGC's CSW interface with an extension package for EO products (OGC document 06-131). The GML application schema is based on the GML observation, adding detail to the following properties for an Earth observation: • general metadata describing identifier, downlink, archiving information, etc. • the acquisition duration • the platform/instrument/sensor used for the acquisition, and other acquisition parameters • the observed ground footprint • the observation result (browse, mask, and product descriptions) In addition, the schema takes a layered form: a foundation ‘Earth Observation' schema is applicable for any type of EO product, with more specialised schemas derived from this for specific product types (optical, radar, atmospheric) . We report on new work sponsored by ESA (in the ‘HMA Follow-On' project) which is extending the existing application schemas to

  17. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  18. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  19. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  20. Improving end of life care in care homes; an evaluation of the six steps to success programme.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Mary; Kirton, Jennifer; Knighting, Katherine; Roe, Brenda; Jack, Barbara

    2016-06-03

    There are approximately 426,000 people residing within care homes in the UK. Residents often have complex trajectories of dying, which make it difficult for staff to manage their end-of-life care. There is growing recognition for the need to support care homes staff in the care of these residents with increased educational initiatives. One educational initiative is The Six Steps to Success programme. In order to evaluate the implementation of Six Steps with the first cohort of care homes to complete the end-of-life programme in the North West of England., a pragmatic evaluation methodology was implemented in 2012-2013 using multiple methods of qualitative data collection; online questionnaire with facilitators (n = 16), interviews with facilitators (n = 9) and case studies of care homes that had completed the programme (n = 6). The evaluation explored the implementation approach and experiences of the programme facilitators and obtain a detailed account of the impact of Six Steps on individual care homes. Based upon the National Health Service (NHS) End of Life Care (EoLC) Programme, The Route to Success in EoLC - Achieving Quality in Care Homes. The programme was flexibly designed so that it could be individually tailored to the geographical location and the individual cohort requirements. Facilitators provided comprehensive and flexible support to care homes. Challenges to programme success were noted as; lack of time allocated to champions to devote to additional programme work, inappropriate staff selected as 'Champions' and staff sickness/high staff turnover presented challenges to embedding programme values. Benefits to completing the programme were noted as; improvement in Advance Care Planning, improved staff communication/confidence when dealing with multi-disciplinary teams, improved end-of-life processes/documentation and increased staff confidence through acquisition of new knowledge and new processes. The findings suggested an overall

  1. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  2. The Sheffield outreach teaching programme.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Lennon, M A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-27

    Sheffield's School of Clinical Dentistry has developed a year-round dental outreach teaching programme of 20 weeks for each student in two or three of six already established general practices and five PCT clinics. On the programme, under local supervision, students provide comprehensive care for patients and complete associated projectwork. This paper first describes the development and management of the programme then the learning experiences of recent students.

  3. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  4. Communicating Earth Observation (EO)-based landslide mapping capabilities to practitioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Florian; Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Weinke, Elisabeth; Vecchiotti, Filippo; Kociu, Arben

    2016-04-01

    Current remote sensing methods and the available Earth Observation (EO) data for landslide mapping already can support practitioners in their processes for gathering and for using landslide information. Information derived from EO data can support emergency services and authorities in rapid mapping after landslide-triggering events, in landslide monitoring and can serve as a relevant basis for hazard and risk mapping. These applications also concern owners, maintainers and insurers of infrastructure. Most often practitioners have a rough overview of the potential and limits of EO-based methods for landslide mapping. However, semi-automated image analysis techniques are still rarely used in practice. This limits the opportunity for user feedback, which would contribute to improve the methods for delivering fully adequate results in terms of accuracy, applicability and reliability. Moreover, practitioners miss information on the best way of integrating the methods in their daily processes. Practitioners require easy-to-grasp interfaces for testing new methods, which in turn would provide researchers with valuable user feedback. We introduce ongoing work towards an innovative web service which will allow for fast and efficient provision of EO-based landslide information products and that supports online processing. We investigate the applicability of various very high resolution (VHR), e.g. WorldView-2/3, Pleiades, and high resolution (HR), e.g. Landsat, Sentinel-2, optical EO data for semi-automated mapping based on object-based image analysis (OBIA). The methods, i.e. knowledge-based and statistical OBIA routines, are evaluated regarding their suitability for inclusion in a web service that is easy to use with the least amount of necessary training. The pre-operational web service will be implemented for selected study areas in the Alps (Austria, Italy), where weather-induced landslides have happened in the past. We will test the service on its usability together

  5. Au-Ag Alloy Static High Pressure EOS measurements: FY09 summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, W J; Jenei, Z

    2009-09-17

    Static high-pressure measurements of the equation of state of a Gold-Silver alloy (23.5 wt-% Ag) at room temperature were performed up to a pressure of approximately 100 GPA (1 megabar). Measurements were made using an energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction method. The data was analyzed, yielding crystal structure lattice constants and volume/density as a function of pressure. The results are extremely precise yielding accuracy of better than 1%. The experiments were carried out at the HPCAT 16BM-D beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. Two experiments on separate samples were carried out using conventional membrane diamond anvil cells. To achieve hydrostatic conditions, we loaded a 50-100 micron piece of the Au-Ag alloy into the cell and surrounded it with neon and mineral oil pressure media in the respective experiments. The differing pressure media demonstrated no measurable difference on the resultant crystal structures, lattice constants or pressure-volume curves. Results of our work are shown in the figures below. Up to the maximum pressure of 100 GPa the sample remained in the face-centered cubic structure, e.g., we observed no change in crystal structure. EOS curves of silver and gold, taken from the literature, are shown for comparison. We fit our data to a Vinet EOS functional form, and the parameters for this EOS were found to be, Reference (ambient pressure) volume, V{sub 0} = 16.965435 {angstrom}{sup 3}; Reference (ambient pressure) density, {rho}{sub 0} = 16.14584 g/cm{sup 3}; Bulk Modulus, K{sub 0} = 144 GPa; and Bulk Mod Derivative, K{prime}{sub 0} = 5.66. As one might expect the Au-Ag alloy lies between the gold and silver EOS curves, and tracks more closely to the gold EOS. These data are useful in validating and developing predictive EOS models of the pressure-dependent behavior of Au-Ag alloys.

  6. What We Have Learned with 16 Years of EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth Observing-One (EO-1) satellite, launched in November of 2000, will complete its sixteenth and final year of operation at the end of calendar year 2016. Observations from the Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer on board EO-1 have contributed to hundreds of papers in refereed journals, conference proceeds and other presentations. The EO-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer is the first and longest operating instrument that provides visible to shortwave infrared science-grade data from orbit. Hyperion has been used to study a variety of natural and anthropogenic phenomena including hazards and catastrophes, agricultural health and productivity, ecological disturbance/development, and land use/land cover change. As an example, Hyperion has been used in hazard and catastrophe studies to monitor and assess effects of tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mudslides, tornadoes, hurricanes, wild-fires (natural and human ignited), oil spills, and the aftermath of world trade center bombing. This presentation summarizes the current status of EO-1 Hyperion in terms of key scientific findings to date and presents future plans for exploiting the upward of 90,000 scenes expected to be archived at USGS EROS by the end of the mission. Hyperion serves as the heritage orbital spectrometer for future global platforms, including the proposed NASA Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) and the forthcoming German satellite, EnMAP. A key EO-1 mission goal was to evaluate the ability of satellite high spectral resolution imaging to characterize terrestrial surface state and processes at 30 m resolution. Researchers engaged in NASA's Terrestrial Ecology, Carbon Science, Land Use Change and other programs using the EO-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer have achieved results with accuracies far exceeding those reached with the current spaceborne fleet of multispectral sensors. Hyperion data provide several advantages over data from multispectral satellite systems: they inherently provide

  7. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  8. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of “reverse internationalization” by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations. PMID:27631368

  9. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-Huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of "reverse internationalization" by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations.

