Science.gov

Sample records for programme trendrapportage eos

  1. Strategising for the future Indian EO programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Kalyanraman, S.; Joseph, George; Navalgund, R. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    2002-07-01

    The Indian Earth Observations Program, over the past three decades, has been mainly driven by the national need of natural resources management, infrastructure development, environment monitoring and disaster management support. With an array of seven Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS), national development support has been supported, through a well-knit institutional framework of a National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), a wide variety of applications developed as an inter-agency effort over the past 20 years. Now, the capacity of the programme has been extended into the global arena and IRS is providing operational data services to the global user community. The future Earth Observation Systems will have to take into consideration the aspects related to the commercialisation and standardisation of programmes world-over; transitioning into a business environment; data continuity and the need to monitor processes rather than events. Technological changes are also going to re-define many of the concepts of observation from space and issues like spatial resolution, spectral resolution and temporal resolution may no more be a concern for observation systems. ISRO is presently defining a strategy for the Indian EO Programme that will chart the progress with a vision for the next 25 years. Based on a thorough analysis, the observation needs of the future are planned and presently systems design and implementation are underway. The Need Analysis has been done keeping in mind the Global change applications; Mapping and Cartographic applications; Natural Resources and Environmental management applications etc. Issues related to defining the space and data acquisition as a national "public good", costing of data products and services and evolving a commercial remote sensing policy have been addressed for providing the overall thrust of the Indian Earth Observations program. The paper discusses the strategy adopted for assessing the future user requirements

  2. EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, Ghassem; Dozier, Jeff

    Market: Students and researchers in geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics. This book reports on the timely Earth Observing System (EOS) Program's wide range of scientific investigations, observational capabilities, vast data and information system, and educational activities. Because its primary goal is to determine the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change, this program provides the scientific knowledge needed by world leaders to formulate sound and equitable environmental policies.

  3. Future Perspective and Long-Term Strategy of the Indian EO Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    the future. The continuity of the EO services in India is the fundamental requirement for sustenance and further development of the technology and its utilisation, the stage is now set for transitioning the EO technology by initiating policy adjustments for the commercial use of space-based EO. Orientation needs to change from a "facility concept", which was the adage for the "promotional" era, to "Services concept" for the RS technology. The orientation also needs to change from RS data to Spatial Information and GIS databases. Demand for information would increase with a larger involvement of players in the developmental activities and catering to the information needs is what would be the driver for the commercial development. To that extent, the commercial development of Spatial Information needs to be thrusted forward and RS technology will be the back-bone for this information services initiative, because EO has the capability to provide accurate and timely information at large-scales in a repeated manner which is directly amenable to GIS manipulation. The thrust has to be towards developing an independent sector for Spatial Information with the active involvement of users, private entrepreneurs and other agencies to develop space-based RS market segments. This paper discusses the policy adjustments that will be required to be done for developing a viable and effective commercial EO programme in the country with a major thrust of initial government and industry partnership ultimately leading to a true industry sector for Spatial Information services.

  4. Operational Copernicus services - state of programme and the role of EO research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Peter; Rohn, Michael; Pinty, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Year 2014 is a major milestone for the EU Copernicus programme (formerly GMES), for funding Europe's operational system of satellites and geo-information services. Copernicus services shall provide accurate, up-to-date and globally-available information related to the state of land, sea/ocean, atmosphere and climate change, as well as emergency response and security in support of European policies. 2014 sees the transition of services to fully operational state, looking back on some 10 years of development, evolving through research and making "laboratory" prototypes operational for the marine and atmosphere services. First integration of capabilities in dedicated GMES service projects started in early 2004 leading to operational maturity around 2011-2013. Several scientific and research challenges have been identified along the way, addressing very different stages of evolution, which need to be tackled collaborating with different partners and in different environments. The geoscience community and their funding programmes are faced with a range of opportunities arising from the presence of an operational space data and information programme such as Copernicus, a demand which also the EU research and innovation programme is striving to meet in Horizon 2020. The last ten years have shown how the step from research prototypes to operational service chains requires specific and dedicated attention to this innovation step, shaping validated and proven products to users' demands. Special efforts are required in order for users to accept the innovative potential which new laboratory products promise. Specific attention needs to be given to processes in the users' workflows which incorporate the EO information - a step which often is underestimated in the formulation of R&D plans. Service activities in a real-life environment, and the ever advancing new sensors set new research problems for researchers. The arrival of the Sentinel satellites will challenge running

  5. EOS standards

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, Carl W

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  6. EOS Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Earth Observing System (EOS) directory is divided into two main sections: white and yellow pages. The white pages list alphabetically the names and addresses -- including e-mail, phone, and fax when available -- of all individuals involved with EOS, from graduate students to panel members to program management and more. The yellow pages list the names, affiliation, and phone number of participants divided by project management, program management, individual project participants, interdisciplinary investigations (listed alphabetically by PI), the Science Executive Committee, various panels, platforms, working groups, fellowships, and contractors.

  7. EOS workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, Franz; Karspeck, Milan; Millot, Michel; Maurice, Kelly; Jackson, Matt

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work done from mid-1989 until January 1992 to develop a prototype set of tools for the analysis of EOS-type images. Such images are characterized by great multiplicity and quantity. A single 'snapshot' of EOS-type imagery may contain several hundred component images so that on a particular pixel, one finds multiple gray values. A prototype EOS-sensor, AVIRIS, has 224 gray values at each pixel. The work focused on the ability to utilize very large images and continuously roam through those images, zoom and be able to hold more than one black and white or color image, for example for stereo viewing or for image comparisons. A second focus was the utilization of so-called 'image cubes', where multiple images need to be co-registered and then jointly analyzed, viewed, and manipulated. The target computer platform that was selected was a high-performance graphics superworkstation, Stardent 3000. This particular platform offered many particular graphics tools such as the Application Visualization System (AVS) or Dore, but it missed availability of commercial third-party software for relational data bases, image processing, etc. The project was able to cope with these limitations and a phase-3 activity is currently being negotiated to port the software and enhance it for use with a novel graphics superworkstation to be introduced into the market in the Spring of 1993.

  8. Water Resource Monitoring Based n EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze River Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathias; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  9. Water Resource Monitoring Based on EO Data: Gained Experience After 10 Years of Dragon Programme over the Yangtze Middle Reaches: From ERS 1 to Sentinel 1 and from MERIS to HJ1 and Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Huber, Claire; Huang, Shifeng; Studer, Mathais; Lai, Xijun; Chen, Xiaoling; Daillet, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    Water resources monitoring from space is an application of remote sensing under full development, with arriving satellite such as the Sentinels, and of course the development of inland applications of altimetry and the future mission as SWOT. Since 10 years within the framework of the DRAGON ESA MOST programme, a monitoring of Chines major fresh water lakes, Poyang and Dongting lakes on Yangtze reaches, is realized exploiting large source of EO data. Thanks to EO data archive exploitation, the covered period starts in 2000 up to 2014, over these two core lakes, whereas, since a 2012, a similar approach is carried over the small lakes of Anhui Province. A key question is how to access to convenient satellite data with sufficient resource to insure a high temporal frequency, ie ideally with about 10 days of revisit. An opportunistic approach was followed in order to insure this data access thanks to a large ESA support, accessing Envisat and ESA TPM, as well Chinese data. From 2004 to April 2012, ENVISAT Medium resolution products, MERIS and ASAR WSM data, were the core of the monitoring system. Since the lost of Envisat, the data exploited moved from MR to HR (20-30 m), thanks to the access to large volume of HJ1 images in 2012 and 2014, as well as coverage CSK data (30m) thanks agreement with ASI. The assimilation of these data is a fine preparation for the future exploitation of Sentinel1 and 2 dataset. Furthermore a first Sentinel data have been exploited, less than 45 after satellite launch. In addition on most sensitive areas, such as the Poyang Lake natural Reserve (Jiangxi Pr) and Shenjing Lake (Anhui Prov.) a unique set of VHR data, Pleiades, Kompsat, have been exploited. The expect strategy for the coming months and years will be in a first period, the jointly exploitation of Sentinel 1 data if the Chinese areas are rapidly integrated within the Sentinel 1 acquisition scheme, jointly with the Chinese HJ1AB data. In a second time HJ1AB data would be

  10. The EOS polar platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald; Hobish, Mitchell K.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is presented. The EOS will be part of the Mission to Planet Earth that will include a series of flight and scientific experiments. The initial polar-orbiting platform, EOS-A, will carry a suite of instruments designed to examine earth system processes at and near the planet's surface, and the interactions between various subsystems. Some of the instruments that will provide specialized data for geologists, meteorologists, biochemists, biologists, and physicists are described. Thus, EOS will provide an opportunity for technologists and scientists to examine the earth to a level of detail not previously attainable.

  11. EOS mapping accuracy study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, R. B.; Eppes, T. A.; Ouellette, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate various image positioning methods for possible use in the earth observatory satellite (EOS) program and other earth resource imaging satellite programs. The primary goal is the generation of geometrically corrected and registered images, positioned with respect to the earth's surface. The EOS sensors which were considered were the thematic mapper, the return beam vidicon camera, and the high resolution pointable imager. The image positioning methods evaluated consisted of various combinations of satellite data and ground control points. It was concluded that EOS attitude control system design must be considered as a part of the image positioning problem for EOS, along with image sensor design and ground image processing system design. Study results show that, with suitable efficiency for ground control point selection and matching activities during data processing, extensive reliance should be placed on use of ground control points for positioning the images obtained from EOS and similar programs.

  12. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  13. EOS Aura Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  14. Eos visible imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the proposed Earth Observing System (Eos) optical imagers are examined. These imagers include: moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS); geoscience laser ranging system (GLRS); high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS); the intermediate thermal infrared spectrometer (ITIR); multi-angle imaging spectrometer (MISR); earth observing scanning polarimeter (EOSP); and the lightening imaging sensor (LIS).

  15. The 1991 EOS reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dokken, David (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are covered: (1) The Global Change Research Program; (2) The Earth Observing System (EOS) goal and objectives; (3) primary EOS mission requirements; (4) EOS science; (5) EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) architecture; (6) data policy; (7) international cooperation; (8) plans and status; (9) the role of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; (10) The Global Fellowship Program; (11) management of EOS; (12) mission elements; (13) EOS instruments; (14) interdisciplinary science investigations; (15) points of contact; and (16) acronyms and abbreviations.

  16. Archiving tools for EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindrilaru, Elvin-Alin; Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Duellmann, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Archiving data to tape is a critical operation for any storage system, especially for the EOS system at CERN which holds production data for all major LHC experiments. Each collaboration has an allocated quota it can use at any given time therefore, a mechanism for archiving "stale" data is needed so that storage space is reclaimed for online analysis operations. The archiving tool that we propose for EOS aims to provide a robust client interface for moving data between EOS and CASTOR (tape backed storage system) while enforcing best practices when it comes to data integrity and verification. All data transfers are done using a third-party copy mechanism which ensures point-to- point communication between the source and destination, thus providing maximum aggregate throughput. Using ZMQ message-passing paradigm and a process-based approach enabled us to achieve optimal utilisation of the resources and a stateless architecture which can easily be tuned during operation. The modular design and the implementation done in a high-level language like Python, has enabled us to easily extended the code base to address new demands like offering full and incremental backup capabilities.

  17. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  18. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoebert, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Barnett, J.; Gille, J.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.; Waters, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2004. The Aura mission is designed to attack three science questions: (1) Is the ozone layer recovering as expected? (2) What are the sources and processes that control tropospheric pollutants? (3) What is the quantitative impact of constituents on climate change? Aura will answer these questions by globally measuring a comprehensive set of trace gases and aerosols at high vertical and horizontal resolution. Fig. 1 shows the Aura spacecraft and its four instruments.

  19. Porous carbon EOS: numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliverdiev, A.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Vinci, T.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of direct simulation of laser-driven shock experiments aiming at determining the equation of state (EOS) of carbon using the "relative" impedance mismatch method. In particular, using tabulated carbon EOS (SESAME library, material number 7830), we have found some difficulties in reducing the initial density of the material in simulations with porous carbon. We have therefore calculated a new EOS for porous carbon with a reduced bulk modulus.

  20. Eos Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region.

    Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  1. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  2. Eos Chasma Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image shows several landslides within Eos Chasma. Many very large landslides have occurred within different portions of Valles Marineris. Note where the northern wall has failed in a upside-down bowl shape, releasing the material that formed the landslide deposit.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 318.6 East (41.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Bridging EO Research, Operations and Collaborative Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Building flexible and responsive processing and delivery systems is key to getting EO information used by researchers, policy agents and the public. There are typically three distinct processes we tackle to get product uptake: undertake research, operationalise the validated research, and deliver information and garner feedback in an appropriate way. In many cases however, the gaps between these process elements are large and lead to poor outcomes. Good research may be "lost" and not adopted, there may be resistance to uptake by government or NGOs of significantly better operational products based on EO data, and lack of accessibility means that there is no use of interactive science outputs to improve cross disciplinary science or to start a dialog with citizens. So one of the the most important tasks, if we wish to have broad uptake of EO information and accelerate further research, is to link these processes together in a formal but flexible way. One of the ways to operationalize research output is by building a platform that can take research code and scale it across much larger areas. In remote sensing, this is typically a system that has access to current and historical corrected imagery with a processing pipeline built over the top. To reduce the demand on high level scientific programmers and allowing cross disciplinary researchers to hack and play and refine, this pipeline needs to be easy to use, collaborative and link to existing tools to encourage code experimentation and reuse. It is also critical to have efficient, tight integration with information delivery and extension components so that the science relevant to your user is available quickly and efficiently. The rapid expansion of open data licensing has helped this process, but building top-down web portals and tools without flexibility and regard for end user needs has limited the use of EO information in many areas. This research reports on the operalization of a scale independent time series

  4. Observational constraints on EoS parameters of emergent universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Bikash Chandra; Thakur, Prasenjit

    2017-04-01

    We investigate emergent universe model using recent observational data of the background as well as the growth tests. The flat emergent universe model obtained by Mukherjee et al. is permitted with a non-linear equation of state (in short, EoS) (p=Aρ -B ρ^{1/2}), where A and B are constants (here in our analysis A=0 is considered). We carried out analysis considering the Wang-Steinhardt ansatz for growth index (γ ) and growth function (f defined as f=Ωm^{γ } (a)). The best-fit values of the EoS and growth parameters are determined making use of chi-square minimization technique. Here we specifically determined the best-fit value and the range of value of the present matter density (Ω m) and Hubble parameter (H0). The best-fit values of the EoS parameters are used to study the evolution of the growth function f, growth index γ , state parameter ω and deceleration parameter (q) for different red shift parameter z. The late accelerating phase of the universe in the EU model is accommodated satisfactorily.

  5. Wonders of Eos Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 October 2003

    The slopes and floor of Eos Chasma, a portion of the vast Valles Marineris canyon complex, are located near an early landing site for the MER rovers. Sadly, this site was eliminated due to serious concerns about winds. Nevertheless, this site contains some marvelous geology. Layered rocks abound in the walls of the canyon as well as in the large streamlined material on the floor. The streamlined island appears to have been formed in a massive flood episode. Alluvial fans can also be seen at the base of the slopes. One fan has a deeply entrenched channel that was most likely carved out by water; however, it may be possible that dry avalanches created this channel.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -13.5, Longitude 317.8 East (42.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  7. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic inflammatory disease of the esophagus (the tube connecting the mouth to the stomach). It occurs when ... such as rhinitis, asthma, and/or eczema. Certain families may have an inherited tendency to develop EoE. ...

  8. Complete EOS for PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph S

    2009-10-08

    PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic-bonded explosive based on triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB). A complete equation of state (EOS) is constructed for unreacted PBX 9502 suitable for reactive burn models, i.e., high pressure regime in which material strength is unimportant. The PBX EOS is composed of two parts: a complete EOS for TATB and a porosity model which allows for variations in the initial PBX density. The TATB EOS is based on a cold curve and a thermal model for lattice vibrations. The heat capacity, and hence thermal model, is determined by the vibrational spectrum from Raman scattering. The cold curve is calibrated to diamond anvil cell data for isothermal compression using a two-piece Keane fitting form. Hugoniot data for PBX 9502 is used as a consistency check.

  9. HDF-EOS Web Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A shell script has been written as a means of automatically making HDF-EOS-formatted data sets available via the World Wide Web. ("HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in the first of the two immediately preceding articles.) The shell script chains together some software tools developed by the Data Usability Group at Goddard Space Flight Center to perform the following actions: Extract metadata in Object Definition Language (ODL) from an HDF-EOS file, Convert the metadata from ODL to Extensible Markup Language (XML), Reformat the XML metadata into human-readable Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Publish the HTML metadata and the original HDF-EOS file to a Web server and an Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeN-DAP) server computer, and Reformat the XML metadata and submit the resulting file to the EOS Clearinghouse, which is a Web-based metadata clearinghouse that facilitates searching for, and exchange of, Earth-Science data.

  10. HDF-EOS 5 Validator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the task of determining whether an HDF-EOS 5 file is valid in that it conforms to specifications for such characteristics as attribute names, dimensionality of data products, and ranges of legal data values. ["HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in "Converting EOS Data From HDF-EOS to netCDF" (GSC-15007-1), which is the first of several preceding articles in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs.] Previously, validity of a file was determined in a tedious and error-prone process in which a person examined human-readable dumps of data-file-format information. The present software helps a user to encode the specifications for an HDFEOS 5 file, and then inspects the file for conformity with the specifications: First, the user writes the specifications in Extensible Markup Language (XML) by use of a document type definition (DTD) that is part of the program. Next, the portion of the program (denoted the validator) that performs the inspection is executed, using, as inputs, the specifications in XML and the HDF-EOS 5 file to be validated. Finally, the user examines the output of the validator.

  11. Compact star matter: EoS with new scaling law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Jaehyun

    In this paper, we present a simple discussion on the properties of compact stars using an EoS obtained in effective field theory anchored on scale and hidden-local symmetric Lagrangian endowed with topology change and a unequivocal prediction on the deformation of the compact star, that could be measured in gravitational waves. The objective is not to offer a superior or improved EoS for compact stars but to confront with a forthcoming astrophysical observable, the given model formulated in what is considered to be consistent with the premise of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The model so obtained is found to satisfactorily describe the observation of a two-solar mass neutron star [P. B. Demorest et al., Nature 467 (2010) 1081, J. Antoniadis et al., Science 340 (2013) 1233232] with a minimum number of parameters. Specifically, the observable we are considering in this paper is the tidal deformability parameter λ (equivalently the Love number k2), which affects gravitational wave forms at the late period of inspiral stage. The forthcoming aLIGO and aVirgo observations of gravitational waves from binary neutron star system will provide a valuable guidance for arriving at a better understanding of highly compressed baryonic matter.

  12. The EducEO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Steffen; Dias, Eduardo; Zeug, Guenther; Vescovi, Fabio; See, Linda; Sturn, Tobias; McCallum, Ian; Stammes, Piet; Snik, Frans; Hendriks, Elise

    2015-04-01

    The ESA funded EducEO project is aimed at demonstrating the potential of citizen science and crowdsourcing for Earth Observation (EO), where citizen science and crowdsourcing refer to the involvement of citizens in tasks such as data collection. The potential for using citizens in the calibration and validation of satellite imagery through in-situ measurements and image recognition is largely untapped. The EducEO project will aim to achieve good integration with networks such as GLOBE (primary and secondary education) and COST (higher education) to involve students in four different applications that will be piloted as part of the EducEO project. The presentation will provide a brief overview and initial results of these applications, which include: the iSpex tool for measuring air pollution using an iPhone; a game to classify cropland and deforested areas from high resolution satellite imagery; an application to monitor areas of forest change using radar data from Sentinel-1; and the collection of in-situ yield and production data from both farmers (using high-tech farming equipment) and students. In particular initial results and future potential of the serious game on land cover and forest change monitoring will be discussed.

  13. EO system concepts in the littoral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Iersel, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface targets, such as jetskis and fast inshore attack crafts, is increasing. In the littoral environment, the understanding of its complexity and the efficient use of the limited reaction time, are essential for successful operations. Present-day electro-optical sensor suites, also incorporating Infrared Search and Track systems, can be used for varying tasks as detection, classification and identification. By means of passive electro-optical systems, infrared and visible light sensors, improved situational awareness can be achieved. For long range capability, elevated sensor masts and flying platforms are ideally suited for the surveillance task and improve situational awareness. A primary issue is how to incorporate new electro-optical technology and signal processing into the new sensor concepts, to improve system performance. It is essential to derive accurate information from the high spatial-resolution imagery created by the EO sensors. As electro-optical sensors do not have all-weather capability, the performance degradation in adverse scenarios must be understood, in order to support the operational use of adaptive sensor management techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach taken at TNO in the design and assessment of system concepts for future IRST development. An overview of our maritime programme in future IRST and EO system concepts including signal processing is presented.

  14. A webmapping platform for publishing, sharing, and managing EO-derived data for forest protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viergever, Karin; Andrade, Pedro R.; Cardoso, Manoel; Castillo, Miguel; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Middlemiss, Sarah; Milodowski, David; Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Ometto, Jean; Morel, Veronique; Tipper, Richard; Williams, Mathew

    2016-10-01

    Ecometrica, together with partners in the UK, Mexico and Brazil, have collaborated on a UK Space Agency international partnership space programme (IPSP) project to advance EO applications in forests. A key objective was to improve EO derived information management for forest protection. Ecometrica's cloud-based mapping platform was used to establish regional EO Labs within the partner organizations: ECOSUR (Mexico), INPE and FUNCATE (Brazil) and the University of Edinburgh (UK). The regional networks of EO Labs have provided a unified view of forestry-related data that is easy to access. In Mexico and Brazil the EO Labs enabled collaboration between research organisations and NGOs to develop applications for monitoring forest change in specified study areas and has enabled the compilation of previously unavailable regional EO and other spatial datasets into products that can be used by researchers, NGOs and state governments. Data on forest loss was linked to dynamic earth system models developed by the University of Edinburgh and INPE, utilising the EO Labs to provide an intuitive and powerful environment in which non-expert end- users can investigate the results from the huge datasets produced by multi-run model simulations. This paper demonstrates and discusses examples of mapping applications created on Ecometrica EO Labs by ECOSUR, INPE and the University of Edinburgh as part of this project, illustrating how cloud technology can enhance the field of forest protection.

  15. Investigation of EO transition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, G. G.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic ideas on the nature of electric monopole transitions and their experimental realisation are presented. Some feeling for the sensitivity obtainable for X=B(EO)/B(E2) ratios are discussed. Examples of measurements performed using the electron spectrometer BILL are described to demonstrate their relevance in testing nuclei models. These include even-even and odd-even nuclei such as nuclei close to Z=50, rare-earth nuclei, Pt-Os isotopes and the actinides.

  16. HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 Compatibility Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    The HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 Compatibility Library contains C-language functions that provide uniform access to HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 files through one set of application programming interface (API) calls. ("HDFEOS 2" and "HDF-EOS 5" are defined in the immediately preceding article.) Without this library, differences between the APIs of HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5 would necessitate writing of different programs to cover HDF-EOS 2 and HDF-EOS 5. The API associated with this library is denoted "he25." For nearly every HDF-EOS 5 API call, there is a corresponding he25 API call. If a file in question is in the HDF-EOS 5 format, the code reverts to the corresponding HDF-EOS 5 call; if the file is in the HDF-EOS 2 format, the code translates the arguments to HDF-EOS 2 equivalents (if necessary), calls the HDFEOS 2 call, and retranslates the results back to HDF-EOS 5 (if necessary).

  17. The NASA EOS User Services Offices: Supporting Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, E.; Schumacher, J.; Harrison, S.; Jones, C.; Klaassen, A.; Morris, K.; Sandoval, M.; Scott, D.; Wolf, V.; Farnham, J.

    2004-12-01

    The primary goal for NASA's Sun-Earth System Division is to use satellite remote sensing to examine the Sun and Earth as a single connected system. Within the Sun-Earth System Division, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is composed of a series of satellites, scientific research, and a data collection and management system known as EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). EOSDIS has nine discipline-specific data centers that manage, document, archive, and distribute a variety of Earth system science data. The data centers provide an assortment of services to their data users via their User Services Offices (USO). The nine USOs communicate regularly by email, phone, and teleconference, and have meetings twice a year during which they analyze, discuss, and determine how to better serve the Earth science community. The sharing of information among USO representatives within the User Services Working Group (USWG) results in an understanding of user needs and problems with data sets within EOS. By identifying these needs, we can improve our services and data distribution methods for users, and advocate solutions on behalf of the user community to the EOS project. Each User Services Office provides timely assistance answering a variety of user questions about its data and services, assists users with their data orders, provides referrals to other data centers, and establishes data subscriptions when applicable. USO troubleshoots problems with data sets and data distribution, recommends and supports tools for data subsetting, searching and ordering, handling, and manipulation, and communicates user needs to data and software developers. The USO is each data center's interface to the public, and has many resources available to assist the user, including data set guide documents, science team members, and programmers. Additionally, the USWG represents the nine data centers in the OneNASA outreach effort. Users will always find ready support for NASA Earth science data

  18. Converting from XML to HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program recreates an HDF-EOS file from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) representation of the contents of that file. This program is one of two programs written to enable testing of the schemas described in the immediately preceding article to determine whether the schemas capture all details of HDF-EOS files.

  19. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  20. Vector Data Model: A New Model of HDF-EOS to Support GIS Applications in EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, E.; Edmonds, R d

    2001-05-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Information System (ESDIS) project has an active program of research and development of systems for the storage and management of Earth science data for Earth Observation System (EOS) mission, a key program of NASA Earth Science Enterprise. EOS has adopted an extension of the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) as the format of choice for standard product distribution. Three new EOS specific datatypes - point, swath and grid - have been defined within the HDF framework. The enhanced data format is named HDF-EOS. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used by Earth scientists in EOS data product generation, visualization, and analysis. There are two major data types in GIS applications, raster and vector. The current HDF-EOS handles only raster type in the swath data model. The vector data model is identified and developed as a new HDFEOS format to meet the requirements of scientists working with EOS data products in vector format. The vector model is designed using a topological data structure, which defines the spatial relationships among points, lines, and polygons. The three major topological concepts that the vector model adopts are: a) lines connect to each other at nodes (connectivity), b) lines that connect to surround an area define a polygon (area definition), and c) lines have direction and left and right sides (contiguity). The vector model is implemented in HDF by mapping the conceptual model to HDF internal data models and structures, viz. Vdata, Vgroup, and their associated attribute structures. The point, line, and polygon geometry and attribute data are stored in similar tables. Further, the vector model utilizes the structure and product metadata, which characterize the HDF-EOS. Both types of metadata are stored as attributes in HDF-EOS files, and are encoded in text format by using Object Description Language (ODL) and stored as global attributes in HDF-EOS files. EOS has developed a series of routines for storing

  1. EOS ASTER thermal infrared band vicarious calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F.; Tonooka, H.; Hook, S.; Abtahi, A.; Alley, R.; Thompson, T.; Hoover, G.; Zadourian, S.

    2001-01-01

    Calibration of the 5 EOS ASTER instrument emission bands (90 m pixels at surface) is being checked during the operational life of the mission using field measurements simultaneous with the image acquisition.

  2. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  3. New class of hybrid EoS and Bayesian M - R data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D.; Ayriyan, A.; Benic, S.; Blaschke, D.; Grigorian, H.; Typel, S.

    2016-03-01

    We explore systematically a new class of two-phase equations of state (EoS) for hybrid stars that is characterized by three main features: 1) stiffening of the nuclear EoS at supersaturation densities due to quark exchange effects (Pauli blocking) between hadrons, modelled by an excluded volume correction; 2) stiffening of the quark matter EoS at high densities due to multiquark interactions; and 3) possibility for a strong first-order phase transition with an early onset and large density jump. The third feature results from a Maxwell construction for the possible transition from the nuclear to a quark matter phase and its properties depend on the two parameters used for 1) and 2), respectively. Varying these two parameters, one obtains a class of hybrid EoS that yields solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for sequences of hadronic and hybrid stars in the mass-radius diagram which cover the full range of patterns according to the Alford-Han-Prakash classification following which a hybrid star branch can be either absent, connected or disconnected with the hadronic one. The latter case often includes a tiny connected branch. The disconnected hybrid star branch, also called "third family", corresponds to high-mass twin stars characterized by the same gravitational mass but different radii. We perform a Bayesian analysis and demonstrate that the observation of such a pair of high-mass twin stars would have a sufficient discriminating power to favor hybrid EoS with a strong first-order phase transition over alternative EoS.

  4. Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

  5. EOS for critical slurry and solution systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiPeso, G; Peterson, P

    1998-10-27

    In a fire involving fissile material, the mixture of the fissile material ash with fire fighting water may lead to a criticality excursion if there are nearby sumps that permit a critical geometry. The severity of the resulting energy release and pressure pulse is dependent on the rate at which the mixing occurs. To calculate these excursions, a non-equilibrium equation of state for the water ash mixture or slurry is needed that accounts for the thermal non-equilibrium that occurs due to finite heat transfer rates. We are developing the slurry EOS as well as a lumped neutronic and hydrodynamic model to serve as a testing ground for the non-equilibrium EOS before its incorporation into more sophisticated neutronic-hydrodynamics codes. Though the model lacks spatial dependence, it provides estimates of energy release and pressure pulses for various mixture assembly rates. We are also developing a non-equilibrium EOS for critical solution systems in which the fissile material is dissolved in water, which accounts for chemical non-equilibrium due to finite mass transfer rates. In contrast to previously published solution EOS, our solution EOS specifically accounts for mass diffusion of dissolved radiolytic gas to bubble nucleation sites. This EOS was developed to check our overall modeling against published solution excursion experiments and to compare solution excursions with slurry excursions initiated under the same conditions. Preliminary results indicate a good match between solution EOS calculations and experiments involving premixed 60-80 g U/l solutions for both low rate and high rate reactivity insertions. Comparison between slurry and solution calculations for the same composition show comparable energy release and pressure peaks for both low and high rate reactivity insertions with the slurry releasing less energy but generating more pressure than the solution for the amount of energy released. Calculations more appropriate to actual fire fighting scenarios

  6. The EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is proposed as a 1991 new initiative by NASA as part of the Mission to Planet Earth. One of the key components of the EOS program is the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Two independent Phase B studies of EOSDIS were conducted from January 1989 through April 1990. Some of the key challenges faced by EOSDIS are: satisfying the data and information needs of a diverse multidisciplinary scientific community integrating product generation algorithms for over two dozen instruments, keeping up with an orbital average data rate of over 50 Mb/sec and assuring prompt generation of standard products, reprocessing data as product generation algorithms change, and storing, and managing information about tens of Petabytes of data over the 15-year life of the mission.

  7. EO-1 Prototyping for Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. K.; Middleton, E.; Ungar, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ong, L.; Huemmrich, K. F.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) Mission, launched in November, 2000 as part of NASA’s New Millennium Program, is in it’s eight year of operation. From the start it was recognized that a key criteria for evaluating the EO-1 technology and outlining future Earth science mission needs is the ability of the technology to characterize terrestrial surface state and processes. EO-1 is participating in a broad range of investigations, demonstrating the utility of imaging spectroscopy in applications relating to forestry, agriculture, species discrimination, invasive species, desertification, land-use, vulcanization, fire management, homeland security, natural and anthropogenic hazards and disaster assessments and has provided characterization for a variety of instruments on EOS platforms. By generating a high spectral and spatial resolution data set for the corral reefs and islands, it is contributing for realizing the goals of the National Decadal survey and providing an excellent platform for testing strategies to be employed in the HyspIRI mission. The EO1 Mission Science Office (MSO) is developing tools and prototypes for new science products, addressing the HyspIRI goals to assess vegetation status and health and provide vegetation spectral bio-indicators and biophysical parameters such as LAI and fAPAR at <100 m spatial resolution. These are being used to resolve variability in heterogeneous areas (e.g. agriculture, narrow shapes, urban and developed lands) and for managed ecosystems less than 10 km2. A set of invariable reference targets (e.g. sun, moon, deserts, Antarctica) are being characterised to allow cross-calibration of current and future EO sensors, comparison of land products generated by multiple sensors and retroactive processing of time series data. Such products are needed to develop Science Requirements for the next generation of hyperspectral satellite sensors and to address global societal needs.

  8. EOS Laser Atmosphere Wind Sounder (LAWS) investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, George D.

    1991-01-01

    The related activities of the contract are outlined for the first year. These include: (1) attend team member meetings; (2) support EOS Project with science related activities; (3) prepare and Execution Phase plan; and (4) support LAWS and EOSDIS related work. Attached to the report is an appendix, 'LAWS Algorithm Development and Evaluation Laboratory (LADEL)'. Also attached is a copy of a proposal to the NASA EOS for 'LAWS Sampling Strategies and Wind Computation Algorithms -- Storm-Top Divergence Studies. Volume I: Investigation and Technical Plan, Data Plan, Computer Facilities Plan, Management Plan.'

  9. Early-EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, George H.; Hunolt, Gregory W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), an integral part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, will provide simultaneous observations from a suite of instruments in low-earth orbit. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) will handle the data from those instruments, as well as provide access to observations and related information from other earth science missions. The Early-EOSDIS Program will provide initial improved support for global change research by building upon present capabilities and data, and will establish a working prototype EOSDIS for selected archiving, distribution, and information management functions by mid-1994.

  10. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is the centerpiece of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It is a pivotal part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and hence of the international effort to understand global change and the increasing demands of human activity. EOS consists of a space-based observing system, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and a scientific research program. The space component consists of two series of polar-orbiting spacecraft, the first scheduled for launch in 1998, that will collect data for 15 years. EOS is completing its conceptual design phase and is preparing to enter the design phase with the selection and construction of the instruments for the first platform. EOSDIS will allow researchers to quickly and easily access data about the Earth system. Development of EOSDIS has already begun; it will support research and analysis with existing data. Geophysical and biological products will be created from the satellite data to be used to a broad range of the scientific community. NASA has also committed to providing smaller missions - called Earth Probes - dedicated to near-term observations of specific Earth processes. The scientific research program was initiated in 1990, with funding for 28 interdisciplinary teams, to begin development of models that will use EOS data and define the data requirements from the instruments, nine facility instruments and their science teams, 23 instrument investigations and definition studies for a synthetic-aperture radar.

  11. Data links for the EOS TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1990-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5MBytes/s/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  12. EOS Data Products Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L. (Editor); Greenstone, Reynold (Editor); Closs, James (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Data Products Handbook provides brief descriptions of the data products that will be produced from a range of missions of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and associated projects. Volume 1, originally published in 1997, covers the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Terra mission (formerly named EOS AM-1), and the Data Assimilation System, while this volume, Volume 2, covers the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT), Aqua, Jason-1, Landsat 7, Meteor 3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). the Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), the Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Quik-TOMS), and the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) missions. Volume 2 follows closely the format of Volume 1, providing a list of products and an introduction and overview descriptions of the instruments and data processing, all introductory to the core of the book, which presents the individual data product descriptions, organized into 11 topical chapters. The product descriptions are followed by five appendices, which provide contact information for the EOS data centers that will be archiving and distributing the data sets, contact information for the science points of contact for the data products, references, acronyms and abbreviations, and a data products index.

  13. MISR EOS Validation Site Data Ordering

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-02

    ... EOS Validation data files are orderable through the  MISR Order Tool . Log in to the MISR Order Tool Select product(s) ... be subset for the chosen site. You can further customize your files by following instructions in the interface. ...

  14. 2016 Mission Operations Working Group: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    EO-1 Mission Status for the Constellation Mission Operations Working Group to discuss the EO-1 flight systems, mission enhancements, debris avoidance maneuver, orbital information, 5-year outlook, and new ground stations.

  15. A European Collaborative EO Summer School for the Education of Undergraduate and Masters Level Students- FORMAT-EO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Rosemarie; Remedios, John; Tramutoli, Valerio; Gil, Artur; Cuca, Branka

    2014-05-01

    An Erasmus intensive programme has been successfully funded to run a Europe-lead summer school in Earth Observation for the years 2013 and 2014. The summer school, FORMAT-EO (FORmation of Multi-disciplinary Approaches to Training in Earth Observation) has been proposed and implemented by a consortium of eight partner institutions from five European countries. The consortium was facilitated through the NEREUS network. In the summer of 2013, 21 students from seven European institutions took part in the two week intensive course which involved a total of 28 teachers from six institutions. Students were from a variety of backgrounds including aeronautical engineering MSc students and PhD students in the areas of marine biology, earthquake engineering and measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. The aims of FORMAT-EO were: To give students exposure to the wider applications of Earth Observation To highlight the interdisciplinary, collaborative and international nature of Earth Observation To offer an intensive course to better equip students with specialist skills required for a career in this field To provide expert advice on the development of careers in the EO market Partners were invited not only to recruit students for the course but to also teach at the school based on their specific area of expertise. This approach to the teaching provided a timetable which was wide-ranging and covered topics from EU policies for Earth Observation to fire detection from space and an introduction to interaction between radiation and matter. An important aspect of the course was the interactive nature of much of the teaching. A topic was introduced to the students through a lecture followed by an interactive tutorial providing students with hands-on experience of working with EO data and specialist software. The final days of the summer school were spent on group project work which required students to use all of the skills that they acquired during the course to challenge a

  16. 76 FR 31892 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Chapter III Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: In accordance with Executive Order (E.O.) 13563, ``Improving... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 18, 2011, the President issued E.O. 13563, ``Improving Regulation...

  17. Autonomous Science on the EO-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Hengemihle, J.; Agostino, J. D.; Bote, R.; Trout, B.; Shulman, S.; Ungar, S.; Gaasbeck, J. Van; Boyer, D.; Griffin, M.; Burke, H.; Greeley, R.; Doggett, T.; Williams, K.; Baker, V.

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.

  18. The EOS CERES Global Cloud Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berendes, T. A.; Welch, R. M.; Trepte, Q.; Schaaf, C.; Baum, B. A.