  10. New insights into the operative network of FaEO, an enone oxidoreductase from Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    PubMed

    Collu, Gabriella; Farci, Domenica; Esposito, Francesca; Pintus, Francesca; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Piano, Dario

    2017-05-01

    The 2-methylene-furan-3-one reductase or Fragaria x ananassa Enone Oxidoreductase (FaEO) catalyses the last reductive step in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a major component in the characteristic flavour of strawberries. In the present work, we describe the association between FaEO and the vacuolar membrane of strawberry fruits. Even if FaEO lacks epitopes for stable or transient membrane-interactions, it contains a calmodulin-binding region, suggesting that in vivo FaEO may be associated with the membrane via a peripheral protein complex with calmodulin. Moreover, we also found that FaEO occurs in dimeric form in vivo and, as frequently observed for calmodulin-regulated proteins, it may be expressed in different isoforms by alternative gene splicing. Further mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the isolated FaEO consists in the already known isoform and that it is the most characteristic during ripening. Finally, a characterization by absorption spectroscopy showed that FaEO has specific flavoprotein features. The relevance of these findings and their possible physiological implications are discussed.

  11. The LINA cohort: indoor chemical exposure, circulating eosinophil/basophil (Eo/B) progenitors and early life skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Weisse, K; Lehmann, I; Heroux, D; Kohajda, T; Herberth, G; Röder, S; von Bergen, M; Borte, M; Denburg, J

    2012-09-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells, especially those committed to the Eo/B lineage, are known to contribute to allergic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether environmental factors are associated with changes in numbers of circulating Eo/B progenitors at 1 year of age. Peripheral blood from 60 1-year-old children enrolled in the LINA (Lifestyle and environmental factors and their Influence on Newborns Allergy risk) birth cohort was assessed for Eo/B progenitor cells (Eo/B CFU) using standardized and validated methylcellulose assays. Frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured in the presence of IL-3, IL-5 or GM-CSF, and Eo/B CFUs enumerated. Clinical outcomes and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were documented by standardized questionnaires, and indoor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed by passive sampling. Children with skin manifestations (atopic dermatitis or cradle cap) within the first year of life had higher numbers of circulating IL-3-, IL-5- or GM-CSF-stimulated Eo/B CFUs (P < 0.05) at 1 year. In children with cradle cap, a positive correlation was found between Eo/B CFUs and exposure to ETS-related VOCs during pregnancy or at 1 year of age (P < 0.05). This is the first demonstration that environmental exposures are positively associated with levels of circulating Eo/B progenitors. The recruitment and differentiation of Eo/B progenitors in response to environmental triggers may play a role in the development of skin manifestations during the first year of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ros; Yang, Huiqin; McKenna, Claire; Faria, Rita; Gummerson, Nigel; Woolacott, Nerys

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the available evidence for the clinical effectiveness of the EOS(®) 2D/3D X-ray imaging system for the evaluation and monitoring of scoliosis and other relevant orthopaedic conditions. A systematic review of studies of EOS(®), compared with standard X-ray film, computed radiography or digital radiography, of patients with orthopaedic conditions was undertaken. Ten electronic databases were searched. The quality of the included studies was assessed and a narrative synthesis undertaken. Three small, limited quality studies, primarily of children with scoliosis, were identified. No patient health outcomes were reported. Spinal image quality was comparable or better overall with EOS(®). Radiation dose was considerably lower with EOS(®) than X-ray film or computed radiography; the mean entrance surface dose was over five times lower with EOS(®) for the posteroanterior spine radiograph and over six times lower for the lateral spine radiograph. The available clinical evidence for EOS(®) is limited to establishing its basic technical ability. The technical advancements associated with EOS(®) (the ability to generate a full body scan and to construct a three-dimensional model from synchronously acquired lateral and posteroanterior images) have not been evaluated in terms of their ability to improve patient outcomes. Whilst radiation dose is a concern for orthopaedic patients who require repeated imaging, it is difficult to quantify the reductions in radiation dose seen with EOS(®) in terms of patient health benefits. Clinical studies that investigate the impact of EOS(®) on patient management are required.

  13. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  14. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  15. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  16. Programmable multimode quantum networks

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-François; Janousek, Jiri; Hage, Boris; Treps, Nicolas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-A.

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement between large numbers of quantum modes is the quintessential resource for future technologies such as the quantum internet. Conventionally, the generation of multimode entanglement in optics requires complex layouts of beamsplitters and phase shifters in order to transform the input modes into entangled modes. Here we report the highly versatile and efficient generation of various multimode entangled states with the ability to switch between different linear optics networks in real time. By defining our modes to be combinations of different spatial regions of one beam, we may use just one pair of multi-pixel detectors in order to measure multiple entangled modes. We programme virtual networks that are fully equivalent to the physical linear optics networks they are emulating. We present results for N=2 up to N=8 entangled modes here, including N=2, 3, 4 cluster states. Our approach introduces the highly sought after attributes of flexibility and scalability to multimode entanglement. PMID:22929783

  17. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 7: EOS system definition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) study is summarized to show the modular design of a general purpose spacecraft, a mission peculiar segment which performs the EOS-A mission, an Operations Control Center, a Data Processing Facility, and a design for Low Cost Readout Stations. The study verified the practicality and feasibility of the modularized spacecraft with the capability of supporting many missions in the Earth Observation spectrum. The various subjects considered in the summary are: (1) orbit/launch vehicle tradeoff studies and recommendations, (2) instrument constraints and interfaces, (3) design/cost tradeoff and recommendations, (4) low cost management approach and recommendations, (5) baseline system description and specifications, and (6) space shuttle utilization and interfaces.

  18. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullooly, William

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-first monthly report for the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit- A (AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 July 1995 through 31 July 1995. This period is the nineteenth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. Included in this report is the Master Program Schedule (Section 2), a report from the Product Team Leaders on the status of all major program elements (Section 3), Drawing status (Section 4), Weight and Power Budgets (CDRL) 503 (Section 5), Performance Assurance (CDRL 204) (Section 6), Configuration Management Status Report (CDRL 203) (Section 7), Documentation/Data Management Status Report (Section 8), and Contract Status (Section 9).

  19. A systems-approach to the design of the Eos data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Robert R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The task of designing a data and information system responsive to the needs of Eos users is stratified by level and approached with contemporary systems design practices. Appropriate systems design principles are applied at the conceptual design level in this paper. A functional, architectural design is described in terms of elemental composition, top-level functions, and external and internal interfaces. The functional validity of this design has been tested and verified through the use of realistic user scenarios consistent with existing plans for the 1990s, the Space Station era. Technologic and management impediments to the development of the requisite data and information system for Eos are examined and a consistent methodology for developing this system is discussed.

  20. A systems-approach to the design of the Eos data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Robert R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The task of designing a data and information system responsive to the needs of Eos users is stratified by level and approached with contemporary systems design practices. Appropriate systems design principles are applied at the conceptual design level in this paper. A functional, architectural design is described in terms of elemental composition, top-level functions, and external and internal interfaces. The functional validity of this design has been tested and verified through the use of realistic user scenarios consistent with existing plans for the 1990s, the Space Station era. Technologic and management impediments to the development of the requisite data and information system for Eos are examined and a consistent methodology for developing this system is discussed.

  1. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard flight design and presents the validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment through fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a standalone algorithm.

  2. Preliminary Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission is completing a primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented an autonomous universal three-axis formation flying algorithm in executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard design and presents the preliminary validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment and autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a stand-alone algorithm.

  3. A geometric performance assessment of the EO-1 advanced land imager

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, J.C.; Choate, M.J.; Meyer, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) demonstrates technology applicable to a successor system to the Landsat Thematic Mapper series. A study of the geometric performance characteristics of the ALI was conducted under the auspices of the EO-1 Science Validation Team. This study evaluated ALI performance with respect to absolute pointing knowledge, focal plane sensor chip assembly alignment, and band-to-band registration for purposes of comparing this new technology to the heritage Landsat systems. On-orbit geometric calibration procedures were developed that allowed the generation of ALI geometrically corrected products that compare favorably with their Landsat 7 counterparts with respect to absolute geodetic accuracy, internal image geometry, and band registration.

  4. What we can Learn About Aerosols from EOS-MISR Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), promise to significantly improve our ability to constrain aerosol properties from space. Recent advances in modeling the Earth's climate have brought us to a point where the contributions made by aerosols to the global radiation budget noticeably affect the results. Knowledge of both aerosol optical depth and the microphysical properties of particles is needed to adequately model aerosol effects. This talk explores the ability of multiangle, multi-spectral remote sensing observations anticipated from the EOS MISR instrument, to retrieve aerosol optical depth and information about mixes of particle types, globally, at 17.6 km spatial resolution. The instrument is scheduled for launch into a 10:30 AM, sun-synchronous polar orbit in 1999.

  5. EOS MLS Science Data Processing System: A Description of Architecture and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddy, David T.; Echeverri, Mark D.; Wagner, Paul A.; Hanzel, Audrey T.; Fuller, Ryan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and capabilities of the Science Data Processing System (SDPS) for the EOS MLS. The SDPS consists of two major components--the Science Computing Facility and the Science Investigator-led Processing System. The Science Computing Facility provides the facilities for the EOS MLS Science Team to perform the functions of scientific algorithm development, processing software development, quality control of data products, and scientific analyses. The Science Investigator-led Processing System processes and reprocesses the science data for the entire mission and delivers the data products to the Science Computing Facility and to the Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Distributed Active Archive Center, which archives and distributes the standard science products.

  6. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  7. Results Of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called Enhanced Formation Flying. To enable this technology, a team at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(trademark), its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  8. Performance of the Star Tracker Lightshades on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas; Lee, Albert; Donnelly, Michael; Schroder, Michael; McNally, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The TRW built EOS Aqua spacecraft uses two Ball Aerospace CT-602 star trackers to provide attitude updates to the 3-axis, zero momentum, controller. Two months prior to the scheduled launch of Aqua, Ball reported an error in the design of the star tracker lightshades. The lightshades, which had been designed specifically for the EOS Common spacecraft, were not expected to meet the stray light rejection requirements of the mission, thus impacting the overall spacecraft pointing performance. What ensued was an effort to characterize the actual performance of the existing shade design, determine what could be done within the physical envelope available, and modify the hardware to meet requirements. Changes were made based on this review activity and Aqua was launched on May 4, 2002. To date the spacecraft is meeting all of its science pointing requirements. Reported here are the lightshade design predictions, test results, and the measured on orbit performance of these shades.

  9. Performance of the Star Tracker Lightshades on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Thomas; Schroeder, Michael; Donnelly, Michael; McNally, Mark; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The TRW built EOS Aqua spacecraft uses two Ball Aerospace CT-602 star trackers to provide attitude updates to the 3-axis, zero momentum, controller. Two months prior to the scheduled launch of Aqua, Ball reported an error in the design of the star tracker lightshades. The lightshades, which had been designed specifically for the EOS Common spacecraft, were not expected to meet the stray light rejection requirements of the mission and thus impact the overall spacecraft pointing performance. What ensued was an effort to characterize the actual performance of the existing shade design, determine what could be done within the physical envelope available, and modify the hardware to meet requirements. Changes were made based on this review activity and Aqua was launched on May 4, 2002. To date the spacecraft is meeting all of its science pointing requirements. Reported here are the lightshade design predictions, test results, and the measured on orbit performance of these shades.

  10. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  11. Results Of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called Enhanced Formation Flying. To enable this technology, a team at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(trademark), its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  12. Integration and Test Flight Validation Plans for the Pulsed Plasma Thruster Experiment on EO- 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, Charles; Benson, Scott; Sanneman, Paul; Hoskins, Andy; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. The PPT is a small, self-contained pulsed electromagnetic propulsion system capable of delivering high specific impulse (900-1200 s), very small impulse bits (10-1000 uN-s) at low average power (less than 1 to 100 W). Teflon fuel is ablated and slightly ionized by means of a capacitative discharge. The discharge also generates electromagnetic fields that accelerate the plasma by means of the Lorentz Force. EO-1 has a single PPT that can produce thrust in either the positive or negative pitch direction. The flight validation has been designed to demonstrate of the ability of the PPT to provide precision pointing accuracy, response and stability, and confirmation of benign plume and EMI effects. This paper will document the success of the flight validation.

  13. Nicaragua Eruption Lava Threat Closely Monitored by NASA EO-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-07

    Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua, began erupting on Dec. 1, 2015, after more than a century of inactivity. On Dec. 4, 2015, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft observed the new eruption. This image is created from infrared data, and shows the incandescent active vent at the summit of the volcano and lava flowing down the side of the volcano. These data are being examined by scientists to determine where lava will flow, allowing assessment of possible threats to local infrastructure. The EO-1 data were obtained at an altitude of 438 miles (705 kilometers) and at a resolution of 98 feet (30 meters) per pixel at different visible and infrared wavelengths. The ALI image is 23 miles (37 kilometers) wide. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20203

  14. Optical atmospheric scattering and absorption limitations on offset pointing from Earth Observatory Satellite /EOS/ sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    The Braslau-Dave atmospheric model which calculates the upward monochromatic light fluxes leaving the top of the atmosphere as a function of viewing angle, sun angle, and ground reflectance was employed to study the effect of atmospheric scattering and attenuation on universal apparent contrast for two EOS remote sensors operated at very large offset or pointing angles: the Thematic Mapper (TM) and the High Resolution Pointable Imager (HRPI). The TM offset off nadir could be plus or minus 20 degrees with an 11 degree scan angle and the HRPI pointing angle off nadir could be plus or minus 45 degrees with a 3 degree scan angle. The reduction of universal apparent contrast of EOS imagery is studied as a function of sun elevation angle, atmospheric aerosol loading, radiation wavelength and sensor look angles.