    1996-01-01

    To detect long-term climate trends, it is essential to produce long-term and consistent data sets from a variety of different satellite platforms. With current global cloud climatology data sets, such as the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Experiment (ISCCP) or CLAVR (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), one of the first processing steps is to determine whether an imager pixel is obstructed between the satellite and the surface, i.e., determine a cloud 'mask.' A cloud mask is essential to studies monitoring changes over ocean, land, or snow-covered surfaces. As part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program, a series of platforms will be flown beginning in 1997 with the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and subsequently the EOS-AM and EOS-PM platforms in following years. The cloud imager on TRMM is the Visible/Infrared Sensor (VIRS), while the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the imager on the EOS platforms. To be useful for long term studies, a cloud masking algorithm should produce consistent results between existing (AVHRR) data, and future VIRS and MODIS data. The present work outlines both existing and proposed approaches to detecting cloud using multispectral narrowband radiance data. Clouds generally are characterized by higher albedos and lower temperatures than the underlying surface. However, there are numerous conditions when this characterization is inappropriate, most notably over snow and ice of the cloud types, cirrus, stratocumulus and cumulus are the most difficult to detect. Other problems arise when analyzing data from sun-glint areas over oceans or lakes over deserts or over regions containing numerous fires and smoke. The cloud mask effort builds upon operational experience of several groups that will now be discussed.

  19. EOS situational data shared service mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, L.; Xu, Q.; Lan, C. Z.; Shi, Q. S.; Lu, W. J.; Wu, W. Q.

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of aerospace and remote sensing technology, various high-resolution Earth Observation Systems (EOS) are widely used in economic, social, military and other fields and playing an increasingly prominent role in the construction of Digital Earth and national strategic planning. The normal operation of the system is the premise of high quality data acquisition. Compared with the ground observation mode, EOS itself and the surrounding environment are more complex, and its operation control mainly depends on all kinds of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data acquisition and analysis. SSA data has more extensive sources, larger volume, stronger time-effectiveness and more complicated structure than traditional geographical spatial data. For effective data sharing and utilization, combined with the analysis of data types and structures, a SSA data sharing identity language SSDSML is designed based on the extensible mark-up language XML, which realizes a comprehensive description of satellites and their attributes, space environment, ground stations, etc. Then EOS situational data shared service mechanism is established and provides a powerful data support for the normal operation of the system.

  20. EOS ODL Metadata On-line Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Rabi, M.; Bane, B.; Ullman, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have recently developed and deployed an EOS ODL metadata on-line viewer. The EOS ODL metadata viewer is a web server that takes: 1) an EOS metadata file in Object Description Language (ODL), 2) parameters, such as which metadata to view and what style of display to use, and returns an HTML or XML document displaying the requested metadata in the requested style. This tool is developed to address widespread complaints by science community that the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) metadata files in ODL are difficult to read by allowing users to upload and view an ODL metadata file in different styles using a web browser. Users have the selection to view all the metadata or part of the metadata, such as Collection metadata, Granule metadata, or Unsupported Metadata. Choices of display styles include 1) Web: a mouseable display with tabs and turn-down menus, 2) Outline: Formatted and colored text, suitable for printing, 3) Generic: Simple indented text, a direct representation of the underlying ODL metadata, and 4) None: No stylesheet is applied and the XML generated by the converter is returned directly. Not all display styles are implemented for all the metadata choices. For example, Web style is only implemented for Collection and Granule metadata groups with known attribute fields, but not for Unsupported, Other, and All metadata. The overall strategy of the ODL viewer is to transform an ODL metadata file to a viewable HTML in two steps. The first step is to convert the ODL metadata file to an XML using a Java-based parser/translator called ODL2XML. The second step is to transform the XML to an HTML using stylesheets. Both operations are done on the server side. This allows a lot of flexibility in the final result, and is very portable cross-platform. Perl CGI behind the Apache web server is used to run the Java ODL2XML, and then run the results through an XSLT processor. The EOS ODL viewer can be accessed from either a PC or a Mac using Internet

  1. Bigplate: an oblique angle explosive EOS test

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S; Avara, R; Fried, L; Janzen, J; McGuire, E; Souers, P C; Wu, B

    1998-04-16

    Bigplate is an advanced explosive equation of state (EOS) test. It consists of a point detonator driving a large disc (100 mm radius) of explosive, which pushes a 0.5 mm thick copper or tantalum plate. The plate is observed by a five-beam Fabry-Perot interferometer, which has beams at 0, 10, 20,40 and 80 mm on the plate. A short Fabry gives the jump-off to high accuracy; a long Fabry runs out to I0-15 microsec. A detailed error analysis is given, with the final velocity measurements considered good to ±0.066 mm/microsec. Jump-offs are measured to 0.01-0.02 microsec. Spall is seen in all shots, which creates a time delay on both the first and second velocity plateaus. A 0.1 microsec delay in jump-off of unknown origin is also seen at 80 mm. In order of decreasing explosive ideality, the explosives tired have been LX-14, LX-04 and LX-17. To partially negate the time delays, the data and code runs are overlaid at each radial position between the first and second plateaus. Traditional JWL's model LX-14 and LX-04 within accuracy, but not so for LX-17. The spall may be partly modeled using the pmin model but high resolution zoning is required. At longer times, spall does not appear to affect the explosive energetics. Because it includes diagonal zone crossing, Bigplate occupies a location between simple plate and cylinder tests and truly complex geometries. Hence, an EOS that fails Bigplate is not likely to move on to more complex issues. Bigplate is an excellent test bed for radically new EOS's, and the initial LX-17 runs done with Equilibrium and KINETIC CHEETAH are promising.

  2. Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An executive summary of a study on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) was presented. It was concluded that the overall costs of space systems could be reduced significantly by the development of a modular shuttle compatible standard spacecraft, and the use of that spacecraft with the Shuttle Transportation System. It was also demonstrated that the development of the standard spacecraft is feasible, desirable, and cost effective if applied to a series of missions. The ability to initially retrieve, refurbish, and reuse the spacecraft and its payload, and ultimately to perform in-orbit servicing, would result in significant cost savings. A number of specific conclusions and recommendations were also suggested.

  3. EOS image data processing system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, J.; Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Image Processing System (IPS) requirements and configuration are defined for NASA-sponsored advanced technology Earth Observatory System (EOS). The scope included investigation and definition of IPS operational, functional, and product requirements considering overall system constraints and interfaces (sensor, etc.) The scope also included investigation of the technical feasibility and definition of a point design reflecting system requirements. The design phase required a survey of present and projected technology related to general and special-purpose processors, high-density digital tape recorders, and image recorders.

  4. Share Your Opinion With Other Eos Readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2006-11-01

    Earlier this year, Robert Kitchen (Eos, 87(24), 235, 2006) drew attention to declining interest in Earth science education in public schools. The reason for a lack of interest in teaching Earth sciences in public schools may involve more than just the attitudes of parents who may wish for their children a better preparation for advanced placement courses later on. Part of the problem may lie with our present mind-set that technology can solve all the world's problems, from poverty, to better health, and to prosperity.

  5. P(DMS-co-EO)/P(EPI-co-EO) blend as a polymeric electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo Fonseca, C.; Cezare, T. T.; Neves, S.

    A new polymer electrolyte comprising the blend of poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-ethylene oxide) (P(DMS-co-EO)), and poly(epichlorohydrin-co-ethylene oxide) (P(EPI-co-EO)), with different concentrations of LiClO 4 is described. The polymer electrolyte was prepared by a solution-cast technique. The electrochemical properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The maximum ionic conductivity ( σ=1.2×10 -4 S cm -1) was obtained for the P(DMS-co-EO)/P(EPI-co-EO) 15/85 and 20/80 blends with 6 wt.% LiClO 4. These same films had a wide electrochemical stability, higher than 5 V at room temperature. A stable passive layer at the interface between the polymer electrolyte and lithium metal was formed within the first few days and maintained during the follow storage period. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the blends showed a transparent polymer electrolyte in the visible region.

  6. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  7. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  8. Realtime Decision Making on EO-1 Using Onboard Science Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu

    2004-01-01

    Recent autonomy experiments conducted on Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) using the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) flight software has been used to classify key features in hyperspectral images captured by EO-1. Furthermore, analysis is performed by this software onboard EO-1 and then used to modify the operational plan without interaction from the ground. This paper will outline the overall operations concept and provide some details and examples of the onboard science processing, science analysis, and replanning.

  9. The ASY-EOS Experiment at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, P.; Chartier, M.; Cozma, M. D.; De Filippo, E.; Le Fèvre, A.; Gannon, S.; Gašparić, I.; Kiš, M.; Kupny, S.; Leifels, Y.; Lemmon, R. C.; Li, Q.; Łukasik, J.; Marini, P.; Pawłowski, P.; Trautmann, W.; Acosta, L.; Adamczyk, M.; Al-Ajlan, A.; Al-Garawi, M.; Al-Homaidhi, S.; Amorini, F.; Auditore, L.; Aumann, T.; Ayyad, Y.; Baran, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bassini, R.; Benlliure, J.; Boiano, C.; Boisjoli, M.; Boretzky, K.; Brzychczyk, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Cardella, G.; Cammarata, P.; Chajecki, Z.; Chbihi, A.; Colonna, M.; Czech, B.; Di Toro, M.; Famiano, M.; Greco, V.; Grassi, L.; Guazzoni, C.; Guazzoni, P.; Heil, M.; Heilborn, L.; Introzzi, R.; Isobe, T.; Kezzar, K.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kurz, N.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Lasko, P.; Lombardo, I.; Lynch, W. G.; Matthews, Z.; May, L.; Minniti, T.; Mostazo, M.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Pleskac, R.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Reifarth, R.; Reisdorf, W.; Riccio, F.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Rossi, D.; Santoro, S.; Simon, H.; Skwirczynska, I.; Sosin, Z.; Stuhl, L.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Veselsky, M.; Vigilante, M.; Wieloch, A.; Wigg, P.; Wolter, H. H.; Wu, P.; Yennello, S.; Zambon, P.; Zetta, L.; Zoric, M.

    2016-05-01

    The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  10. GDAL Enhancements for Interoperability with EOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdale, M.; Mathews, T. J.; Tisdale, B.; Sun, M.; Yang, C. P.; Lee, H.; Habermann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) data products have been difficult to consume by GIS tools, weather commercial or open-source. This has resulted in a reduced acceptance of these data products by GIS and general user communities. Common problems and challenges experienced by these data users include difficulty when: Consuming data products from NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that pre-date modern application software with commercial and open-source geospatial tools; Identifying an initial approach for developing a framework and plug-ins that interpret non-compliant data; Defining a methodology that is extensible across NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), scientific communities, and GIS communities by enabling other data centers to construct their own plug-ins and adjust specific data products; and Promoting greater use of NASA Data and new analysis utilizing GIS tools. To address these challenges and to make EOS data products more accessible and interpretable by GIS applications, a collaborative approach has been taken that includes the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), Esri, George Mason University (GMU), and the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Group to create a framework and plugins to be applied to Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). This framework and its plugins offer advantages of extensibility within NASA EOSDIS, permitting other data centers to construct their own plugins necessary to adjust their data products. In this session findings related to the framework and the development of GDAL plugins will be reviewed. Specifically, this session will offer a workshop to review documentation and training materials that have been generated for the purpose of guiding other NASA DAACs through the process of constructing plug-ins consistent with the framework as well as a review of the certification process by which the plugins can be independently verified as properly converting the

  11. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-02

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  12. Analytic EoS and PTW strength model recommendation for Starck Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.; Prime, Michael B.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an analytic EoS and PTW strength model for Starck Ta that can be consistently used between different platforms and simulations at three labs. This should provide a consistent basis for comparison of the results of calculations, but not the best implementation for matching a wide variety of experimental data. Another version using SESAME tables should follow, which will provide a better physical representation over a broader range of conditions. The data sets available at the time only include one Hopkinson bar at a strain rate of 1800/s; a broader range of high-rate calibration data would be preferred. The resulting fit gives the PTW parameter p = 0. To avoid numerical issues, p = 0:001 has been used in FLAG. The PTW parameters that apply above the maximum strain rate in the data use the values from the original publication.

  13. Anharmonic effect on the equation of state (EoS) for NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumita, Tatsuya; Yoneda, Akira

    2014-02-01

    We find clear intrinsic anharmonicity in the NaCl-B1 phase by examining the equation of state (EoS) based on previous ultrasonic velocity data for pressures up to 0.8 GPa and temperatures up to 800 K. The experimental EoS for this phase shows that its specific heat at constant volume ( C V ) is significantly smaller than that based on a harmonic model. Also, the sign of which is normally negative in the quasi-harmonic approximation, is unexpectedly positive. The thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter ( γ), which has frequently been assumed to be a single-variable function of molar volume, shows not only volume dependence but also negative temperature dependence. To understand these features of C V and γ, we introduce a thermodynamic model including positive quartic anharmonicity. To make an anharmonic model advancing the ordinarily quasi-harmonic approximation model, we introduce two parameters: anharmonic characteristic temperature ( θ a ) and its volume derivative. In the anharmonic model, the value of C V is calculated along an isochore using classical statistical mechanics and a harmonic quantum correction. At high temperatures, the decrease in C V from the Dulong-Petit limit is related to the value of T/ θ a . For infinitely large θ a , the system is approximately quasi-harmonic. The temperature dependence of γ is related to C V by the thermodynamic identity Even though our modification of the quasi-harmonic approximation is simple, our anharmonic model succeeds in reproducing the experimental γ and C V simultaneously for the NaCl-B1 phase.

  14. di-EOS - "distributed EOS": Initial experience with split-site persistency in a production service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, A. J.; Mascetti, L.; Iven, J.; Espinal Curull, X.

    2014-06-01

    In order to accommodate growing demand for storage and computing capacity from the LHC experiments, in 2012 CERN tendered for a remote computer centre. The potential negative performance implications of the geographical distance (aka network latency) within the same "site" and storage service on physics computing have been investigated. Overall impact should be acceptable, but for some access patterns might be significant. Recent EOS changes should help to mitigate the effects, but experiments may need to adjust their job parameters.

  15. Research topics on EO systems for maritime platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; Bijl, Piet; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Eijk, Alenxander M. J.

    2014-10-01

    Our world is constantly changing, and this has its effect on worldwide military operations. For example, there is a change from conventional warfare into a domain that contains asymmetric threats as well. The availability of high-quality imaging information from Electro-Optical (EO) sensors is of high importance, for instance for timely detection and identification of small threatening vessels in an environment with a large amount of neutral vessels. Furthermore, Rules of Engagement often require a visual identification before action is allowed. The challenge in these operations is to detect, classify and identify a target at a reasonable range, while avoiding too many false alarms or missed detections. Current sensor technology is not able to cope with the performance requirements under all circumstances. For example, environmental conditions can reduce the sensor range in such a way that the operational task becomes challenging or even impossible. Further, limitations in automatic detection algorithms occur, e.g. due to the effects of sun glints and spray which are not yet well-modelled in the detection filters. For these reasons, Tactical Decision Aids will become an important factor in future operations to select the best moment to act. In this paper, we describe current research within The Netherlands on this topic. The Defence Research and Development Programme "Multifunctional Electro-Optical Sensor Suite (MEOSS)" aims at the development of knowledge necessary for optimal employment of Electro-Optical systems on board of current and future ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy, in order to carry out present and future maritime operations in various environments and weather conditions.

  16. The development of the EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Thomas D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Dozier, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    The architecture of the Earth Observing System (EOS), a major component of NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, is described with emphasis on its development strategy. It is noted that the EOS is comprised of a scientific research program, a space measurement system, and an EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Details are presented concerning the EOS program and its candidate instruments. Major components of EOS include Version 0 (V0) built on existing Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), the EOSDIS core system (ECS), DAAC-unique functions, science computing facilities (SCF), and independent verification validation of the ECS. Requirements for EODIS are also reviewed noting that, among other requirements, it must keep up with an orbital average data rate of more than 30 Mbps as well as store, distribute, and manage information about tens of Petabytes of data during and after the 15-year mission.

  17. EOS ground data systems: A description and interface overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gene

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is planned as a space-based measurement system, earth-science research program, and data and information system (EOSDIS). It will consist of several high data rate spacecraft with multiple earth sensing instruments which provide investigators with a thorough, longterm view of the earth's environment. Up to seven spacecraft may be supported at once, either in operational, checkout, or testing phases; and the average data rate from the EOS satellites in orbit at any one time is expected to be from 18 to 60 Mbps. Providing the data processing and flight operations support for EOS will be the EOSDIS Core System (ECS). The ECS will command and control the spacecraft; process and store the EOS data; provide access to the data for years; and support researchers. The data processing aspects of the ECS consist of a collection of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) which perform the product generation, data archive and distribution, and information management services. Flight operations aspects will be provided by the EOS Operations Center, by instrument control centers, and by widely distributed instrument support terminals. The communications and system management aspects will be provided by the EOSDIS Science Network and the System Management Center. In addition to the EOS satellite data, other data sets from earlier earth science missions are also to be added to designated DAAC's. Other ground data systems which will provide support to EOS for acquiring, transporting, processing, and distributing the transformed spacecraft data are currently being defined or are being upgraded for the EOS era. These systems include the Space Network consisting of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the TDRSS Ground Terminals, and the Network Control Center as well as the night Dynamics Facility, the EOS Data and Operations System, and EOS Communications. This paper briefly describes data handling by the ECS, the support data

  18. EOS Data Products Latency and Reprocessing Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Wanchoo, L.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) program has been processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data since the launch of Terra platform in 1999. The EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and Science-Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPSs) are generating over 5000 unique products with a daily average volume of 1.7 Petabytes. Initially EOSDIS had requirements to make process data products within 24 hours of receiving all inputs needed for generating them. Thus, generally, the latency would be slightly over 24 and 48 hours after satellite data acquisition, respectively, for Level 1 and Level 2 products. Due to budgetary constraints these requirements were relaxed, with the requirement being to avoid a growing backlog of unprocessed data. However, the data providers have been generating these products in as timely a manner as possible. The reduction in costs of computing hardware has helped considerably. It is of interest to analyze the actual latencies achieved over the past several years in processing and inserting the data products into the EOSDIS archives for the users to support various scientific studies such as land processes, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, cryospheric science, etc. The instrument science teams have continuously evaluated the data products since the launches of EOS satellites and improved the science algorithms to provide high quality products. Data providers have periodically reprocessed the previously acquired data with these improved algorithms. The reprocessing campaigns run for an extended time period in parallel with forward processing, since all data starting from the beginning of the mission need to be reprocessed. Each reprocessing activity involves more data than the previous reprocessing. The historical record of the reprocessing times would be of interest to future missions, especially those involving large volumes of data and/or computational loads due to

  19. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andreas J.; van der Ster, Dan C.; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issues beforehand. The main idea behind this R&D is to leverage and contribute to existing building blocks in the CEPH storage stack and implement a few CERN specific requirements in a thin, customisable storage layer. A second research topic is the integration of ethernet enabled disks. This paper introduces various ongoing open source developments, their status and applicability.

  20. 76 FR 15859 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Chapters 5 and 61 Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of... Executive Order (EO) 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review.'' E.O. 132563 was signed...

  1. 76 FR 15224 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: March 15,...

  2. 76 FR 18104 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. William E....

  3. Seasonal spectral dynamics and carbon fluxes at core EOS sites using EO-1 Hyperion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomasino, D.; Campbell, P.; Price, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fluxes of water and carbon into the atmosphere are critical components in order to monitor and predict climate change. Spatial heterogeneity and seasonal changes in vegetation contribute to ambiguities in regional and global CO2 and water cycle dynamics. Satellite remote sensing is essential for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of various vegetation types for the purposes of determining carbon and water fluxes. Satellite data from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was acquired for five Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) sites, Mongu (Zambia, Africa), Konza Prairie (Kansas, USA), Duke Forest (North Carolina, USA), Barrow (Alaska, USA) and Sevilleta (New Mexico, USA). Each EOS site represented a distinct vegetative ecosystem type; hardwood forest, grassland, evergreen forest, lichens, and shrubland/grassland respectively. Satellite data was atmospherically corrected using the Atmosphere CORrection Now (ACORN) model and subsequently, the spectral reflectance data was extracted in the vicinity of existing flux towers. The EO-1 Hyperion sensor proved advantageous because of its high and continuous spectral resolution (10 nm intervals from 355 to 2578 nm wavelengths). The high spectral resolution allowed us calculate biophysical indices based on specific wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum that are associated with alterations in foliar chemistry and plant membrane structure (i.e., vegetation stress) brought upon by many environmental factors. Previous studies have focused on relationships within a specific site or vegetation community. This study however, incorporated many sites with different vegetation types and various geographic locations throughout the world. Monitoring the fluctuations in vegetation stress with contemporaneous environmental conditions and carbon flux measurements from each site will provide better insight into water and carbon flux dynamics in many different biomes. Noticeable spectral signatures were identified based on site specific

  4. Applications of the EOS SAR to monitoring global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schier, Marguerite; Way, Jobea; Holt, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    The SAR employed by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a multifrequency multipolarization radar which can conduct global monitoring of geophysical and biophysical parameters. The present discussion of the EOS SAR's role in global monitoring emphasizes geophysical product variables applicable to global hydrologic, biogeochemical, and energy cycle models. EOS SAR products encompass biomass, wetland areas, and phenologic and environmental states, in the field of ecosystem dynamics; soil moisture, snow moisture and extent, and glacier and ice sheet extent and velocity, in hydrologic cycle studies; surface-wave fields and sea ice properties, in ocean/atmosphere circulation; and the topography, erosion, and land forms of the solid earth.

  5. Eos, Koronis, and Maria Family Asteroids: Infrared (JHK) Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Owensby, Pamela D.; Gradie, Jonathan C.; Bell, Jeffrey F.; Tedesco, Edward F.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared photometry at 1.2, 1.6, and 2.2 micrometer (JHK) is reported for 56 asteroids in the Eos, Koronis and, Maria dynamical families. These data are consistent with similar surface composition for all of the asteroids of each family. The infrared colors within each family cluster in the region observed for the S taxonomic class, but Eos asteroids may belong to a separable K class. Asteroid 243 Ida, which was observed by the Galileo spacecraft, is a typical member of the Koronis family. The average infrared colors of the Maria family are slightly redder than those of the Eos and Koronis families.

  6. EOS production on the Space Station. [Electrophoresis Operations/Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.; Gleason, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a conceptual integration of the equipment for EOS (Electrophoresis Operations/Space) on the Space Station in the early 1990s. Electrophoresis is a fluid-constituent separation technique which uses forces created by an electrical field. Aspects covered include EOS equipment and operations, and Space Station installations involving a pressurized module, a resupply module, utility provisions and umbilicals and crew involvement. Accommodation feasibility is generally established, and interfaces are defined. Space Station production of EOS-derived pharmaceuticals will constitute a significant increase in capability compared to precursor flights on the Shuttle in the 1980s.

  7. EOS-AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles W.; Keys, Denney J.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wannemacher, Hari E.; Vaidyanathan, Harry

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of die tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-1 cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 18,202 LEO cycles completed as of September 1, 1997. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell, 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 amperes (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three, 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battery, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operating at +30 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements through the first 18

  8. Effects of EoS in viscous hydro + cascade model for the RHIC Beam Energy Scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Iu.; Bleicher, M.; Huovinen, P.; Petersen, H.

    2016-12-01

    A state-of-the-art 3+1 dimensional cascade + viscous hydro + cascade model vHLLE+UrQMD has been applied to heavy ion collisions in RHIC Beam Energy Scan range √{sNN} = 7.7 , … , 200 GeV. Based on comparison to available experimental data it was estimated that an effective value of shear viscosity over entropy density ratio η / s in hydrodynamic stage has to decrease from η / s = 0.2 to 0.08 as collision energy increases from √{sNN} = 7.7 to 39 GeV, and to stay at η / s = 0.08 for 39 ≤√{ s} ≤ 200 GeV. In this work we show how an equation of state with first order phase transition affects the hydrodynamic evolution at those collision energies and changes the results of the model as compared to "default scenario" with a crossover type EoS from chiral model.

  9. Comparison of EO1 Landsat-7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI images over Rochester, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

    2002-08-01

    We present a comparison of images from the ETM+ sensor on Landsat-7 and the ALI instrument on EO-1 over a test site in Rochester, NY. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, grass fields, to urban areas. The nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected just one minute apart on 25 August, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each image with the 6S atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by a Cimel sun photometer within the Aerosol Robotic Network (Aeronet), along with ozone density derived from NCEP data. We present three-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement. We present ETM+ and ALI reflectance spectra for water, grass, and urban targets. We make a more detailed comparison for our forest site, where we use measured geometric and optical properties as input to the SAIL canopy reflectance model, which we compare to the ETM+, ALI, and EO-1 Hyperion reflectance spectra.

  10. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  11. ASPEN: EO-1 Mission Activity Planning Made Easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Govindjee, Anita; Yan, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Fukunaga, Alex

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the application of an automated planning and scheduling system to the NASA Earth Orbitin 1 (EO-1) missions. The planning system, ASPEN, is used to autonomously schedule the daily activites of the satellite.

  12. EOS7R: Radionuclide transport for TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K.

    1995-11-01

    EOS7R provides radionuclide transport capability for TOUGH2. EOS7R extends the EOS7 module (water, brine, and optional air) to model water, brine, parent component, daughter component, and optional air and heat. The radionuclide components follow a first-order decay law, and may adsorb onto the solid grains. Volatilization of the decaying components is modeled by Henry`s Law. The decaying components are normally referred to as radionuclides, but they may in fact by any trace components that decay, adsorb, and volatilize. The decay process need not be radioactive decay, but could be any process that follows a first-order decay law, such as biodegradation. EOS7R includes molecular diffusion for all components in gaseous and aqueous phases using a simplified binary diffusion model. When EOS7R is used with standard TOUGH2, transport occurs by advection and molecular diffusion in all phases. When EOS7R is coupled with the dispersion module T2DM, one obtains T2DMR, the radionuclide transport version of T2DM. T2DMR models advection, diffusion, and hydrodynamic dispersion in rectangular two-dimensional regions. Modeling of radionuclide transport requires input parameters specifying the half-life for first-order decay, distribution coefficients for each rock type for adsorption, and inverse Henry`s constants for volatilization. Options can be specified in the input file to model decay in inactive grid blocks and to read from standard EOS7 INCON files. The authors present a number of example problems to demonstrate application and accuracy of TOUGH2/EOS7R. One-dimensional simulation results agree well with analytical solutions. For a two-dimensional salt-dome flow problem, the final distribution of daughter radionuclide component is complicated by the presence of weak recirculation caused by density effects due to salinity.

  13. Toward a complete EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Robert R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Based on NASA EOS data panel analyses, an architectural concept is described in terms of elemental composition, top-level functions, and external and internal interfaces. This concept has been evaluated through the use of realistic user-generated scenarios consistent with existing plans for the 1990s and the Space Station. Developmental approaches for the requisite EOS data and information system are presented and a hybrid methodology for implementing this system is discussed.

  14. The Polar HDF-EOS Data Imaging and Subsetting Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalsa, S. S.; Weaver, R. L.

    2001-05-01

    The Polar HDF-EOS Data Imaging and Subsetting (PHDIS) Tool realizes the promise of HDF-EOS, the standard data format selected by NASA for its EOS data products. Focused especially on the needs of the polar research community, the PHDIS Tool can open any HDF-EOS gridded data product that is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (LAMAZ) projection, the basis of the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) widely used for polar data products. The PHDIS Tool can also open and grid in LAMAZ any HDF-EOS swath data product. A simple and easy-to-use graphical user interface is used to open, geolocate, and visualize any number of swath or grid products in separate but dynamically linked windows. The products do not need to be at the same resolution. A box drawn in one window is simultaneously displayed in the other windows. Data in the selected region can be displayed in a new window, viewed in table format, or written to a file, for any of the data sets currently displayed. This tool provides an easy way for researchers to compare and analyze data from a variety of polar data sets. The National Snow and Ice Data Center is planning on making available the PHDIS Tool, which is written in IDL, to assist its users working with polar gridded data sets in HDF-EOS, including the MODIS Level 3 sea ice product. This presentation is the debut of the first public release of this tool.

  15. Practice improvement as a result of an end of life care programme for care homes.

    PubMed

    Springett, Angela

    2017-03-31

    This article explores practice outcomes from a Six Steps+ programme for end of life care (EoLC) delivered in care homes in the south of England. The education programme aims to increase staff's knowledge, skills and confidence to counter-balance their anxiety about EoLC. The Six Steps+ programme promotes a culture of high quality, compassionate, person-centred and dignified holistic care to meet the needs of residents who may have increasing complex requirements throughout their last year or more of life. Through integrated working and a reduction in avoidable hospital admissions, residents are enabled to die in their place of choice where possible. Case studies show that participating in the Six Steps+ programme increases care home staff's knowledge, skills and confidence and enhances the quality of EoLC for residents. With the cost of the education and support required essentially covered by six avoided hospital admissions throughout the one-year course, the Six Steps+ programme is an attractive and cost-effective approach to improving EoLC.

  16. Real-tme IR/EO scene simulator (RISS) product improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Douglas C.; Simmons, Onda D.; Makar, Robert J.; Nuwer, Mark E.; Palumbo, Paul W.; Schlossman, Paul G.; Perry, Roderic C.; Chan, Louis

    2003-09-01

    Northrop Grumman Amherst Systems has continued to improve the Real-time IR/EO Scene Simulator (RISS) for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of infrared sensor systems. Several new and enhanced capabilities have been added to the system for both customer and internal development programs. A new external control capability provides control of either player trajectories or unit-under-test (UUT) orientation. The RISS Scene Rendering Subsystem (SRS) has been enhanced with support for texture transparency and increased texture memory capacity. The RISS Universal Programmable Interface (UPI) graphical user interface (GUI) has been improved to provide added flexibility and control of the real-time sensor modeling capabilities. This paper will further explore these and other product improvements.

  17. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  18. 76 FR 70927 - USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Chapter II USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O.... Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review'' (E.O.), issued on January 18, 2011... pursuant to E.O. 13563. The E.O. further directs each agency to periodically review its...

  19. 77 FR 3211 - USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 33 CFR Chapter II USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of... Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review'' (E.O.), issued on January 18, 2011... pursuant to E.O. 13563. The E.O. further directs each agency to periodically review its...

  20. The Integration, Testing and Flight of the EO-1 GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, David A.; Sanneman, Paul A.; Shulman, Seth E.; Sager, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Positioning System has long been hailed as the wave of the future for autonomous on-board navigation of low Earth orbiting spacecraft despite the fact that relatively few spacecraft have actually employed it for this purpose. While several missions operated out of the Goddard Space Flight Center have flown GPS receivers on board, the New Millenium Program (NMP) Earth Orbiting-1 (EO-1) spacecraft is the first to employ GPS for active, autonomous on-board navigation. Since EO-1 was designed to employ GPS as its primary source of the navigation ephemeris, special care had to be taken during the integration phase of spacecraft construction to assure proper performance. This paper is a discussion of that process: a brief overview of how the GPS works, how it fits into the design of the EO-1 Attitude Control System (ACS), the steps taken to integrate the system into the EO-1 spacecraft, the ultimate on-orbit performance during launch and early operations of the EO-1 mission and the performance of the on-board GPS ephemeris versus the ground based ephemeris. Conclusions will include a discussion of the lessons learned.

  1. (abstract) The EOS SAR Mission: A New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Earth Orbiting System Synthetic Aperture Radar (EOS SAR) program is to help develop the modeling and observational capabilities to predict and monitor terrestrial and oceanic processes that are either causing global change or resulting from global change. Specifically, the EOS SAR will provide important geophysical products to the EOS data set to improve our understanding of the state and functioning of the Earth system. The strategy for the EOS SAR program is to define the instrument requirements based on required input to geophysical algorithms, provide the processing capability and algorithms to generate such products on the required spatial (global) and temporal (3-5 days) scales, and to provide the spaceborne instrumentation with international partnerships. Initially this partnership has been with Germany; currently we are exploring broader international partnerships. A MultiSAR approach to the EOS SAR which includes a number of SARs provided by Japan, ESA, Germany, Canada, and the US in synergistic orbits could be used to attain a truly global monitoring capability using multifrequency polarimetric signatures. These concepts and several options for mission scenarios will be presented.

  2. Exponential 6 parameterization for the JCZ3-EOS

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, B.C.; Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.

    1998-07-01

    A database has been created for use with the Jacobs-Cowperthwaite-Zwisler-3 equation-of-state (JCZ3-EOS) to determine thermochemical equilibrium for detonation and expansion states of energetic materials. The JCZ3-EOS uses the exponential 6 intermolecular potential function to describe interactions between molecules. All product species are characterized by r*, the radius of the minimum pair potential energy, and {var_epsilon}/k, the well depth energy normalized by Boltzmann`s constant. These parameters constitute the JCZS (S for Sandia) EOS database describing 750 gases (including all the gases in the JANNAF tables), and have been obtained by using Lennard-Jones potential parameters, a corresponding states theory, pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and fit values using an empirical EOS. This database can be used with the CHEETAH 1.40 or CHEETAH 2.0 interface to the TIGER computer program that predicts the equilibrium state of gas- and condensed-phase product species. The large JCZS-EOS database permits intermolecular potential based equilibrium calculations of energetic materials with complex elemental composition.

  3. Concepts For An EO Land Convoy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, M. A.; Eves, S.; Remedios, J.; Humpage, N.; Hall, D.; Regan, A.

    2013-12-01

    ESA are undertaking three studies investigating possible synergistic satellite missions flying in formation with the operational Copernicus Sentinel missions and/or the METOP satellites. These three studies are focussed on:- a) ocean and ice b) land c) atmosphere Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), the University of Leicester and Astrium Ltd are undertaking the second of these studies into the synergetic observation by missions flying in formation with European operational missions, focusing on the land theme. The aim of the study is to identify and develop, (through systematic analysis), potential innovative Earth science objectives and novel applications and services that could be made possible by flying additional satellites, (possibly of small-class type), in constellation or formation with one or more already deployed or firmly planned European operational missions, with an emphasis on the Sentinel missions, but without excluding other possibilities. In the long-term, the project aims at stimulating the development of novel, (smaller), mission concepts in Europe that may exploit new and existing European operational capacity in order to address in a cost effective manner new scientific objectives and applications. One possible route of exploitation would be via the proposed Small Mission Initiative (SMI) that may be initiated under the ESA Earth Explorer Observation Programme (EOEP). The following ESA science priority areas have been highlighted during the study [1]:- - The water cycle - The carbon cycle - Terrestrial ecosystems - Biodiversity - Land use and land use cover - Human population dynamics The study team have identified the science gaps that might be addressed by a "convoy" mission flying with the Copernicus Sentinel satellites, identified the candidate mission concepts and provided recommendations regarding the most promising concepts from a list of candidates. These recommendations provided the basis of a selection process performed by ESA

  4. Reference MWA EoR Power Spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, Bryna; Pober, Jonathan; Beardsley, Adam; Morales, Miguel F.; Sullivan, Ian S.; MWA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the Epoch of Reionization using redshifted 21cm HI emission promise to provide sensitive new cosmological constraints in the next few years. The current generation of HI EoR telescopes are targeting a statistical detection of the EoR in the power spectrum of the 21cm emission. The principal challenge lies in extracting the faint cosmological signal in the face of bright foregrounds and instrumental systematics that threaten to overwhelm it.We present the UW EoR power spectrum code, the reference code for the MWA and the first power spectrum analysis to analytically propagate the error bars through the full data analysis pipeline. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the power spectrum as a diagnostic tool for identifying subtle systematics and show power spectra of the first season of MWA observations.

  5. CERNBox + EOS: end-user storage for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascetti, L.; Gonzalez Labrador, H.; Lamanna, M.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ

    2015-12-01

    CERNBox is a cloud synchronisation service for end-users: it allows syncing and sharing files on all major mobile and desktop platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOSX, Android, iOS) aiming to provide offline availability to any data stored in the CERN EOS infrastructure. The successful beta phase of the service confirmed the high demand in the community for an easily accessible cloud storage solution such as CERNBox. Integration of the CERNBox service with the EOS storage back-end is the next step towards providing “sync and share” capabilities for scientific and engineering use-cases. In this report we will present lessons learnt in offering the CERNBox service, key technical aspects of CERNBox/EOS integration and new, emerging usage possibilities. The latter includes the ongoing integration of “sync and share” capabilities with the LHC data analysis tools and transfer services.

  6. CEMS: A New Infrastructure For EO And Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Victoria L.; Kershaw, Philip; Busswell, Geoff; Hilton, Richard; O'Neill, Alan

    2013-12-01

    CEMS, the facility for Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space, has been created as a collaboration between UK academic and industrial partners at Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK, offering Climate and Earth Observation (EO) data and services. Since going operational in September 2012, CEMS has been supporting a range of research and commercial users. Applications include production of climate-quality long- term global datasets, processing satellite observations, and development of novel algorithms and products combining EO with other environmental datasets. This paper briefly describes the CEMS infrastructure, present some example uses with initial indications of benefits of the CEMS environment, and outline plans for future evolution.

  7. Musculoskeletal imaging in progress: the EOS imaging system.

    PubMed

    Wybier, Marc; Bossard, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    The EOS 2D/3D radio-imaging device (Biospace med, France) can disclose a digital radiographic image of bones with a very low radiation dose. This in turn allows in obtaining a single image of a large field of view, as wide as the full skeleton. The simultaneous capturing of spatially paired AP and lateral X-ray images is also a specificity of EOS imaging, which further provides secondary 3D (volumic) reformation of skeletal images. The main indications of this new imaging technology are assessment and follow-up of balance disorders of the spine and of the lower limbs.

  8. Earth Observation Training and Education with ESA LearnEO!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, Valborg; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Dobson, Malcolm; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Del Frate, Fabio; Banks, Chris; Picchiani, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    For society to benefit fully from its investment in Earth observation, EO data must be accessible and familiar to a global community of users who have the skills, knowledge and understanding to use the observations appropriately in their work. Achieving this requires considerable education effort. LearnEO! (www.learn-eo.org) is a new ESA education project that contributes towards making this a reality. LearnEO! has two main aims: to develop new training resources that use data from sensors on ESA satellites to explore a variety of environmental topics, and to stimulate and support members of the EO and education communities who may be willing to develop and share new education resources in the future. The project builds on the UNESCO Bilko project, which currently supplies free software, tutorials, and example data to users in 175 countries. Most of these users are in academic education or research, but the training resources are also of interest to a growing number of professionals in government, NGOs and private enterprise. Typical users are not remote sensing experts, but see satellite data as one of many observational tools. They want an easy, low-cost means to process, display and analyse data from different satellite sensors as part of their work in environmental research, monitoring and policy development. Many of the software improvements and training materials developed in LearnEO! are in response to requests from this user community. The LearnEO! tutorial and peer-reviewed lessons are designed to teach satellite data processing and analysis skills at different levels, from beginner to advanced - where advanced lessons requires some previous experience with Earth observation techniques. The materials are aimed at students and professionals in various branches of Earth sciences who have not yet specialised in specific EO technologies. The lessons are suitable for self-study, university courses at undergraduate to MSc level, or for continued professional

  9. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  10. Multicopy suppression of oxidant-sensitive eos1 mutation by IZH2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the involvement of Eos1 in zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshihide; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shima, Jun

    2010-05-01

    EOS1 is required for tolerance to oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; mutants are defective in the gene sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and tolerant to tunicamycin. To clarify the function of Eos1, we screened yeast genomic DNA libraries for heterologous genes that, when overexpressed from a plasmid, can suppress the hydrogen peroxide-sensitive eos1 mutation. We identified one such gene, IZH2, which has previously been reported to be a Zap1-regulated gene. However, the EOS1 and IZH2 genes do not themselves appear to be functionally interchangeable. Double disruption of the EOS1 and IZH2 genes yielded a slow-growth phenotype, suggesting that the two proteins are involved in related cellular processes. DNA microarray analysis revealed decreased expression of Zap1-regulated genes in the eos1-deletion mutant (Deltaeos1). Thus, it is likely that Eos1 is involved in zinc homeostasis.