  15. Risk reduction methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Richard K.; Pingitore, Nelson V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will discuss proposed Flight Operations methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC), to reduce risks associated with the operation of complex multi-instrument spacecraft in a multi-spacecraft environment. The EOC goals are to obtain 100 percent science data capture and maintain 100 percent spacecraft health, for each EOS spacecraft. Operations risks to the spacecraft and data loss due to operator command error, mission degradation due to mis-identification of an anomalous trend in component performance or mis-management of resources, and total mission loss due to improper subsystem configuration or mis-identification of an anomalous condition. This paper discusses automation of routine Flight Operations Team (FOT) responsibilities, Expert systems for real-time non-nominal condition decision support, and Telemetry analysis systems for in-depth playback data analysis and trending.

  16. 21CMMC: Parallelized Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis tool for the epoch of reionization (EoR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    21CMMC is an efficient Python sampler of the semi-numerical reionization simulation code 21cmFAST (ascl:1102.023). It can recover constraints on astrophysical parameters from current or future 21 cm EoR experiments, accommodating a variety of EoR models, as well as priors on individual model parameters and the reionization history. By studying the resulting impact on the EoR astrophysical constraints, 21CMMC can be used to optimize foreground cleaning algorithms; interferometer designs; observing strategies; alternate statistics characterizing the 21cm signal; and synergies with other observational programs.

  17. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 2: EOS-A system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program are defined. The system specifications for the satellite payload are examined. The broad objectives of the EOS-A program are as follows: (1) to develop space-borne sensors for the measurement of land resources, (2) to evolve spacecraft systems and subsystems which will permit earth observation with greater accuracy, coverage, spatial resolution, and continuity than existing systems, (3) to develop improved information processing, extraction, display, and distribution systems, and (4) to use space transportation systems for resupply and retrieval of the EOS.

  18. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A. Supporting analyses and tradeoffs, book 1. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A listing of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) candidate missions is presented for use as a baseline in describing the EOS payloads. The missions are identified in terms of first, second, and third generation payloads. The specific applications of the EOS satellites are defined. The subjects considered are: (1) orbit analysis, (2) space shuttle interfaces, (3) thematic mapping subsystem, (4) high resolution pointable imager subsystem, (5) the data collection system, (6) the synthetic aperture radar, (7) the passive multichannel microwave radiometer, and (8) the wideband communications and handling equipment. Illustrations of the satellite and launch vehicle configurations are provided. Block diagrams of the electronic circuits are included.

  19. Real-time IR/EO scene generation utilizing an optimized scene rendering subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Robert J.; Howe, Daniel B.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes advances in the development IR/EO scene generation using the second generation Comptek Amherst Systems' Scene Rendering Subsystem (SRS). The SRS is a graphics rendering engine designed specifically to support real-time hardware-in-the-loop testing of IR/EO sensor systems. The SRS serves as an alternative to commercial rendering systems, such as the Silicon GraphicsR InfiniteReality, when IR/EO sensor fidelity requirements surpass the limits designed into COTS hardware that is optimized for visual rendering. The paper will discuss the need for such a system and will present examples of the kinds of sensor tests that can take advantage of the high radiometric fidelity provided by the SRS. Examples of situations where the high spatial fidelity of the InfiniteReality is more appropriate will also be presented. The paper will also review models and algorithms used in IR/EO scene rendering and show how the design of the SRS was driven by the requirements of these models and algorithms. This work has been done in support of the Infrared Sensor Stimulator system (IRSS) which will be used for installed system testing of avionics electronic combat systems. The IRSS will provide a high frame rate, real-time, reactive, hardware-in-the-loop test capability for the stimulation of current and future infrared and ultraviolet based sensor systems. The IRSS program is a joint development effort under the leadership of the Naval Air Warfare Center -- Aircraft Division, Air Combat Environment Test and Evaluation Facility (ACETEF) with close coordination and technical support from the Electronic Combat Integrated Test (ECIT) Program Office. The system will be used for testing of multiple sensor avionics systems to support the Development Test & Evaluation and Operational Test & Evaluation objectives of the U.S. Navy and Air Force.

  20. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by whch scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  1. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special but not exclusive look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  2. Instrument constraints and interface specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The equipment specifications for the thematic mapper and high resolution pointable imager for use on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are presented. The interface requirements of the systems are defined. The interface requirements are extracted from the equipment specifications and are intended as a summary to be used by the system and spacecraft designer. The appropriate documentation from which the specifications of the equipment are established are identified.

  3. A Controlled Laboratory Environment to Study EO Signal Degradation Due to Underwater Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-11

    turbulence Iii. uf Paper or P resentation A controlled laboratory environment to AUTHOR(s) LEGAL NAMES(s) OF RECORD Silvia Matt 7333, Wellin Hou 7333, A...controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence Silvia Matt*a, Weilin Houa, Wesley Goodea, Guigen Liub, Ming...to examine and mitigate turbulence effects, we set up a laboratory turbulence environment allowing the variation of turbulence intensity. Convective

  4. The EOS of α-NTO through high-pressure microscopy-interferometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M.; Bastea, Sorin; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Radousky, Harry B.; Armstrong, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the volume of a material compressed quasi-statically to a high-pressure typically involves the determination of a primitive crystal cell volume using x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The accumulation of pressure dependent volumes leads to an understanding of the material's equation of state, (EOS); however, in the case of low-symmetry (e.g. triclinic) materials with twining features, and large primitive cells, conventional XRD approaches can be technically problematic and lead to ambiguous or mathematically under-determined lattice constants. To resolve this long-standing issue, we examined the utility of a "direct" approach toward determining a material's volume by measuring surface area and sample height using optical microscopy and interferometry respectively. To test the validity of our proposed approach, we first compared our results from pressurized Triamino-Trinitrobenzene (TATB, SG P-1) with a published EOS determined by synchrotron XRD measurements of Stevens et al.. A near-perfect match between the two sets of V(P, 300K) data is observed; and thus, we proceeded to determine the EOS of the energetic material 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4,-triazol-3-one (α-NTO), which under ambient conditions crystallizes as a four-component twinned system with a triclinic symmetry (SG P-1). No high-pressure XRD EOS data have been published on α-NTO, probably due to its unambiguously complex crystal structure. The results of this study reveal that our proposed approach applied to quasi-statically compressed anisotropic materials is a reliable alternative toward determining material EOSs,-especially when conventional methodologies are not feasible.

  5. The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer: An EOS facility instrument candidate for application of data compression methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1991-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observing facility will operate on the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the late 1990's. It is estimated that this observing facility will produce over 200 gigabytes of data per day requiring a storage capability of just over 300 gigabytes per day. Archiving, browsing, and distributing the data associated with MODIS represents a rich opportunity for testing and applying both lossless and lossy data compression methods.

  6. Enabling the Continuous EOS-SNPP Satellite Data Record thru EOSDIS Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A.; Behnke, J.; Ho, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Following Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) launch of October 2011, the role of the NASA Science Data Segment (SDS) focused primarily on evaluation of the sensor data records (SDRs) and environmental data records (EDRs) produced by the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), a National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) Program as to their suitability for Earth system science. The evaluation has been completed for Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir instruments. Since launch, the SDS has also been processing, archiving and distributing data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb instruments and this work is planned to continue through the life of the mission. As NASA transitions to the production of standard, Earth Observing System (EOS)-like science products for all instruments aboard Suomi NPP, the Suomi NPP Science Team (ST) will need data processing and production facilities to produce the new science products they develop. The five Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS): Land, Ocean. Atmosphere, Ozone, and Sounder will produce the NASA SNPP standard Level 1, Level 2, and global Level 3 products and provide the products to the NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) for distribution to the user community. The SIPS will ingest EOS compatible Level 0 data from EOS Data Operations System (EDOS) for their data processing. A key feature is the use of Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) services for the continuous EOS-SNPP satellite data record. This allows users to use the same tools and interfaces on SNPP as they would on the entire NASA Earth Science data collection in EOSDIS.

  7. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special but not exclusive look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  8. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by whch scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  9. Search and retrieval index to EOS/ESD Symposium Proceedings 1979 to 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, R. E., Jr.; Wanner, R. T.

    1985-04-01

    This book contains indexes used in searching for information contained in papers produced in Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge (EOS/ESD) Symposium 1979 to 1984. These indexes are the Alphabetical List of Index Terms, Subject Index, Author Index, Corporate Index, Keywords in Title Index, and Chronological List of Papers Index. These indexes provide a clear, easy-to-read, and concise method of searching for and retrieving the valuable information contained in IRPS Proceedings.

  10. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  11. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  12. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  13. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  14. Development of EOS data for granular material like sand by using micromodels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcher, M.; Gebbeken, N.

    2012-08-01

    Detonations in soil can occur due to several reasons: e.g. land mines or bombs from the Second World War. Soil is also often used as a protective barrier. In all cases the behaviour of soil loaded by shock waves is important. The simulation of shock wave loaded soil using hydro-codes like AUTODYN needs a failure model as well as an equation of state (EOS). The parameters for these models are often not known. The popular material law for sand from Laine and Sandvik [1], e.g., is a first approximation, but it can only be used for dry sand with a certain grain grading. The parameters porosity, grain grading, and humidity have a big influence on the material behaviour of cohesive soils. Micro-mechanic models can be used to develop the material behaviour of granular materials. EOS data can be obtained by numerically loading micro-mechanically modelled grains and measuring the density under a certain pressure in the finite element model. The influence of porosity, grain grading, and humidity can be easily investigated. EOS data are determined in this work for cohesive soils depending on these parameters.

  15. Implementing Land and Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanvi, V.; Michael, K.; Murphy, K. J.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B.; Tilmes, C.; Conover, H.; Teague, M.; Durbin, P.; Regner, K.

    2010-12-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from sensors on board the earth observing satellites. NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a wealth of data and products supporting scientific research of the atmosphere, oceans, and land. The Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments onboard Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily which are processed into higher-level “standard” products within 8 to 40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users usually need data within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. In response to this need, NASA developed the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) that provides land and atmosphere data acquired by AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, MODIS, and OMI instruments.

  16. THE EOS ART Projects: Six Art Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, I.

    2015-12-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. The EOS ART 2010-2013 was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects.The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia.The presentation provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand). http://art-science-media.com/the-eos-art-projects/

  17. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent; Jarnot, Robert; Pickett, Herbert; Cofield, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Wagner, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A computer program performs level- 1B processing (the term 1B is explained below) of data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), which is an instrument aboard the Aura spacecraft. This software accepts, as input, the raw EOS MLS scientific and engineering data and the Aura spacecraft ephemeris and attitude data. Its output consists of calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. [This software is one of several computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing EOS MLS data. Starting from level 0 (representing the aforementioned raw data, the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (e.g., 1B and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing.] At the time of this reporting, this software is at version 2.2 and incorporates improvements over a prior version that make the code more robust, improve calibration, provide more diagnostic outputs, improve the interface with the Level 2 PGE, and effect a 15-percent reduction in file sizes by use of data compression.

  18. Eos and pegasus, two members of the Ikaros family of proteins with distinct DNA binding activities.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, J; Holmes, M; Chong, B; Crossley, M

    2000-12-08

    Members of the Ikaros family of transcription factors, Ikaros, Aiolos, and Helios, are expressed in lymphocytes and have been implicated in controlling lymphoid development. These proteins contain two characteristic clusters of zinc fingers, an N-terminal domain important for DNA recognition, and a C-terminal domain that mediates homo- and heterotypic associations between family members. The conservation of these domains is such that all three proteins recognize related DNA sequences, and all are capable of dimerizing with other family members. Here we describe two additional Ikaros family proteins, Eos and Pegasus. Eos is most highly related to Helios and shares its DNA binding and protein association properties. Pegasus is related to other Ikaros proteins in its C-terminal dimerization domain but contains a divergent N-terminal zinc finger domain. Pegasus self-associates and binds to other family members but recognizes distinct DNA-binding sites. Eos and Pegasus repress the expression of reporter genes containing their recognition elements. Our results suggest that these proteins may associate with previously described Ikaros family proteins in lymphoid cells and play additional roles in other tissues.

  19. The EOS of NTO through high-pressure microscopy- interferometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaug, Joseph; Stavrou, Elissaios; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Bastea, Sorin; Armstrong, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Measuring equation of state (EOS) of solid specimens under pressure usually involves the determination of the primitive cell volume using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. However, in the case of low symmetry (e.g. triclinic) materials with twining features and large primitive cells, this can be problematic and ambiguous. In order to address this issue we examine the possibility of a ``direct'' approach which is based on measuring the surface area and thickness with microscopy and optical interferometry respectively. To test the validity of our approach, we had first compared the results of our technique in the case of the Triamino-Trinitrobenzene (TATB, SG P-1) with the published EOS, as determined with XRD measurements, by Stevens et al.. A perfect match between the two sets of data has been observed. We present also the results of our study on the energetic material 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4,-triazol-3-one (α-NTO) which crystallizes as a four-component twin with triclinic symmetry (SG P-1). No high pressure XRD EOS data have been published on α-NTO, probably due to its extremely complex crystal structure; thus, this technique is a reliable alternative. Work performed by the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. EOS determination through microscopy- interferometry measurements: A low symmetry energetic materials case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Bastea, Sorin; Armstrong, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Measuring equation of state (EOS) of solid specimens under pressure usually involves the determination of the primitive cell volume using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. However, in the case of low symmetry (e.g. triclinic) materials with twining features and large primitive cells, this can be problematic and ambiguous. In order to address this issue we examine the possibility of a direct approach which is based on measuring the surface area and thickness with microscopy and optical interferometry respectively. To test the validity of this approach applied to a crystalline material, we first compared our results from Triamino-Trinitrobenzene (TATB, SG P-1) with the published EOS, as determined with XRD measurements, by Stevens et al. [1]. A near perfect match between the two sets of data has been observed. We also present the results of our study on the energetic material 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4,-triazol-3-one (a-NTO) which crystallizes as a four-component twin [2] with triclinic symmetry. No high-pressure XRD data have been published on a-NTO, probably due to its highly complex crystal structure, making this technique a viable way to probe the cold compression EOS of such compounds. Work performed by the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  2. Autonomous Volcanic Activity Detection with ASE on EO-1 Hyperion: Applications for Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J.; Greeley, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.; Williams, K.; ASE Project Team