  11. Mission Operations of EO-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Daniel Q.

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the prior, labor and knowledge intensive mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the new autonomous operations as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment.

  12. Potential commercial uses of EOS remote sensing products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Leslie L.

    1991-01-01

    The instrument complement of the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite system will generate data sets with potential interest to a variety of users who are now just beginning to develop geographic information systems tailored to their special applications and/or jurisdictions. Other users may be looking for a unique product that enhances competitive position. The generally distributed products from EOS will require additional value added processing to derive the unique products desired by specific users. Entrepreneurs have an opportunity to create these proprietary level 4 products from the EOS data sets. Specific instruments or collections of instruments could provide information for crop futures trading, mineral exploration, television and printed medium news products, regional and local government land management and planning, digital map directories, products for third world users, ocean fishing fleet probability of harvest forecasts, and other areas not even imagined at this time. The projected level 3 product are examined that will be available at launch from EOS instruments and commercial uses of the data after value added processing is estimated.

  13. The EOSTA model for opacities and EOS calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshalom, Avraham; Oreg, Joseph

    2007-11-01

    The EOSTA model developed recently combines the STA and INFERNO models to calculate opacities and EOS on the same footing. The quantum treatment of the plasma continuum and the inclusion of the resulted shape resonances yield a smooth behavior of the EOS and opacity global quantities vs density and temperature. We will describe the combined model and focus on its latest improvements. In particular we have extended the use of the special representation of the relativistic virial theorem to obtain an exact differential equation for the free energy. This equation, combined with a boundary condition at the zero pressure point, serves to advance the LDA EOS results significantly. The method focuses on applicability to high temperature and high density plasmas, warm dens matter etc. but applies at low temperatures as well treating fluids and even solids. Excellent agreement is obtained with experiments covering a wide range of density and temperature. The code is now used to create EOS and opacity databases for the use of hydro-dynamical simulations.

  14. Downlink Probability Density Functions for EOS-McMurdo Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, P.; Jackson, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    The visibility times and communication link dynamics for the Earth Observations Satellite (EOS)-McMurdo Sound direct downlinks have been studied. The 16 day EOS periodicity may be shown with the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and the entire 16 day period should be simulated for representative link statistics. We desire many attributes of the downlink, however, and a faster orbital determination method is desirable. We use the method of osculating elements for speed and accuracy in simulating the EOS orbit. The accuracy of the method of osculating elements is demonstrated by closely reproducing the observed 16 day Landsat periodicity. An autocorrelation function method is used to show the correlation spike at 16 days. The entire 16 day record of passes over McMurdo Sound is then used to generate statistics for innage time, outage time, elevation angle, antenna angle rates, and propagation loss. The levation angle probability density function is compared with 1967 analytic approximation which has been used for medium to high altitude satellites. One practical result of this comparison is seen to be the rare occurrence of zenith passes. The new result is functionally different than the earlier result, with a heavy emphasis on low elevation angles. EOS is one of a large class of sun synchronous satellites which may be downlinked to McMurdo Sound. We examine delay statistics for an entire group of sun synchronous satellites ranging from 400 km to 1000 km altitude. Outage probability density function results are presented three dimensionally.

  15. Science Quality Assessment in Support of EOS MISR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, S.; Crean, K.; Kahn, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument, scheduled to fly on board the first Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft, will have a data stream that produces over 100 GB of data per day, once in full operation, of information about the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface.

  16. EOS Terra Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.

  17. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  18. EOS Operations Systems: EDOS Implemented Changes to Reduce Operations Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; McLemore, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe in this paper the progress achieved to-date with the reengineering of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS), the experience gained in the process and the ensuing reduction of ground systems operations costs. The reengineering effort included a major methodology change, applying to an existing schedule driven system, a data-driven system approach.

  19. EOS Aura and Future Satellite Studies of the Ozone Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The EOS Aura mission, launched in 2004, provides a comprehensive assessment of the stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. This talk will focus on results from Aura including the chemistry of polar ozone depletion. The data from Aura can be directly linked to UARS data to produce long term trends in stratospheric trace gases.

  20. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  1. Mission Status at Aura Science Team MOWG Meeting: EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at the 24797-16 Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Science Team Meeting (Mission Operations Work Group (MOWG)) at Rotterdam, Netherlands August 29, 2016. Presentation topics include mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, spacecraft anomalies, data capture, propellant usage and lifetime estimates, spacecraft maneuvers and ground track history, mission highlights and past spacecraft anomalies and reliability estimates.

  2. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  3. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  4. Rigorous theoretical constraint on constant negative EoS parameter [Formula: see text] and its effect for the late Universe.

    PubMed

    Burgazli, Alvina; Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    In this paper, we consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, the Universe is filled with inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Supposing that the Universe contains also the cosmological constant and a perfect fluid with a negative constant equation of state (EoS) parameter [Formula: see text] (e.g., quintessence, phantom or frustrated network of topological defects), we investigate scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics due to inhomogeneities. Our analysis shows that, to be compatible with the theory of scalar perturbations, this perfect fluid, first, should be clustered and, second, should have the EoS parameter [Formula: see text]. In particular, this value corresponds to the frustrated network of cosmic strings. Therefore, the frustrated network of domain walls with [Formula: see text] is ruled out. A perfect fluid with [Formula: see text] neither accelerates nor decelerates the Universe. We also obtain the equation for the nonrelativistic gravitational potential created by a system of inhomogeneities. Due to the perfect fluid with [Formula: see text], the physically reasonable solutions take place for flat, open and closed Universes. This perfect fluid is concentrated around the inhomogeneities and results in screening of the gravitational potential.

  5. EO-199, a specific antagonist of antiarrhythmic drugs: Assessment by binding experiments and in vivo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, E.; Harel, G.; Lipinsky, D.; Sarne, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    EO-199, a demethylated analog of the novel class I antiarrhythmic drug EO-122 was found to antagonize the antiarrhythmic activity of EO-122 and that of procainamide (Class I{sub A}). EO-199 did not block significantly the activity of a class I{sub B} antiarrhythmic agent, lidocaine. EO-199 also displaced the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)EO-122 to rate heart membranes similarly to procainamide whereas lidocaine did not. The correlation between binding experiments and pharmacological effects points to a possible subclassification of these drugs; the two chemical analogs EO-199 and EO-122, as well as procainamide (I{sub A}) but not lidocaine (I{sub B}), compete at the same site or the same state of the sodium channel. The availability of a specific antagonist might be useful for studying the mechanism of action of antiarrhythmic drugs as well as an antidote in cases of antiarrhythmics overdose intoxication.

  6. 76 FR 40645 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Chapter 14 50 CFR Chapters I and IV Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563... cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011;...

  7. 77 FR 59567 - Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ..., 1216, 1235 RIN 1125-AA71 Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Executive Office for...), entitled ``Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563,'' on March 1,...

  8. 76 FR 10526 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Chapter 14 50 CFR Chapters I and IV Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563.... Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: February...

  9. 76 FR 34177 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION... made available to the public on http://dolregs.ideascale.com . Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: June 7, 2011. e. christi...

  10. Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

  11. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.

  12. Enhancement to Hitran to Support the NASA EOS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Kate P.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    1998-01-01

    The HITRAN molecular database has been enhanced with the object of providing improved capabilities for the EOS program scientists. HITRAN itself is the database of high-resolution line parameters of gaseous species expected to be observed by the EOS program in its remote sensing activities. The database is part of a larger compilation that includes IR cross-sections, aerosol indices of refraction, and software for filtering and plotting portions of the database. These properties have also been improved. The software has been advanced in order to work on multiple platforms. Besides the delivery of the compilation on CD-ROM, the effort has been directed toward making timely access of data and software on the world wide web.

  13. Wysession begins term as Eos Section Editor for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, Michael

    In mid-April, Michael Wysession, an associate professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University, embarked on a 3-year term as section editor of Eos for seismology. Wysession brings to the position a strong background in research and teaching. Below are a few remarks from Wysession.“I recently became the new seismology editor for Eos. I look forward to presenting the many exciting areas of seismological research to the entire geophysical community. I have taught at Washington University since obtaining my Ph.D. at Northwestern University in 1991. My interest in seismology began during my undergraduate years at Brown University (Sc.B., 1984), but my experience as an educator began after I graduated and taught high school math and physics in Staten Island, N.Y.

  14. Enhancement to HITRAN to Support the NASA EOS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Kate P.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    1999-01-01

    The HITRAN molecular database has been enhanced with the object of providing improved capabilities for the EOS program scientists. HITRAN itself is the database of high-resolution line parameters of gaseous species expected to be observed by the EOS program in its remote sensing activities. The database is part of a larger compilation that includes IR cross-sections, aerosol indices of refraction, and software for filtering and plotting portions of the database. These properties have also been improved. The software has been advanced in order to work on multiple platforms. Besides the delivery of the compilation on CD-ROM, the effort has been directed toward making timely access of data and software on the world wide web.

  15. An Overview of the EOS Data Dissemination Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H.K.; Pfister, Robin; Weinstein, Beth

    2008-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the primary data system serving the broad-scope of NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) program and a significant portion of the "heritage" Earth science data. EOSDIS was designed to support the Earth sciences within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (previously the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and Mission to Planet Earth). The EOS Program was NASA s contribution to the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) enacted by Congress in 1990 as part of the Global Change Act. ESE s objective was to launch a series of missions to help answer fundamental global change questions such as "How is Earth changing?" and "What are the consequences for life on Earth?" resulting support of this objective, EOSDIS distributes a wide variety of data to a diverse community.

  16. NASA SNPP SIPS - Following in the Path of EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Jeanne; Hall, Alfreda; Ho, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Information System (ESDIS) Project has been operating NASA's Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Science Data Segment (SDS) since the launch in October 2011. At launch, the SDS focused primarily on the evaluation of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs) produced by the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), a National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) Program, as to their suitability for Earth system science. During the summer of 2014, NASA transitioned to the production of standard Earth Observing System (EOS)-like science products for all instruments aboard Suomi NPP. The five Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS): Land, Ocean, Atmosphere, Ozone, and Sounder were established to produce the NASA SNPP standard Level 1, Level 2, and global Level 3 products developed by the SNPP Science Teams and to provide the products to NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) for archive and distribution to the user community. The processing, archiving and distribution of data from NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb instruments will continue. With the implementation of the JPSS Block 2 architecture and the launch of JPSS-1, the SDS will receive SNPP data in near real-time via the JPSS Stored Mission Data Hub (JSH), as well as JPSS-1 and future JPSS-2 data. The SNPP SIPS will ingest EOS compatible Level 0 data from the EOS Data Operations System (EDOS) element for their data processing, enabling the continuous EOS-SNPP-JPSS Satellite Data Record.

  17. Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Definition Phase Report, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    System definition studies were conducted of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS). The studies show that the concept of an Earth Observatory Satellite in a near-earth, sun-synchronous orbit would make a unique contribution to the goals of a coordinated program for acquisition of data for environmental research with applications to earth resource inventory and management. The technical details for the proposed development of sensors, spacecraft, and a ground data processing system are presented.

  18. Management approach recommendations. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management analyses and tradeoffs were performed to determine the most cost effective management approach for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Phase C/D. The basic objectives of the management approach are identified. Some of the subjects considered are as follows: (1) contract startup phase, (2) project management control system, (3) configuration management, (4) quality control and reliability engineering requirements, and (5) the parts procurement program.

  19. Effects of EOS adiabat on hot spot dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Equation of state (EOS) and adiabat of the pusher play significant roles in the dynamics and formation of the hot spot of an ignition capsule. For given imploding energy, they uniquely determine the partition of internal energy, mass, and volume between the pusher and the hot spot. In this work, we apply the new scaling laws recently derived by Cheng et al. to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) ignition capsules and study the impacts of EOS and adiabat of the pusher on the hot spot dynamics by using the EOS adiabat index as an adjustable model parameter. We compare our analysis with the NIC data, specifically, for shots N120321 and N120205, and with the numerical simulations of these shots. The predictions from our theoretical model are in good agreements with the NIC data when a hot adiabat was used for the pusher, and with code simulations when a cold adiabat was used for the pusher. Our analysis indicates that the actual adiabat of the pusher in NIC experiments may well be higher than the adiabat assumed in the simulations. This analysis provides a physical and systematic explanation to the ongoing disagreements between the NIC experimental results and the multi-dimensional numerical simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract number W-7405-ENG-36.

  20. EOS7C-ECBM Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-14

    EOS7C is an equation of state module for the TOUGH2 program for CO2 or N2 in Methane (CH4) Reservoirs. In the present work, additions have been made to the EOS7C Version 1.0 module to include the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) modifications developed by Webb (2003). In addition, the Dusty Gas Model for gas-phase diffusion (Webb 2001) has been included. The ECBM modification to the EOS7C equation of state incorporate the extended Langmuir isothem for sorbing gases, including the change in porosity associated with the sorbed gas mass. Comparison to hand calculations for pure gas and binary mixture shows very good agreement. Application to a CO2 well injection problem by Law et al. (2002). The Dusty Model modification add options to calculate gas diffusion using the Dusty-Gas Model including separate and coupled approaches. Comparison to low-permeability pure gas diffusion data shows excellent agreement. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's Law behavior for diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences between the models are small due to the relatively high permeability (10-11 m2) of the problem.

  1. EOS measurements for CH foams using smoothed laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Michel; Benuzzi, Alessandra; Faral, Bernard; Philippe, Franc; Batani, Dimitri; Scianitti, Francesca; Müller, Laura; Torsiello, Flavia; Hall, Tom; Grandjouan, Nicholas; Nazarov, Wigen

    1998-11-01

    Porous material studies are of great interest in ICF physics, e. g. as a way to suppress laser nonuniformities (1), in material physics (2), or in astrophysics where foams have already been used to simulate supernovae remnants (3). The knowledge of foam Equation of State (EOS) is therefore needed. Here we present the first EOS data of CH foams obtained with lasers. The data, in the pressure range of 0.04-4 Mbar, have been obtained by reverse mismatch impedance technique, using aluminium as the reference material and foams with densities ranging from 20 to 400 mg/cc. We performed also measurements on the plastic at normal density (1100 mc/cc). A specific target design makes it possible to measure shock velocities in aluminium and in foams on the same shot. The results are compared to SESAME EOS and QEOS model which include the initial low density effects. [1]M. Dunee et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75,3858 (1995). [2] N. Holmes, Proceedings of APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, Colorado Springs USA (1994). [3]B. Remington et al., Phys. Plasmas 4(5),1994.

  2. Development of a PPT for the EO-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Hoskins, W. Andrew; Meckel, Nicole J.

    2000-01-01

    A Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) has been developed for use in a technology demonstration flight experiment on the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) New Millennium Program mission. The thruster replaces the spacecraft pitch axis momentum wheel for control and momentum management during an experiment of a minimum three-day duration. The EO-1 PPT configuration is a combination of new technology and design heritage from similar systems flown in the 1970's and 1980's. Acceptance testing of the protoflight unit has validated readiness for flight, and integration with the spacecraft, including initial combined testing, has been completed. The thruster provides a range of capability from 90 microN-sec impulse bit at 650 sec specific impulse for 12 W input power, through 860 microN-sec impulse bit at 1400 see specific impulse for 70 W input power. Development of this thruster reinitiates technology research and development and re-establishes an industry base for production of flight hardware. This paper reviews the EO-1 PPT development, including technology selection, design and fabrication, acceptance testing, and initial spacecraft integration and test.

  3. EOS calculations for hydrothermal diamond anvil cell operation.

    PubMed

    Presser, Volker; Heiss, Martin; Nickel, Klaus G

    2008-08-01

    The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) is an excellent tool for high-temperature, high-pressure (hydrothermal) experiments. For an accurate determination of pressure induced by a certain temperature in an isochoric sample chamber volume, an equation of state (EOS) of water can be used instead of direct measurement. This paper reviews the theoretic background and provides all needed equations for the application of EOS of water to HDAC experiments summarizing state-of-the-art knowledge and incorporating up-to-date thermodynamic data. The p-T conditions determined using the IAPWS-95 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water are in agreement with values obtained from direct methods or other established EOS formulations. In particular, (1) the calculation of density through the (a) melting point or (b) homogenization method along with determining (2) pressure as a function of density and temperature or (3) density as a function of pressure and temperature is explained. As a new aspect in the context of HDAC operations, the critical influence of nucleation and a strategy to overcome this problem are discussed. Furthermore, we have derived new polynomial equations, which allow the direct calculation of the fluid phase's density from the melting temperature. These are implemented in a spreadsheet program, which is freely available for interested users.

  4. On designing of LCAS over VCAT for an EOS chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Jin, Depeng; Zeng, Lieguang

    2005-02-01

    Ethernet over SDH/SONET (EOS), which connects different Ethernets through the existing SDH/SONET infrastructure, is a promising data transmission technology in today"s networks, for it successfully combines the simplicity and affordability of Ethernet with the resilience and scalability of SDH/SONET. Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) is one of the key technologies in EOS, which provides the capability to transmit and receive over several noncontiguous parallel Virtual Container (VC) fragments as a single flow and drastically improves efficiency of over 33 percent against standard concatenations. Link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) over VCAT signaling scheme further enhances VCAT to tune bandwidth dynamically at the requests of network management system without disturbing the existing traffic. In addition, the scheme will automatically decrease the capacity if some member of VCAT experiences a failure in the network, and increase the capacity when the network fault is repaired. In this paper, our design of LCAS over VCAT within an EOS chip is provided, which supports four Virtual Concatenation Groups (VCG) to adjust their bandwidth simultaneously. The block diagrams of the total design for LCAS over VCAT are also provided and several open problems that we encountered during implementation and their corresponding solutions are discussed in focus. Thoroughly functional simulations and FPGA verifications have been done to the design to prove its validity. Finally, we have the design synthesized with Synopsys"s Design Compiler, which reveals that the whole design is realizable in ASICs.

  5. A new class of LRS Bianchi type-II dark energy models with variable EoS parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Amirhashchi, Hassan; Jaiswal, Rekha

    2011-08-01

    A new class of dark energy models in a Locally Rotationally Symmetric Bianchi type-II (LRS B-II) space-time with variable equation of state (EoS) parameter and constant deceleration parameter have been investigated in the present paper. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by applying a variation law for generalized Hubble's parameter given by Berman: Nuovo Cimento 74:182 (1983) which generates two types of solutions for the average scale factor, one is of power-law type and other is of the exponential-law form. Using these two forms, Einstein's field equations are solved separately that correspond to expanding singular and non-singular models of the universe respectively. The dark energy EoS parameter ω is found to be time dependent and its existing range for both models is in good agreement with the three recent observations of (i) SNe Ia data (Knop et al.: Astrophys. J. 598:102 (2003)), (ii) SNe Ia data collaborated with CMBR anisotropy and galaxy clustering statistics (Tegmark et al.: Astrophys. J. 606:702 (2004)) and latest (iii) a combination of cosmological datasets coming from CMB anisotropies, luminosity distances of high redshift type Ia supernovae and galaxy clustering (Hinshaw et al.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 180:225 (2009); Komatsu et al. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 180:330 (2009)). The cosmological constant Λ is found to be a positive decreasing function of time and it approaches a small positive value at late time (i.e. the present epoch) which is corroborated by results from recent supernovae Ia observations. The physical and geometric behaviour of the universe have also been discussed in detail.

  6. SenSyF Experience on Integration of EO Services in a Generic, Cloud-Based EO Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Nuno; Catarino, Nuno; Gutierrez, Antonio; Grosso, Nuno; Andrade, Joao; Caumont, Herve; Goncalves, Pedro; Villa, Guillermo; Mangin, Antoine; Serra, Romain; Johnsen, Harald; Grydeland, Tom; Emsley, Stephen; Jauch, Eduardo; Moreno, Jose; Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    SenSyF is a cloud-based data processing framework for EO- based services. It has been pioneer in addressing Big Data issues from the Earth Observation point of view, and is a precursor of several of the technologies and methodologies that will be deployed in ESA's Thematic Exploitation Platforms and other related systems.The SenSyF system focuses on developing fully automated data management, together with access to a processing and exploitation framework, including Earth Observation specific tools. SenSyF is both a development and validation platform for data intensive applications using Earth Observation data. With SenSyF, scientific, institutional or commercial institutions developing EO- based applications and services can take advantage of distributed computational and storage resources, tailored for applications dependent on big Earth Observation data, and without resorting to deep infrastructure and technological investments.This paper describes the integration process and the experience gathered from different EO Service providers during the project.

  7. Initial Scientific Assessment of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Crucial to the success of the Earth Observing System (Eos) is the Eos Data and Information System (EosDIS). The goals of Eos depend not only on its instruments and science investigations, but also on how well EosDlS helps scientists integrate reliable, large-scale data sets of geophysical and biological measurements made from Eos data, and on how successfully Eos scientists interact with other investigations in Earth System Science. Current progress in the use of remote sensing for science is hampered by requirements that the scientist understand in detail the instrument, the electromagnetic properties of the surface, and a suite of arcane tape formats, and by the immaturity of some of the techniques for estimating geophysical and biological variables from remote sensing data. These shortcomings must be transcended if remote sensing data are to be used by a much wider population of scientists who study environmental change at regional and global scales.

  8. The tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, increasing concern has been expressed about Global Change - the natural and anthropogenic alteration of the Earth's environment involving global greenhouse warming and the associated climate change, urban and regional atmospheric pollution, acid deposition, regional increases in tropospheric zone, and the decrease in stratospheric ozone. A common theme among these problems is that they all involve those tropospheric trace gases which are fundamental to the biosphere-troposphere interaction, the chemistry of the free troposphere itself, and troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The chemical species involved all have spectral signatures within the near and mid infrared that can now be measured by advanced techniques of remote-sensing infrared spectroradiometry. Such a system is the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), now in Phase B definition for the Earth Observing System (EOS) polar platforms. TES addresses these objectives by obtaining radiometrically calibrated, linewidth-limited spectral resolution, infrared spectra of the lower atmosphere using both natural thermal emission and reflected sunlight (where appropriate) in three different, but fully programmable, modes: a gobal mode, a pointed mode, and a limb-viewing mode. The goals of TES, its instrumentation, operational modes, sensitivity and data handling are discussed.

  9. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A: EOS program WBS dictionary. Appendix B: EOS mission functional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The work breakdown structure (WBS) dictionary for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is defined. The various elements of the EOS program are examined to include the aggregate of hardware, computer software, services, and data required to develop, produce, test, support, and operate the space vehicle and the companion ground data management system. A functional analysis of the EOS mission is developed. The operations for three typical EOS missions, Delta, Titan, and Shuttle launched are considered. The functions were determined for the top program elements, and the mission operations, function 2.0, was expanded to level one functions. Selection of ten level one functions for further analysis to level two and three functions were based on concern for the EOS operations and associated interfaces.

  10. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  11. Science Requirements Document for OMI-EOS. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levelt, P. F.; vanderA, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boersma, F.; Brinksma, E.; Carpay, J.; Chance, K.; deHaan, J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Isaksen, I.

    2000-01-01

    A Dutch-Finnish scientific and industrial consortium is supplying the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Earth Observing System-Aura (EOS-Aura). EOS-Aura is the next NASA mission to study the Earth's atmosphere extensively, and successor to the highly successful UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) mission. The 'Science Requirements Document for OMI-EOS' presents an overview of the Aura and OMI mission objectives. It describes how OMI fits into the Aura mission and it reviews the synergy with the other instruments onboard Aura to fulfill the mission. This evolves in the Scientific Requirements for OMI (Chapter 3), stating which trace gases have to be measured with what necessary accuracy, in order for OMI to meet Aura's objectives. The most important data product of OMI, the ozone vertical column, densities shall have a better accuracy and an improved global coverage than the predecessor instruments TOMS (Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), which is a.o. achieved by a better signal to noise ratio, improved calibration and a wide field-of-view. Moreover, in order to meet its role on Aura, OMI shall measure trace gases, such as NO2, OClO, BrO, HCHO and SO2, aerosols, cloud top height and cloud coverage. Improved accuracy, better coverage, and finer ground grid than has been done in the past are goals for OMI. After the scientific requirements are defined, three sets of subordinate requirements are derived. These are: the algorithm requirements, i.e. what do the algorithms need in order to meet the scientific requirements; the instrument and calibration requirements, i.e. what has to be measured and how accurately in order to provide the quality of data necessary for deriving the data products; and the validation requirements, i.e. a strategy of how the OMI program will assure that its data products are valid in the atmosphere, at least to the required accuracy.

  12. The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, J. W.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Lau, G. K.; Pickett, H. M.; Santee, M. L.; Wu, D. L.; Boyles, M. A.; Burke, J. R.; Lay, R. R.; Loo, M. S.; Livesey, N. J.; Lungu, T. A.; Manney, G. L.; Nakamura, L. L.;  Perun, V. S.;  Ridenoure, B. P.;  Shippony, Z.;  Siegel, P. H.;  Thurstans, R. P.;  Harwood, R. S.;  Pumphrey, H. C.;  Filipiak, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments obtain measurements of atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure by observations of millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength thermal emission as the instrument field of view is scanned through the atmospheric limb. Features of the measurement technique include the ability to measure many atmospheric gases as well as temperature and pressure, to obtain measurements even in the presence of dense aerosol and cirrus, and to provide near-global coverage on a daily basis at all times of day and night from an orbiting platform. The composition measurements are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in atmospheric temperature. An accurate spectroscopic database is available, and the instrument calibration is also very accurate and stable. The first MLS experiment in space, launched on the (NASA) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in September 1991, was designed primarily to measure stratospheric profiles of ClO, O3, H2O, and atmospheric pressure as a vertical reference. Global measurement of ClO, the predominant radical in chlorine destruction of ozone, was an especially important objective of UARS MLS. All objectives of UARS MLS have been accomplished and additional geophysical products beyond those for which the experiment was designed have been obtained, including measurement of upper-tropospheric water vapor, which is important for climate change studies. A follow-on MLS experiment is being developed for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) and is scheduled to be launched on the EOS CHEMISTRY platform in late 2002. EOS MLS is designed for many stratospheric measurements, including HOx radicals, which could not be measured by UARS because adequate technology was not available, and better and more extensive upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements.

  13. EOS attitude determination and next generation star tracker enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, P.; Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    The pointing knowledge required for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission is at the limit of the current generation of star trackers, with little margin. Techniques for improving the performance of existing star trackers are explored, with performance sensitivities developed for each alternative. These are extended to define the most significant performance enhancements for a next generation star tracker. Since attitude determination studies tend to be computationally intensive, an approach for using a simpler one degree of freedom formulation is contrasted with a full three degree of freedom formulation. Additionally, covariance analysis results are compared with time domain simulation performance results.

  14. EOS radiometer concepts for soil moisture remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, J.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary work with aperture synthesis concepts for EOS is reported. The effects of nonvanishing bandwidths on image reconstruction in aperture synthesis system was studied. It is found that nonvanishing bandwidths introduce errors in off-axis pixels when naive Fourier processing is used. The net effect is for bandwidth to limit sensor field-of-view. To quantify this effect a computer program was written which is documented. Example runs are included which illustrate the resultant radiometric errors and effective fields-of-view for a plausible simple sensor.

  15. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Eos LNG... Eos LNG LLC (Eos), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced from... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  16. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  17. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  18. Use of EOS Data in AWIPS for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Haines, Stephanie L.; Suggs, Ron J.; Bradshaw, Tom; Darden, Chris; Burks, Jason

    2003-01-01

    Operational weather forecasting relies heavily on real time data and modeling products for forecast preparation and dissemination of significant weather information to the public. The synthesis of this information (observations and model products) by the meteorologist is facilitated by a decision support system to display and integrate the information in a useful fashion. For the NWS this system is called Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). Over the last few years NASA has launched a series of new Earth Observation Satellites (EOS) for climate monitoring that include several instruments that provide high-resolution measurements of atmospheric and surface features important for weather forecasting and analysis. The key to the utilization of these unique new measurements by the NWS is the real time integration of the EOS data into the AWIPS system. This is currently being done in the Huntsville and Birmingham NWS Forecast Offices under the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Program. This paper describes the use of near real time MODIS and AIRS data in AWIPS to improve the detection of clouds, moisture variations, atmospheric stability, and thermal signatures that can lead to significant weather development. The paper and the conference presentation will focus on several examples where MODIS and AIRS data have made a positive impact on forecast accuracy. The results of an assessment of the utility of these products for weather forecast improvement made at the Huntsville NWS Forecast Office will be presented.

  19. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus, T.; Gasiewski, A.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Sturm, M.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed in March 2003. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4,2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The primary instrument on the P-3B aircraft was the NOAA ETL Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) covering the same frequencies and polarizations as the AMSR-E. This paper describes the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound. Comparisons among the satellite and aircraft PSR data sets are presented.

  20. EOS ART: Six Artistic Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. EOS ART was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects. The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia. The paper provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand).

  1. Love and Eos make the world go round

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2012-02-01

    After 15 years of teaching environmental science, health, and safety at the College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma (not far from the Holocene Meers Fault), it was time for a change. I took a deep breath, gave up a tenured faculty position, and moved to Boulder, Colo., to work for a well-known geological society, where my office looked out on steep slabs of Pennsylvanian sandstone at the edge of the Rocky Mountains. Seven months later, I realized there was a new neighbor next door—literally on the other side of the wall of my condo. Remembering my Oklahoma manners, I went next door to welcome the new neighbor. Alan Nelson answered the door and was momentarily speechless when I introduced myself as Deborah Nelson. He quickly recovered and invited me in. We began one of those halting conversations that proceeded until I spied a copy of Eos on the coffee table. "You must be a geologist!" I proudly exclaimed, since I knew that Eos is the weekly publication of AGU. Once again, Alan, who is indeed a geologist, was at a loss for words—but with this happy discovery, the conversation was off and running.

  2. Plans for the development of EOS SAR systems using the Alaska SAR facility. [Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Weeks, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) program for the acquisition and processing of data from the ESA ERS-1, the NASDA ERS-1, and Radarsat and to carry out a program of science investigations using the data is introduced. Agreements for data acquisition and analysis are in place except for the agreement between NASA and Radarsat which is in negotiation. The ASF baseline system, consisting of the Receiving Ground System, the SAR Processor System and the Archive and Operations System, passed critical design review and is fully in implementation phase. Augments to the baseline system for systems to perform geophysical processing and for processing of J-ERS-1 optical data are in the design and implementation phase. The ASF provides a very effective vehicle with which to prepare for the Earth Observing System (EOS) in that it will aid the development of systems and technologies for handling the data volumes produced by the systems of the next decades, and it will also supply some of the data types that will be produced by EOS.

  3. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  4. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  5. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  6. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  7. IFLA's Programme of ISBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    The article outlines the evolution, development, and current operational programme of the ISBD's (International Standard Bibliographic Description) within the framework of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations). (Author/JAB)

  8. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  9. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  10. Doppler lidar wind measurements on the EOS - LAWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the efforts currently underway to prepare for the deployment of the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) instrument on an Earth Observing System (EOS) polar orbiter and on the Space Station. Attention is given to the measurement techiques, which include ground-based and airborne measurements in the atmosphere, and to the scientific and the technical issues being addressed. Global wind profiles obtained with the LAWS will effect dramatic improvement in numerical weather prediction and will be useful in determining the midtroposphere steering currents that are important in hurricane track forecasts. The global wind data will also provide information on large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics and on biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles.

  11. Eos Interviews John Holdren, President Obama's Science Advisor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-12-01

    With the Obama administration about to face a Republican-led House of Representatives in January, presidential science advisor John Holdren sat down with Eos for an exclusive and wide-ranging interview following a policy speech he delivered on 13 December at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. During the interview, Holdren, who also is director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), focused on the challenging congressional and budgetary environment, the administration's priorities related to the Earth sciences, and the responsibility of scientists in helping to communicate the societal benefits of science, educate the public, and improve science education and literacy. Holdren said the Obama administration's top priorities related to the Earth sciences include improving observations of the Earth, making progress in dealing with climate change, and rebalancing NASA's focus.

  12. Data compression for Eos on-board SAR processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Fang, W. C.; Curlander, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power, real-time data compressor design for the Earth Observing System (Eos) onboard synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor is presented. The implementation is based on VLSI design of a pipelined binary tree-searched vector quantizer (VQ), utilizing space-qualifiable 1.25-micron CMOS technology. The implementation exploits VLSI system design principles such as the modularity, regular data flow, simple interconnection, localized communication, simple global control, and parallel/pipelined processing. The overall system requires 30 chips with only one VLSI processing element design. The total weight is about 1.2 lbs, with an estimated power dissipation of approximately 4 watts operating at the maximum input data rate. The projected throughput rate exceeds 5 MHz.

  13. Terrestrial Environmental Variables Derived From EOS Platform Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Stephen J.; Czajkowski, Kevin P.; Goward, Samuel N.; Xue, Yongkang

    2001-01-01

    The three main objectives of the overall project were: 1. Adaptation of environmental constraint methods to take advantage of EOS sensors, specifically, MODIS, ASTER, and Landsat-7, in addition to the PM AVHRR observations 2. Refinement of environmental constraint methods based on fundamental scientific knowledge. 3. Assessment of spatial scaling patterns in environmental constraint measurements to evaluate the potential biases and errors that occur when estimating regional and global-scale NPP patterns with moderate to coarse satellite observations. These goals were modified because, on one hand, MODIS data did not become available until after the first year of the project and because of project staffing issues at the University of Maryland., The OSU portion of the project contained a modest amount of funding and responsibility compared to the University of Maryland and the University of Toledo.

  14. Evolution of EO/IR technology and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2013-09-01

    There is a need to assess whether different strategies can be evolved for developing EO/IR systems to support the generation of space-variant multi-domain, signature discriminating imagery without the penalty imposed by the generation and communication of large datasets. In addition it would be beneficial if such strategies could avoid challenges in relation to complexity and the cost of manufacture for both the defence and medical arenas. This paper revisits some of the constructs exploited in biological imaging systems, notably those found in the family of stomatopod crustaceans and assesses the feasibility of pursuing some of the ideas generated from that study using novel comb filter technologies in the context of emerging focal plane and optical system technologies.

  15. Karst rocky desertification information extraction with EO-1 Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuemin; Wang, Kelin; Zhang, Bing; Jiao, Quanjun; Yu, Yizun

    2008-12-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a special kind of land desertification developed under violent human impacts on the vulnerable eco-geo-environment of karst ecosystem. The process of karst rocky desertification results in simultaneous and complex variations of many interrelated soil, rock and vegetation biogeophysical parameters, rendering it difficult to develop simple and robust remote sensing mapping and monitoring approaches. In this study, we aimed to use Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion hyperspectral data to extract the karst rocky desertification information. A spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach, was employed to quantify the fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare substrates. The results showed that SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) portions of the spectrum were significantly different in PV, NPV and bare rock spectral properties. It has limitations in using full optical range or only SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) region of Hyperion to decompose image into PV, NPV and bare substrates covers. However, when use the tied-SWIR, the sub-pixel fractional covers of PV, NPV and bare substrates were accurately estimated. Our study indicates that the "tied-spectrum" method effectively accentuate the spectral characteristics of materials, while the spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach is a useful tool to automatically extract mixed ground objects in karst ecosystem. Karst rocky desertification information can be accurately extracted with EO-1 Hyperion. Imaging spectroscopy can provide a powerful methodology toward understanding the extent and spatial pattern of land degradation in karst ecosystem.

  16. GDAL Enhancements for Interoperability with EOS Data (GEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisdale, B.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) data products have been difficult to consume by GIS tools, weather commercial or open-source. This has resulted in a reduced acceptance of these data products by GIS and general user communities. Common problems and challenges experienced by these data users include difficulty when: Consuming data products from NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that pre-date modern application software with commercial and open-source geospatial tools; Identifying[MI1] an initial approach for developing a framework and plug-ins that interpret non-compliant data; Defining a methodology that is extensible across NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), scientific communities, and GIS communities by enabling other data centers to construct their own plug-ins and adjust specific data products; and Promoting greater use of NASA Data and new analysis utilizing GIS tools. To address these challenges and make EOS data products more accessible and interpretable by GIS applications, a collaborative approach has been taken that includes the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), Esri, George Mason University (GMU), and the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Group to create a framework and plugins to be applied to Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). This framework and its plugins offer advantages of extensibility within NASA EOSDIS, permitting other data centers to construct their own plugins necessary to adjust their data products. In this session findings related to the framework and the development of GDAL plugins will be reviewed. Specifically, this session will offer a workshop to review documentation and training materials that have been generated for the purpose of guiding other NASA DAACs through the process of constructing plug-ins consistent with the framework as well as a review of the certification process by which the plugins can be independently verified as properly converting

  17. Detection Of Tornado Damage Tracks With EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2005-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (path length and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explored the possibility of using near real-time medium and high-resolution satellite imagery from the NASA EOS satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. MODIS and ASTER data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms; the La Plata, Maryland storm of 28 April 2002 and the Carter-Butler Counties and Madison County Missouri storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity (from F0-F4) and occurred over regions with different land use. It was found that, depending on the nature of land use, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F2 or greater) may be evident in both ASTER and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas of dense vegetation the scar patterns show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not at all obvious in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2004 Madison County, Missouri tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land use as on the severity of the tornadic storm. The imaging sensors on the NPOESS operational satellites to be launched in 2006 will continue the unique observing capabilities of the EOS instruments.

  18. Earth Observing System(EOS). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Firmware Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, R.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the Firmware Test Report for the firmware to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instrument. It describes the firmware results of the Formal Qualification Test (FQT)/Demonstrations conducted on Mar. 21, 1997, Apr. 8, 1998, and July 14, 1998, for the EOS/AMSU-A instrument.

  19. Multi-channel holographic birfurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Diep, J.; Huang, K.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on multi-channel holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive Earth Observing System (EOS) data analysis are presented. The objective is to research and develop an optical bifurcating neuromorphic pattern recognition system for making optical data array comparisons and to evaluate the use of the system for EOS data classification, reduction, analysis, and other applications.

  20. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property...

  1. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property...

  2. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property...

  3. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property...

  4. 7 CFR 1962.34 - Transfer of chattel security and EO property and assumption of debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198) after December 23, 1985, if a loan is being transferred and... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of chattel security and EO property and... Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.34 Transfer of chattel security and EO property...

  5. The role of Earth Observation (EO) technologies in supporting implementation of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.

    PubMed

    MacKay, H; Finlayson, C M; Fernández-Prieto, D; Davidson, N; Pritchard, D; Rebelo, L-M

    2009-05-01

    Over one hundred wetland specialists and Earth Observation experts from around the world gathered at the European Space Agency's 'GlobWetland Symposium: Looking at wetlands from space' in Frascati, Italy, from 19 to 20 October, 2006. The aim of the Symposium was to stimulate discussion between the two communities by reviewing the latest developments in Earth Observation (EO) for the inventory, assessment and monitoring of wetlands and identify key scientific, technical and policy-relevant challenges for the future. The results provide an overview of the key areas of current research in the use of EO for mapping and managing wetlands, while also pointing out gaps that could hinder global inventory, assessment and monitoring of wetlands. This paper provides a summary of the main outputs with a focus on the role of EO technologies in supporting the implementation of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The summary contains a qualitative analysis of the state of the art and considers possible directions and priorities for future research, development and application of EO-based technologies in wetland management. In this context we: 1) highlight those applications where EO technologies are ready for wider uptake by wetland managers, and provide suggestions for supporting such uptake; 2) indicate where EO technologies and applications currently in the research and development stages could potentially be useful in wetland management; and 3) provide recommendations for new research and development of EO technologies, that can be utilized to address aspects of wetland management not covered by the range of current EO applications.

  6. 31 CFR 585.419 - Effect of E.O. 12846 on outstanding licenses and authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of E.O. 12846 on outstanding licenses and authorizations. 585.419 Section 585.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... AND HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 585.419 Effect of E.O. 12846 on...

  7. Promoting Strategic STEM Education Outreach Programming Using a Systems-Based STEM-EO Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annmarie R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a STEM Education Outreach (STEM-EO) Model for promoting strategic university outreach programming at Penn State University to the benefit of university, school district and community stakeholders is described. The model considers STEM-EO as a complex system involving overarching learning goals addressed within four outreach domains…

  8. Wormlike micelles in Tween-80/CmEO3 mixed nonionic surfactant systems in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Varade, Dharmesh; Ushiyama, Kousuke; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Aramaki, Kenji

    2007-08-15

    Formation and rheological behaviour of viscoelastic wormlike micellar solution in aqueous mixed system of nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and trioxyethylene alkyl ether (C(m)EO(3), m=12, 14, and 16) was studied. The semi-dilute aqueous solution of Tween-80, in presence of C(m)EO(3) shows a sharp increase in viscosity leading to the formation of a gel-like highly viscoelastic solution reaching a maximum, but decreases beyond an intermediate concentration and finally phase separates. When C(12)EO(3) is replaced by C(14)EO(3) the micellar growth occurs more effectively. However, with further increase in alkyl chain length, i.e. with C(16)EO(3), phase separation occurs before a viscoelastic solution is formed. The effect of temperature on the water/Tween-80/C(14)EO(3) mixed surfactant system was also studied. With increase in temperature, viscosity increases more promptly and the viscosity maximum is attained at relatively lower concentration of C(14)EO(3). Enhanced one dimensional micellar growth with increase in the temperature is mainly attributed to the decrease in the spontaneous curvature of the aggregates. Structural investigation by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique of micelles in aqueous solution of Tween-80 and mixed water/Tween-80/C(m)EO(3) systems confirmed the one dimensional micellar growth in the above system.

  9. Compaction of DNA using C12EO4 cooperated with Fe(3.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Lu; Li, Guihua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-08-01

    Nonionic surfactant, tetraethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12EO4), cannot compact DNA because of its low efficiency in neutralizing the negative charges of the phosphate groups of DNA. It is also well-known that nonionic surfactants as a decompaction agent can help DNA be released from cationic surfactant aggregates. Herein, with the "bridge" Fe(3+) of C12EO4, we found that C12EO4 can efficiently compact DNA molecules into globular states with a narrow size distribution, indicating that the cooperative Fe(3+) can transform C12EO4 molecules from decompaction agents to compaction ones. The mechanism of the interaction of DNA and C12EO4 by "bridge" Fe(3+) is that the Fe(3+)-C12EO4 complexes act as multivalent ions by cooperative and hydrophobic interaction. The improved colloidal-stability and endosome escape effect induced by C12EO4 would provide the potential applications of nonionic surfactant in the physiological characteristics of DNA complexes. Cell viability assay demonstrates that Fe(3+)-C12EO4 complexes possess low cytotoxicity, ensuring good biocompatibility. Another advantage of this system is that the DNA complexes can be de-compacted by glutathione in cell without any other agents. This suggests the metal ion-nonionic surfactant complexes as compaction agent can act as the potential delivery tool of DNA in future nonviral gene delivery systems.

  10. Understanding (Galactic) Foreground Emission: A Road To Success For The LOFAR-EoR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelic, Vibor; Lofar Eor Team

    2014-04-01

    The LOFAR-EoR experiment will use the innovative technology and capabilities of the radio telescope LOFAR to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). However, feeble cosmological radiation is swamped by the prominent foreground emission of our Galaxy and other extragalactic radio sources. This emission is two to three orders of magnitude stronger than the EoR signal. Without understanding and removing the foreground emission from the data, we will not be able to detect the cosmological radiation and probe the EoR. During my talk I will give an overview of the LOFAR-EoR experiment, its challenges, and present the most recent observational results in particular detection of peculiar structures in poalrization.

  11. Follow That Satellite: EO-1 Maneuvers Into Close Formation With Landsat-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFazio, Robert L.; Owens, Skip; Good, Susan; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As the Landsat-7 (LS-7) spacecraft continued NASA's historic program of earth imaging begun over three decades ago, NASA launched the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft carrying examples of the next generation of LS instruments. The validation method for these instruments was to have EO-1 fly in a close formation behind LS-7 on the same World Reference System (WRS) path. From that formation hundreds of near-coincident images would be taken by each spacecraft and compared to evaluate improvements in the EO-1 instruments. This paper will address the mission analysis required to launch and maneuver EO-1 into the formation with LS-7 where instrument validation was to occur plus a summary of completing the formation acquisition. Each EO-1 launch opportunity that occurred on a different day of a LS-7 16-day repeat cycle required a separate and distinct maneuver profile.

  12. EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services (KES-B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas, J.; Busto, J.; Torguet, R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper recovers and describes a number of major statements with respect to the vision, mission and technological approaches of the Technological Research Project (TRP) "EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services" (project acronym KES-B), which is currently under development at the European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) under contract "16397/02/I- SB". Resulting from the on-going R&D activities, the KES-B project aims are to demonstrate with a prototype system the feasibility of the application of innovative knowledge-based technologies to provide services for easy, scheduled and controlled exploitation of EO resources (e.g.: data, algorithms, procedures, storage, processors, ...), to automate the generation of products, and to support users in easily identifying and accessing the required information or products by using their own vocabulary, domain knowledge and preferences. The ultimate goals of KES-B are summarized in the provision of the two main types of KES services: 1st the Search service (also referred to as Product Exploitation or Information Retrieval; and 2nd the Production service (also referred to as Information Extraction), with the strategic advantage that they are enabled by Knowledge consolidated (formalized) within the system. The KES-B system technical solution approach is driven by a strong commitment for the adoption of industry (XML-based) language standards, aiming to have an interoperable, scalable and flexible operational prototype. In that sense, the Search KES services builds on the basis of the adoption of consolidated and/or emergent W3C semantic-web standards. Remarkably the languages/models Dublin Core (DC), Universal Resource Identifier (URI), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology Web Language (OWL), and COTS like Protege [1] and JENA [2] are being integrated in the system as building bricks for the construction of the KES based Search services. On the other hand, the Production KES services builds on top of

  13. Spectral Evidence for Silica in Eos Chasma, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data in Eos Chasma have revealed spatially small areas, typically mounds or knobs, with materials having significant (>~35%) fractions of silica in one or more as-of-yet unidentified phases [1]. Silica, SiO2, occurs geologically in both crystalline (e.g., quartz) and amorphous (e.g., opal, glass) forms. The identification of associated minerals and the specific silica phase(s) observed in the thermal infrared data is critical to constraining the abundance estimate further. New results from THEMIS multispectral data show that if the silica is present as quartz or one of its polymorphs (e.g., tridymite, cristobalite, coesite), it is probably equal to or less than ~35% of the modal mineralogy. If the silica is present in an amorphous form with different spectral character, such as opal, this number could increase by several tens of percent. Cherts, which are quartz in rock form, exhibit a variety of microscopic textures (e.g., microcrystalline, fibrous, and "megaquartz") [2] and contain contaminating phases that produce variations in their spectra; we have identified several chert samples that also are candidate components and could be present at abundances of several tens of percent or greater. Primary and secondary silica phases are formed by a wide array of geologic processes, many of which include interactions with ambient or hydrothermal fluids and some of which are well-known preservers of biomarkers on Earth. Thus, silica enrichments on the Martian surface are likely to be important recorders of aqueous processes, and possibly biomarkers as well. As such, an area in Eos Chasma adjacent to silica-bearing deposits has been proposed as a landing site for NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory rover [3]. The majority of silica-bearing deposits are a few hundred m2 in size, and there is a paucity of high- resolution visible images with which they can be investigated. A 3-m/pixel Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of a relatively

  14. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  15. Eos Interviews Robert Van Hook, Former AGU Interim Executive Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Robert Van Hook, who served as AGU's interim executive director since January 2009, led the organization during a transition period that began with the retirement of long-serving executive director A. F. (“Fred”) Spilhaus Jr. Van Hook's tenure concluded on 30 August when Christine McEntee assumed her position as AGU's new executive director (see Eos, 91(17), 153, 156, 2010). During his tenure at AGU, which overlapped with a global economic recession, Van Hook helped to guide the organization through key structural governance changes, strategic planning, and upgrades in technology, human resources, and accounting. He also helped to revitalize public outreach and member services, among many other efforts. Van Hook, president of Transition Management Consulting, recently reflected upon his tenure, the transition period, and the future of AGU. Van Hook credits AGU's strong volunteer leadership—including past presidents Tim Killeen and Tim Grove, current president Mike McPhaden, and president-elect Carol Finn—for courage in moving the organization through a successful transition. “They were the ones who shoved the boat off from the shore. I was lucky enough to be invited into the boat,” he said. He also credits the staff for their resiliency and commitment to supporting AGU's science.

  16. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  17. Global mapping of minor atmospheric constituents with AIRS on EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H. H.; Haskins, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating-array spectrometer on EOS. It covers the region from 650 to 3000/cm with spectral resolution of 1200. The prime objective of AIRS is the global retrieval of temperature and water vapor profiles and of surface temperatures. The wide spectral coverage of AIRS permits the measurement of a number of additional atmospheric and surface parameters. Of particular interest is the potential to produce daily global maps of the spatial distribution of the more abundant of the minor gases, e.g. ozone, CO, CH4, and N2O. This potential capability for CH4 and N2O is strongly affected by cloud residual. Using the CH4 band at 1306/cm as example, spatial averaging of AIRS data is required to measure a 10 percent change in the nominal CH4 column abundance. At 1300/cm, this requires cloud clearing at the 0.3 percent level. The mapping capability for ozone and CO in terms of rural/urban abundance patterns is not likely to be impacted with cloud-clearing residuals as high as 5 percent.

  18. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2, or when the range of scattering angles observed is reduced by solar geometry, even though the quality of the AOD retrieval itself is much less sensitive to these factors. This presentation will review a series of studies aimed at assessing the capabilities, as well as the limitations, of MISR aerosol type retrievals involving wildfire smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash, and urban pollution, in specific cases where suborbital validation data are available. A synthesis of results, planned upgrades to the MISR Standard aerosol algorithm to improve aerosol type retrievals, and steps toward the development of an aerosol type quality flag for the Standard product, will also be covered.

  19. Land Surface Temperature Measurements from EOS MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1997-01-01

    We made modifications to the linear kernel bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models from Roujean et al. and Wanner et al. that extend the spectral range into the thermal infrared (TIR). With these TIR BRDF models and the IGBP land-cover product, we developed a classification-based emissivity database for the EOS/MODIS land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm and used it in version V2.0 of the MODIS LST code. Two V2.0 LST codes have been delivered to the MODIS SDST, one for the daily L2 and L3 LST products, and another for the 8-day 1km L3 LST product. New TIR thermometers (broadband radiometer with a filter in the 10-13 micron window) and an IR camera have been purchased in order to reduce the uncertainty in LST field measurements due to the temporal and spatial variations in LST. New improvements have been made to the existing TIR spectrometer in order to increase its accuracy to 0.2 C that will be required in the vicarious calibration of the MODIS TIR bands.

  20. Global monitoring of atmospheric properties by the EOS MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being developed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is well suited to the global monitoring of atmospheric properties from space. Among the atmospheric properties to be examined using MODIS observations, clouds are especially important, since they are a strong modulator of the shortwave and longwave components of the earth's radiation budget. A knowledge of cloud properties (such as optical thickness and effective radius) and their variation in space and time, which are our task objectives, is also crucial to studies of global climate change. In addition, with the use of related airborne instrumentation, such as the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) in intensive field experiments (both national and international campaigns, see below), various types of surface and cloud properties can be derived from the measured bidirectional reflectances. These missions have provided valuable experimental data to determine the capability of narrow bandpass channels in examining the Earth's atmosphere and to aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of MODIS to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. Therefore, the primary task objective is to extend and expand our algorithm for retrieving the optical thickness and effective radius of clouds from radiation measurements to be obtained from MODIS. The secondary objective is to obtain an enhanced knowledge of surface angular and spectral properties that can be inferred from airborne directional radiance measurements.

  1. Eye safe lidar and passive EO sensing for cloud monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Gustafsson, Ove; Berglund, Folke

    2016-10-01

    This study has investigated the use of an eye safe lidar (1550 nm) with equivalent performance of an ordinary military laser range finder for cloud monitoring. The aim was to combine lidar data with camera images in the visible, short wave infrared (SWIR) and infrared (IR) to better estimate the cloud density and cloud coverage. The measurement was concentrated on low clouds, mostly of the cumulus type. We found that these clouds between 0-2 km often showed a layered structure and that they often indicated a limited optical density probably allowing for observation through the cloud. This information is hard to achieve from a passive EO sensor only. This was supported both from the simulation of the lidar response from thin clouds and from inverting the measured lidar waveform. The comparison between the camera image intensities and the integrated range corrected lidar signals showed both negative and positive correlations. The highest positive correlation was obtained from comparing the lidar signal with the cloud temperature as derived from the FLIR camera. However, there were many cases when one or two of the camera intensities correlated negatively with the lidar signal. We could for example observe that under certain conditions the cloud which was dark in the SWIR appeared as white in the visible camera and vice versa. Example of lidar and image data will be presented and analyzed.

  2. Addressing EO-1 Spacecraft Pulsed Plasma Thruster EMI Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, C. M.; Davis, Mitch; Sarmiento, Charles; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. Results from PPT unit level radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests led to concerns about potential interference problems with other spacecraft subsystems. Initial plans to address these concerns included firing the PPT at the spacecraft level both in atmosphere, with special ground support equipment. and in vacuum. During the spacecraft level tests, additional concerns where raised about potential harm to the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). The inadequacy of standard radiated emission test protocol to address pulsed electromagnetic discharges and the lack of resources required to perform compatibility tests between the PPT and an ALI test unit led to changes in the spacecraft level validation plan. An EMI shield box for the PPT was constructed and validated for spacecraft level ambient testing. Spacecraft level vacuum tests of the PPT were deleted. Implementation of the shield box allowed for successful spacecraft level testing of the PPT while eliminating any risk to the ALI. The ALI demonstration will precede the PPT demonstration to eliminate any possible risk of damage of ALI from PPT operation.

  3. Making Debris Avoidance Decisions for ESMO's EOS Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will cover the aspects of making debris risk decisions from the NASA Mission Director's perspective, specifically for NASA Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Earth Observing System (EOS) mission set. ESMO has been involved in analyzing potential debris risk conjunctions with secondary objects since the inception of this discipline. Through the cumulated years of experience and continued exposure to various debris scenarios, ESMO's understanding of the problem and process to deal with this issue has evolved. The presentation will describe the evolution of the ESMO process, specifically as it relates to the maneuver execution and spacecraft risk management decision process. It will briefly cover the original Drag Make-Up Maneuver, several day, methodical manually intensive, ramp up waive off approach, to the present day more automated, pre-canned onboard command, tools based approach. The presentation will also cover the key information needed to make debris decisions and challenges in doing so while still trying to meet science goals, constellation constraints and manage resources. A slide or two at the end of the presentation, will be devoted to discussing what further improvements could be helpful to improve decision making and future process improvement plans challenges.

  4. Interactively Browsing NASA's EOS Imagery in Full Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Worldview is a new tool designed to interactively browse full-resolution imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. It is web-based and developed using open standards (JavaScript, CSS, HTML) for cross-platform compatibility. It addresses growing user demands for access to full-resolution imagery by providing a responsive, interactive interface with global coverage, no artificial boundaries, and views in geographic and polar projections. Currently tailored to the near real-time community, Worldview enables the rapid evaluation and comparison of imagery related to such application areas as fires, floods, and air quality. It is supported by the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that continuously ingests, mosaics, and serves approximately 21GB of imagery daily. This imagery spans over 50 data products that are available within three hours of observation from instruments aboard Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The GIBS image archive began in May 2012 and will have published approximately 4.4TB of imagery as of December 2012. Worldview facilitates rapid access to this archive and is supplemented by socioeconomic data layers from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), including products such as population density and economic risk from cyclones. Future plans include the accessibility of additional products that cover the entire Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS missions (>150TB) and the ability to download the underlying science data of the onscreen imagery.

  5. EO/IR/Laser illumination sensors for perimeter security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natelson, David

    2007-04-01

    The integration of varied types of EO, IR, and Laser Illumination sensors used for perimeter security greatly improves the data that is available to the process of classifying potential threats. A key component of the design of layered sets of sensors is to understand the method in which detection, recognition, and identification distances are defined by each vendor. Historically, it has been challenging to compare each vendor's stated values as each type of sensor has unique characteristics that hinder the process of performing a so called "apples to apples" comparison. This results in more costly field testing and software simulations that attempt to model real world deployments. What we do know is that solutions are desired where multiple sensors are used to provide information to the Detection, Recognition through Identification process, as well as, associated human or software-based threat assessment and reaction processes. Perimeter security typically involves several layers of detection and investigation. Many entities have invested in detection sensors only to find out that they lack integrated or queued investigative sensors that provide a better return on investment for their systems. When you add night vision sensors to the mix, the challenges increase. This paper will examine sensor technologies and integration/command control/analytics technologies that are attempting to tie things together. The latest technologies including queued sensors and advances in detection/analytics using PTZ sensors will be covered.

  6. Design and performance of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lencioni, Donald E.; Digenis, Constantine J.; Bicknell, William E.; Hearn, David R.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.

    1999-12-01

    An Advanced Land Imager (ALI) will be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The ALI contains a number of key NMP technologies. These include a 15 degree wide field-of-view, push-broom instrument architecture with a 12.5 cm aperture diameter, compact multispectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The focal plane contains multispectral and panchromatic (MS/Pan) detector arrays with a total of 10 spectral bands spanning the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer wavelength region. Seven of these correspond to the heritage Landsat bands. The instantaneous fields of view of the detectors are 14.2 (mu) rad for the Pan band and 42.6 (mu) rad for the MS bands. The partially populated focal plane provides a 3 degree cross-track coverage corresponding to 37 km on the ground. The focal plane temperature is maintained at 220 K by means of a passive radiator. The instrument environmental and performance testing has been completed. Preliminary data analysis indicates excellent performance. This paper presents an overview of the instrument design, the calibration strategy, and results of the pre-flight performance measurements. It also discusses the potential impact of ALI technologies to future Landsat-like instruments.

  7. A COTS-MQS shipborne EO/IR imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Mark A.; Miller, John L.; Weaver, James

    2005-05-01

    The Sea Star SAFIRE is a commercially developed, off the shelf, military qualified system (COTS-MQS) consisting of a 640 by 480 InSb infrared imager, laser rangefinder and visible imager in a gyro-stabilized platform designed for shipborne applications. These applications include search and rescue, surveillance, fire control, fisheries patrol, harbor security, and own-vessel perimeter security and self protection. Particularly challenging considerations unique to shipborne systems include the demanding environment conditions, man-machine interfaces, and effects of atmospheric conditions on sensor performance. Shipborne environmental conditions requiring special attention include electromagnetic fields, as well as resistance to rain, ice and snow, shock, vibration, and salt. Features have been implemented to withstand exposure to water and high humidity; anti-ice/de-ice capability for exposure to snow and ice; wash/wipe of external windows; corrosion resistance for exposure to water and salt spray. A variety of system controller configurations provide man-machine interfaces suitable for operation on ships. EO sensor developments that address areas of haze penetration, glint, and scintillation will be presented.

  8. La edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    Las familias de asteroides son el producto de la disrupción colisional de objetos destruídos por impactos ocurridos en el cinturón principal. Las colisiones posteriores han modificado los tamaños y las órbitas de los miembros de estas familias, por lo que las distribuciones que vemos hoy en día pueden ser muy diferentes de aquellas producidas inmediatamente después de la fragmentación del objeto original. En esta hipótesis, puede ser difícil reconstruir la evolución colisional de la familia basándose sólo en las actuales distribuciones y puede ser necesario hacer ciertas suposiciones para obtener información sobre las condiciones iniciales. En este trabajo se deriva una estimación de la edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis obtenida de una simulación de la evolución colisional de un cuerpo original teórico para cada familia usando un modelo de distribución para el cinturón propuesto por Gil-Hutton (1996).

  9. EOS MLS Level 2 Data Processing Software Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, Nathaniel J.; VanSnyder, Livesey W.; Read, William G.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Froidevaux, Lucien; wang, Shuhui; Manney, Gloria L.; Wu, Dong L.; Wagner, Paul A.; Vuu, Christina; Pumphrey, Hugh C.

    2011-01-01

    This software accepts the EOS MLS calibrated measurements of microwave radiances products and operational meteorological data, and produces a set of estimates of atmospheric temperature and composition. This version has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The software is controlled by a Level 2 Configuration File that controls all aspects of the software: defining the contents of state and measurement vectors, defining the configurations of the various forward models available, reading appropriate a priori spectroscopic and calibration data, performing retrievals, post-processing results, computing diagnostics, and outputting results in appropriate files. In production mode, the software operates in a parallel form, with one instance of the program acting as a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each computing the results for individual chunks of data. In addition, to do conventional retrieval calculations and producing geophysical products, the Level 2 Configuration File can instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on a state vector formed from a set of geophysical product files taken as input. Combining both the retrieval and simulation tasks in a single piece of software makes it far easier to ensure that identical forward model algorithms and parameters are used in both tasks. This also dramatically reduces the complexity of the code maintenance effort.

  10. Does predation risk influence habitat use by northern redbelly dace Phoxinus eos at different spatial scales?

    PubMed

    Dupuch, A; Magnan, P; Bertolo, A; Dill, L M; Proulx, M

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between spatial variations in predation risk and abundance of northern redbelly dace Phoxinus eos at both macroscale (littoral v. pelagic zones) and microscale (structured v. open water habitats in the littoral zone) of Canadian Shield lakes. Minnow traps were placed in both structured and open water habitats in the littoral zone of 13 Canadian Shield lakes, and estimates of the relative predation risk of P. eos in both the pelagic and the littoral zones were obtained from tethering experiments. Results showed that (1) the mean abundance of P. eos in the littoral zone was positively correlated with the relative predation risk in the pelagic zone, (2) P. eos preferentially used structured over open water habitats in the littoral zone and (3) this preference was not related to the relative predation risk in the littoral zone but decreased as the relative predation risk increased in the pelagic zone. At the lake level, these results support the hypothesis that P. eos enter the littoral zone to avoid pelagic piscivores. At the littoral zone level, the results do not necessarily contradict the widely accepted view that P. eos preferentially use structured over open habitats to reduce their predation risk, but suggest that flexibility in antipredator tactics (e.g. shelter use v. shoaling) could explain the spatial distribution of P. eos between structured and open water habitats.

  11. Earth observing system. Data and information system. Volume 2A: Report of the EOS Data Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with a rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an Earth Observing System data and information system that can evolve to meet the Earth Observing System's needs in the 1990s. The Earth Observing System (Eos), defined by the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, consists of a suite of instruments in low Earth orbit acquiring measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior; an information system to support scientific research; and a vigorous program of scientific research, stressing study of global-scale processes that shape and influence the Earth as a system. The Eos data and information system is conceived as a complete research information system that would transcend the traditional mission data system, and include additional capabilties such as maintaining long-term, time-series data bases and providing access by Eos researchers to relevant non-Eos data. The Working Group recommends that the Eos data and information system be initiated now, with existing data, and that the system evolve into one that can meet the intensive research and data needs that will exist when Eos spacecraft are returning data in the 1990s.

  12. A New Semi-Analytical On-Hugoniot EOS of Materials with Known Shock Velocity Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Kadono, Toshihiko

    2011-06-01

    Accurate equation of state (EOS) is essential for understanding a variety of geologic processes associated with shock compression of materials. A number of highly sophisticated EOS's have been proposed (e.g., MANEOS and SESAME), covering a wide range of P-T conditions. However, they are complex and require many model parameters. Also, there are many occasions when only terminal thermodynamic variables after adiabatic decompression are needed. For example, when the terminal molecular composition of an impact-induced vapor is necessary, only the initial entropy gain and chemical reaction processes under low-P-T conditions need to be calculated. Then, only an on-Hugoniot EOS and a low-P-T EOS are necessary. To meet such demand, we derive a new semi-analytical on-Hugoniot EOS, which requires only the Hugoniot shock velocity parameters and specific heat. Comparison with experimental data indicates that this EOS can reproduce on-Hugoniot entropy and temperature of ice and quartz very well, despite of its small number of model parameters. Our new EOS will be useful for studying chemical reactions in shock-induced vapor plumes.

  13. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  14. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  15. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  16. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  17. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  18. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  19. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  20. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  1. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  2. 32 CFR 644.389 - Army military-modified predisposal procedures where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made. 644.389 Section 644.389 National Defense Department of Defense... § 644.389 Army military—modified predisposal procedures where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made. (a) DEs will be advised of military installations to be surveyed under E.O. 11954 by a DOD or GSA survey...

  3. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 7: EOS system definition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design concept and operational aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are presented. A table of the planned EOS missions is included to show the purpose of the mission, the instruments involved, and the launch date. The subjects considered in the analysis of the EOS development are: (1) system requirements, (2) design/cost trade methodology, (3) observatory design alternatives, (4) the data management system, (5) the design evaluation and preferred approach, (6) program cost compilation, (7) follow-on mission accommodation, and (8) space shuttle interfaces and utilization. Illustrations and block diagrams of the spacecraft configurations are provided.

  4. Molecular Solid EOS based on Quasi-Harmonic Oscillator approximation for phonons

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-02

    A complete equation of state (EOS) for a molecular solid is derived utilizing a Helmholtz free energy. Assuming that the solid is nonconducting, phonon excitations dominate the specific heat. Phonons are approximated as independent quasi-harmonic oscillators with vibrational frequencies depending on the specific volume. The model is suitable for calibrating an EOS based on isothermal compression data and infrared/Raman spectroscopy data from high pressure measurements utilizing a diamond anvil cell. In contrast to a Mie-Gruneisen EOS developed for an atomic solid, the specific heat and Gruneisen coefficient depend on both density and temperature.

  5. Space-shuttle interfaces/utilization. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The economic aspects of space shuttle application to a representative Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) operational mission in the various candidate Shuttle modes of launch, retrieval, and resupply are discussed. System maintenance of the same mission capability using a conventional launch vehicle is also considered. The studies are based on application of sophisticated Monte Carlo mission simulation program developed originally for studies of in-space servicing of a military satellite system. The program has been modified to permit evaluation of space shuttle application to low altitude EOS missions in all three modes. The conclusions generated by the EOS system study are developed.

  6. Altered esophageal histamine receptor expression in Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE): implications on disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Merves, Jamie; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna Modayur; Benitez, Alain J; Muir, Amanda B; Lee, Anna J; Lim, Diana M; Dods, Kara; Mehta, Isha; Ruchelli, Eduardo D; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Spergel, Jonathan M; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic disorder, whose pathobiology is incompletely understood. Histamine-producing cells including mast cells and basophils have been implicated in EoE. However, very little is currently known about the role of histamine and histamine receptor (HR) expression and signaling in the esophageal epithelium. Herein, we characterized HR (H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R) expression in human esophageal biopsies and investigate the role of histamine signaling in inducible cytokine expression in human esophageal epithelial cells in vitro. HR expression was quantified in esophageal biopsies from non-EoE control (N = 23), inactive EoE (<15 eos/hpf, N = 26) and active EoE (>15 eos/hpf, N = 22) subjects using qRT-PCR and immunofluorescent localization. HR expression and histamine-mediated cytokine secretion were evaluated in human primary and telomerase-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells. H1R, H2R, and H4R expression were increased in active EoE biopsies compared to inactive EoE and controls. H2R was the most abundantly expressed receptor, and H3R expression was negligible in all 3 cohorts. Infiltrating eosinophils expressed H1R, H2R, and H4R, which contributed to the observed increase in HR in active subjects. H1R and H2R, but not H3R or H4R, were constitutively expressed by primary and immortalized cells, and epithelial histamine stimulation induced GM-CSF, TNFα, and IL-8, but not TSLP or eotaxin-3 secretion. Epithelial priming with the TLR3 ligand poly (I:C) induced H1R and H2R expression, and enhanced histamine-induced GM-CSF, TNFα, and IL-8 secretion. These effects were primarily suppressed by H1R antagonists, but unaffected by H2R antagonism. Histamine directly activates esophageal epithelial cytokine secretion in vitro in an H1R dependent fashion. However, H1R, H2R and H4R are induced in active inflammation in EoE in vivo. While systemic antihistamine (anti-H1R) therapy may not induce clinical remission in EoE, our study

  7. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  8. Extended ecosystem signatures with application to Eos synergism requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, M. Craig; Sarabandi, Kamal

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective is to define the advantages of synergistically combining optical and microwave remote sensing measurements for the determination of biophysical properties important in ecosystem modeling. This objective was approached in a stepwise fashion starting with ground-based observations of controlled agricultural and orchard canopies and progressing to airborne observations of more natural forest ecosystems. This observational program is complemented by a parallel effort to model the visible reflectance and microwave scattering properties of composite vegetation canopies. The goals of the modeling studies are to verify our basic understanding of the sensor-scene interaction physics and to provide the basis for development of inverse models optimized for retrieval of key biophysical properties. These retrieval algorithms can then be used to simulate the expected performance of various aspects of Eos including the need for simultaneous SAR and HIRIS observations or justification for other (non-synchronous) relative timing constraints and the frequency, polarization, and angle of incidence requirements for accurate biophysical parameter extractions. This program completed a very successful series of truck-mounted experiments, made remarkable progress in development and validation of optical reflectance and microwave scattering models for vegetation, extended the scattering models to accommodate discontinuous and periodic canopies, developed inversion approaches for surface and canopy properties, and disseminated these results widely through symposia and journal publications. In addition, the third generation of the computer code for the microwave scattering models was provided to a number of other US, Canadian, Australian, and European investigators who are currently presenting and publishing results using the MIMICS research code.

  9. Behaviour of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-nonylphenol ethoxylates (4-NP1EO, 4-NP2EO) in oxidative water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Lenz, K; Beck, V; Fuerhacker, M

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as natural and synthetic hormones or industrial chemicals can adversely affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. As such substances can be present in raw water used for drinking-water production, they potentially pose a health risk to humans. In this study laboratory tests were performed to determine removal efficiencies of selected oxidative drinking water treatment processes, namely ozonation (1.4 mg/l O3) and chlorination, using sodium hypochlorite (0.5 mg/l NaClO) and chlorine dioxide (0.4-0.6 mg/l ClO2) under conditions applied in technical plants. 500-300,000 ng/l of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-nonylphenol-n-ethoxylates (NPnEO) were selected for investigations and measured by HPLC/FLD and HPLC/MS. To investigate possible oxidation by-products, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were determined and estrogenic activities were assessed with the help of an estrogen receptor binding assay (YES). Ozonation and chlorination with ClO2 removed both 4-NP and BPA below detection limits, corresponding with AOX and estrogenic activity. Concerning NPnEO ozonation removed NP1EO and NP2EO up to 28% and 30%, respectively, whereas ClO2 showed high removal efficiencies, eliminating >94% and 92%, respectively. NaCIO removed 4-NP and BPA below detection limits, but estrogenic activities increased and AOX could be measured. NP1EO and NP2EO were only marginally reduced corresponding to the slight decrease of estrogenic potential.

  10. EOS Aura Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP (Boulder, CO) April 13, 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.; Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation reflects EOS Aura mission status, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage, orbit maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment events, orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  11. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.; Glavich, T.; Rider, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an imaging infrared Fourier transform spectrometer scheduled to be launched into polar sun-synchronous orbit on the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM satellite in December 2002.

  12. Advanced E-O test capability for Army Next-Generation Automated Test System (NGATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, S.; Grigor, J.; King, D. F.; Matis, G.; McHugh, S.; McKechnie, J.; Nehring, B.

    2015-05-01

    The Future E-O (FEO) program was established to develop a flexible, modular, automated test capability as part of the Next Generation Automatic Test System (NGATS) program to support the test and diagnostic needs of currently fielded U.S. Army electro-optical (E-O) devices, as well as being expandable to address the requirements of future Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force E-O systems. Santa Barbara infrared (SBIR) has designed, fabricated, and delivered three (3) prototype FEO for engineering and logistics evaluation prior to anticipated full-scale production beginning in 2016. In addition to presenting a detailed overview of the FEO system hardware design, features and testing capabilities, the integration of SBIR's EO-IR sensor and laser test software package, IRWindows 4™, into FEO to automate the test execution, data collection and analysis, archiving and reporting of results is also described.

  13. EOS Aqua Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP April 13, 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reflects the EOS Aqua mission status, spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, orbital maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment high interest events, ground track error, spacecraft orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  14. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  15. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  16. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  17. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  18. Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate (SLN) Based Linearized Electro-Optic (EO) Modulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    AFRL-SN-RS-TR-2006-15 Final Technical Report January 2006 STOICHIOMETRIC LITHIUM NIOBATE (SLN) BASED LINEARIZED ELECTRO - OPTIC (EO...LITHIUM NIOBATE (SLN) BASED LINEARIZED ELECTRO - OPTIC (EO) MODULATOR 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr Stuart Kingsley, Dr Sri Sriram 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C...SUBJECT TERMS electro - optic modulator, linearization, directional coupler, variable coupling, optical waveguide, Mach-Zehnder, photonic link, lithium

  19. Search and Retrieval Index to EOS/ESD Symposium Proceedings - 1979 to 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    OPTOELECTRONIC, SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE ] 17-33 EOS DAMAGE IN SILICON SOLAR CELLS 81 [209-235] LOPMENT PROGRAM [ SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY 72- 3 THE PRODUCTION...17516-22 SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL OVERSTRESS ANALYSIS 80 [149-1531 ELECTRO-THERMOMIGRATION ( ESD, DEVICE, FAILURE MODES I 18305-25 A FAILURE ANALYSIS...2071 17517-31 FAILURE ANALYSIS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES IN EOS/ESD TESTING 81 [219-2241 " 17516-22 SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL OVERSTRESS ANALYSIS 80 [149

  20. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  1. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  2. Programmability in AIPS++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjellming, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIPS++ is an Astronomical Information Processing System being designed and implemented by an international consortium of NRAO and six other radio astronomy institutions in Australia, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the USA. AIPS++ is intended to replace the functionality of AIPS, to be more easily programmable, and will be implemented in C++ using object-oriented techniques. Programmability in AIPS++ is planned at three levels. The first level will be that of a command-line interpreter with characteristics similar to IDL and PV-Wave, but with an intensive set of operations appropriate to telescope data handling, image formation, and image processing. The third level will be in C++ with extensive use of class libraries for both basic operations and advanced applications. The third level will allow input and output of data between external FORTRAN programs and AIPS++ telescope and image databases. In addition to summarizing the above programmability characteristics, this talk will given an overview of the classes currently being designed for telescope data calibration and editing, image formation, and the 'toolkit' of mathematical 'objects' that will perform most of the processing in AIPS++.

  3. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  4. A high reliability survey of discrete Epoch of Reionization foreground sources in the MWA EoR0 field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, P. A.; Line, J.; Morales, M. F.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Jacobs, D. C.; Pober, J. C.; Sullivan, I. S.; Webster, R. L.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, J. S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Sethi, S. K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-10-01

    Detection of the epoch of reionization H I signal requires a precise understanding of the intervening galaxies and AGN, both for instrumental calibration and foreground removal. We present a catalogue of 7394 extragalactic sources at 182 MHz detected in the RA = 0 field of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization observation programme. Motivated by unprecedented requirements for precision and reliability we develop new methods for source finding and selection. We apply machine learning methods to self-consistently classify the relative reliability of 9490 source candidates. A subset of 7466 are selected based on reliability class and signal-to-noise ratio criteria. These are statistically cross-matched to four other radio surveys using both position and flux density information. We find 7369 sources to have confident matches, including 90 partially resolved sources that split into a total of 192 sub-components. An additional 25 unmatched sources are included as new radio detections. The catalogue sources have a median spectral index of -0.85. Spectral flattening is seen towards lower frequencies with a median of -0.71 predicted at 182 MHz. The astrometric error is 7 arcsec compared to a 2.3 arcmin beam FWHM. The resulting catalogue covers ˜1400 deg2 and is complete to approximately 80 mJy within half beam power. This provides the most reliable discrete source sky model available to date in the MWA EoR0 field for precision foreground subtraction.