    2003-05-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 6 (ST-6) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly two scene classifiers on the Earth Orbiting 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in the fall of 2003, and will demonstrate autonomous, onboard processing of Hyperion imager 0.4-2.4 micron hyperspectral data, and autonomous, science-driven planning and acquisition of subsequent observations. ASE is an experiment to meet NASA's call for systems with reduced downlink and onboard data processing to enable autonomous missions. ASE software is divided into three classes: (1) spacecraft command and control; (2) an onboard planner (CASPER); and (3) modular science algorithms, which are used to process raw data to search out specific features and spectral signatures. The ASE Science Team has developed scene classifiers to detect thermal emission in both day and nighttime Hyperion data, and are continuing to develop other scene classifiers for ice, snow, water and land for future release and flight on EO-1. Once uploaded, the thermal scene classifier effectively turns the EO-1 spacecraft into an autonomously operating and reacting volcanic activity detector. It is possible to envision such a capability on spacecraft observing volcanism on Io and Triton, autonomously identifying and classifying activity, identifying sites deserving of closer scrutiny, and retasking the spacecraft to observe them, thus fulfilling NASA's goal of fully-autonomous, science-driven spacecraft. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  3. Insights on How NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Monitors Our World Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover and land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  4. Use Of EOS-AURA Observation In The MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Wargan, Krzysztof; Coy, Lawrence L.; McCarty, Will

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological reanalyses provide multi-year gridded datasets that describe the evolution of the atmosphere. Such products use a data assimilation system, comprising of an atmospheric model, a broad suite of observations, and an analysis system that optimally combines the model forecast with the observations, using an algorithm that includes information about model and data accuracy. The mixture of observations is of central importance to the quality of the assimilated datasets. The Modern-era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) included constraints on the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere from nadir sounders on the NOAA polar-orbiting platforms (Stratospheric Sounding Units and Advanced Microwave Sounding Units). These instruments have peak sensitivities that occur well below the stratopause. As such, the radiance measurements do not provide strong constraints on stratopause temperature. The new MERRA-2 reanalysis is using EOS-MLS temperature retrievals after they are available: it will be demonstrated that these data lead to a more realistic stratopause structure in MERRA-2 than in MERRA. Similarly, the work demonstrates the improvements in lower stratospheric ozone in MERRA-2 than in MERRA, for the period when EOS-MLS ozone data are assimilated. This improvement occurs because of the ozone profile information offered by MLS in the low stratosphere, in contrast to the SBUV/2 data used for the rest of MERRA-2. The impacts of choosing to use the EOS-MLS datasets are discussed in context of the continuity of the data record in MERRA- 2.

  5. The use of EO Optical data for the Italian Supersites volcanoes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Malvina

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the INGV experience in the capability to import many different EO optical data into in house developed systems and to maintain a repository where the acquired data have been stored. These data are used for generating selected products which are functional to face the different volcanic activity phases. Examples on the processing of long time series based EO data of Mt Etna activity and Campi Flegrei observation by using remote sensing techniques and at different spatial resolution data (ASTER - 90mt, AVHRR -1km, MODIS-1km, MSG SEVIRI-3km) are also showed. Both volcanoes belong to Italian Supersites initiative of the geohazard scientific community. In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project (call FP7 ENV.2012.6.4-2), this work wants to describe the main activities concerning the generation of brightness temperature map from the satellite data acquired in real-time from INGV MEOS Multi-mission Antenna (for MODIS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and geostationary satellite data) and AVHRR-TERASCAN (for AVHRR, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data). The advantage of direct download of EO data by means INGV antennas (with particular attention to AVHRR and MODIS) even though low spatial resolution offers the possibility of a systematic data processing having a daily updating of information for prompt response and hazard mitigation. At the same time it has been necessary the use of large archives to inventory and monitor dynamic and dangerous phenomena, like volcanic activity, globally.

  6. Model membranes prepared with ceramide EOS, cholesterol and free fatty acids form a unique lamellar phase.

    PubMed

    Groen, Daniel; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2010-03-16

    The lipid matrix present in the human stratum corneum (the thin, uppermost layer of the skin) is considered to play a crucial role in the skin barrier function. The lipid matrix consists of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. The 13 nm lamellar phase present in the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum is very characteristic and plays an important role in the skin barrier function. One subclass of ceramides with a linoleic acid linked to a very long acyl (referred to as EOS) plays a crucial role in the formation of the 13 nm lamellar phase. In this article, we focus on the lipid phase behavior of EOS mixed with cholesterol or with cholesterol and free fatty acids. Our studies reveal that an equimolar ratio of EOS, cholesterol, and free fatty acids forms a lamellar phase with a very long repeat distance of approximately 14.7 nm. This phase exhibits exceptional behavior in that in the thermotropic response the fatty acid chains and the ceramide chains undergo an order-disorder transition in different temperature ranges while part of the hydrocarbon chains of ceramides and fatty acids are mixing in the orthorhombic lattice. On the basis of these observations, a molecular model for the 14.7 nm phase has been proposed in which the lipids are organized in a lamellar phase with three different lipid layers in a symmetric unit cell.

  7. CHARACTERISING THE EOS SLOT-SCANNING SYSTEM WITH THE EFFECTIVE DETECTIVE QUANTUM EFFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Clavel, A H; Monnin, P; Létang, J M; Verdun, F R; Darbon, A

    2016-06-01

    As opposed to the standard detective quantum efficiency (DQE), effective DQE (eDQE) is a figure of merit that allows comparing the performances of imaging systems in the presence of scatter rejection devices. The geometry of the EOS™ slot-scanning system is such that the detector is self-collimated and rejects scattered radiation. In this study, the EOS system was characterised using the eDQE in imaging conditions similar to those used in clinical practice: with phantoms of different widths placed in the X-ray beam, for various incident air kerma and tube voltages corresponding to the phantom thickness. Scatter fractions in EOS images were extremely low, around 2 % for all configurations. Maximum eDQE values spanned 9-14.8 % for a large range of air kerma at the detector plane from 0.01 to 1.34 µGy. These figures were obtained with non-optimised EOS setting but still over-performed most of the maximum eDQEs recently assessed for various computed radiology and digital radiology systems with antiscatter grids.