  5. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  6. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  7. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  8. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  9. Selection in backcross programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation. PMID:16048792

  10. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Delivering on the Dream, Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Johnson, Patricia; Case, Warren F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the successful operations of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites over the past 10 years and the plans for the future. Excellent operations performance has been a key factor in the overall success of EOS. The EOS Program was conceived in the 1980s and began to take shape in the early 1990s. EOS consists of a series of satellites that study the Earth as an interrelated system. It began with the launch of Terra in December 1999, followed by Aqua in May 2002, and Aura in July 2004. A key EOS goal is to provide a long-term continuous data set to enable the science community to develop a better understanding of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes and their interactions. EOS has produced unprecedented amounts of data which are used all over the world free of charge. Mission operations have resulted in data recovery for Terra, Aqua, and Aura that have consistently exceeded mission requirements. The paper describes the ground systems and organizations that control the EOS satellites, capture the raw data, and distribute the processed science data sets. The paper further describes how operations have evolved since 1999. Examples of this evolution include (a) the implementation of new mission safety requirements for orbital debris monitoring; (b) technology upgrades to keep facilities at the state of the art; (c) enhancements to meet changing security requirements; and (d) operations management of the 2 international Earth Observing Constellations of 11 satellites known as the "Morning Constellation" and the "A-Train". The paper concludes with a view into the future based on the latest spacecraft status, lifetime projections, and mission plans.

  11. State Agency Applications of EOS Data in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.

    2001-05-01

    Texas offers a good model for the introduction of remotely sensed data products into the daily operations of state agencies by virtue of its large size and population. The diversity of the Texas landscape coupled with the long distances traveled to perform site inspections place special burdens on the land resource agencies responsible for monitoring crop conditions, water availability, environmental hazards and other natural resource issues. To assist these agencies, the Texas Synergy team has adopted a two-phase approach that incorporates framework geospatial data products designed for the broad user community with remote sensing applications developed for user-specific analyses. A key element to the success of the effort is the development of remote sensing products within a Texas Reference Frame that corresponds to the components of the high-resolution National Spatial Data Infrastructure developed by the state, such as 1-meter CIR digital orthophotographs, digital elevation models, and vector layers for hypsography, hydrography, soils, transportation and boundaries. Users accustomed to working with NSDI products can easily begin to include recently-collected EOS data presented within the same reference frame. Examples of statewide data products made available through the Texas Synergy project are AVHRR NDVI and MODIS imagery, Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes and SPOT 10-meter panchromatic image tiles. Delivery of the products involves a number of mechanisms from CD distribution to Internet FTP downloads, but increasingly relies upon Internet map services, such as ESRI's ArcIMS. Beyond release of the base imagery products, the Texas Synergy team has worked with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Texas Soil and Water Conservation Board, Texas Department of Agriculture, Texas Water Development Board, National Park Service and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service on a wide range of data applications. Throughout 1999-2000, the magnitude of drought conditions was

  12. An Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip; Quaife, Tristan; Kaminski, Tomas; Styles, Jon

    2013-04-01

    In order to monitor the land surface, EO data provides the means of achieving global coverage in a timely fashion. Different sensors orbit the Earth acquiring data at different times and with different spectral and spatial properties. Blending all these observations presents a considerable challenge. Purely statistical methods based on machine learning techniques require accurate and extensive ground truth for "training" models. The complexities of the processes that take place in the scene result in limited usefulness of these models outside their training region or period. Models that describe the physical processes that give rise to the measurements, based on radiative transfer theory, offer a more robust way of interpreting the recorded data and relating it to surface properties such as leaf area index, chlorophyll concentration, etc. Unfortunately, the information content in the signals is rarely sufficient to unambigously determine the many parameters that are required in typical radiative transfer models. To improve on this, the use of prior information is required. Typically, this information is given as parameter ranges, or maybe even distributions, which can have a positive effect in the so-called "inverse problem". Data assimilation techniques allow one to use models of the land surface as priors, to constrain the inverse problem. These models can be very useful in improving the ability of inverting the observations, as the models can give very valuable information on the dynamics of some parameters, like LAI. However, some parameters that have a strong bearing on the observations (some pigments, leaf angle distributions...) have no analogues in typical DGVMs. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate the use of weak constraint 4DVAR data assimilation to the problem of inverting optical RT models. We demonstrate that the use of this technique results in important gains in parameter uncertainty reduction for a typical satellite mission, including

  13. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  14. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  15. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  16. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  17. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  18. Rejuvenation of agriculture in India: Cost benefits in using EO products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, V.; Parihar, J. S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2008-07-01

    India is looking for rejuvenating its sagging agricultural production and productivity by integrating high technology space inputs for both irrigated and rainfed areas. The Earth Observations (EO) products today serve as major inputs to policy, planning and targeted interventions, contributing to building social capitals, natural resources assets and environmental gains on the long-term basis. The benefits are mostly indirect and often difficult to quantify in terms of money. The cost benefit analysis of EO products is therefore an involved exercise and not many examples exist globally. The present paper, taking into account major national as well as some local level agriprojects in India, highlights the criticality of EO products in terms of their short-term as well as long-term economic and social values. Three aspects viz., catalytic, timeliness and enabling have been analyzed to visualize the role of EO products in a holistic fashion. In the catalytic role, EO inputs have been found to play a role in the successful implementation of major natural resources development projects. The cost of EO inputs may be of less than 2-5% to the total cost of the development projects, but the nature of such inputs are critical and catalytic. For example, a major project on reclamation of around 0.6 Mha sodic soils in Indo-Gangetic Plans costs US89 million where EO products costs less than 2%; but demonstrates their catalytic roles in terms of identification, monitoring and evaluation and as inputs to mid-course corrections. The second aspect is timeliness in terms of opportunity cost. In India, Forecasting Agricultural Output Using Space-borne, Agro-meteorological and Land Observations (FASAL) project is carried out for in-season multiple crop production forecasting in support of strategic decision on trade, price and procurements. In the past, timely forecasts from FASAL have been found to be accurate and helpful for the country to plan many of its activities, including

  19. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  20. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  1. AFDM: An advanced fluid-dynamics model. Volume 6: EOS-AFDM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Henneges, G.; Kleinheins, S.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) documents the modeling of the equation of state (EOS) in the code. The authors present an overview of the basic concepts underlying the thermodynamics modeling and resulting EOS, which is a set of relations between the thermodynamic properties of materials. The AFDM code allows for multiphase-multimaterial systems, which they explore in three phase models: two-material solid, two-material liquid, and three-material vapor. They describe and compare two ways of specifying the EOS of materials: (1) as simplified analytic expressions, or (2) as tables that precisely describe the properties of materials and their interactions for mechanical equilibrium. Either of the two EOS models implemented in AFDM can be selected by specifying the option when preprocessing the source code for compilation. Last, the authors determine thermophysical properties such as surface tension, thermal conductivities, and viscosities in the model for the intracell exchanges of AFDM. Specific notations, routines, EOS data, plots, test results, and corrections to the code are available in the appendices.

  2. Integrating ground-based EO data in satellite-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.V.; Daugherty, P.; Yow, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    Earth observation (EO) and other forms of geo-referenced data are typically thought of as being ``satellite data.`` It is true that the majority of EO data are satellite oriented; thus, most on-line EO data systems are designed primarily for satellite image data. However, there is A small but significant minority of EO data that is not satellite image data; i.e., it is ground-based or terrestrial data Unfortunately, many on-line systems designed for satellite data do not take into account the somewhat different nature of associated ground-based data, Data queries that work most of the time but fail because the system has not taken into account less common data are not robust enough for today`s users. In order to avoid embarrassing problems, EO system designers must be aware of the nature of ground- based data. In this paper we describe some of our insights on this subject in the hope that the designers of other systems may learn from our experience.

  3. Aspects of detection and tracking of ground targets from an airborne EO/IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bhashyam; Sithiravel, Rajiv; Daya, Zahir; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam

    2015-05-01

    An airborne EO/IR (electro-optical/infrared) camera system comprises of a suite of sensors, such as a narrow and wide field of view (FOV) EO and mid-wave IR sensors. EO/IR camera systems are regularly employed on military and search and rescue aircrafts. The EO/IR system can be used to detect and identify objects rapidly in daylight and at night, often with superior performance in challenging conditions such as fog. There exist several algorithms for detecting potential targets in the bearing elevation grid. The nonlinear filtering problem is one of estimation of the kinematic parameters from bearing and elevation measurements from a moving platform. In this paper, we developed a complete model for the state of a target as detected by an airborne EO/IR system and simulated a typical scenario with single target with 1 or 2 airborne sensors. We have demonstrated the ability to track the target with `high precision' and noted the improvement from using two sensors on a single platform or on separate platforms. The performance of the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) is investigated on simulated data. Image/video data collected from an IR sensor on an airborne platform are processed using an image tracking by detection algorithm.

  4. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  5. Status of Current and Future Remote Sensing with EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing-One (EO-1) satellite, launched in November of 2000, will complete six full years of operation near the end of this year. Observations from the Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer on board EO-1 have contributed to over 300 papers in refereed journals, conference proceeds and other presentations. Hyperion has been used to study a variety of natural and anthropogenic phenomena including hazards and catastrophes, agricultural health and productivity, ecological disturbance/development, and land use/land cover change. As an example, Hyperion has been used in hazard and catastrophe studies to monitor and assess effects of tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mudslides, tornadoes, hurricanes, wild-fires (natural and human ignited), oil spills, and the aftermath of world trade center bombing. This presentation summarizes the current status of EO-1 Hyperion in terms of key scientific findings to date and future plans for operation of this instrument through 2007.

  6. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  7. EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.

  8. Polystyrene Foam EOS as a Function of Porosity and Fill Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulford, Roberta; Swift, Damian

    2009-06-01

    An accurate EOS for polystyrene foam is necessary for analysis of numerous experiments in shock compression, inertial confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Plastic to gas ratios vary between various samples of foam, according to the density and cell-size of the foam. A matrix of compositions has been investigated, allowing prediction of foam response as a function of the plastic-to-air ratio. The EOS code CHEETAH allows participation of the air in the decomposition reaction of the foam, Differences between air-filled, nitrogen-blown, and CO2-blown foams are investigated, to estimate the importance of allowing air to react with plastic products during decomposition. Results differ somewhat from the conventional EOS, which are generated from values for plastic extrapolated to low densities.

  9. An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcada, E.; Albani, M.; Beruti, V.

    2009-04-01

    The need for accessing historical Earth Observation (EO) data series strongly increased in the last ten years, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. This trend is likely to increase even more in the future in particular for the growing interest on global change monitoring that requires data time-series spanning 20 years and more, and for the need to support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Content of EO data archives is extending from a few years to decades and their scientific value is continuously increasing hence is well recognized the need to preserve them without time limitation and to keep the archived EO data well accessible and exploitable as they constitute a humankind asset. The large amount of new Earth Observation missions upcoming in the next years will moreover lead to a major increase of EO data volumes. This fact, together with the increased demands from the scientific user community, marks a challenge for Earth Observation satellite operators, Space Agencies and EO data providers regarding coherent data preservation and optimum availability and accessibility of the different data products. Traditionally in Europe, there has been poor cooperation in this field with no common approach for long term preservation and access to EO space data even if cooperation and sharing are key aspects to be pursued for the benefit of the user community. Single organizations have difficulties to afford data preservation in the long term that calls for the need of optimising costs and efforts, identifying commonalities. In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated a coordination action to share among all the European (and Canadian) stakeholders a common approach to the long term preservation of Earth Observation data. During 2007, the Agency started consultations with its Member States presenting an EO Long Term Data Preservation (LTDP) strategy targeting the preservation of all European

  10. Project to Interface Climate Modeling on Global and Regional Scales with Earth Observing (EOS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This ten-year NASA IDS project began in 1990. Its initial work plan adopted the NASA provided timeline that data would become available for new Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms beginning in 1995. Over its first phase, it was based at NCAR, which had submitted the original proposal and involved activities of a substantial number of co-investigators at NCAR who engaged in research over several areas related to the observations expected to be received from the EOS platforms. Their focus was the theme of use of EOS data for improving climate models for projecting global change. From the climate system viewpoint, the IDS addressed land, clouds-hydrological cycle, radiative fluxes and especially aerosol impacts, ocean and sea-ice, and stratosphere. Other research addressed issues of data assimilation, diagnostic analyses, and data set development from current satellite systems, especially use of SAR data for climate models.

  11. Attitude Accuracy Study for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesikar, James D., II; Garrick, Joseph C.

    1996-01-01

    Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft will take measurements of the Earth's clouds, oceans, atmosphere, land, and radiation balance. These EOS spacecraft are part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mission to Planet Earth, and consist of several series of satellites, with each series specializing in a particular class of observations. This paper focuses on the EOS AM-1 spacecraft, which is the first of three satellites constituting the EOS AM series (morning equatorial crossing) and the initial spacecraft of the EOS program. EOS AM-1 has a stringent onboard attitude knowledge requirement, of 36/41/44 arc seconds (3 sigma) in yaw/roll/pitch, respectively. During normal mission operations, attitude is determined onboard using an extended Kalman sequential filter via measurements from two charge coupled device (CCD) star trackers, one Fine Sun Sensor, and an Inertial Rate Unit. The attitude determination error analysis system (ADEAS) was used to model the spacecraft and mission profile, and in a worst case scenario with only one star tracker in operation, the attitude uncertainty was 9.7/ll.5/12.2 arc seconds (3 sigma) in yaw/roll/pitch. The quoted result assumed the spacecraft was in nominal attitude, using only the 1-rotation per orbit motion of the spacecraft about the pitch axis for calibration of the gyro biases. Deviations from the nominal attitude would show greater attitude uncertainties, unless calibration maneuvers which roll and/or yaw the spacecraft have been performed. This permits computation of the gyro misalignments, and the attitude knowledge requirement would remain satisfied.

  12. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  13. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  14. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A) configuration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanaugh, J.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes methods and procedures Aerojet will follow in the implementation of configuration control for each established baseline. The plan is written in response to the GSFC EOS CM Plan 420-02-02, dated January 1990, and also meets he requirements specified in DOD-STD-480, DOD-D 1000B, MIL-STD-483A, and MIL-STD-490B. The plan establishes the configuration management process to be used for the deliverable hardware, software, and firmware of the EOS/AMSU-A during development, design, fabrication, test, and delivery. This revision includes minor updates to reflect Aerojet's CM policies.

  16. Capitalizing on Education and Outreach (E/O) Expertise to Broaden Impacts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girguis, P. R.; Herren, C.; Decharon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Academic scientists have a number of avenues through which they can participate in education and outreach (E/O) programs to address the mandate for broader impacts. As a principal investigator (PI) at an R1 institution, I (Girguis) have both developed and participated in a variety of E/O programs that span the spectrum from ad hoc groups (e.g. informal high school internships in my laboratory) to regional efforts (e.g. Harvard’s Microbial Science Initiative) and national organizations (e.g. RIDGE 2000; Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence, COSEE). Each of these E/O efforts required varying degrees of preparation and participation by my laboratory members (e.g. graduate students and postdoctoral researchers) and I, and yielded different outcomes and products. Ad hoc programs typically require a higher degree of effort on the part of the PI and have a high, though local, impact on the audience. These programs can be personally rewarding for the PI, who likely has played a major role in developing the program. In contrast, working with regional and national groups requires PIs to understand the nature of each program to successfully integrate within the existing structure. The net time and effort invested by scientists in larger-scale E/O efforts may be equal to that of ad hoc programs. However, interaction with high-quality program facilitators ensures that the outcomes are grounded in best educational practices and that outputs are educator-vetted, well maintained (online or through publications), and broadly disseminated. In addition, program facilitators also collect and analyze evaluation data to provide constructive feedback to PIs, enabling the latter to refine their presentation styles and content levels to improve future E/O efforts. Thus involvement with larger programs can effectively broaden one’s impact. During this presentation, we will present one scientist’s perspective on the advantages and limitations of these different modes of E/O

  17. Orbit/launch vehicle tradeoff studies. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) design, performance, and cost factors which affect the choices of an orbit and a launch vehicle is presented. Primary emphasis is given to low altitude (300 to 900 nautical miles) land resources management applications for which payload design factors are defined. The subjects considered are: (1) a mission model, (2) orbit analysis and characterization, (3) characteristics and capabilities of candidate conventional launch vehicles, and space shuttle support. Recommendations are submitted for the EOS-A mission, the Single Multispectral Scanner payload, the Single Multispectral Scanner plus Thematic Mapper payload, the Dual Multispectral Scanner payload, and the Dual Multispectral Scanner plus Thematic Mapper payload.

  18. Leveraging community support for Education and Outreach: The IRIS E&O Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The IRIS E&O Program was initiated 10 years ago, some 15 years after the creation of the IRIS Consortium, as IRIS members increasingly recognized the fundamental need to communicate the results of scientific research more effectively and to attract more students to study Earth science. Since then, IRIS E&O has received core funding through successive 5-year cooperative agreements with NSF, based on proposals submitted by IRIS. While a small fraction of the overall Consortium budget, this consistent funding has allowed the development of strong, long-term elements within the E&O Program, including summer internships, IRIS/USGS museum displays, seismographs in schools, IRIS/SSA Distinguished Lecture series, and professional development for middle school and high school teachers. Reliable funding has allowed us to develop expertise in these areas due to the longevity of the programs and the continuous improvement resulting from ongoing evaluations. Support from Consortium members, including volunteering time and expertise, has been critical for the program, as the Consortium has to continually balance the value of E&O products versus equipment and data services for seismology research. The E&O program also provides service to the Consortium, such as PIs being able to count on and leverage IRIS resources when defining the broader impacts of their own research. The reliable base has made it possible to build on the core elements with focused and innovative proposals, allowing, for example, the expansion of our internship program into a full REU site. Developing collaborative proposals with other groups has been a key strategy where IRIS E&O's long-term viability can be combined with expertise from other organizations to develop new products and services. IRIS can offer to continue to reliably deliver and maintain products after the end of a 2-3 year funding cycle, which can greatly increase the reach of the project. Consortium backing has also allowed us to establish an

  19. Using EO-1 Hyperion Images to Prototype Environmental Products for Hyspiri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Zhang, Qingyuan; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Mandl, Daniel J.; Frye, Stuart W.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2010, the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite Mission will successfully complete a decade of Earth imaging by its two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments are serving as prototypes for new orbital sensors, and the EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German mission, EnMAP. We provide an overview of the mission's lifetime. We briefly describe calibration & validation activities and overview the technical and scientific accomplishments of this mission. Some examples of the Mission Science Office (MSO) products are provided, as is an example of a image collected for disaster monitoring.

  20. A Tutorial on Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) Theory and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    may use the “ solar blind ” UV band. The transmission in this band is very poor, and the general background is reduced to a level of near zero...for example, one may use the “ solar blind ” UV band. The transmission in this band is very poor and the general background is reduced to a level of...altitude of the platform on which the EO/IR sensor is integrated. Performance of an EO/IR sensor depends upon the optics, detector , and display, in

  1. Comparative anticonvulsant activities of the essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Leal, L Kalyne A M; de Lopes, Amanda A; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2010-05-01

    The fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus are a good source of an essential oil (EO) rich in citral, and its tea is largely used in the Brazilian folk medicine as a sedative. A similar source of EO is Cymbopogon winterianus, rich in citronellal. The literature presents more studies on the EO of C. citratus and their isolated bioactive components, but only a few are found on the EO of C. winterianus. The objective of the present study was then to study, in a comparative way, the effects of both EOs on three models of convulsions (pentylenetetrazol, pilocarpine, and strychnine) and on the barbiturate-induced sleeping time on male Swiss mice. The animals (20-30 g) were acutely treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally, of each EO, and 30 min later, the test was initiated. The observed parameters were: latency to the first convulsion and latency to death in seconds. Furthermore, the in vitro effects of the EOs were also studied on myeloperoxidase (MPO; a biomarker for inflammation) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; an index of cytotoxicity) releases from human neutrophils. The EOs radical-scavenging activities were also evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results showed that both EOs were more active on the pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion model, and C. citratus was even more efficient in increasing latency to the first convulsion and latency to death. Both parameters were potentiated in the presence of a lower dose of diazepam (reference drug) when associated to a lower dose of each EO (25 mg kg(-1)). Besides, their anticonvulsant effects were blocked by flumazenil, a known benzodiazepine antagonist. This effect was somewhat lower on the pilocarpine-induced convulsion, and better effects were seen only with the EOs' higher doses (200 mg kg(-1)). A similar result was observed on the strychnine-induced convulsion model. Both EOs potentiated the barbiturate-induced sleeping time. However, C. citratus was more efficient

  2. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  3. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  4. Shape-programmable macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Schafmeister, Christian E; Brown, Zachary Z; Gupta, Sharad

    2008-10-01

    Proteins catalyze specific chemical reactions and carry out highly selective molecular recognition because they adopt well-defined three-dimensional structures and position chemically reactive functional groups in specific constellations. Proteins attain these well-defined structures through the complex process of protein folding. We seek to emulate these protein functions by constructing macromolecules that are easier to engineer by avoiding folding altogether. Toward that goal, we have developed an approach for the synthesis of macromolecules with programmable shapes. As described in this Account, we have constructed synthetic building blocks called bis-amino acids that we then couple through pairs of amide bonds to create water-soluble, spiroladder oligomers (bis-peptides) with well-defined three-dimensional structures. Bis-peptides use the conformational preferences of fused rings, stereochemistry, and strong covalent bonds to define their shape, unlike natural proteins and synthetic foldamers, which depend on noncovalent interactions and an unpredictable folding process to attain structure. Using these bis-amino acid monomers, we have built and characterized a number of bis-peptide nanostructures. We also constructed a molecular actuator that undergoes a large change in conformation under the control of metal exchange; the first application of bis-peptides. We are currently developing further approaches to functionalize bis-peptides as scaffolds to present well-defined constellations of functional groups. Such macromolecules could facilitate multifunctional catalysis and molecular recognition and lead to nanoscale molecular devices.

  5. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  6. A phenomenological study of hybrid stars in which the crossover transition from quark to hadron makes the EOS stiffer in contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhao, Ya-Peng; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xin-Lian; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we make a phenomenological study of the mass-radii relationship of hybrid stars from the point of view of the smooth crossover phase transition. We find a way to construct stiff hybrid equations of state (EOSs) with soft EOSs of both the quark matter and the hadronic matter. For the hadron phase, we adopt the EOS softened by introducing hyperons that are considered to exist in the core of a neutron star. For the quark phase, we introduce a quark EOS based on the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) that is calculated in our previous work, and it is also a soft EOS. In contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition, we find that the resulting EOS is stiff and the maximum mass of the hybrid stars is still about two times of solar mass. This result indicates the rich possibilities of the crossover model.

  7. 76 FR 23520 - Periodic Review of Existing Regulations; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Periodic Review of Existing Regulations; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification for... Regulatory Review,'' the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is conducting a review of its...

  8. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) schedule plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes Aerojet's methods and procedures used to control and administer contractual schedules for the EOS/AMSU-A program. Included are the following: the master, intermediate, and detail schedules; critical path analysis; and the total program logic network diagrams.

  9. 76 FR 47527 - Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Chapter VII RIN 0694-XA37 Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of inquiry. SUMMARY:...

  10. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  11. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  12. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  13. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  14. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  15. Maximizing the use of EO products: how to leverage the potential of open geospatial service architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usländer, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The demand for the rapid provision of EO products with well-defined characteristics in terms of temporal, spatial, image-specific and thematic criteria is increasing. Examples are products to support near real-time damage assessment after a natural disaster event, e.g. an earthquake. However, beyond the organizational and economic questions, there are technological and systemic barriers to enable a comfortable search, order, delivery or even combination of EO products. Most portals of space agencies and EO product providers require sophisticated satellite and product knowledge and, even worse, are all different and not interoperable. This paper gives an overview about the use cases and the architectural solutions that aim at an open and flexible EO mission infrastructure with application-oriented user interfaces and well-defined service interfaces based upon open standards. It presents corresponding international initiatives such as INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community), GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and HMA (Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility) and their associated infrastructure approaches. The paper presents a corresponding analysis and design methodology and two examples how such architectures are already successfully used in early warning systems for geo-hazards and toolsets for environmentallyinduced health risks. Finally, the paper concludes with an outlook how these ideas relate to the vision of the Future Internet.

  16. 76 FR 26651 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Department's ``Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules,'' dated April 25, 2011, follows... 13563 recognizes the importance of maintaining a consistent culture of retrospective review and analysis... (Independent of E.O. 13563) Already Underway To Conduct Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules The...

  17. Heavy ion reaction measurements with the EOS TPC (looking for central collisions with missing energy)

    SciTech Connect

    Wieman, H.H.; EOS Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    The EOS TPC was constructed for complete event measurement of heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac. We report here on the TPC design and some preliminary measurements of conserved event quantities such as total invariant mass, total momentum, total A and Z.

  18. Language Attitudes of Asturian Students in the Area of Navia-Eo (Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Riaño, Xosé; Hevia-Artime, Isabel; Fernández-Costales, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a pioneering study that approaches the sociolinguistic and educational reality of the area of Navia-Eo, a region in the western part of Asturias (Spain). This research aims to provide an insight into the language attitudes and the sociolinguistic awareness of students in the final year of primary education. Using…

  19. Opportunities for using the EOS Imaging Spectrometers and synthetic aperture radar in ecological models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Wessman, Carol A.; Curtiss, Brian; Kasischke, Eric; Way, Jobea; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1991-01-01

    Several promising approaches to assessing biochemical and architectural properties of landscapes are outlined. Strategies for using new EOS sensors in ecological models are examined. Ways in which ecological and remote sensing models can utilize information provided by the new sensors to characterize ecological properties at coarse scales and to estimate within-ecosystem properties are addressed.

  20. 7 CFR 1951.231 - Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity (EO) Cooperative Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity... Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity (EO) Cooperative Loans. (a) Withdrawal of member and... for Economic Opportunity Cooperative loans must be handled under the Federal Claims Collection...

  1. EOS as the present and future solution for data storage at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, AJ; Sindrilaru, EA; Adde, G.

    2015-12-01

    EOS is an open source distributed disk storage system in production since 2011 at CERN. Development focus has been on low-latency analysis use cases for LHC1 and non- LHC experiments and life-cycle management using JBOD2 hardware for multi PB storage installations. The EOS design implies a split of hot and cold storage and introduced a change of the traditional HSM3 functionality based workflows at CERN. The 2015 deployment brings storage at CERN to a new scale and foresees to breach 100 PB of disk storage in a distributed environment using tens of thousands of (heterogeneous) hard drives. EOS has brought to CERN major improvements compared to past storage solutions by allowing quick changes in the quality of service of the storage pools. This allows the data centre to quickly meet the changing performance and reliability requirements of the LHC experiments with minimal data movements and dynamic reconfiguration. For example, the software stack has met the specific needs of the dual computing centre set-up required by CERN and allowed the fast design of new workflows accommodating the separation of long-term tape archive and disk storage required for the LHC Run II. This paper will give a high-level state of the art overview of EOS with respect to Run II, introduce new tools and use cases and set the roadmap for the next storage solutions to come.

  2. System design and specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A design summary of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The systems considered in the summary are: (1) the spacecraft structure, (2) electrical power modules, (3) communications and data handling module, (4) attitude determination module, (5) actuation module, and (6) solar array and drive module. The documents which provide the specifications for the systems and the equipment are identified.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo Assessment of the Relevance of Electronic Correlations in Defects and EOS in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, R Q; Williamson, A J; Dubois, J L; Reboredo, F A

    2008-02-07

    We have developed a highly accurate computational capability to calculate the equation of state (EOS) and defect formation energies of metallic systems. We are using a newly developed algorithm that enables the study of metallic systems with quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. To date, technical limitations have restricted the application of QMC methods to semiconductors, insulators and the homogeneous electron gas. Using this new 'QMC for metals' we can determine, for the first time, the significance of correlation effects in the EOS and in the formation energies of point defects, impurities, surfaces and interfaces in metallic systems. These calculations go beyond the state-of-the-art accuracy which is currently obtained with Density Functional Theory approaches. Such benchmark calculations can provide more accurate predictions for the EOS and the formation energies of vacancies and interstitials in simple metals. These are important parameters in determining the mechanical properties as well as the micro-structural evolution of metals in irradiated materials or under extreme conditions. We describe the development of our 'QMC for metals' code, which has been adapted to run efficiently on a variety of computer architectures including BG/L. We present results of the first accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculation of an EOS of a realistic metallic system that goes beyond the homogeneous electron gas.

  4. SensorWeb Evolution Using the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite as a Test Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Chien, Steve; Grossman, Robert; Tran, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, in addition to collecting science data from its instruments, the EO-1 mission has been used as a testbed for a variety of technologies which provide various automation capabilities and which have been used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. This paper provides an overview of the various technologies that were tested and eventually folded into normal operations. As these technologies were folded in, the nature of operations transformed. The SensorWeb software enables easy connectivity for collaboration with sensors, but the side benefit is that it improved the EO-1 operational efficiency. This paper presents the various phases of EO-1 operation over the past 12 years and also presents operational efficiency gains demonstrated by some metrics.

  5. 76 FR 18134 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Chapter XL Reducing Regulatory Burden; Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation...

  6. 76 FR 81541 - Request for Comments Under E.O. 12898

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Request for Comments Under E.O. 12898 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary of Policy, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is committed to Environmental Justice (EJ)....

  7. 76 FR 13931 - Department of State Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 22 CFR Chapter I 28 CFR Chapter XI Department of State Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Request for information and comment. SUMMARY: As part of its implementation...

  8. 76 FR 63276 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 197 (Wednesday, October 12, 2011)] [Proposed Rules] [Pages 63276-63277] [FR Doc No: 2011-26309] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Chapter X [EP 712] Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY:...

  9. Transformation of HDF-EOS metadata from the ECS model to ISO 19115-based XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yaxing; Di, Liping; Zhao, Baohua; Liao, Guangxuan; Chen, Aijun

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays, geographic data, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) data, are playing an increasing role in many areas, including academic research, government decisions and even in people's every lives. As the quantity of geographic data becomes increasingly large, a major problem is how to fully make use of such data in a distributed, heterogeneous network environment. In order for a user to effectively discover and retrieve the specific information that is useful, the geographic metadata should be described and managed properly. Fortunately, the emergence of XML and Web Services technologies greatly promotes information distribution across the Internet. The research effort discussed in this paper presents a method and its implementation for transforming Hierarchical Data Format (HDF)-EOS metadata from the NASA ECS model to ISO 19115-based XML, which will be managed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Services—Web Profile (CSW). Using XML and international standards rather than domain-specific models to describe the metadata of those HDF-EOS data, and further using CSW to manage the metadata, can allow metadata information to be searched and interchanged more widely and easily, thus promoting the sharing of HDF-EOS data.

  10. Bone mineral density assessment using the EOS low-dose X-ray device: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sapin, E; Briot, K; Kolta, S; Gravel, P; Skalli, W; Roux, C; Mitton, D

    2008-11-01

    To predict bone strength in the case of osteoporosis, it could be a real benefit to assess the three-dimensional (3D) geometry and the bone mineral density (BMD) with a single low-dose X-ray device, such as the EOS system (Biospace Med, Paris, France). EOS 3D reconstructions of the spine have already been validated. Thus, this study aims at evaluating the accuracy of this low-dose system as a densitometer first ex vivo. The European Spine Phantom (ESP) (number 129) was scanned ten times using both the EOS and a Hologic device (Hologic, Inc., Massachusetts, USA). Accuracy was given by the sum of the systematic error (difference between BMDs assessed and true values given by the phantom manufacturer) and the random error (coefficient of variation). EOS BMDs and Hologic BMDs of 41 ex-vivo vertebrae were calculated and compared. The reproducibility of the method evaluating the EOS BMD was assessed giving the coefficient of variation of three measurements of the 41 vertebrae. The accuracy of the EOS system is below 5.2 per cent, versus 7.2 per cent for the Hologic system in the same conditions. EOS BMDs are significantly higher than Hologic BMDs, but they are strongly correlated. The reproducibility of the method of assessment is equal to 0.95 per cent. The EOS system is accurate for ex-vivo BMD assessments, which is promising regarding the use of this new system to predict vertebral strength.

  11. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) software assurance plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert; Smith, Claude

    1994-01-01

    This document defines the responsibilities of Software Quality Assurance (SOA) for the development of the flight software installed in EOS/AMSU-A instruments, and the ground support software used in the test and integration of the EOS/AMSU-A instruments.

  12. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  13. Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Spacecraft 120 Volt Power Subsystem: Requirements, Development and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2000-01-01

    Built by the Lockheed-Martin Corporation, the Earth Observing System (EOS) TERRA spacecraft represents the first orbiting application of a 120 Vdc high voltage spacecraft electrical power system implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The EOS TERRA spacecraft's launch provided a major contribution to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth program while incorporating many state of the art electrical power system technologies to achieve its mission goals. The EOS TERRA spacecraft was designed around five state-of-the-art scientific instrument packages designed to monitor key parameters associated with the earth's climate. The development focus of the TERRA electrical power system (EPS) resulted from a need for high power distribution to the EOS TERRA spacecraft subsystems and instruments and minimizing mass and parasitic losses. Also important as a design goal of the EPS was maintaining tight regulation on voltage and achieving low conducted bus noise characteristics. This paper outlines the major requirements for the EPS as well as the resulting hardware implementation approach adopted to meet the demands of the EOS TERRA low earth orbit mission. The selected orbit, based on scientific needs, to achieve the EOS TERRA mission goals is a sun-synchronous circular 98.2degree inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a near circular average altitude of 705 kilometers. The nominal spacecraft orbit is approximately 99 minutes with an average eclipse period of about 34 minutes. The scientific goal of the selected orbit is to maintain a repeated 10:30 a.m. +/- 15 minute descending equatorial crossing which provides a fairly clear view of the earth's surface and relatively low cloud interference for the instrument observation measurements. The major EOS TERRA EPS design requirements are single fault tolerant, average orbit power delivery of 2, 530 watts with a defined minimum lifetime of five years (EOL). To meet

  14. Preferential Secretion of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) by Terminally Differentiated Esophageal Epithelial Cells: Relevance to Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna M.; Shen, Dawen; Lee, Anna J.; Benitez, Alain; Dods, Kara; Gambanga, Fiona; Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Merves, Jamie; Noah, Yuliana; Toltzis, Sarit; Yearley, Jennifer H.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Malefyt, Rene deWaal; Muir, Amanda B.; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic Th2 and food antigen-mediated disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), an epithelial derived cytokine which bridges innate and Th2-type adaptive immune responses in other allergic conditions, is overexpressed in esophageal biopsies of EoE subjects. However, the triggers of TSLP expression in the esophageal epithelium are unknown. The objective of the current study was to characterize TSLP expression in human esophageal epithelium in EoE in vivo and to determine the role of food antigens upon epithelial TSLP expression in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we localized TSLP in esophageal biopsies of active EoE (≥15 eos/hpf), inactive EoE (<15 eos/hpf) and non-EoE control subjects, and found that TSLP expression was restricted to the differentiated suprabasal layer of the epithelium in actively inflamed EoE biopsies. Consistent with these results in vivo, inducible TSLP protein secretion was higher in CaCl2 differentiated telomerase-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) compared to undifferentiated cells of the basal phenotype, following stimulation with the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C). To determine whether food antigens could directly induce epithelial TSLP secretion, differentiated and undifferentiated primary esophageal epithelial cells from EoE and non-EoE subjects were challenged with food antigens clinically relevant to EoE: Chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA), wheat, and milk proteins beta-lactoglobulin (blg) and beta-casein. Food antigens failed to induce TSLP secretion by undifferentiated cells; in contrast, only OVA induced TSLP secretion in differentiated epithelial cells from both EoE and control cell lines, an effect abolished by budesonide and NF-κb inhibition. Together, our study shows that specific food antigens can trigger innate immune mediated esophageal TSLP secretion, suggesting that esophageal epithelial cells at the barrier surface

  15. Preferential Secretion of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) by Terminally Differentiated Esophageal Epithelial Cells: Relevance to Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE).

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna M; Shen, Dawen; Lee, Anna J; Benitez, Alain; Dods, Kara; Gambanga, Fiona; Wilkins, Benjamin J; Merves, Jamie; Noah, Yuliana; Toltzis, Sarit; Yearley, Jennifer H; Spergel, Jonathan M; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Malefyt, Rene deWaal; Muir, Amanda B; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic Th2 and food antigen-mediated disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), an epithelial derived cytokine which bridges innate and Th2-type adaptive immune responses in other allergic conditions, is overexpressed in esophageal biopsies of EoE subjects. However, the triggers of TSLP expression in the esophageal epithelium are unknown. The objective of the current study was to characterize TSLP expression in human esophageal epithelium in EoE in vivo and to determine the role of food antigens upon epithelial TSLP expression in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we localized TSLP in esophageal biopsies of active EoE (≥15 eos/hpf), inactive EoE (<15 eos/hpf) and non-EoE control subjects, and found that TSLP expression was restricted to the differentiated suprabasal layer of the epithelium in actively inflamed EoE biopsies. Consistent with these results in vivo, inducible TSLP protein secretion was higher in CaCl2 differentiated telomerase-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) compared to undifferentiated cells of the basal phenotype, following stimulation with the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C). To determine whether food antigens could directly induce epithelial TSLP secretion, differentiated and undifferentiated primary esophageal epithelial cells from EoE and non-EoE subjects were challenged with food antigens clinically relevant to EoE: Chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA), wheat, and milk proteins beta-lactoglobulin (blg) and beta-casein. Food antigens failed to induce TSLP secretion by undifferentiated cells; in contrast, only OVA induced TSLP secretion in differentiated epithelial cells from both EoE and control cell lines, an effect abolished by budesonide and NF-κb inhibition. Together, our study shows that specific food antigens can trigger innate immune mediated esophageal TSLP secretion, suggesting that esophageal epithelial cells at the barrier surface

  16. Earth Observing System (EOS) Snow and Ice Products for Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Kaminski, M.; Cavalieri, D.; Dickinson, R.; Marquis, M.; Riggs, G.; Robinson, D.; VanWoert, M.; Wolfe, R.

    2005-01-01

    Snow and ice are the key components of the Earth's cryosphere, and their influence on the Earth's energy balance is very significant due at least in part to the large areal extent and high albedo characterizing these features. Large changes in the cryosphere have been measured over the last century and especially over the past decade, and remote sensing plays a pivotal role in documenting these changes. Many of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) products derived from instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) satellites are useful for measuring changes in features that are associated with climate change. The utility of the products is continually enhanced as the length of the time series increases. To gain a more coherent view of the cryosphere and its historical and recent changes, the EOS products may be employed together, in conjunction with other sources of data, and in models. To further this goal, the first EOS Snow and Ice Products Workshop was convened. The specific goals of the workshop were to provide current and prospective users of EOS snow and ice products up-to-date information on the products, their validation status and future enhancements, to help users utilize the data products through hands-on demonstrations, and to facilitate the integration of EOS products into models. Oral and poster sessions representing a wide variety of snow and ice topics were held; three panels were also convened to discuss workshop themes. Panel discussions focused on data fusion and assimilation of the products into models. Approximately 110 people attended, representing a wide array of interests and organizations in the cryospheric community.

  17. Technology forecasting for space communication. Task one report: Cost and weight tradeoff studies for EOS and TDRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Weight and cost optimized EOS communication links are determined for 2.25, 7.25, 14.5, 21, and 60 GHz systems and for a 10.6 micron homodyne detection laser system. EOS to ground links are examined for 556, 834, and 1112 km EOS orbits, with ground terminals at the Network Test and Tracking Facility and at Goldstone. Optimized 21 GHz and 10.6 micron links are also examined. For the EOS to Tracking and Data Relay Satellite to ground link, signal-to-noise ratios of the uplink and downlink are also optimized for minimum overall cost or spaceborne weight. Finally, the optimized 21 GHz EOS to ground link is determined for various precipitation rates. All system performance parameters and mission dependent constraints are presented, as are the system cost and weight functional dependencies. The features and capabilities of the computer program to perform the foregoing analyses are described.

  18. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  19. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  20. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  1. Communicating Earth Observation (EO)-based landslide mapping capabilities to practitioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Florian; Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Weinke, Elisabeth; Vecchiotti, Filippo; Kociu, Arben

    2016-04-01

    Current remote sensing methods and the available Earth Observation (EO) data for landslide mapping already can support practitioners in their processes for gathering and for using landslide information. Information derived from EO data can support emergency services and authorities in rapid mapping after landslide-triggering events, in landslide monitoring and can serve as a relevant basis for hazard and risk mapping. These applications also concern owners, maintainers and insurers of infrastructure. Most often practitioners have a rough overview of the potential and limits of EO-based methods for landslide mapping. However, semi-automated image analysis techniques are still rarely used in practice. This limits the opportunity for user feedback, which would contribute to improve the methods for delivering fully adequate results in terms of accuracy, applicability and reliability. Moreover, practitioners miss information on the best way of integrating the methods in their daily processes. Practitioners require easy-to-grasp interfaces for testing new methods, which in turn would provide researchers with valuable user feedback. We introduce ongoing work towards an innovative web service which will allow for fast and efficient provision of EO-based landslide information products and that supports online processing. We investigate the applicability of various very high resolution (VHR), e.g. WorldView-2/3, Pleiades, and high resolution (HR), e.g. Landsat, Sentinel-2, optical EO data for semi-automated mapping based on object-based image analysis (OBIA). The methods, i.e. knowledge-based and statistical OBIA routines, are evaluated regarding their suitability for inclusion in a web service that is easy to use with the least amount of necessary training. The pre-operational web service will be implemented for selected study areas in the Alps (Austria, Italy), where weather-induced landslides have happened in the past. We will test the service on its usability together

  2. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of “reverse internationalization” by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations. PMID:27631368

  3. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-Huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of "reverse internationalization" by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations.

  4. A geometric performance assessment of the EO-1 advanced land imager

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, J.C.; Choate, M.J.; Meyer, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) demonstrates technology applicable to a successor system to the Landsat Thematic Mapper series. A study of the geometric performance characteristics of the ALI was conducted under the auspices of the EO-1 Science Validation Team. This study evaluated ALI performance with respect to absolute pointing knowledge, focal plane sensor chip assembly alignment, and band-to-band registration for purposes of comparing this new technology to the heritage Landsat systems. On-orbit geometric calibration procedures were developed that allowed the generation of ALI geometrically corrected products that compare favorably with their Landsat 7 counterparts with respect to absolute geodetic accuracy, internal image geometry, and band registration.

  5. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard flight design and presents the validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment through fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a standalone algorithm.

  6. Preliminary Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission is completing a primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented an autonomous universal three-axis formation flying algorithm in executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard design and presents the preliminary validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment and autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a stand-alone algorithm.

  7. What we can Learn About Aerosols from EOS-MISR Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), promise to significantly improve our ability to constrain aerosol properties from space. Recent advances in modeling the Earth's climate have brought us to a point where the contributions made by aerosols to the global radiation budget noticeably affect the results. Knowledge of both aerosol optical depth and the microphysical properties of particles is needed to adequately model aerosol effects. This talk explores the ability of multiangle, multi-spectral remote sensing observations anticipated from the EOS MISR instrument, to retrieve aerosol optical depth and information about mixes of particle types, globally, at 17.6 km spatial resolution. The instrument is scheduled for launch into a 10:30 AM, sun-synchronous polar orbit in 1999.

  8. A systems-approach to the design of the Eos data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Robert R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The task of designing a data and information system responsive to the needs of Eos users is stratified by level and approached with contemporary systems design practices. Appropriate systems design principles are applied at the conceptual design level in this paper. A functional, architectural design is described in terms of elemental composition, top-level functions, and external and internal interfaces. The functional validity of this design has been tested and verified through the use of realistic user scenarios consistent with existing plans for the 1990s, the Space Station era. Technologic and management impediments to the development of the requisite data and information system for Eos are examined and a consistent methodology for developing this system is discussed.

  9. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  10. Results Of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called Enhanced Formation Flying. To enable this technology, a team at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(trademark), its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  11. Performance of the Star Tracker Lightshades on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas; Lee, Albert; Donnelly, Michael; Schroder, Michael; McNally, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The TRW built EOS Aqua spacecraft uses two Ball Aerospace CT-602 star trackers to provide attitude updates to the 3-axis, zero momentum, controller. Two months prior to the scheduled launch of Aqua, Ball reported an error in the design of the star tracker lightshades. The lightshades, which had been designed specifically for the EOS Common spacecraft, were not expected to meet the stray light rejection requirements of the mission, thus impacting the overall spacecraft pointing performance. What ensued was an effort to characterize the actual performance of the existing shade design, determine what could be done within the physical envelope available, and modify the hardware to meet requirements. Changes were made based on this review activity and Aqua was launched on May 4, 2002. To date the spacecraft is meeting all of its science pointing requirements. Reported here are the lightshade design predictions, test results, and the measured on orbit performance of these shades.

  12. Performance of the Star Tracker Lightshades on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Thomas; Schroeder, Michael; Donnelly, Michael; McNally, Mark; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The TRW built EOS Aqua spacecraft uses two Ball Aerospace CT-602 star trackers to provide attitude updates to the 3-axis, zero momentum, controller. Two months prior to the scheduled launch of Aqua, Ball reported an error in the design of the star tracker lightshades. The lightshades, which had been designed specifically for the EOS Common spacecraft, were not expected to meet the stray light rejection requirements of the mission and thus impact the overall spacecraft pointing performance. What ensued was an effort to characterize the actual performance of the existing shade design, determine what could be done within the physical envelope available, and modify the hardware to meet requirements. Changes were made based on this review activity and Aqua was launched on May 4, 2002. To date the spacecraft is meeting all of its science pointing requirements. Reported here are the lightshade design predictions, test results, and the measured on orbit performance of these shades.

  13. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullooly, William

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-first monthly report for the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit- A (AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 July 1995 through 31 July 1995. This period is the nineteenth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. Included in this report is the Master Program Schedule (Section 2), a report from the Product Team Leaders on the status of all major program elements (Section 3), Drawing status (Section 4), Weight and Power Budgets (CDRL) 503 (Section 5), Performance Assurance (CDRL 204) (Section 6), Configuration Management Status Report (CDRL 203) (Section 7), Documentation/Data Management Status Report (Section 8), and Contract Status (Section 9).

  14. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 7: EOS system definition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) study is summarized to show the modular design of a general purpose spacecraft, a mission peculiar segment which performs the EOS-A mission, an Operations Control Center, a Data Processing Facility, and a design for Low Cost Readout Stations. The study verified the practicality and feasibility of the modularized spacecraft with the capability of supporting many missions in the Earth Observation spectrum. The various subjects considered in the summary are: (1) orbit/launch vehicle tradeoff studies and recommendations, (2) instrument constraints and interfaces, (3) design/cost tradeoff and recommendations, (4) low cost management approach and recommendations, (5) baseline system description and specifications, and (6) space shuttle utilization and interfaces.

  15. Optical atmospheric scattering and absorption limitations on offset pointing from Earth Observatory Satellite /EOS/ sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    The Braslau-Dave atmospheric model which calculates the upward monochromatic light fluxes leaving the top of the atmosphere as a function of viewing angle, sun angle, and ground reflectance was employed to study the effect of atmospheric scattering and attenuation on universal apparent contrast for two EOS remote sensors operated at very large offset or pointing angles: the Thematic Mapper (TM) and the High Resolution Pointable Imager (HRPI). The TM offset off nadir could be plus or minus 20 degrees with an 11 degree scan angle and the HRPI pointing angle off nadir could be plus or minus 45 degrees with a 3 degree scan angle. The reduction of universal apparent contrast of EOS imagery is studied as a function of sun elevation angle, atmospheric aerosol loading, radiation wavelength and sensor look angles.

  16. Risk reduction methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Richard K.; Pingitore, Nelson V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will discuss proposed Flight Operations methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC), to reduce risks associated with the operation of complex multi-instrument spacecraft in a multi-spacecraft environment. The EOC goals are to obtain 100 percent science data capture and maintain 100 percent spacecraft health, for each EOS spacecraft. Operations risks to the spacecraft and data loss due to operator command error, mission degradation due to mis-identification of an anomalous trend in component performance or mis-management of resources, and total mission loss due to improper subsystem configuration or mis-identification of an anomalous condition. This paper discusses automation of routine Flight Operations Team (FOT) responsibilities, Expert systems for real-time non-nominal condition decision support, and Telemetry analysis systems for in-depth playback data analysis and trending.

  17. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 2: EOS-A system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program are defined. The system specifications for the satellite payload are examined. The broad objectives of the EOS-A program are as follows: (1) to develop space-borne sensors for the measurement of land resources, (2) to evolve spacecraft systems and subsystems which will permit earth observation with greater accuracy, coverage, spatial resolution, and continuity than existing systems, (3) to develop improved information processing, extraction, display, and distribution systems, and (4) to use space transportation systems for resupply and retrieval of the EOS.

  18. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A. Supporting analyses and tradeoffs, book 1. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A listing of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) candidate missions is presented for use as a baseline in describing the EOS payloads. The missions are identified in terms of first, second, and third generation payloads. The specific applications of the EOS satellites are defined. The subjects considered are: (1) orbit analysis, (2) space shuttle interfaces, (3) thematic mapping subsystem, (4) high resolution pointable imager subsystem, (5) the data collection system, (6) the synthetic aperture radar, (7) the passive multichannel microwave radiometer, and (8) the wideband communications and handling equipment. Illustrations of the satellite and launch vehicle configurations are provided. Block diagrams of the electronic circuits are included.

  19. 21CMMC: Parallelized Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis tool for the epoch of reionization (EoR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    21CMMC is an efficient Python sampler of the semi-numerical reionization simulation code 21cmFAST (ascl:1102.023). It can recover constraints on astrophysical parameters from current or future 21 cm EoR experiments, accommodating a variety of EoR models, as well as priors on individual model parameters and the reionization history. By studying the resulting impact on the EoR astrophysical constraints, 21CMMC can be used to optimize foreground cleaning algorithms; interferometer designs; observing strategies; alternate statistics characterizing the 21cm signal; and synergies with other observational programs.

  20. The EOS of α-NTO through high-pressure microscopy-interferometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M.; Bastea, Sorin; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Radousky, Harry B.; Armstrong, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the volume of a material compressed quasi-statically to a high-pressure typically involves the determination of a primitive crystal cell volume using x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The accumulation of pressure dependent volumes leads to an understanding of the material's equation of state, (EOS); however, in the case of low-symmetry (e.g. triclinic) materials with twining features, and large primitive cells, conventional XRD approaches can be technically problematic and lead to ambiguous or mathematically under-determined lattice constants. To resolve this long-standing issue, we examined the utility of a "direct" approach toward determining a material's volume by measuring surface area and sample height using optical microscopy and interferometry respectively. To test the validity of our proposed approach, we first compared our results from pressurized Triamino-Trinitrobenzene (TATB, SG P-1) with a published EOS determined by synchrotron XRD measurements of Stevens et al.. A near-perfect match between the two sets of V(P, 300K) data is observed; and thus, we proceeded to determine the EOS of the energetic material 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4,-triazol-3-one (α-NTO), which under ambient conditions crystallizes as a four-component twinned system with a triclinic symmetry (SG P-1). No high-pressure XRD EOS data have been published on α-NTO, probably due to its unambiguously complex crystal structure. The results of this study reveal that our proposed approach applied to quasi-statically compressed anisotropic materials is a reliable alternative toward determining material EOSs,-especially when conventional methodologies are not feasible.

  1. Instrument constraints and interface specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The equipment specifications for the thematic mapper and high resolution pointable imager for use on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are presented. The interface requirements of the systems are defined. The interface requirements are extracted from the equipment specifications and are intended as a summary to be used by the system and spacecraft designer. The appropriate documentation from which the specifications of the equipment are established are identified.

  2. Enabling the Continuous EOS-SNPP Satellite Data Record thru EOSDIS Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A.; Behnke, J.; Ho, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Following Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) launch of October 2011, the role of the NASA Science Data Segment (SDS) focused primarily on evaluation of the sensor data records (SDRs) and environmental data records (EDRs) produced by the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), a National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) Program as to their suitability for Earth system science. The evaluation has been completed for Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir instruments. Since launch, the SDS has also been processing, archiving and distributing data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb instruments and this work is planned to continue through the life of the mission. As NASA transitions to the production of standard, Earth Observing System (EOS)-like science products for all instruments aboard Suomi NPP, the Suomi NPP Science Team (ST) will need data processing and production facilities to produce the new science products they develop. The five Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS): Land, Ocean. Atmosphere, Ozone, and Sounder will produce the NASA SNPP standard Level 1, Level 2, and global Level 3 products and provide the products to the NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) for distribution to the user community. The SIPS will ingest EOS compatible Level 0 data from EOS Data Operations System (EDOS) for their data processing. A key feature is the use of Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) services for the continuous EOS-SNPP satellite data record. This allows users to use the same tools and interfaces on SNPP as they would on the entire NASA Earth Science data collection in EOSDIS.

  3. Real-time IR/EO scene generation utilizing an optimized scene rendering subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Robert J.; Howe, Daniel B.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes advances in the development IR/EO scene generation using the second generation Comptek Amherst Systems' Scene Rendering Subsystem (SRS). The SRS is a graphics rendering engine designed specifically to support real-time hardware-in-the-loop testing of IR/EO sensor systems. The SRS serves as an alternative to commercial rendering systems, such as the Silicon GraphicsR InfiniteReality, when IR/EO sensor fidelity requirements surpass the limits designed into COTS hardware that is optimized for visual rendering. The paper will discuss the need for such a system and will present examples of the kinds of sensor tests that can take advantage of the high radiometric fidelity provided by the SRS. Examples of situations where the high spatial fidelity of the InfiniteReality is more appropriate will also be presented. The paper will also review models and algorithms used in IR/EO scene rendering and show how the design of the SRS was driven by the requirements of these models and algorithms. This work has been done in support of the Infrared Sensor Stimulator system (IRSS) which will be used for installed system testing of avionics electronic combat systems. The IRSS will provide a high frame rate, real-time, reactive, hardware-in-the-loop test capability for the stimulation of current and future infrared and ultraviolet based sensor systems. The IRSS program is a joint development effort under the leadership of the Naval Air Warfare Center -- Aircraft Division, Air Combat Environment Test and Evaluation Facility (ACETEF) with close coordination and technical support from the Electronic Combat Integrated Test (ECIT) Program Office. The system will be used for testing of multiple sensor avionics systems to support the Development Test & Evaluation and Operational Test & Evaluation objectives of the U.S. Navy and Air Force.

  4. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special but not exclusive look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  5. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by whch scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  6. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  7. Model membranes prepared with ceramide EOS, cholesterol and free fatty acids form a unique lamellar phase.

    PubMed

    Groen, Daniel; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2010-03-16

    The lipid matrix present in the human stratum corneum (the thin, uppermost layer of the skin) is considered to play a crucial role in the skin barrier function. The lipid matrix consists of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. The 13 nm lamellar phase present in the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum is very characteristic and plays an important role in the skin barrier function. One subclass of ceramides with a linoleic acid linked to a very long acyl (referred to as EOS) plays a crucial role in the formation of the 13 nm lamellar phase. In this article, we focus on the lipid phase behavior of EOS mixed with cholesterol or with cholesterol and free fatty acids. Our studies reveal that an equimolar ratio of EOS, cholesterol, and free fatty acids forms a lamellar phase with a very long repeat distance of approximately 14.7 nm. This phase exhibits exceptional behavior in that in the thermotropic response the fatty acid chains and the ceramide chains undergo an order-disorder transition in different temperature ranges while part of the hydrocarbon chains of ceramides and fatty acids are mixing in the orthorhombic lattice. On the basis of these observations, a molecular model for the 14.7 nm phase has been proposed in which the lipids are organized in a lamellar phase with three different lipid layers in a symmetric unit cell.

  8. CHARACTERISING THE EOS SLOT-SCANNING SYSTEM WITH THE EFFECTIVE DETECTIVE QUANTUM EFFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Clavel, A H; Monnin, P; Létang, J M; Verdun, F R; Darbon, A

    2016-06-01

    As opposed to the standard detective quantum efficiency (DQE), effective DQE (eDQE) is a figure of merit that allows comparing the performances of imaging systems in the presence of scatter rejection devices. The geometry of the EOS™ slot-scanning system is such that the detector is self-collimated and rejects scattered radiation. In this study, the EOS system was characterised using the eDQE in imaging conditions similar to those used in clinical practice: with phantoms of different widths placed in the X-ray beam, for various incident air kerma and tube voltages corresponding to the phantom thickness. Scatter fractions in EOS images were extremely low, around 2 % for all configurations. Maximum eDQE values spanned 9-14.8 % for a large range of air kerma at the detector plane from 0.01 to 1.34 µGy. These figures were obtained with non-optimised EOS setting but still over-performed most of the maximum eDQEs recently assessed for various computed radiology and digital radiology systems with antiscatter grids.

  9. The use of EO Optical data for the Italian Supersites volcanoes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Malvina

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the INGV experience in the capability to import many different EO optical data into in house developed systems and to maintain a repository where the acquired data have been stored. These data are used for generating selected products which are functional to face the different volcanic activity phases. Examples on the processing of long time series based EO data of Mt Etna activity and Campi Flegrei observation by using remote sensing techniques and at different spatial resolution data (ASTER - 90mt, AVHRR -1km, MODIS-1km, MSG SEVIRI-3km) are also showed. Both volcanoes belong to Italian Supersites initiative of the geohazard scientific community. In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project (call FP7 ENV.2012.6.4-2), this work wants to describe the main activities concerning the generation of brightness temperature map from the satellite data acquired in real-time from INGV MEOS Multi-mission Antenna (for MODIS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and geostationary satellite data) and AVHRR-TERASCAN (for AVHRR, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data). The advantage of direct download of EO data by means INGV antennas (with particular attention to AVHRR and MODIS) even though low spatial resolution offers the possibility of a systematic data processing having a daily updating of information for prompt response and hazard mitigation. At the same time it has been necessary the use of large archives to inventory and monitor dynamic and dangerous phenomena, like volcanic activity, globally.

  10. Use Of EOS-AURA Observation In The MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Wargan, Krzysztof; Coy, Lawrence L.; McCarty, Will

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological reanalyses provide multi-year gridded datasets that describe the evolution of the atmosphere. Such products use a data assimilation system, comprising of an atmospheric model, a broad suite of observations, and an analysis system that optimally combines the model forecast with the observations, using an algorithm that includes information about model and data accuracy. The mixture of observations is of central importance to the quality of the assimilated datasets. The Modern-era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) included constraints on the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere from nadir sounders on the NOAA polar-orbiting platforms (Stratospheric Sounding Units and Advanced Microwave Sounding Units). These instruments have peak sensitivities that occur well below the stratopause. As such, the radiance measurements do not provide strong constraints on stratopause temperature. The new MERRA-2 reanalysis is using EOS-MLS temperature retrievals after they are available: it will be demonstrated that these data lead to a more realistic stratopause structure in MERRA-2 than in MERRA. Similarly, the work demonstrates the improvements in lower stratospheric ozone in MERRA-2 than in MERRA, for the period when EOS-MLS ozone data are assimilated. This improvement occurs because of the ozone profile information offered by MLS in the low stratosphere, in contrast to the SBUV/2 data used for the rest of MERRA-2. The impacts of choosing to use the EOS-MLS datasets are discussed in context of the continuity of the data record in MERRA- 2.

  11. The EOS of NTO through high-pressure microscopy- interferometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaug, Joseph; Stavrou, Elissaios; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Bastea, Sorin; Armstrong, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Measuring equation of state (EOS) of solid specimens under pressure usually involves the determination of the primitive cell volume using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. However, in the case of low symmetry (e.g. triclinic) materials with twining features and large primitive cells, this can be problematic and ambiguous. In order to address this issue we examine the possibility of a ``direct'' approach which is based on measuring the surface area and thickness with microscopy and optical interferometry respectively. To test the validity of our approach, we had first compared the results of our technique in the case of the Triamino-Trinitrobenzene (TATB, SG P-1) with the published EOS, as determined with XRD measurements, by Stevens et al.. A perfect match between the two sets of data has been observed. We present also the results of our study on the energetic material 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4,-triazol-3-one (α-NTO) which crystallizes as a four-component twin with triclinic symmetry (SG P-1). No high pressure XRD EOS data have been published on α-NTO, probably due to its extremely complex crystal structure; thus, this technique is a reliable alternative. Work performed by the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. EOS determination through microscopy- interferometry measurements: A low symmetry energetic materials case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Bastea, Sorin; Armstrong, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Measuring equation of state (EOS) of solid specimens under pressure usually involves the determination of the primitive cell volume using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. However, in the case of low symmetry (e.g. triclinic) materials with twining features and large primitive cells, this can be problematic and ambiguous. In order to address this issue we examine the possibility of a direct approach which is based on measuring the surface area and thickness with microscopy and optical interferometry respectively. To test the validity of this approach applied to a crystalline material, we first compared our results from Triamino-Trinitrobenzene (TATB, SG P-1) with the published EOS, as determined with XRD measurements, by Stevens et al. [1]. A near perfect match between the two sets of data has been observed. We also present the results of our study on the energetic material 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4,-triazol-3-one (a-NTO) which crystallizes as a four-component twin [2] with triclinic symmetry. No high-pressure XRD data have been published on a-NTO, probably due to its highly complex crystal structure, making this technique a viable way to probe the cold compression EOS of such compounds. Work performed by the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Eos and pegasus, two members of the Ikaros family of proteins with distinct DNA binding activities.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, J; Holmes, M; Chong, B; Crossley, M

    2000-12-08

    Members of the Ikaros family of transcription factors, Ikaros, Aiolos, and Helios, are expressed in lymphocytes and have been implicated in controlling lymphoid development. These proteins contain two characteristic clusters of zinc fingers, an N-terminal domain important for DNA recognition, and a C-terminal domain that mediates homo- and heterotypic associations between family members. The conservation of these domains is such that all three proteins recognize related DNA sequences, and all are capable of dimerizing with other family members. Here we describe two additional Ikaros family proteins, Eos and Pegasus. Eos is most highly related to Helios and shares its DNA binding and protein association properties. Pegasus is related to other Ikaros proteins in its C-terminal dimerization domain but contains a divergent N-terminal zinc finger domain. Pegasus self-associates and binds to other family members but recognizes distinct DNA-binding sites. Eos and Pegasus repress the expression of reporter genes containing their recognition elements. Our results suggest that these proteins may associate with previously described Ikaros family proteins in lymphoid cells and play additional roles in other tissues.

  14. THE EOS ART Projects: Six Art Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, I.

    2015-12-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. The EOS ART 2010-2013 was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects.The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia.The presentation provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand). http://art-science-media.com/the-eos-art-projects/

  15. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent; Jarnot, Robert; Pickett, Herbert; Cofield, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Wagner, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A computer program performs level- 1B processing (the term 1B is explained below) of data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), which is an instrument aboard the Aura spacecraft. This software accepts, as input, the raw EOS MLS scientific and engineering data and the Aura spacecraft ephemeris and attitude data. Its output consists of calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. [This software is one of several computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing EOS MLS data. Starting from level 0 (representing the aforementioned raw data, the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (e.g., 1B and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing.] At the time of this reporting, this software is at version 2.2 and incorporates improvements over a prior version that make the code more robust, improve calibration, provide more diagnostic outputs, improve the interface with the Level 2 PGE, and effect a 15-percent reduction in file sizes by use of data compression.

  16. Development of EOS data for granular material like sand by using micromodels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcher, M.; Gebbeken, N.

    2012-08-01

    Detonations in soil can occur due to several reasons: e.g. land mines or bombs from the Second World War. Soil is also often used as a protective barrier. In all cases the behaviour of soil loaded by shock waves is important. The simulation of shock wave loaded soil using hydro-codes like AUTODYN needs a failure model as well as an equation of state (EOS). The parameters for these models are often not known. The popular material law for sand from Laine and Sandvik [1], e.g., is a first approximation, but it can only be used for dry sand with a certain grain grading. The parameters porosity, grain grading, and humidity have a big influence on the material behaviour of cohesive soils. Micro-mechanic models can be used to develop the material behaviour of granular materials. EOS data can be obtained by numerically loading micro-mechanically modelled grains and measuring the density under a certain pressure in the finite element model. The influence of porosity, grain grading, and humidity can be easily investigated. EOS data are determined in this work for cohesive soils depending on these parameters.

  17. Validation and Verification of the multi-material EOS and Opacity Model used in CRASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Drake, R. Paul

    2011-10-01

    The laser target for the CRASH project has a complicated geometry and is manufactured from four materials. The beryllium foil, and, partly, the gold washer are directly irradiated with the laser beams, the physical conditions in them vary from very high temperatures and low densities in the laser corona till multi-hundred MBar pressure in the pusher driving the strong shock wave in xenon. Shock-compressed xenon intensely radiates, the radiation transport being responsible for the most of the observed phenomena: wall shock, generated from the irradiated tube wall, perturbations in the shocked layer of xenon, wavy xenon-beryllium interface. The capillary tube is made of two different sorts of plastic: polyimide and acrylic. To perform coupled simulations of the hydrodynamic motion and radiation transport one needs to incorporate the EOS and multi-group opacity data. For a long time we were employing a simple thermodynamic model, based on direct calculation of statistical sums and the Helmholtz free energy and accounting for the partial Fermi degeneration for electrons as well as the Coulomb interactions. In the present simulation we present the results of the validation and verification research, for the EOS and multi- group opacity model used in CRASH. First goal is a direct comparison between the EOS data tables as produced using the CRASH code with those obtained from different databases (ARTEP, PRISM and some others). We analyze the difference in the results and discuss, which of the data can be better used in simulations.

  18. Design of the EO-1 Pulsed Plasma Thruster Attitude Control Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, Charles; Sanneman, Paul; Hunt, Teresa; Blackman, Kathie; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. The PPT is a small, self-contained pulsed electromagnetic Propulsion system capable of delivering high specific impulse (900-1200 s), very small impulse bits (10-1000 micro N-s) at low average power (less than 1 to 100 W). EO-1 has a single PPT that can produce torque in either the positive or negative pitch direction. For the PPT in-flight experiment, the pitch reaction wheel will be replaced by the PPT during nominal EO-1 nadir pointing. A PPT specific proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm was developed for the experiment. High fidelity simulations of the spacecraft attitude control capability using the PPT were conducted. The simulations, which showed PPT control performance within acceptable mission limits, will be used as the benchmark for on-orbit performance. The flight validation will demonstrate the ability of the PPT to provide precision pointing resolution. response and stability as an attitude control actuator.

  19. Autonomous Volcanic Activity Detection with ASE on EO-1 Hyperion: Applications for Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J.; Greeley, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.; Williams, K.; ASE Project Team

    2003-05-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 6 (ST-6) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly two scene classifiers on the Earth Orbiting 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in the fall of 2003, and will demonstrate autonomous, onboard processing of Hyperion imager 0.4-2.4 micron hyperspectral data, and autonomous, science-driven planning and acquisition of subsequent observations. ASE is an experiment to meet NASA's call for systems with reduced downlink and onboard data processing to enable autonomous missions. ASE software is divided into three classes: (1) spacecraft command and control; (2) an onboard planner (CASPER); and (3) modular science algorithms, which are used to process raw data to search out specific features and spectral signatures. The ASE Science Team has developed scene classifiers to detect thermal emission in both day and nighttime Hyperion data, and are continuing to develop other scene classifiers for ice, snow, water and land for future release and flight on EO-1. Once uploaded, the thermal scene classifier effectively turns the EO-1 spacecraft into an autonomously operating and reacting volcanic activity detector. It is possible to envision such a capability on spacecraft observing volcanism on Io and Triton, autonomously identifying and classifying activity, identifying sites deserving of closer scrutiny, and retasking the spacecraft to observe them, thus fulfilling NASA's goal of fully-autonomous, science-driven spacecraft. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  20. Implementing Land and Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanvi, V.; Michael, K.; Murphy, K. J.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B.; Tilmes, C.; Conover, H.; Teague, M.; Durbin, P.; Regner, K.

    2010-12-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from sensors on board the earth observing satellites. NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a wealth of data and products supporting scientific research of the atmosphere, oceans, and land. The Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments onboard Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily which are processed into higher-level “standard” products within 8 to 40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users usually need data within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. In response to this need, NASA developed the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) that provides land and atmosphere data acquired by AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, MODIS, and OMI instruments.

  1. Insights on How NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Monitors Our World Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover and land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  2. Multiscale quantification of urban composition from EO-1/Hyperion data using object-based spectral unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Caiyun

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of the urban composition is important in urban planning and management. Previous research has primarily focused on unmixing medium-spatial resolution multispectral imagery using spectral mixture analysis (SMA) in order to estimate the abundance of urban components. For this study an object-based multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) approach was applied to unmix the 30-m Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)/Hyperion hyperspectral imagery. The abundance of two physical urban components (vegetation and impervious surface) was estimated and mapped at multiple scales and two defined geographic zones. The estimation results were validated by a reference dataset generated from fine spatial resolution aerial photography. The object-based MESMA approach was compared with its corresponding pixel-based one, and EO-1/Hyperion hyperspectral data was compared with the simulated EO-1/Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral data in the unmixing modeling. The pros and cons of the object-based MESMA were evaluated. The result illustrates that the object-based MESMA is promising for unmixing the medium-spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery to quantify the urban composition, and it is an attractive alternative to the traditional pixel-based mixture analysis for various applications.

  3. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  4. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  5. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  6. Klein's programme and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Gallardo, Jesús; Marmo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    We review the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics to identify, according to Klein's programme, the corresponding group of transformations. For closed systems, it is the unitary group. For open quantum systems, the semigroup of Kraus maps contains, as a maximal subgroup, the general linear group. The same group emerges as the exponentiation of the C*-algebra associated with the quantum system, when thought of as a Lie algebra. Thus, open quantum systems seem to identify the general linear group as associated with quantum mechanics and moreover suggest to extend the Klein programme also to groupoids. The usual unitary group emerges as a maximal compact subgroup of the general linear group.

  7. The use of algorithmic behavioural transfer functions in parametric EO system performance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.

    2015-10-01

    The use of mathematical models to predict the overall performance of an electro-optic (EO) system is well-established as a methodology and is used widely to support requirements definition, system design, and produce performance predictions. Traditionally these models have been based upon cascades of transfer functions based on established physical theory, such as the calculation of signal levels from radiometry equations, as well as the use of statistical models. However, the performance of an EO system is increasing being dominated by the on-board processing of the image data and this automated interpretation of image content is complex in nature and presents significant modelling challenges. Models and simulations of EO systems tend to either involve processing of image data as part of a performance simulation (image-flow) or else a series of mathematical functions that attempt to define the overall system characteristics (parametric). The former approach is generally more accurate but statistically and theoretically weak in terms of specific operational scenarios, and is also time consuming. The latter approach is generally faster but is unable to provide accurate predictions of a system's performance under operational conditions. An alternative and novel architecture is presented in this paper which combines the processing speed attributes of parametric models with the accuracy of image-flow representations in a statistically valid framework. An additional dimension needed to create an effective simulation is a robust software design whose architecture reflects the structure of the EO System and its interfaces. As such, the design of the simulator can be viewed as a software prototype of a new EO System or an abstraction of an existing design. This new approach has been used successfully to model a number of complex military systems and has been shown to combine improved performance estimation with speed of computation. Within the paper details of the approach

  8. From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

  9. What We Can Learn About Aerosols from EOS-MISR Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R.

    1999-01-01

    Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), promise to significantly improve our ability to constrain aerosol properties from space.

  10. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  11. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  12. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Yang, Shu; Yi, Yun Kyu; Kamien, Randall D; Yin, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Programmable kirigami metamaterials with controllable local tilting orientations on demand through prescribed notches are constructed through a new approach of kiri-kirgami, and their actuation of pore opening via both mechanical stretching and temperature, along with their potential application as skins for energy-saving buildings, is discussed.

  13. A semi-analytical on-hugoniot eos of condensed matter using a linear UP-Us relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, S.; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Kadono, T.

    2012-03-01

    Accurate equation of state (EOS) is essential for understanding a variety of geologic processes associated with shock compression of materials. A number of highly sophisticated EOS's have been proposed (e.g., M-ANEOS and SESAME), covering a wide range of P-T conditions. However, they are complex and require many model parameters. Also, there are many occasions when only terminal thermodynamic variables after adiabatic decompression are needed. For example, when the terminal molecular composition of an impact-induced vapor is necessary, only the initial entropy gain and chemical reaction processes under low-P-T conditions need to be calculated. Then, only an on-Hugoniot EOS and a low-P-T EOS are necessary. To meet such demands, we derive a new semianalytical on-Hugoniot EOS, which requires only the Hugoniot shock velocity parameters and specific heat, Grüneisen parameter, and its power-law exponent. Comparison with experimental data indicates that this EOS can reproduce on-Hugoniot entropy and temperature of ice and quartz very well, despite of its small number of model parameters.

  14. SU-E-I-15: Comparison of Radiation Dose for Radiography and EOS in Adolescent Scoliosis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, B; Walz-Flannigan, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate patient radiation dose for whole spine imaging using EOS, a new biplanar slot-scanning radiographic system and compare with standard scoliosis radiography. Methods: The EOS imaging system (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) consists of two orthogonal x-ray fan beams which simultaneously acquire frontal and lateral projection images of a standing patient. The patient entrance skin air kerma was measured for each projection image using manufacturer-recommended exposure parameters for spine imaging. Organ and effective doses were estimated using a commercially-available Monte Carlo simulation program (PCXMC, STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland) for a 15 year old mathematical phantom model. These results were compared to organ and effective dose estimated for scoliosis radiography using computed radiography (CR) with standard exposure parameters obtained from a survey of pediatric radiographic projections. Results: The entrance skin air kerma for EOS was found to be 0.18 mGy and 0.33 mGy for posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral projections, respectively. This compares to 0.76 mGy and 1.4 mGy for CR, PA and lateral projections. Effective dose for EOS (PA and lateral projections combined) is 0.19 mSv compared to 0.51 mSv for CR. Conclusion: The EOS slot-scanning radiographic system allows for reduced patient radiation dose in scoliosis patients as compared to standard CR radiography.

  15. A web portal for accessing, viewing and comparing in situ observations, EO products and model output data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vines, Aleksander; Hamre, Torill; Lygre, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    The GreenSeas project (Development of global plankton data base and model system for eco-climate early warning) aims to advance the knowledge and predictive capacities of how marine ecosystems will respond to global change. A main task has been to set up a data delivery and monitoring core service following the open and free data access policy implemented in the Global Monitoring for the Environment and Security (GMES) programme. A key feature of the system is its ability to compare data from different datasets, including an option to upload one's own netCDF files. The user can for example search in an in situ database for different variables (like temperature, salinity, different elements, light, specific plankton types or rate measurements) with different criteria (bounding box, date/time, depth, Longhurst region, cruise/transect) and compare the data with model data. The user can choose model data or Earth observation data from a list, or upload his/her own netCDF files to use in the comparison. The data can be visualized on a map, as graphs and plots (e.g. time series and property-property plots), or downloaded in various formats. The aim is to ensure open and free access to historical plankton data, new data (EO products and in situ measurements), model data (including estimates of simulation error) and biological, environmental and climatic indicators to a range of stakeholders, such as scientists, policy makers and environmental managers. We have implemented a web-based GIS(Geographical Information Systems) system and want to demonstrate the use of this. The tool is designed for a wide range of users: Novice users, who want a simple way to be able to get basic information about the current state of the marine planktonic ecosystem by utilizing predefined queries and comparisons with models. Intermediate level users who want to explore the database on their own and customize the prefedined setups. Advanced users who want to perform complex queries and

  16. Utilizing Free and Open Source Software to access, view and compare in situ observations, EO products and model output data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vines, Aleksander; Hamre, Torill; Lygre, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    The GreenSeas project (Development of global plankton data base and model system for eco-climate early warning) aims to advance the knowledge and predictive capacities of how marine ecosystems will respond to global change. A main task has been to set up a data delivery and monitoring core service following the open and free data access policy implemented in the Global Monitoring for the Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The aim is to ensure open and free access to historical plankton data, new data (EO products and in situ measurements), model data (including estimates of simulation error) and biological, environmental and climatic indicators to a range of stakeholders, such as scientists, policy makers and environmental managers. To this end, we have developed a geo-spatial database of both historical and new in situ physical, biological and chemical parameters for the Southern Ocean, Atlantic, Nordic Seas and the Arctic, and organized related satellite-derived quantities and model forecasts in a joint geo-spatial repository. For easy access to these data, we have implemented a web-based GIS (Geographical Information Systems) where observed, derived and forcasted parameters can be searched, displayed, compared and exported. Model forecasts can also be uploaded dynamically to the system, to allow modelers to quickly compare their results with available in situ and satellite observations. We have implemented the web-based GIS(Geographical Information Systems) system based on free and open source technologies: Thredds Data Server, ncWMS, GeoServer, OpenLayers, PostGIS, Liferay, Apache Tomcat, PRTree, NetCDF-Java, json-simple, Geotoolkit, Highcharts, GeoExt, MapFish, FileSaver, jQuery, jstree and qUnit. We also wanted to used open standards to communicate between the different services and we use WMS, WFS, netCDF, GML, OPeNDAP, JSON, and SLD. The main advantage we got from using FOSS was that we did not have to invent the wheel all over again, but could use

  17. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  18. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  19. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  20. A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Goode, Wesley; Liu, Guigen; Han, Ming; Kanaev, Andrey; Restaino, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Temperature microstructure in the ocean can lead to localized changes in the index of refraction and can distort underwater electro-optical (EO) signal transmission. A similar phenomenon is well-known from atmospheric optics and generally referred to as "optical turbulence". Though turbulent fluctuations in the ocean distort EO signal transmission and can impact various underwater applications, from diver visibility to active and passive remote sensing, there have been few studies investigating the subject. To provide a test bed for the study of impacts from turbulent flows on underwater EO signal transmission, and to examine and mitigate turbulence effects, we set up a laboratory turbulence environment allowing the variation of turbulence intensity. Convective turbulence is generated in a large Rayleigh- Bénard tank and the turbulent flow is quantified using high-resolution Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter profilers and fast thermistor probes. The turbulence measurements are complemented by computational fluid dynamics simulations of convective turbulence emulating the tank environment. These numerical simulations supplement the sparse laboratory measurements. The numerical data compared well to the laboratory data and both conformed to the Kolmogorov spectrum of turbulence and the Batchelor spectrum of temperature fluctuations. The controlled turbulence environment can be used to assess optical image degradation in the tank in relation to turbulence intensity, as well as to apply adaptive optics techniques. This innovative approach that combines optical techniques, turbulence measurements and numerical simulations can help understand how to mitigate the effects of turbulence impacts on underwater optical signal transmission, as well as advance optical techniques to probe oceanic processes.