  8. Insights on How NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Monitors Our World Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover and land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  9. Design of the EO-1 Pulsed Plasma Thruster Attitude Control Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, Charles; Sanneman, Paul; Hunt, Teresa; Blackman, Kathie; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. The PPT is a small, self-contained pulsed electromagnetic Propulsion system capable of delivering high specific impulse (900-1200 s), very small impulse bits (10-1000 micro N-s) at low average power (less than 1 to 100 W). EO-1 has a single PPT that can produce torque in either the positive or negative pitch direction. For the PPT in-flight experiment, the pitch reaction wheel will be replaced by the PPT during nominal EO-1 nadir pointing. A PPT specific proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm was developed for the experiment. High fidelity simulations of the spacecraft attitude control capability using the PPT were conducted. The simulations, which showed PPT control performance within acceptable mission limits, will be used as the benchmark for on-orbit performance. The flight validation will demonstrate the ability of the PPT to provide precision pointing resolution. response and stability as an attitude control actuator.

  10. Validation and Verification of the multi-material EOS and Opacity Model used in CRASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Drake, R. Paul

    2011-10-01

    The laser target for the CRASH project has a complicated geometry and is manufactured from four materials. The beryllium foil, and, partly, the gold washer are directly irradiated with the laser beams, the physical conditions in them vary from very high temperatures and low densities in the laser corona till multi-hundred MBar pressure in the pusher driving the strong shock wave in xenon. Shock-compressed xenon intensely radiates, the radiation transport being responsible for the most of the observed phenomena: wall shock, generated from the irradiated tube wall, perturbations in the shocked layer of xenon, wavy xenon-beryllium interface. The capillary tube is made of two different sorts of plastic: polyimide and acrylic. To perform coupled simulations of the hydrodynamic motion and radiation transport one needs to incorporate the EOS and multi-group opacity data. For a long time we were employing a simple thermodynamic model, based on direct calculation of statistical sums and the Helmholtz free energy and accounting for the partial Fermi degeneration for electrons as well as the Coulomb interactions. In the present simulation we present the results of the validation and verification research, for the EOS and multi- group opacity model used in CRASH. First goal is a direct comparison between the EOS data tables as produced using the CRASH code with those obtained from different databases (ARTEP, PRISM and some others). We analyze the difference in the results and discuss, which of the data can be better used in simulations.

  11. Nanostructure-based EO/IR focal plane array development for unattended ground sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Egerton, E. James; Richwine, Robert A.; Puri, Yash R.; Manzur, Tariq; Dhar, Nibir K.; Polla, Dennis L.; Wang, Zhong L.; Fernandes, Gustavo E.; Xu, Jimmy; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.; Anwar, A. F. M.

    2011-06-01

    Next Generation EO/IR focal plane arrays using nanostructure materials are being developed for a variety of Defense Applications including Unattended Ground Sensor Applications. Several different nanomaterials are being evaluated for these applications. These include ZnO nanowires that have demonstrated large signal to noise ratio as a wide band gap nanostructure material in the UV band. Similarly, the work is under way using Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) for a high speed detector and focal plane array as bolometer for IR bands of interest, which can be implemented for the unattended ground sensor applications. In this paper, we will discuss the sensor design and model predicting performance of an EO/IR focal plane array that can cover the UV to IR bands of interest. The model can provide a robust means for comparing performance of the EO/IR FPA's and Sensors that can operate in the UV, Visible-NIR (0.4-1.8μ), SWIR (2.0-2.5μ), MWIR (3-5μ), and LWIR bands (8-14μ). This model can be used as a tool for predicting performance of nanostructure arrays under development. We will also discuss our results on growth and characterization of ZnO nanowires and CNT's for the next generation sensor applications. Several approaches for compact energy harvesting using nanostructures will be discussed.

  12. Next generation nanostructure-based EO/IR focal plane arrays for unattended ground sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Richwine, Robert A.; Puri, Yash R.; Manzur, Tariq; Dhar, Nibir K.; Polla, Dennis L.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.; Wei, Yaguang; Zhou, Jun; Li, Cheng; Wang, Zhong L.; Fernandes, Gustavo; Xu, J. M. Jimmy

    2010-04-01

    Next Generation EO/IR focal plane arrays using nanostructure materials are being developed for a variety of Defense Applications including Unattended Ground Sensor Applications. These include ZnO nanowires that have demonstrated large signal to noise ratio as a wide band gap nanostructure material in the UV band. Similarly, the work is under way using Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) for a high speed detector and focal plane array as bolometer for IR bands of interest, which can be implemented for the unattended ground sensor applications. In this paper, we will discuss the sensor design and model predicting performance of an EO/IR focal plane array that can cover the UV to IR bands of interest. The model can provide a robust means for comparing performance of the EO/IR FPA's and Sensors that can operate in the UV, Visible-NIR (0.4-1.8μ), SWIR (2.0-2.5μ), MWIR (3-5μ), and LWIR bands (8-14μ). This model can be used as a tool for predicting performance of nanostructure arrays under development. We will also discuss our results on growth and characterization of ZnO nanowires and CNT's for the next generation sensor applications.

  13. Interactions between nuclear genes and a foreign mitochondrial genome in the redbelly dace Chrosomus eos.

    PubMed

    Deremiens, Léo; Schwartz, Logan; Angers, Annie; Glémet, Hélène; Angers, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Given the coevolution process occurring between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, the effects of introgressive hybridization remain puzzling. In this study, we take advantage of the natural co-occurrence of two biotypes bearing a similar nuclear genome (Chrosomus eos) but harbouring mitochondria from different species (wild type: C. eos; cybrids: Chrosomus neogaeus) to determine the extent of phenotype changes linked to divergence in the mitochondrial genome. Changes were assessed through differences in gene expression, enzymatic activity, proteomic and swimming activity. Our data demonstrate that complex IV activity was significantly higher in cybrids compared to wild type. This difference could result from one variable amino acid on the COX3 mitochondrial subunit and/or from a tremendous change in the proteome. We also show that cybrids present a higher swimming performance than wild type. Ultimately, our results demonstrate that the absence of coevolution for a period of almost ten million years between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes does not appear to be necessarily deleterious but could even have beneficial effects. Indeed, the capture of foreign mitochondria could be an efficient way to circumvent the selection process of genomic coevolution, allowing the rapid accumulation of new mutations in C. eos cybrids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. New method for measuring acetabular component positioning with EOS imaging: feasibility study on dry bone.

    PubMed

    Journé, Alexandre; Sadaka, Jérome; Bélicourt, Claire; Sautet, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Malposition of the acetabular cup is the most common cause of total hip arthroplasty (THA) dislocation. The position of a total hip implant is usually analysed on computed tomography (CT) scan. We aim to prove it is possible to measure, with good accuracy, the position of an acetabular cup using the low-dose irradiation (EOS) imaging. We implanted an acetabular cup in a pelvic dry bone and measured cup anteversion and inclination with scanography. We performed 14 series of EOS acquisitions with different inclination, rotation and pelvic tilt, which were analysed by five observers. Two observers repeated angle measurements. We then calculated measurement inter- and intrareproducibility and accuracy. Using a confidence interval (CI) of 95 %, inter- and intra-observer reproducibility were ±1.6, and ±1.4°, respectively, for cup inclination; accuracy in comparison with CT was ±2.6°. Using a 95 % CI, inter- and intra-observer reproducibility for cup anteversion were ±2.5° and ±2.3°, respectively. Measurement accuracy compared with CT was ±3.9°. EOS imaging system is superior to standard radiography in terms of measuring acetabular anteversion and inclination.