  1. L4 Milestone Report for MixEOS 2016 experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Eric Nicholas; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Denne, Patrick Hagen

    2016-08-01

    Accurate simulations of fluid and plasma flows require accurate thermodynamic properties of the fluids or plasmas. This thermodynamic information is represented by the equations of state of the materials. For pure materials, the equations of state may be represented by analytical models for idealized circumstances, or by tabular means, such as the Sesame tables. However, when a computational cell has a mixture of two or more fluids, the equations of state are not well understood, particularly under the circumstances of high energy densities. This is a particularly difficult issue for Eulerian codes, wherein mixed cells arise simply due to the advection process. LANL Eulerian codes typically assume an “Amagat’s Law” (or Law of Partial Volumes) for the mixture in which the pressures and temperatures of fluids are at an equilibrium that is consistent with the fluids being segregated within the cell. However, for purposes of computing other EOS properties, e.g., bulk modulus, or sound speed, the fluids are considered to be fully “mixed”. LANL has also been investigating implementing instead “Dalton’s Law” in which the total pressure is considered to be the sum of the partial pressures within the cell. For ideal gases, these two laws give the same result. Other possibilities are nonpressure- temperature-equilibrated approaches in which the two fluids are not assumed to “mix” at all, and the EOS properties of the cell are computed from, say, volume-weighted averages of the individual fluid properties. The assumption of the EOS properties within a mixed cell can have a pronounced effect on the behavior of the cell, resulting in, for example, different shock speeds, pressures, temperatures and densities within the cell. There is no apparent consensus as to which approach is best under HED conditions, though we note that under typical atmospheric and near atmospheric conditions the differences may be slight.

  2. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  3. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  4. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  5. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  8. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  9. The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL): A pathfinder for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D.; Hoang, T.

    1992-01-01

    The CAPL shuttle flight experiment will provide microgravity verification of the prototype capillary pumped loop (CPL) thermal control system for EOS. The design of the experiment is discussed with particular emphasis on the new technology areas in ammonia two-phase reservior design and heat pipe heat exchanger development. The thermal and hydrodynamic analysis techniques and results are also presented, including pressure losses, fluid flow, and non-orbit heat rejection capability. CAPL experiment results will be presented after the flight, presently planned for 1993.

  10. Description of the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE), A Dedicated EOS Validation Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, K.; Charlock, T.; Smith, B.; Jin, Z.; Rose, F.; Denn, F.; Rutan, D.; Haeffelin, M.; Su, W.; Xhang, T.; Jay, M.

    2001-12-01

    A unique test site located in the mid-Atlantic coastal marine waters has been used by several EOS projects for validation measurements. A common theme across these projects is the need for a stable measurement site within the marine environment for long-term, high quality radiation measurements. The site was initiated by NASA's Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. One of CERES's challenging goals is to provide upwelling and downwelling shortwave fluxes at several pressure altitudes within the atmosphere and at the surface. Operationally the radiative transfer model of Fu and Liou (1996, 1998), the CERES instrument measured radiances and various other EOS platform data are being used to accomplish this goal. We present here, a component of the CERES/EOS validation effort that is focused to verify and optimize the prediction algorithms for radiation parameters associated with the marine coastal and oceanic surface types of the planet. For this validation work, the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) was developed to provide detailed high-frequency and long-duration measurements for radiation and their associated dependent variables. The CERES validations also include analytical efforts which will not be described here (but see Charlock et.al, Su et.al., Smith et.al-Fall 2001 AGU Meeting) The COVE activity is based on a rigid ocean platform which is located approximately twenty kilometers off of the coast of Virginia Beach, Virginia. The once-manned US Coast Guard facility rises 35 meters from the ocean surface allowing the radiation instruments to be well above the splash zone. The depth of the sea is eleven meters at the site. A power and communications system has been installed for present and future requirements. Scientific measurements at the site have primarily been developed within the framework of established national and international monitoring programs. These include the Baseline Surface Radiation Network of the World

  11. The EOS imaging system for understanding a patellofemoral disorder following THR.

    PubMed

    Lazennec, J-Y; Rangel, A; Baudoin, A; Skalli, W; Catonne, Y; Rousseau, M-A

    2011-02-01

    An aspect of patellofemoral syndrome secondary to total hip replacement (THR) is mainly suggestive of a problem of femoral implant torsion. We here present the first reported case of patellofemoral syndrome secondary to THR relating to limb-length discrepancy, with no abnormality of femoral torsion. The pelvis adapted to the length inequality by axial rotation rather than frontal tilt, and this went undetected on standard X-ray and CT-scan. 3D imaging in upright posture on the EOS system enabled the situation to be clearly described and analyzed, and adapted surgical correction to be indicated.

  12. HgCdTe for NASA EOS missions and detector uniformity benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Important NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) missions, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS-N), which require detector spectral response in the range of 14 to 17 microns at medium background flux levels and operation in the range of temperatures between 65 to 95 K, will be flown beginning in the next few years. Currently, a prime candidate detector technology for these missions is trapping-mode photoconductive HgCdTe devices. These devices can be tailored to the exact cutoff wavelengths required by those missions, and thus offer the performance advantages of an intrinsic detector which is ideally matched to the mission wavelength. Under the long wavelength-background-temperature conditions of these EOS missions, any detector will at best be thermal generation-recombination noise limited. Photoconductive devices are generally preferred under these circumstances, since at elevated temperatures their performance degrades with n(sub i) while for photovoltaic detectors performance degrades as n sub i(exp 2) n sub i is the intrinsic carrier concentration which is a function of alloy composition and temperature, but not doping. Very high performance trapping-mode photoconductive HgCdTe detectors have been developed which can be reproducibly fabricated. Detectivity (D asterisk) at 80K and 16 micron cutoff wavelength in excess of 10(exp 11) Jones has been measured for these devices. Power dissipation is at least two orders of magnitude less than conventional HgCdTe photoconductors - on the order of 0.12 W/cm(exp 2) compared with 12 W/cm(exp 2). EOS missions define thermal noise limited conditions for the long wavelength operating bands. Trapping-mode photoconductive HgCdTe detectors are linear under such conditions and responsivity is independent of background flux. At lower temperatures or high flux conditions in which background flux limits detector performance, trapping-mode detectors have a responsivity which varies with

  13. Remote sensing of tropospheric constituents by OMI on the EOS Aura satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched on NASA's EOS Aura satellite in July 2004. This instrument was built in the Netherlands with collaboration with Finland. The science data products are being developed jointly by scientists from the three countries. OMI is the first instrument to combine the high spatial resolution daily global mapping capability of TOMS with high spectral resolution measurements necessary for retrieving a number of trace gases of relevance to atmospheric chemistry, using techniques pioneered by GOME. In this talk I will show what our planet looks like at UV wavelengths and what these data can tell us about the effects of human activities on global air quality and climate.

  14. The symmetry energy at suprasaturation density and the ASY-EOS experiment at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Filippo, E.; Russotto, P.; Acosta, L.; Adamczyk, M.; Al-Ajlan, A.; Al-Garawi, M.; Al-Homaidhi, S.; Amorini, F.; Auditore, L.; Aumann, T.; Ayyad, Y.; Basrak, Z.; Benlliure, J.; Boisjoli, M.; Boretzky, K.; Brzychczyk, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Caesar, C.; Cardella, G.; Cammarata, P.; Chajecki, Z.; Chartier, M.; Chbihi, A.; Colonna, M.; Cozma, M. D.; Czech, B.; Di Toro, M.; Famiano, M.; Gannon, S.; Gašparić, I.; Grassi, L.; Guazzoni, C.; Guazzoni, P.; Heil, M.; Heilborn, L.; Introzzi, R.; Isobe, T.; Kezzar, K.; Kiš, M.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kupny, S.; Kurz, N.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Lasko, P.; Le Fèvre, A.; Leifels, Y.; Lemmon, R. C.; Li, Q. F.; Lombardo, I.; Łukasik, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Marini, P.; Matthews, Z.; May, L.; Minniti, T.; Mostazo, M.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pawłowski, P.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Reviol, W.; Riccio, F.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Rossi, D.; Santoro, S.; Sarantites, D. G.; Simon, H.; Skwirczynska, I.; Sosin, Z.; Stuhl, L.; Trautmann, W.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Veselsky, M.; Vigilante, M.; Wang, Yongjia; Wieloch, A.; Wigg, P.; Winkelbauer, J.; Wolter, H. H.; Wu, P.; Yennello, S.; Zambon, P.; Zetta, L.; Zoric, M.

    2017-03-01

    The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI laboratory measured the direct and elliptic flow of neutrons and light charged particles in the reaction 197Au+197 Au at 400 A MeV incident energy. The ratio of elliptic flow of neutrons with respect to that of the light charged particles was used as main experimental observable to probe the density dependence of the symmetry energy term of the nuclear equation of state. Results, obtained by comparison of the experimental data with the UrQMD model predictions, strongly support a moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy at suprasaturation densities below 2ρ0.

  15. Enhanced EOS photovoltaic power system capability with InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program which opens a new era in international cooperation to study the Earth's environment. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit, two by NASA, two by ESA, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing five micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the advanced photovoltaic solar array the payload savings approaches 12 percent.

  16. Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1): Wideband Advanced Recorder and Processor (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terry; Kessler, John

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Earth Orbitor 1 (EO1) Wideband Advanced Recorder and Processor (WARP) is presented in viewgraph form. The WARP is a spacecraft component that receives, stores, and processes high rate science data and its associated ancillary data from multispectral detectors, hyperspectral detectors, and an atmospheric corrector, and then transmits the data via an X-band or S-band transmitter to the ground station. The WARP project goals are: (1) Pathfinder for next generation LANDSAT mission; (2) Flight prove architectures and technologies; and (3) Identify future technology needs.

  17. Report from the School of Experience: Lessons-Learned on NASA's EOS/ICESat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselm, William

    2003-01-01

    Abstract-NASA s Earth Observing System EOS) Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission was one of the first missions under Goddard Space Flight Center s (then-) new Rapid Spacecraft Development Office. This paper explores the lessons-learned under the ICESat successful implementation and launch, focusing on four areas: Procurement., Management, Technical, and Launch and Early Operations. Each of these areas is explored in a practical perspective of communication, the viewpoint of the players, and the interactions among the organizations. Conclusions and lessons-learned are summarized in the final section.

  18. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  19. Candidate configuration trade study, Stellar-inertial Measurement Systems (SIMS) for an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogletree, G.; Coccoli, J.; Mckern, R.; Smith, M.; White, R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analytical and simulation studies of the stellar-inertial measurement system (SIMS) for an earth observation satellite are presented. Subsystem design analyses and sensor design trades are reported. Three candidate systems are considered: (1) structure-mounted gyros with structure-mounted star mapper, (2) structure-mounted gyros with gimbaled star tracker, and (3) gimbaled gyros with structure-mounted star mapper. The purpose of the study is to facilitate the decisions pertaining to gimbaled versus structure-mounted gyros and star sensors, and combinations of systems suitable for the EOS satellite.

  20. The Implementation of a Behavioural Support Programme: Teachers' Perceptions of the Programme and Themselves as Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…

  1. The Evolution Of 21 cm Structure (EOS): public, large-scale simulations of Cosmic Dawn and reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, Andrei; Greig, Bradley; Sobacchi, Emanuele

    2016-07-01

    We introduce the Evolution Of 21 cm Structure (EOS) project: providing periodic, public releases of the latest cosmological 21 cm simulations. 21 cm interferometry is set to revolutionize studies of the Cosmic Dawn (CD) and Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Progress will depend on sophisticated data analysis pipelines, initially tested on large-scale mock observations. Here we present the 2016 EOS release: 10243, 1.6 Gpc, 21 cm simulations of the CD and EoR, calibrated to the Planck 2015 measurements. We include calibrated, sub-grid prescriptions for inhomogeneous recombinations and photoheating suppression of star formation in small-mass galaxies. Leaving the efficiency of supernovae feedback as a free parameter, we present two runs which bracket the contribution from faint unseen galaxies. From these two extremes, we predict that the duration of reionization (defined as a change in the mean neutral fraction from 0.9 to 0.1) should be between 2.7 ≲ Δzre ≲ 5.7. The large-scale 21 cm power during the advanced EoR stages can be different by up to a factor of ˜10, depending on the model. This difference has a comparable contribution from (i) the typical bias of sources and (ii) a more efficient negative feedback in models with an extended EoR driven by faint galaxies. We also present detectability forecasts. With a 1000 h integration, Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and (Square Kilometre Array phase 1) SKA1 should achieve a signal-to-noise of ˜few to hundreds throughout the EoR/CD. We caution that our ability to clean foregrounds determines the relative performance of narrow/deep versus wide/shallow surveys expected with SKA1. Our 21-cm power spectra, simulation outputs and visualizations are publicly available.

  2. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  3. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  4. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena-Humanes, Jose-Luis; Gómez-Hoyo, Pedro-José; Jarabo-Amores, Maria-Pilar; Mata-Moya, David; De-Rey-Maestre, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs), instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR) systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available. PMID:26593921

  5. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program: Arctic2003 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus,T.

    2003-01-01

    In March 2003 a coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products to be validated include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. Two additional flights were dedicated to making heat and moisture flux measurements over the St. Lawrence Island polynya to support ongoing air-sea-ice processes studies of Arctic coastal polynyas. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound.

  6. Cross calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Meyer, D.J.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) Mission, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) demonstrates a potential technological direction for Landsat Data Continuity Missions. To evaluate ALI's capabilities in this role, a cross-calibration methodology has been developed using image pairs from the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and EO-1 (ALI) to verify the radiometric calibration of ALI with respect to the well-calibrated L7 ETM+ sensor. Results have been obtained using two different approaches. The first approach involves calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors. The second approach uses vicarious calibration techniques to compare the predicted top-of-atmosphere radiance derived from ground reference data collected during the overpass to the measured radiance obtained from the sensor. The results indicate that the relative sensor chip assemblies gains agree with the ETM+ visible and near-infrared bands to within 2% and the shortwave infrared bands to within 4%.

  7. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  8. On-Orbit Testing of the EO-1 Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, Charles; Benson, Scott; Sanneman, Paul; Hoskins, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft has demonstrated the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. The PPT is a small, self-contained pulsed electromagnetic propulsion system capable of delivering high specific impulse (900-1200 s) and very small impulse bits (10-1000 microN-s) at low average power (4 to 100 W). EO-1 has a single PPT that can produce torque in the positive or negative pitch direction and replace the function of the spacecraft s pitch reaction wheel. The flight validation experiment was designed to demonstrate the ability of the PPT to provide precision pointing accuracy, response and stability, and to confirm that the thruster plume and EMI effects on the spacecraft and instruments were benign. The PPT has been successfully used for pitch attitude control accumulating over 26 hours of operational time with over 96,000 pulses. Thruster performance has been nominal and all spacecraft subsystems and instruments continue to show no detrimental effects from PPT operation.

  9. NASA's Autonomous Formation Flying Technology Demonstration, Earth Observing-1(EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bristow, John; Hawkins, Albin; Dell, Greg

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission, the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, recently completed its principal goal of demonstrating advanced formation control technology. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of an onboard system that was developed originally as a ground mission planning and operations tool. We discuss the Goddard Space Flight Center s formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and its implementation, the interface and functionality of the onboard system, and the implementation of a Kalman filter based GPS data smoother. A number of safeguards that allow the incremental phasing in of autonomy and alleviate the potential for mission-impacting anomalies from the on- board autonomous system are discussed. A comparison of the maneuvers planned onboard using the EO-1 autonomous control system to those from the operational ground-based maneuver planning system is presented to quantify our success. The maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary and routine formation maintenance. Definitive orbital data is presented that verifies all formation flying requirements.

  10. Sensor Intercalibration for the ESA GlobAlbedo Project Using QA4EO Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Dale; Mackin, Stephen; Behnert, Irina; Muller, Jan-Peter; Fox, Nigel

    2010-12-01

    Sensor inter-calibration is required in order to facilitate the merging of ATSR2, MERIS, AATSR, VEGETATION and VEGETATION2 spectral surface directional reflectance into a fifteen year land surface broadband albedo map of the entire Earth's land surface (snow and snow-free) for use in Global Climate Model initialisation and verification as part of the ESA GlobAlbedo project (Muller et al., this conference). To achieve this, a measure of the accuracy of every element in the processing chain needs to be made, so that the final broadband albedo contains as accurate as possible an estimate of uncertainty. The Quality Assurance for Earth Observation (QA4EO) protocols, described elsewhere (Fox et al., this conference) are an attempt to establish standardised methods for tasks of this nature. As part of the formulation of the cal/val protocols of QA4EO, an uncertainty assessment is currently being demonstrated using 2 months of data from December 2008-January 2009 from numerous satellites over the Antarctic CEOS endorsed "landnet" test-site, Dome C. Using multi- and hyperspectral data from AATSR, MERIS, AVNIR-2, CBERS, CHRIS-PROBA, Landsat-7, NigeriaSat-1, SPOT and UK-DMC-1, spectral radiance is corrected for atmospheric (mainly O3) and BRDF effects in preparation for intercomparison. The site selection and method of the group project is discussed and some preliminary results of this inter-calibration are shown.

  11. On-orbit test results from the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jenifer B.; Digenis, Constantine J.; Gibbs, Margaret D.; Hearn, David R.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Welsh, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1), launched on November 21, 2000. It was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field of view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. During the first ninety days on orbit, the instrument performance was evaluated by collecting several Earth scenes and comparing them to identical scenes obtained by Landsat7. In addition, various on-orbit calibration techniques were exercised. This paper will present an overview of the EO-1 mission activities during the first ninety days on-orbit, details of the ALI instrument performance and a comparison with the ground calibration measurements.

  12. Assessing the capability of EOS sensors in measuring ocean-atmosphere moisture exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the Science Synergism Studies to identify interdisciplinary Scientific studies, which could be addressed by the Environmental Observing System (EOS), the techniques being developed to measure ocean-atmosphere moisture exchanges using satellite sensors were evaluated. Studies required to use sensors proposed for EOS were examined. A method has been developed to compute the moisture flux using the wind speed, sea surface temperature, and preciptable water measured by satellite sensors. It relies on a statistical model which predicts surface-level humidity from precipitable water. The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) measures all 3 parameters and was found to be sensitive to the annual cycle and large interannual variations such as the 1982 to 1983 El Nino. There are systematic differences between geophysical parameters measured by Nimbus/SMMR and in situ measurements. After quadratic trends and crosstalks were removed from the parameters through multivariate regressions, the latent heat fluxes computed from SMMR agree with those computed from ship reports to within 30 W/sq m. The poor quality of ship reports may be the cause of a portion of this scatter. Similar results are found using SEASAT/SMMR data. When the scatterometer winds were used instead of the SMMR winds, the difference between the satellite fluxes and the ship fluxes was reduced.

  13. Average ionization EOS model for high-Z plasmas and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungkeun; Zhang, Lina; Samulyak, Roman; Parks, Paul

    2013-10-01

    A numerical model for average ionization EOS for high-Z plasmas undergoing multiple ionization processes has been developed based on the Zeldovich model. The corresponding software library has been implemented in FronTier, a hydrodynamic code that explicitly tracks material interfaces via the front tracking method, and verified with respect to solutions of coupled systems of Saha equations. FronTier with this EOS model has been used for simulations of the formation and implosion of plasma liners in the concept of Plasma Jet driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF) and the pellet ablation in tokamaks. We showed that in PJMIF simulations, atomic processes are responsible for significant pressure increases in self-imploding argon liners and the overall change of dynamics of the jet merger via a cascade of oblique shock waves. In pellet ablation simulations, the ablation rate of neon and argon pellets decreased due to ionization-induced energy sinks, and the ablation flow reached a double transonic state similar to that observed in deuterium pellets.

  14. Initial lunar calibration observations by the EO-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Jarecke, P.; Pearlman, Jay; ,

    2002-01-01

    The Moon provides an exo-atmospheric radiance source that can be used to determine trends in instrument radio-metric responsivity with high precision. Lunar observations can also be used for absolute radiometric calibration; knowledge of the radiometric scale will steadily improve through independent study of lunar spectral photometry and with sharing of the Moon as a calibration target by increasing numbers of spacecraft, each with its own calibration history. EO-1 calibration includes periodic observation of the Moon by all three of its instruments. Observations are normally made with a phase angle of about 7 degrees (or about 12 hours from the time of Full Moon). Also, SeaWiFS has been making observations at such phase angles for several years, and observations of the Moon by instrument pairs, even if at different times, can be used to transfer absolute calibration. A challenge for EO-1 is pointing to include the entire full Moon in the narrow Hyperion scan. Three Hyperion observations in early 2001 covering an order-of-magnitude difference in lunar irradiance show good agreement for responsivity; the SWIR detector has undergone some changes in responsivity. Small discrepancies of calibration with wavelength could be smoothed using the Moon as a source. Off-axis scattered light response and cross-track response variations can be assessed using the lunar image.

  15. Patch-Based Image Classification For Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Earth Resolution EO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Florin-Andrei; Tanase, Radu; Datcu, Mihai; Raducanu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    In an era where the satellite image collections are in a continuous growth, Earth Observation (EO) image annotation and classification is becoming an important component of data exploitation. In this paper we present how feature extraction methods such as Gabor (G) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) are performing in a patch- based approach in the frame of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 image data analysis. Having the goal to develop an application capable to join feature extraction and classification algorithms, in our assessment, we performed supervised support vector machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) classifications to extract a few generic classes from synthetic aperture radar (SAR), multispectral (MSI) and data fusion (DFI) images. The result of this study is intended to establish the optimum number of classes that can be found in the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images when using patch based image classification techniques. Also another important objective of this paper is to determine the best patch sizes suitable for this classification type in order to return best results for Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 EO images.

  16. First Season MWA EoR Power spectrum Results at Redshift 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, A. P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Sullivan, I. S.; Carroll, P.; Barry, N.; Rahimi, M.; Pindor, B.; Trott, C. M.; Line, J.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Morales, M. F.; Pober, J. C.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Busch, M. P.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, H. S.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) has collected hundreds of hours of Epoch of Reionization (EoR) data and now faces the challenge of overcoming foreground and systematic contamination to reduce the data to a cosmological measurement. We introduce several novel analysis techniques, such as cable reflection calibration, hyper-resolution gridding kernels, diffuse foreground model subtraction, and quality control methods. Each change to the analysis pipeline is tested against a two-dimensional power spectrum figure of merit to demonstrate improvement. We incorporate the new techniques into a deep integration of 32 hours of MWA data. This data set is used to place a systematic-limited upper limit on the cosmological power spectrum of {{{Δ }}}2≤slant 2.7× {10}4 mK2 at k = 0.27 h Mpc-1 and z = 7.1, consistent with other published limits, and a modest improvement (factor of 1.4) over previous MWA results. From this deep analysis, we have identified a list of improvements to be made to our EoR data analysis strategies. These improvements will be implemented in the future and detailed in upcoming publications.

  17. Diurnal change in trees as observed by optical and microwave sensors - The EOS Synergism Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Mcdonald, Kyle; Paris, Jack; Dobson, Myron C.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Weber, James A.; Ustin, Susan L.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Kasischke, Eric S.

    1991-01-01

    The EOS (Earth Observing System) Synergism Study examined the temporal variability of the optical and microwave backscatter due to diurnal change in canopy properties of interest to ecosystem modelers. The experiment was designed to address diurnal changes in canopy water status that relate to transpiration. Multispectral optical and multifrequency, multipolarization microwave measurements were acquired using boom-truck-based systems over a two-week period. Sensor and canopy properties were collected around the clock. The canopy studied was a walnut orchard in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The results demonstrate a large diurnal variation in the dielectric properties of the tree that in turn produces significant diurnal changes in the microwave backscatter. The results suggest that permanently orbiting spaceborne sensors such as those on EOS should be placed in orbits that are optimized for the individual sensor and need not be tied together by a tight simultaneity requirement on the order of minutes to hours for the purpose of monitoring ecosystem properties.

  18. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the twentieth monthly report for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 August 1994 through 31 August 1994. This period is the eighth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. During this period the number one priority for the program continued to be the issuance of Requests for Quotations (RFQ) to suppliers and the procurement of the long-lead receiver components. Significant effort was also dedicated to preparation and conduct of internal design reviews and preparation for the PDR scheduled in September. An overview of the program status, including key events, action items, and documentation submittals, is provided in Section 2 of this report. The Program Manager's 'Priority Issues' are defined in Section 3. Section 4 through 7 provide detailed progress reports for the system engineering effort, each subsystem, performance assurance, and configuration/data management. Contractual matters are discussed in Section 8.

  19. Development of a Manufacturing Process for High-Precision Cu EOS Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Castro, C; Hibbard, R L

    2006-01-12

    This document describes the development of a manufacturing process and the production of Cu EOS targets. The development of a manufacturing process for these targets required a great deal of research, because the specifications for the targets required a level of precision an order of magnitude beyond Target Fabrication's capabilities at the time. Strict limitations on the dimensions of the components and the interfaces between them required research efforts to develop bonding and deposition processes consistent with a manufacturing plan with a dimensional precision on the order of 0.1 {micro}m. Several months into this effort, the specifications for the targets were relaxed slightly as a result of discussions between the Target Fabrication Group and the physicists. The level of precision required for these targets remained an order of magnitude beyond previous capabilities, but the changes made it possible to manufacture targets to the specifications. The development efforts and manufacturing processes described in this document successfully produced a complete Cu EOS target that satisfied all of the fabrication and metrology specifications.

  20. Highlights from a Decade of OMI-TOMS Total Ozone Observations on EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Joiner, Joanna; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Vassilkov, Alexander; Labow, Gordon J.; Chiou, Er-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Total ozone measurements from OMI have been instrumental in meeting Aura science objectives. In the last decade, OMI has extended the length of the TOMS total ozone record to over 35 years to monitor stratospheric ozone recovery. OMI-TOMS total ozone measurements have also been combined synergistically with measurements from other Aura instruments and MLS in particular, which provides vertically resolved information that complements the total O3 mapping capability of OMI. With this combined approach, the EOS Aura platform has produced more accurate and detailed measurements of tropospheric ozone. This has led in turn to greater understanding of the sources and transport of tropospheric ozone as well as its radiative forcing effect. The combined use of OMI and MLS data was also vital to the analysis of the severe Arctic ozone depletion event of 2011. The quality of OMI-TOMS total O3 data used in these studies is the result of several factors: a mature and well-validated algorithm, the striking stability of the OMI instrument, and OMI's hyperspectral capabilities used to derive cloud pressures. The latter has changed how we think about the effects of clouds on total ozone retrievals. We will discuss the evolution of the operational V8.5 algorithm and provide an overview and motivation for V9. After reviewing results and developments of the past decade, we finally highlight how ozone observations from EOS Aura are playing an important role in new ozone mapping missions.

  1. Improved EOS for describing high-temperature off-hugoniot states in epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulford, R. N.; Lanier, N. E.; Swift, D.; Workman, J.; Graham, Peter; Moore, Alastair

    2007-06-01

    Modeling of off-hugoniot states in an expanding interface subjected to a shock reveals the importance of a chemically complete description of the materials. Hydrodynamic experiments typically rely on pre-shot target characterization to predict how initial perturbations will affect the late-time hydrodynamic mixing. However, it is the condition of these perturbations at the time of shock arrival that dominates their eventual late-time evolution. In some cases these perturbations are heated prior to the arrival of the main shock. Correctly modeling how temperature and density gradients will develop in the pre-heated material requires an understanding of the equation-of-state. In the experiment modelled, an epoxy/foam layered package was subjected to tin L-shell radiation, producing an expanding assembly at a well-defined temperature. This assembly was then subjected to a controlled shock, and the evolution of the epoxy-foam interface imaged with x-ray radiography. Modeling of the data with the hydrodynamics code RAGE is unsuccessful under certain shock conditions, unless condensation of chemical species from the plasma is explicitly included. The EOS code CHEETAH was used to prepare suitable EOS for input into the hydrodynamics modeling.

  2. Improved EOS for Describing High-Temperature Off-Hugoniot States in Epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulford, R. N.; Swift, D. C.; Lanier, N. E.; Workman, J.; Holmes, R. L.; Graham, P.; Moore, A.

    2007-12-01

    Modelling of off-Hugoniot states in an expanding interface subjected to a shock reveals the importance of a chemically complete description of the materials. Hydrodynamic experiments typically rely on pre-shot target characterization to predict how initial perturbations will affect the late-time hydrodynamic mixing. However, it is the condition of these perturbations at the time of shock arrival that dominates their eventual late-time evolution. In some cases these perturbations are heated prior to the arrival of the main shock. Correctly modelling how temperature and density gradients will develop in the pre-heated material requires an understanding of the equation-of-state. In the experiment modelled, an epoxy/foam layered package was subjected to tin L-shell radiation, producing an expanding assembly at a well-defined temperature. This assembly was then subjected to a controlled shock, and the evolution of the epoxy-foam interface imaged with x-ray radiography. Modelling of the data with the hydrodynamics code RAGE was unsuccessful under certain shock conditions, unless condensation of chemical species from the plasma is explicitly included. The EOS code Cheetah was used to prepare suitable EOS for input into the hydrodynamics modelling.

  3. Effect of shear strength on the Hugoniot-compression curve and EOS of some metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashimo, Tsutomu; Gomoto, Yuya; Liu, Xun; Zaretsky, Eugene; Katayama, Masahide; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2015-06-01

    To derive true equations of state (EOS) of matter, we need the precise Hugoniot data, and must access the strength under shock compression to draw the isothermal hydrostatic compression curve. For this, we have established the high-speed streak camera measurement system consisting of rotating-mirror type streak camera and pulsed dye laser combined with the one-stage powder gun and two-stage light gas gun. We performed the plate-mirror Hugoniot measurement experiments on tungsten (W), copper (Cu), etc. in the pressure range up to >200 GPa by symmetric impact method, and measured the Hugoniot data where the effects of tilt and bowing of the impact plate were carefully considered. It was found that the zero-intercept value (C0) of Us-Up relation (Us =C0 +SUp) of W were larger than the bulk sound velocity by 3.1%, which may show the effect of shear strength in plastic region. The hydrostatic-compression curves were drawn by using the shear strength values reported by Sandia National Laboratories group, and the EOS's were discussed. The hypothesized Us-Up Hugoniot curve of the hydrostatic compression curve converged to the bulk sound velocity.

  4. Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. J.; Davies, A. G.

    2004-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) is a JPL-led, New Millennium Program mission containing new technology in the form of software to be flown on the Earth Observer-1 (EO-1) satellite in early 2004. This new technology will facilitate an artificially intelligent machine with autonomous science-driven capabilities. Among the ASE flight software is a set of onboard science algorithms designed for autonomous data processing, primarily based on change detection from observation to observation. Using the output from these algorithms, ASE has the ability to autonomously modify the EO-1 observation plan, retargeting itself for a more in-depth observation of a scientific event in progress. Furthermore, intelligent and selective information down-linking will maximize return of the most valuable scientific data. Among the algorithms developed for use on ASE is a Lava-Vegetation (L-V) detection algorithm. This algorithm can effectively identify the initial location and extent of lava and vegetation coverage based on spectral shape. Comparison of several different observations, all classified via this algorithm, can make change detection possible.

  5. EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of 'Frozen-in' Anticyclonic Air in Arctic Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Jimenez, C. J.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Santee, M. L.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Waters, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    A previously unreported phenomenon, a 'frozen-in' anticyclone (FrIAC) after the 2005 Arctic spring vortex breakup, was discovered in Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) long-lived trace gas data. A tongue of low-latitude (high-N2O, low-H2O) air was drawn into high latitudes and confined in a tight anticyclone, then advected intact in the summer easterlies through late August. A similar feature in O3 disappeared by early April as a result of chemical processes. The FrIAC was initially advected upright at nearly the same speed at all levels from approx.660 to 1300 K (approx.25-45 km); increasing vertical wind shear after early June tilted the FrIAC and weakened it at higher levels. The associated feature in PV disappeared by early June; transport calculations fail to reproduce the remarkable persistence of the FrIAC, suggesting deficiencies in summer high-latitude winds. The historical PV record suggests that this phenomenon may have occurred several times before. The lack of a persistent signature in O3 or PV, along with its small size and rapid motion, make it unlikely that a FrIAC could have been reliably identified without hemispheric daily longlived trace gas profiles such as those from EOS MLS.

  6. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study.

    PubMed

    Bárcena-Humanes, Jose-Luis; Gómez-Hoyo, Pedro-José; Jarabo-Amores, Maria-Pilar; Mata-Moya, David; Del-Rey-Maestre, Nerea

    2015-11-17

    Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs), instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR) systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available.

  7. Regional Scale Meteorological Analysis and Prediction Using GPS Occultation and EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromwich, David H.; Shum, C. K.; Zhao, Changyin; Kuo, Bill; Rocken, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research under this award is to improve regional meteorological analysis and prediction for traditionally data limited regions, particularly over the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, using the remote sensing observations from current and upcoming GPS radio occultation missions and the EOS instrument suite. The major components of this project are: 1.Develop and improve the methods for retrieving temperature, moisture, and pressure profiles from GPS radio occultation data and EOS radiometer data. 2. Develop and improve a regional scale data assimilation system (MM5 4DVAR). 3. Perform case studies involving data analysis and numerical modeling to investigate the impact of different data for regional meteorological analysis and the importance of data assimilation for regional meteorological simulation over the Antarctic region. 4. Apply the findings and improvements from the above studies to weather forecasting experiments. 5. In the third year of the award we made significant progress toward the remaining goals of the project. The work included carefully evaluating the performance of an atmospheric mesoscale model, the Polar MM5 in Antarctic applications and improving the upper boundary condition.

  8. Programmable ion-sensitive transistor interfaces. I. Electrochemical gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayant, Krishna; Auluck, Kshitij; Funke, Mary; Anwar, Sharlin; Phelps, Joshua B.; Gordon, Philip H.; Rajwade, Shantanu R.; Kan, Edwin C.

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical gating is the process by which an electric field normal to the insulator electrolyte interface shifts the surface chemical equilibrium and further affects the charge in solution [Jiang and Stein, LangmuirLANGD50743-746310.1021/la9044682 26, 8161 (2010)]. The surface chemical reactivity and double-layer charging at the interface of electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor (EOS) capacitors is investigated. We find a strong pH-dependent hysteresis upon dc potential cycling. Varying salinity at a constant pH does not change the hysteretic window, implying that field-induced surface pH regulation is the dominant cause of hysteresis. We propose and investigate this mechanism in foundry-made floating-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistors, which can serve as both an ionic sensor and an actuator. Termed the chemoreceptive neuron metal-oxide-semiconductor (CνMOS) transistor, it features independently driven control gates (CGs) and sensing gates (SGs) that are capacitively coupled to an extended floating gate (FG). The SG is exposed to fluid, the CG is independently driven, and the FG is capable of storing charge QFG of either polarity. Asymmetric capacitive coupling between the CG and SG to FG results in intrinsic amplification of the measured surface potential shifts and influences the FG charge injection mechanism. This modified SG surface condition was monitored through transient recordings of the output current, performed under alternate positive and negative CG pulses. Transient recordings revealed a hysteresis where the current was enhanced under negative pulsing and reduced after positive pulsing. This hysteresis effect is similar to that observed with EOS capacitors, suggesting a field-dependent surface charge regulation mechanism at play. At high CG biases, nonvolatile charge QFG tunneling into the FG occurs, which creates a larger field and tunes the pH response and the point of zero charge. This mechanism gives rise to surface programmability. In

  9. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (4th) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 5-7, 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    PROCEEDINGS 4th Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium December 5-7, 2001 Cocoa Beach, Florida Published January 2003 DEOMI Research Report 03-01...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Proceedings 4th Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium, Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 5-7...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ii Proceedings 4th Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium December 5-7, 2001 Cocoa Beach, Florida Sponsored

  10. Effects of AEA Cell-Bypass-Switch Closure on Charged EOS-Aqua NiH2 Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney; Sullivan, David J.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wannemacher, Harry; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the effects of AEA cell bypass-switch closure on a charged EOS-Aqua NiH2 cell. The objectives of the presentation are to: (1) Verify the Performance of AEA Cell Bypass Protection Device (CBPD) under simulated EOS-Aqua/Aura flight hardware configuration; (2) Assess the safety of the hardware under an inadvertent firing of CBPD switch, as well as the closing of CBPD switch under simulated high cell impedance; and (3) Confirm that the mode of operation of CBPD switch is the formation of a continuous low impedance path-homogeneous low melting point eutectic (Indium alloy). Details are given on the EOS-Aqua flight hardware, AEA hardware tested, AEA bypass switch schematic, and the tests performed, which include images of equipment and results.