  15. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  16. The use of algorithmic behavioural transfer functions in parametric EO system performance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.

    2015-10-01

    The use of mathematical models to predict the overall performance of an electro-optic (EO) system is well-established as a methodology and is used widely to support requirements definition, system design, and produce performance predictions. Traditionally these models have been based upon cascades of transfer functions based on established physical theory, such as the calculation of signal levels from radiometry equations, as well as the use of statistical models. However, the performance of an EO system is increasing being dominated by the on-board processing of the image data and this automated interpretation of image content is complex in nature and presents significant modelling challenges. Models and simulations of EO systems tend to either involve processing of image data as part of a performance simulation (image-flow) or else a series of mathematical functions that attempt to define the overall system characteristics (parametric). The former approach is generally more accurate but statistically and theoretically weak in terms of specific operational scenarios, and is also time consuming. The latter approach is generally faster but is unable to provide accurate predictions of a system's performance under operational conditions. An alternative and novel architecture is presented in this paper which combines the processing speed attributes of parametric models with the accuracy of image-flow representations in a statistically valid framework. An additional dimension needed to create an effective simulation is a robust software design whose architecture reflects the structure of the EO System and its interfaces. As such, the design of the simulator can be viewed as a software prototype of a new EO System or an abstraction of an existing design. This new approach has been used successfully to model a number of complex military systems and has been shown to combine improved performance estimation with speed of computation. Within the paper details of the approach

  17. More experienced surgeons less likely to fuse: a focus group review of 315 hypothetical EOS cases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brendan A; Asghar, Jahangir; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Flynn, John M; Roye, David P; Vitale, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has identified significant variability in decision making and multiple areas of clinical equipoise in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis (EOS). In an attempt to better understand possible determinants of this variability, we examined the relationship between socioclinical attributes of 11 participating surgeons and decision making regarding the treatment of EOS. Eleven experienced EOS surgeons were surveyed. The first part of the survey consisted of questions regarding surgeon and practice demographics. Next, surgeons were queried regarding their preferred management of 315 hypothetical EOS cases. Cases varied considerably in etiology [idiopathic, and low-tone and high-tone neuromuscular (HTNM)], age, and curve severity and progression. Treatment options were analyzed both individually and grouped as conservative (observation, bracing, or casting) versus surgical (spine-based or rib-based distraction, growth guidance, growth modulation, or definitive fusion). An "outlier" variable was created to determine the extent of a surgeon's deviation from the group in management decisions. A univariate and multivariate regression analysis to identify statistical associations between physician characteristics and their management decisions in the presented hypothetical cases was performed. The cohort's mean years in practice was 20.7±7.36 years. Fifty-six percent of the cohort held Chest Wall and Spine Deformity Study Group (CWSDSG) membership and 56% were members of the Growing Spine Study Group. Multivariate regression demonstrated more years of practice predicted a lower preference for fusion (P<0.05). This effect was greater among HTNM cases (P<0.05). Overall, there was equal interest among groups regarding the choice between rib-based and spine-based distraction methods; however, for the subset of patients with HTNM scoliosis, membership in the CWSDSG (P<0.05) and the percentage of practice spent treating spinal deformity (P<0.05) predicted more rib

  18. New EOS Imaging Protocol Allows a Substantial Reduction in Radiation Exposure for Scoliosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Newton, Peter O; Khandwala, Yash; Bartley, Carrie E; Reighard, Fredrick G; Bastrom, Tracey P; Yaszay, Burt

    2016-03-01

    Prospective. To evaluate the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) spinal models from Micro Dose EOS x-rays compared to standard, Low Dose EOS x-rays utilized for evaluating patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is a strong suggestion that radiation exposure to scoliosis patients can be further reduced. Sixty AIS patients who received biplanar, posteroanterior, and lateral standard Low Dose spine x-rays in our EOS imaging unit (∼0.33 mGy) as part of routine care also underwent an additional set of new reduced "Micro Dose" EOS x-rays (∼0.05 mGy) using a recently developed protocol. Two measurers created 3D models of the images using sterEOS software (Low Dose x2, Micro Dose x2). From this 3D modeling software, coronal Cobb angles, sagittal (T1-T12, T4-T12, L1-L5, L1-S1), and apical axial rotation measurements were obtained. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) and standard error of measurement (upper bound of 95% confidence interval) for the differences between Low Dose and Micro Dose measurements were compared. Interrater reliability was assessed on standard two-dimensional (2D) radiographic measurements. The ICCs were rated as "substantial" to "almost perfect" for Low Dose 3D, Micro Dose 3D, and 2D measures (range 0.78-0.99). The calculated measurement error was not significantly different between groups except for intrarater error on 3D L1-L5 lordosis (2.9° Micro Dose vs. 2.2°, p = .04), interrater 3D rotation of the lumbar apex (2.6° Micro Dose vs. 1.7°, p = .03), and 2D T12-sacrum lordosis (4.6° Micro Dose vs. 3.4°, p = .04). Although statistically significant differences in average measurement error were observed in lordosis and lumbar apex rotation, these differences are not believed to be clinically significant. The Micro Dose images have slightly less clarity qualitatively, yet the critical 2D and 3D measures of the curvature were reliably measured with error of measurement comparable to standard radiologic techniques. Level I

  19. EOS imaging of the human pelvis: reliability, validity, and controlled comparison with radiography.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Freitas, Joana; Zaps, Daniela; Schmitz, Matthew R; Bomar, James D; Muhamad, Abd R; Hosalkar, Harish S

    2013-05-01

    The EOS technique represents a unique imaging modality combining low radiation exposure with high image quality. As its applications for pelvic imaging may increase with time, we performed a pilot study to evaluate the validity and reliability of this technique for the assessment of gross pelvic and acetabular morphology. Consecutive conventional and EOS radiographs of a human cadaveric pelvis were made in 5° intervals of sagittal tilt and axial rotation (range, -15° to 15° for each). Six measurements were made on each image: (1) the vertical distance between the sacrococcygeal joint and the upper border of the pubic symphysis, (2) the horizontal distance between the midpoints of these structures, (3) the distance between the anterior superior iliac spines, (4) the distance between the facets of S1, (5) the Sharp angle, and (6) the Tönnis angle. Coxa profunda and crossover signs were also evaluated. The findings of the two imaging techniques were correlated with each other and with true linear measurements made on the cadaveric pelvis. All measurements were performed by two independent observers, and one observer repeated all measurements to assess reproducibility. Both observers were blinded to the true linear measurements made on the pelvis. There was a strong correlation between the results of the conventional and EOS radiography (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.644 to 0.998), and both modalities had high intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.795 to 1.000). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement on the presence of coxa profunda were both 100%. Intraobserver agreement (96.2%) and interobserver agreement (92.3%) on the presence of the crossover sign were marginally lower. Linear measurements differed significantly between the two modalities because of distortion caused by magnification effects in the conventional radiographic imaging (p < 0.05). The EOS imaging technique proved reliable for the

  20. What We Can Learn About Aerosols from EOS-MISR Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R.

    1999-01-01

    Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), promise to significantly improve our ability to constrain aerosol properties from space.