  11. EOS7CA Version 1.0: TOUGH2 Module for Gas Migration in Shallow Subsurface Porous Media Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2015-06-22

    EOS7CA is a TOUGH2 module for mixtures of a non-condensible gas (NCG) and air (with or without a gas tracer), an aqueous phase, and water vapor. The user can select the NCG as being CO2, N2, or CH4. EOS7CA uses a cubic equation of state with a multiphase version of Darcy’s Law to model flow and transport of gas and aqueous phase mixtures over a range of pressures and temperatures appropriate to shallow subsurface porous media systems. The limitation to shallow systems arises from the use of Henry’s Law for gas solubility which is appropriate for low pressures but begins to over-predict solubility starting at pressures greater than approximately 1 MPa (10 bar). The components modeled in EOS7CA are water, brine, NCG, gas tracer, air, and optional heat.

  12. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (2nd) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 2-4, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    PROCEEDINGS 2ND BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 Cocoa Beach, Florida Sponsored by the Directorate of Research Defense Equal...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 USAPPC V1.00 PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA...Proceedings Editor Published April 1998 Preface PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA The EO/EEO

  13. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  14. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  15. Nonvolatile, electrically erasable programmable ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dessouky, A.

    1984-01-01

    The processing technology for integration of MNOS-EEPROMs and NMOS Logic was investigated as p-well isolation. Memory characteristics of both Si gate and metal gate MNOS devices are investigated for nitride constitution which aims for lower programming voltages and good memory performance. The complete fabrication process for 128 byte SNOS-EEPROM chip is described by using high voltage depletion MOS devices in p-well technology. Another test vehicle uses 4 x 4 metal gate MNOS array to demonstrate possible fabrication of 12 V programmable scaled MNOS devices with 10 years retention after 10 to the 5th power endurance.

  16. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  17. Toxicological programmes and teaching methods.

    PubMed

    Bergendorff, A

    2000-03-15

    Toxicological knowledge is required for three main purposes: basic and applied research, toxicity testing, and risk assessment. Curricula and teaching methods designed to meet these demands for knowledge are aimed at appropriation of relevant facts, appreciation of causality and an overall understanding of biological events caused by chemical substances. The Toxicology Programme at Karolinska Institutet is considered as an example for the design of appropriate courses. Teaching methods developed towards more self-tuition are becoming a natural part of such education. Continued escalation in scientific achievements and demands for safe use of chemicals will govern future trends in toxicological education.

  18. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  19. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  20. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious project to develop an advanced, automated welding system is being funded as part of the Navy Joining Center with Babcock & Wilcox as the prime integrator. This program, the Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS), involves the integration of both planning and real-time control activities. Planning functions include the development of a graphical decision support system within a standard, portable environment. Real-time control functions include the development of a modular, intelligent, real-time control system and the integration of a number of welding process sensors. This paper presents each of these components of the PAWS and discusses how they can be utilized to automate the welding operation.

  1. EOS7Rn—A new TOUGH2 module for simulating radon emanation and transport in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saâdi, Zakaria; Gay, Didier; Guillevic, Jérôme; Améon, Roselyne

    2014-04-01

    A new fluid property module, EOS7Rn, was developed for TOUGH2 to simulate the transport of radon gas (222Rn) in saturated-unsaturated soils. It is an enhanced version of the EOS7R module for radionuclide transport, with a source term added in the transport equation to model radon generation by emanation from radioactive decay of the soil radium (226Ra) content. We implemented variable physical properties (diffusion coefficient, emanation factor, adsorption coefficient, and Henry's law coefficient) of this gas component in two-phase (liquid-gas) porous media as a function of soil moisture and/or soil temperature. Numerical trials have been carried out to ensure that temporal and spatial numerical discretization of this nonlinear source term are effective and have properly been implemented in TOUGH2. We performed comparative studies between EOS7Rn and an exact analytical solution at steady-state isothermal unsaturated conditions for many numerical experiments of one-dimensional (1D) radon transport in homogeneous and layered soil columns typical of Uranium Mill Tailings (UMT) landfill soils. We found that the radon activity concentration profiles and flux densities calculated by EOS7Rn were in good agreement with the analytical solution for all the studied numerical experiments. Relative errors in radon mass balance and flux densities were determined to be negligible. For the second verification of EOS7Rn for transient nonisothermal radon transport problems, two simulation examples are presented to demonstrating the importance of the radon emanation and thermal effects on radon transport in a geothermal reservoir. Like most other sister modules, EOS7Rn can simulate nonisothermal multiphase flow and fully coupled three-dimensional transport in fractured porous media. It will help in predicting the radon exhalation from highly radium-contaminated soils and underground cavities to outdoor and indoor environments.

  2. Arrangement of ceramide [EOS] in a stratum corneum lipid model matrix: new aspects revealed by neutron diffraction studies.

    PubMed

    Kessner, Doreen; Kiselev, Mikhail; Dante, Silvia; Hauss, Thomas; Lersch, Peter; Wartewig, Siegfried; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2008-07-01

    The lipid matrix in stratum corneum (SC) plays a key role in the barrier function of the mammalian skin. The major lipids are ceramides (CER), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFA). Especially the unique-structured omega-acylceramide CER[EOS] is regarded to be essential for skin barrier properties by inducing the formation of a long-periodicity phase of 130 angstroms (LPP). In the present study, the arrangement of CER[EOS], either mixed with CER[AP] and CHOL or with CER[AP], CHOL and palmitic acid (PA), inside a SC lipid model membrane has been studied for the first time by neutron diffraction. For a mixed CER[EOS]/CER[AP]/CHOL membrane in a partly dehydrated state, the internal membrane nanostructure, i.e. the neutron scattering length density profile in the direction normal to the surface, was obtained by Fourier synthesis from the experimental diffraction patterns. The membrane repeat distance is equal to that of the formerly used SC lipid model system composed of CER[AP]/CHOL/PA/ChS. By comparing both the neutron scattering length density profiles, a possible arrangement of synthetic long-chain CER[EOS] molecules inside a SC lipid model matrix is suggested. The analysis of the internal membrane nanostructure implies that one CER[EOS] molecule penetrates from one membrane layer into an adjacent layer. A 130 angstroms periodicity phase could not be observed under experimental conditions, either in CER/CHOL mixtures or in CER/CHOL/FFA mixture. CER[EOS] can be arranged inside a phase with a repeat unit of 45.2 angstroms which is predominately formed by short-chain CER[AP] with distinct polarity.

  3. A Modernized Approach to Meet Diversified Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.

    1998-01-01

    From a flight dynamics perspective, the EOS AM-1 mission design and maneuver operations present a number of interesting challenges. The mission design itself is relatively complex for a low Earth mission, requiring a frozen, Sun-synchronous, polar orbit with a repeating ground track. Beyond the need to design an orbit that meets these requirements, the recent focus on low-cost, "lights out" operations has encouraged a shift to more automated ground support. Flight dynamics activities previously performed in special facilities created solely for that purpose and staffed by personnel with years of design experience are now being shifted to the mission operations centers (MOCs) staffed by flight operations team (FOT) operators. These operators' responsibilities include flight dynamics as a small subset of their work; therefore, FOT personnel often do not have the experience to make critical maneuver design decisions. Thus, streamlining the analysis and planning work required for such a complicated orbit design and preparing FOT personnel to take on the routine operation of such a spacecraft both necessitated increasing the automation level of the flight dynamics functionality. The FreeFlyer(trademark) software developed by AI Solutions provides a means to achieve both of these goals. The graphic interface enables users to interactively perform analyses that previously required many parametric studies and much data reduction to achieve the same result. In addition, the fuzzy logic engine .enables the simultaneous evaluation of multiple conflicting constraints, removing the analyst from the loop and allowing the FOT to perform more of the operations without much background in orbit design. Modernized techniques were implemented for EOS AM-1 flight dynamics support in several areas, including launch window determination, orbit maintenance maneuver control strategies, and maneuver design and calibration automation. The benefits of implementing these techniques include

  4. A modernized approach to meet diversified earth observing system (EOS) AM-1 mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.

    1998-01-01

    From a flight dynamics perspective, the EOS AM-1 mission design and maneuver operations present a number of interesting challenges. The mission design itself is relatively complex for a low Earth mission, requiring a frozen, Sun-synchronous, polar orbit with a repeating ground track. Beyond the need to design an orbit that meets these requirements, the recent focus on low-cost, 'lights out' operations has encouraged a shift to more automated ground support. Flight dynamics activities previously performed in special facilities created solely for that purpose and staffed by personnel with years of design experience are now being shifted to the mission operations centers (MOCs) staffed by flight operations team (FOT) operators. These operators' responsibilities include flight dynamics as a small subset of their work; therefore, FOT personnel often do not have the experience to make critical maneuver design decisions. Thus, streamlining the analysis and planning work required for such a complicated orbit design and preparing FOT personnel to take on the routine operation of such a spacecraft both necessitated increasing the automation level of the flight dynamics functionality. The FreeFlyer(TM) software developed by AI Solutions provides a means to achieve both of these goals. The graphic interface enables users to interactively perform analyses that previously required many parametric studies and much data reduction to achieve the same result In addition, the fuzzy logic engine enables the simultaneous evaluation of multiple conflicting constraints, removing the analyst from the loop and allowing the FOT to perform more of the operations without much background in orbit design. Modernized techniques were implemented for EOS AM-1 flight dynamics support in several areas, including launch window determination, orbit maintenance maneuver control strategies, and maneuver design and calibration automation. The benefits of implementing these techniques include increased

  5. Heterogeneous access and processing of EO-Data on a Cloud based Infrastructure delivering operational Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, F.; Appel, F.; Bach, H.; de la Mar, J.; Schirpke, B.; Dutting, K.; Rucker, G.; Leimbach, D.

    2015-04-01

    To address the challenges of effective data handling faced by Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) a cloud-based infrastructure for accessing and processing of Earth Observation(EO)-data has been developed within the project APPS4GMES(www.apps4gmes.de). To gain homogenous multi mission data access an Input Data Portal (IDP) been implemented on this infrastructure. The IDP consists of an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) conformant catalogue, a consolidation module for format conversion and an OGC-conformant ordering framework. Metadata of various EO-sources and with different standards is harvested and transferred to an OGC conformant Earth Observation Product standard and inserted into the catalogue by a Metadata Harvester. The IDP can be accessed for search and ordering of the harvested datasets by the services implemented on the cloud infrastructure. Different land-surface services have been realised by the project partners, using the implemented IDP and cloud infrastructure. Results of these are customer ready products, as well as pre-products (e.g. atmospheric corrected EO data), serving as a basis for other services. Within the IDP an automated access to ESA's Sentinel-1 Scientific Data Hub has been implemented. Searching and downloading of the SAR data can be performed in an automated way. With the implementation of the Sentinel-1 Toolbox and own software, for processing of the datasets for further use, for example for Vista's snow monitoring, delivering input for the flood forecast services, can also be performed in an automated way. For performance tests of the cloud environment a sophisticated model based atmospheric correction and pre-classification service has been implemented. Tests conducted an automated synchronised processing of one entire Landsat 8 (LS-8) coverage for Germany and performance comparisons to standard desktop systems. Results of these tests, showing a performance improvement by the factor of six, proved the high flexibility and

  6. The EOS Aqua/Aura Experience: Lessons Learned on Design, Integration, and Test of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and NOAA earth observing satellite programs are flying a number of sophisticated scientific instruments which collect data on many phenomena and parameters of the earth's environment. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Program originated the EOS Common Bus approach, which featured two spacecraft (Aqua and Aura) of virtually identical design but with completely different instruments. Significant savings were obtained by the Common Bus approach and these lessons learned are presented as information for future program requiring multiple busses for new diversified instruments with increased capabilities for acquiring earth environmental data volume, accuracy, and type.

  7. Telecommunications issues of intelligent database management for ground processing systems in the EOS era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touch, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    Future NASA earth science missions, including the Earth Observing System (EOS), will be generating vast amounts of data that must be processed and stored at various locations around the world. Here we present a stepwise-refinement of the intelligent database management (IDM) of the distributed active archive center (DAAC - one of seven regionally-located EOSDIS archive sites) architecture, to showcase the telecommunications issues involved. We develop this architecture into a general overall design. We show that the current evolution of protocols is sufficient to support IDM at Gbps rates over large distances. We also show that network design can accommodate a flexible data ingestion storage pipeline and a user extraction and visualization engine, without interference between the two.

  8. The Stratospheric Wind Ingrared Limb Sounder: Investigation of atmospheric dynamics and transport from Eos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccleese, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Infrared Limb Sounder (SWIRLS) is one of the instruments in the atmospheric sounder package to be flown by NASA on the Earth Observing System (EOS) B platform in the late 1990's. SWIRLS is designed to measure the horizontal vector wind field, atmospheric temperature, and the abundances and distributions of ozone and nitrous oxide in the middle atmosphere. These measurements will constitute a dynamical climatology of the stratosphere covering time scales ranging from diurnal to interannual. In addition, the SWIRLS investigation will quantify the physical mechanisms responsible for the structure and variations of stratospheric circulation and temperature fields, including the transport of species, particularly ozone, heat and momentum. Existing data sets lack the combination of accuracy, global and temporal coverage, spatial resoultion and simultaneity required to distinguish unambiguosly between the roles of dynamical and chemical processes in determining the current distribution of ozone and its evolution in the future. The measurement objectives, measurement approach, and instrumentation of SWIRLS is described.

  9. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Diane; Michael, Karen; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; Boller, Ryan A.; Masuoka, Ed; Ye, Gang; Roman, Miguel; Vermote, Eric; Harrison, Sherry; Rinsland, Pamela; Protack, Steve; Durbin, Phil; Ding, Feng; Justice, Chris

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) supports application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena. Near Real- Time (NRT) data and imagery from the AIRS, AMSR2, MISR, MLS, MODIS, OMPS, OMI and VIIRS instruments are available much quicker than routine processing allows. Most data products are available within 3 hours from satellite observation. NRT imagery are generally available 3-5 hours after observation. This article describes the LANCE and the enhancements made to the LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include the addition of NRT products from AMSR2, MISR, OMPS and VIIRS. In addition, the selection of LANCE NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has been expanded. Next year, data from the MOPITT will be added to the LANCE.

  10. [EOS imaging acquisition system : 2D/3D diagnostics of the skeleton].

    PubMed

    Tarhan, T; Froemel, D; Meurer, A

    2015-12-01

    The application spectrum of the EOS imaging acquisition system is versatile. It is especially useful in the diagnostics and planning of corrective surgical procedures in complex orthopedic cases. The application is indicated when assessing deformities and malpositions of the spine, pelvis and lower extremities. It can also be used in the assessment and planning of hip and knee arthroplasty. For the first time physicians have the opportunity to conduct examinations of the whole body under weight-bearing conditions in order to anticipate the effects of a planned surgical procedure on the skeletal system as a whole and therefore on the posture of the patient. Compared to conventional radiographic examination techniques, such as x-ray or computed tomography, the patient is exposed to much less radiation. Therefore, the pediatric application of this technique can be described as reasonable.

  11. Remote Sensing of Aerosol and Aerosol Radiative Forcing of Climate from EOS Terra MODIS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The recent launch of EOS-Terra into polar orbit has begun to revolutionize remote sensing of aerosol and their effect on climate. Terra has five instruments, two of them,Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) are designed to monitor global aerosol in two different complementary ways. Here we shall discuss the use of the multispectral measurements of MODIS to derive: (1) the global distribution of aerosol load (and optical thickness) over ocean and land; (2) to measure the impact of aerosol on reflection of sunlight to space; and (3) to measure the ability of aerosol to absorb solar radiation. These measurements have direct applications on the understanding of the effect of aerosol on climate, the ability to predict climate change, and on the monitoring of dust episodes and man-made pollution. Principles of remote sensing of aerosol from MODIS will be discussed and first examples of measurements from MODIS will be provided.

  12. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for Eos (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Mauoka, E.; Ye, G.; Conover, H.; Regner, K. J.; Harrison, S.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery from Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites in less than 3 hours from satellite observation, to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes LANCE and enhancements made to LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include: 3 new NRT products, additional search and download data capability through Worldview, and a greater selection of NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). LANCE is also working to ingest and process AMSR2 data in NRT. This presentation describes the enhancements, and the potential uses for the new products, which include daily NRT 8-day rolling Vegetation Indices (VI) and Land Surface Reflectance (LSR) products and a 16-day rolling Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product.

  13. NO2 Total and Tropospheric Vertical Column Densities from OMI on EOS Aura: Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, J.F.; Bucsela, E.J.; Celarier, E.A.; Veefkind, J.P.; Kim, S.W.; Frost, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which is on the EOS AURA satellite, retrieves vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2, along with those of several other trace gases. The relatively high spatial resolution and daily global coverage of the instrument make it particularly well-suited to monitoring tropospheric pollution at scales on the order of 20 km. The OMI NO2 algorithm distinguishes polluted regions from background stratospheric NO2 using a separation algorithm that relies on the smoothly varying stratospheric NO2 and estimations of both stratospheric and tropospheric air mass factors (AMFs). Version 1 of OMI NO2 data has been released for public use. An overview of OMI NO2 data, some recent results and a description of the improvements for version 2 of the algorithm will be presented.

  14. Assimilating EOS-Aura OMI and MLS Data in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Xu, Philippe; Douglass, Anne R.; Olsen, Mark; Strahan, Susan; Nielsen, J. Eric; McKee, Nicole; Sienkiewicz, Meta; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Data assimilation is a potentially powerful method of extracting the maximum amount of information from observed data by combining their information with models. in this application, we will use stratospheric ozone profiles retrieved from EOS MLS and total column amounts retrieved from OMI' along with the GEOS-5 GCM, that includes a representation of ozone chemistry and transport. The presentation will discuss how well we can derive tropospheric ozone column information in this system, including its sensitivity to model errors and some assumptions made in the assimilation system. We discuss also ozone structures in the tropopause region and their sensitivity to model resolution and other fact=ors. An important issue we examine is how much more information we obtain from ozone assimilation than from model studies using state of the art chemistry models - answering such questions helps determine how useful ozone assimilation really is, given our present capabilities in chemical modeling.

  15. EO/IR satellite constellations for the early detection and tracking of collision events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatezalo, A.; El-Fallah, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.; Pham, K.

    2010-04-01

    The detection and tracking of collision events involving existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Resident Space Objects (RSOs) is becoming increasingly important with the higher LEO space objects traffic volume which is anticipated to increase even further in the near future. Changes in velocity that can lead to a collision are hard to detect early on time, and before the collision happens. Several collision events can happen at the same time and continuous monitoring of the LEO orbit is necessary in order to determine and implement collision avoidance strategies. We present a simulation of a constellation system consisting of multiple platforms carrying EO/IR sensors for the detection of such collisions. The presented simulation encompasses the full complexity of LEO trajectories changes which can collide with currently operating satellites. Efficient multitarget filter with information-theoretic multisensor management is implemented and evaluated on different constellations.

  16. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: investigating symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, P.; Chartier, M.; Cozma, M. D.; De Filippo, E.; Le Fèvre, A.; Gannon, S.; Gašparić, I.; Kiš, M.; Kupny, S.; Leifels, Y.; Lemmon, R. C.; Li, Q.; Łukasik, J.; Marini, P.; Pawłowski, P.; Santoro, S.; Trautmann, W.; Veselsky, M.; Acosta, L.; Adamczyk, M.; Al-Ajlan, A.; Al-Garawi, M.; Al-Homaidhi, S.; Amorini, F.; Auditore, L.; Aumann, T.; Ayyad, Y.; Baran, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bassini, R.; Benlliure, J.; Boiano, C.; Boisjoli, M.; Boretzky, K.; Brzychczyk, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Cardella, G.; Cammarata, P.; Chajecki, Z.; Chbihi, A.; Colonna, M.; Czech, B.; Di Toro, M.; Famiano, M.; Greco, V.; Grassi, L.; Guazzoni, C.; Guazzoni, P.; Heil, M.; Heilborn, L.; Introzzi, R.; Isobe, T.; Kezzar, K.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kurz, N.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Lasko, P.; Lombardo, I.; Lynch, W. G.; Matthews, Z.; May, L.; Minniti, T.; Mostazo, M.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Pleskac, R.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Reifarth, R.; Reisdorf, W.; Riccio, F.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Skwirczynska, I.; Sosin, Z.; Stuhl, L.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.; Wieloch, A.; Wigg, P.; Wolter, H. H.; Wu, P.; Yennello, S.; Zambon, P.; Zetta, L.; Zoric, M.

    2014-03-01

    The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy-ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. The results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model simulations favoured a moderately soft symmetry term, but suffer from a considerable statistical uncertainty. These results have been confirmed by an independent analysis based on the Tübingen QMD simulations. In order to obtain an improved data set for Au+Au collisions and to extend the study to other systems, a new experiment was carried out at the GSI laboratory by the ASY-EOS collaboration. The present status of the data analysis is reported

  17. Supporting the Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia with EO Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, Nuno; Patinha, Carla; Sainkhuu, Tserendash; Bataa, Mendbayar; Doljinsuren, Nyamdorj

    2016-08-01

    The work presented here shows the results from the project "Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia", included in the EOTAP (Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia Pacific) initiative, a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia.The EO services developed within this EOTAP project primarily aimed at enriching the existing environmental database maintained by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) in Mongolia and sustaining the collaborative pasture management practices introduced by the teams within the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia. The geographic area covered by the EOTAP services is Bayankhongor province, in western Mongolia region, with two main services: drought monitoring at the provincial level for the year 2014 and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) and changes mapping for three districts of this province (Buutsagaan, Dzag and Khureemaral) for the years 2013, 2014.

  18. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Supernova matter EOS (Buyukcizmeci+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukcizmeci, N.; Botvina, A. S.; Mishustin, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    The Statistical Model for Supernova Matter (SMSM) was developed in Botvina & Mishustin (2004, PhLB, 584, 233 ; 2010, NuPhA, 843, 98) as a direct generalization of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM; Bondorf et al. 1995, PhR, 257, 133). We treat supernova matter as a mixture of nuclear species, electrons, and photons in statistical equilibrium. The SMSM EOS tables cover the following ranges of control parameters: 1. Temperature: T = 0.2-25 MeV; for 35 T values. 2. Electron fraction Ye: 0.02-0.56; linear mesh of Ye = 0.02, giving 28 Ye values. It is equal to the total proton fraction Xp, due to charge neutrality. 3. Baryon number density fraction {rho}/{rho}0 = (10-8-0.32), giving 31 {rho}/{rho}0 values. (2 data files).

  20. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  1. Unmanned ground vehicles and EO-IR sensors for border patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Robert A.

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned ground vehicle technology with integrated EO-IR Sensors and payloads play a key role in border surveillance and security. In recent years, unmanned ground vehicle such as iRobot's PackBot have been a critical tool in providing situational awareness to combat terrorist operations around the world. There is increased recognition of the importance of unmanned ground vehicles with sensor suites as a force multiplication for the infantry and special forces units in future combat or reconnaissance missions and perimeter and border security and first responders. They function as the "eyes, ears, and hands" of the unit and can be remotely deployed without placing the observer's unit in harm's way in risky environments. Evolving unmanned ground vehicle technology produces significantly lighter, more maneuverable, greater endurance UGVs with improved EO, IR and other sensors for reconnaissance, surveillance and situational awareness. They dramatically reduce the risk for soldiers in MOUT operations, relay evidence of booby traps, hidden enemy, and other dangers in caves, tunnels, buildings, vehicles and other areas where the soldier(s) may be at risk. They have expanded mobility in debris fields, stairs, and rugged terrain with IR and visible video and audio links. New sensor technology enables new tactics to be developed and tethers allow secure operation. These UGVs are extremely rugged withstanding the harshest military use. They have high reliability as demonstrated in operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. They are easy to operate with a short set-up time and battery change out time of less than one minute.

  2. EOSTA—an improved EOS quantum mechanical model in the STA opacity code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Klapisch, M.

    2006-05-01

    The STA model is extended to include calculations of thermodynamical quantities required for equation of state (EOS). For that purpose the plasma free electrons are now treated quantum mechanically accounting for shape resonances. The resulting gradual orbital ionization assures a regular behavior of all the thermodynamical quantities vs. density and temperature. The relativistic quantum mechanical framework that we have applied in a new code named EOSTA follows Liberman's Inferno model with several improvements that accomplish higher accuracy. These improvements include: a numerical technique to trace all the resonances and follow their detailed structure and application of the phase amplitude method that allows the inclusion of higher angular momenta partial waves and higher energies of the free orbitals. In addition we employ two complementary methods to treat the exchange potential in the calculation of orbital wave functions: (1) for EOS calculations Local Density Approximation is used and (2) for ionization lowering and orbital energies required in the opacity calculations we have found two satisfactory alternatives: (a) the optimized effective potential (OEP) and (b) first order corrected Local Density Approximation. In both alternatives the resulting orbitals are used to calculate the detailed exchange term that includes a proper reduction of the self energy. A new approach for calculating the electronic pressure is presented. The relativistic virial theorem expresses the pressure as a sum of the total energy and a local density term. This form allows consistent calibration of the correlation energy to comply with the periodic table zero pressure density points and higher density pressures. Results are presented describing the various thermodynamical quantities vs. density and temperature in comparison with other calculations and experiments.

  3. Eo-Ulrichian to Neo-Ulrichian views: The renaissance of "layer-cake stratigraphy"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, Carlton E.; McLaughlin, P.I.; Baird, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Classical notions of "layer-cake stratigraphy" have been denigrated as representing an antiquated "Neptunian" view of the geologic record with the American paleontologist-stratigrapher E.O. Ulrich vilified as its quintessential advocate. Some of the extreme "layer-cake" interpretations of E.O. Ulrich are demonstrably incorrect, especially where applied in marginal marine and terrestrial settings. However, close scrutiny of Ulrich's work suggests that the bulk was correct and demonstrated considerable insight for the time. Subsequent development of facies concepts revolutionized geologists' view of time-space relationships in stratigraphy, but rather than focusing on facies patterns within the established stratigraphic (layer-cake) frameworks many geologists in North America came to view strata as parts of diachronous facies mosaics. Recent advances in the development of event and sequence stratigraphic paradigms are beginning to swing the pendulum back the other way. Possible causes of "layer-cake" patterns are numerous and varied, including: (1) parallelism of depositional strike and outcrop belts, especially in foreland basins, (2) very widespread environmental belts developed in low-relief cratonic areas, (3) time-averaging homogenizes facies to a limited extent, resulting in a very subtle signature of lateral change, (4) condensed beds (hardgrounds, bone beds, ironstones, etc.) often form in responses to extrabasinal forces, thus they cross-cut facies, and (5) large events (i.e. hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, eruptions, etc.) are "over represented" in the rock record. A revised ("Neo-Ulrichian") layer-cake paradigm carries many of the original correct empirical observations of pattern, noted by Ulrich, recast in terms of event and sequence stratigraphy.

  4. An Algorithm For Climate-Quality Atmospheric Profiling Continuity From EOS Aqua To Suomi-NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncet, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We will present results from an algorithm that is being developed to produce climate-quality atmospheric profiling earth system data records (ESDRs) for application to hyperspectral sounding instrument data from Suomi-NPP, EOS Aqua, and other spacecraft. The current focus is on data from the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments as well as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on EOS Aqua. The algorithm development at Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) has common heritage with the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm operationally processing S-NPP data in the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), but the ESDR algorithm has a flexible, modular software structure to support experimentation and collaboration and has several features adapted to the climate orientation of ESDRs. Data record continuity benefits from the fact that the same algorithm can be applied to different sensors, simply by providing suitable configuration and data files. The radiative transfer component uses an enhanced version of optimal spectral sampling (OSS) with updated spectroscopy, treatment of emission that is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), efficiency gains with "global" optimal sampling over all channels, and support for channel selection. The algorithm is designed for adaptive treatment of clouds, with capability to apply "cloud clearing" or simultaneous cloud parameter retrieval, depending on conditions. We will present retrieval results demonstrating the impact of a new capability to perform the retrievals on sigma or hybrid vertical grid (as opposed to a fixed pressure grid), which particularly affects profile accuracy over land with variable terrain height and with sharp vertical structure near the surface. In addition, we will show impacts of alternative treatments of regularization of the inversion. While OE algorithms typically implement regularization by using background estimates from

  5. An approach for a comprehensive automation of electro-optical (EO) sensor characterization setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Amit; Sharma, Jitendra; Sukheja, Anil; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Ashish; Goswami, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Space Applications Centre develops various electro-optical (EO) sensors for space borne platforms and inter-planetary missions. Sensor complexities vary for different applications and therefore performance evaluation and characterization pose different challenges. Performance optimization tasks demand repeated measurements and characterization needs to be done under different phases of testing. It is difficult to meet such requirements in case of short sensor development lifecycles or tight schedules. Activities which are amenable to automation are identified and targeted to reduce the manual intervention and to avoid delays due to errors and to speed up the overall activity. Laboratory instruments, either in-house developed or COTS, play an important role in automating the test setup as they have different types of interfaces and have their own complications. In order to make an automated test setup, software intelligence need to be built based on the instrument feedback and the other check points based on the test sequence. A complete automation needs machine intelligence and sufficient amount of traceability, so that the process can be easily verified for confidence. Overall software architecture should be such that it allows connecting various types of instruments, decision making based on output of the device under test, complete traceability and fault tolerance. In this paper authors have identified the activities that can be automated for various EO sensor categories and approaches are discussed for automation with radiometric calibration, spectral response measurement and focusing as test cases. Also, software architecture is presented which allows uniform access to instruments, back-end database and macro level automation process.

  6. Earth Observation in Support of Science and Applications Development in the Field "land and Environment": Synthesis Results from the Esa-Most Dragon Cooperation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartalis, C.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.; Ban, Y.; Bao, Y.; Bi, Y.; Defourny, P.; Del Barrio, G.; Fan, J.; Gao, Z.; Gong, H.; Gong, J.; Gong, P.; Li, C.; Pignatti, S.; Sarris, A.; Yang, G.

    2015-04-01

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  7. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes.

  8. Volume-translated cubic EoS and PC-SAFT density models and a free volume-based viscosity model for hydrocarbons at extreme temperature and pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.; Soong, Yee; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; McHugh, Mark A.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on providing the petroleum reservoir engineering community with robust models of hydrocarbon density and viscosity at the extreme temperature and pressure conditions (up to 533 K and 276 MPa, respectively) characteristic of ultra-deep reservoirs, such as those associated with the deepwater wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Our strategy is to base the volume-translated (VT) Peng–Robinson (PR) and Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK) cubic equations of state (EoSs) and perturbed-chain, statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) on an extensive data base of high temperature (278–533 K), high pressure (6.9–276 MPa) density rather than fitting the models to low pressure saturated liquid density data. This high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) data base consists of literature data for hydrocarbons ranging from methane to C{sub 40}. The three new models developed in this work, HTHP VT-PR EoS, HTHP VT-SRK EoS, and hybrid PC-SAFT, yield mean absolute percent deviation values (MAPD) for HTHP hydrocarbon density of ~2.0%, ~1.5%, and <1.0%, respectively. An effort was also made to provide accurate hydrocarbon viscosity models based on literature data. Viscosity values are estimated with the frictional theory (f-theory) and free volume (FV) theory of viscosity. The best results were obtained when the PC-SAFT equation was used to obtain both the attractive and repulsive pressure inputs to f-theory, and the density input to FV theory. Both viscosity models provide accurate results at pressures to 100 MPa but experimental and model results can deviate by more than 25% at pressures above 200 MPa.

  9. The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

  10. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 7: EOS system definition report. Appendixes A through D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the systems involved in the operation and support of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. Among the systems considered are the following: (1) the data management system, (2) observatory to primary ground station communications links, (3) local user system, (4) techniques for recognizing ground control points, (5) the central data processing-implementation concept, and (6) program effectiveness analysis.

  11. 77 FR 61473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Surveys To Implement E.O. 12862...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ....O. 12862 Coordinated by the Corporate Planning and Performance Division on Behalf of All IRS... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the Voluntary Customer Surveys To Implement E.O. 12862 Coordinated by ] the Corporate Planning...

  12. The MGGB equation-of-state for multifield applications: a numerical recipe for analytic expression of sesame EOS data

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwa, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Abstract A thermodynamically consistent and fully general equation–of– state (EOS) for multifield applications is described. EOS functions are derived from a Helmholtz free energy expressed as the sum of thermal (fluctuational) and collisional (condensed–phase) contributions; thus the free energy is of the Mie–Gr¨uneisen1 form. The phase–coexistence region is defined using a parameterized saturation curve by extending the form introduced by Guggenheim,2 which scales the curve relative to conditions at the critical point. We use the zero–temperature condensed–phase contribution developed by Barnes,3 which extends the Thomas–Fermi–Dirac equation to zero pressure. Thus, the functional form of the EOS could be called MGGB (for Mie– Gr¨uneisen–Guggenheim–Barnes). Substance–specific parameters are obtained by fitting the low–density energy to data from the Sesame4 library; fitting the zero–temperature pressure to the Sesame cold curve; and fitting the saturation curve and latent heat to laboratory data,5 if available. When suitable coexistence data, or Sesame data, are not available, then we apply the Principle of Corresponding States.2 Thus MGGB can be thought of as a numerical recipe for rendering the tabular Sesame EOS data in an analytic form that includes a proper coexistence region, and which permits the accurate calculation of derivatives associated with compressibility, expansivity, Joule coefficient, and specific heat, all of which are required for multifield applications. 1

  13. What We Can Learn About Aerosols from EOS-MISR Multi-Angle Remote Sensing Observations Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R.

    1999-01-01

    Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Multiangle, multispectral remote sensing observations, such as those anticipated from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), promise to significantly improve our ability to constrain aerosol properties from space.

  14. Development of EOS-aided procedures for the determination of the water balance of hydrologic budget of a large watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congalton, Russell G.; Thomas, Randall W.; Zinke, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Work focused on the acquisition of remotely sensed data for the 1985 to 1986 hydrogolic year; continuation of the field measurement program; continued acquisition and construction of passive microwave remote sensing instruments; a compilation of data necessary for an initial water balance computation; and participation with the EOS Simulataneity Team in reviewing the Feather River watershed as a possible site for a simultaneity experiment.

  15. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  16. Basic nanostructure of stratum corneum lipid matrices based on ceramides [EOS] and [AP]: a neutron diffraction study.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Annett; Kessner, Doreen; Kiselev, Mikhail A; Hauss, Thomas; Dante, Silva; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2009-08-19

    The goal of this study was to investigate the nanostructure of SC lipid model membranes comprising the most relevant SC lipids such as the unique-structured omega-acylceramide [EOS] in a near natural ratio with neutron diffraction. In models proposed recently the presence of ceramide [EOS] and FFA are necessary for the formation of one of the two existent crystalline lamellar phases of the SC lipids, the long-periodicity phase as well as for the normal barrier function of the SC. The focus of this study was placed on the influence of the FFA BA on the membrane structure and its localization within the membrane based on the ceramides [EOS] and [AP]. The internal nanostructure of such membranes was obtained by Fourier synthesis from the experimental diffraction patterns. The resulting neutron scattering length density profiles showed that the exceptionally long ceramide [EOS] is arranged in a short-periodicity phase created by ceramide [AP] by spanning through the whole bilayer and extending even further into the adjacent bilayer. Specifically deuterated BA allowed us to determine the exact position of this FFA inside this SC lipid model membrane. Furthermore, hydration experiments showed that the presented SC mimic system shows an extremely small intermembrane hydration of approximately 1 A, consequently the headgroups of the neighboring leaflets are positioned close to each other.

  17. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  18. Four Years of Absolutely Calibrated Hyperspectral Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Eos Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steve; Elliott, Denis; Gregorich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews four years of absolute calibration of hyperspectral data from the AIRS instrument located on the EOS AQUA spacecraft. The following topics are discussed: 1) A quick overview of AIRS; 2) What absolute calibration accuracy and stability are required for climate applications?; 3) Validating of radiance accuracy and stability: Results from four years of AIRS data; and 4) Conclusions.

  19. Constraining Polarized Foregrounds for EoR Experiments I: 2D Power Spectra from the PAPER-32 Imaging Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, S. A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Nunhokee, C. D.; Bernardi, G.; Pober, J. C.; Ali, Z. S.; Bradley, R. F.; Carilli, C. L.; DeBoer, D. R.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Jacobs, D. C.; Klima, P.; MacMahon, D. H. E.; Manley, J. R.; Moore, D. F.; Parsons, A. R.; Stefan, I. I.; Walbrugh, W. P.

    2016-06-01

    Current generation low-frequency interferometers constructed with the objective of detecting the high-redshift 21 cm background aim to generate power spectra of the brightness temperature contrast of neutral hydrogen in primordial intergalactic medium. Two-dimensional (2D) power spectra (power in Fourier modes parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight) that formed from interferometric visibilities have been shown to delineate a boundary between spectrally smooth foregrounds (known as the wedge) and spectrally structured 21 cm background emission (the EoR window). However, polarized foregrounds are known to possess spectral structure due to Faraday rotation, which can leak into the EoR window. In this work we create and analyze 2D power spectra from the PAPER-32 imaging array in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. These allow us to observe and diagnose systematic effects in our calibration at high signal-to-noise within the Fourier space most relevant to EoR experiments. We observe well-defined windows in the Stokes visibilities, with Stokes Q, U, and V power spectra sharing a similar wedge shape to that seen in Stokes I. With modest polarization calibration, we see no evidence that polarization calibration errors move power outside the wedge in any Stokes visibility to the noise levels attained. Deeper integrations will be required to confirm that this behavior persists to the depth required for EoR detection.

  20. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  1. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  2. Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Viali, Satupaitea; Saena, Puleiala; Futi, Vailogoua

    2011-02-11

    Rheumatic fever is very common in Samoa. The following paper describes the Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa and looks at the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The incidence of ARF has decreased to 30 per 100,000 in 2005, 12.8 per 100,000 in 2007, 7.3 per 100,000 in 2008, and 9.5 per 100,000 in 2009. The incidence of RHD has decreased to 40.2 per 100,000 in 2007, 34 per 100,000 in 2008, and 31.8 per 100,000 in 2009. Cardiac surgery in New Zealand is expensive, but is cheaper to perform in Samoa. RHD screening with echocardiogram at schools may be the best way to reduce the burden and suffering from RHD.

  3. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  4. 32 CFR 644.388 - Army military-screening, clearance, preliminary report of excess, except where an E.O. 11954...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military-screening, clearance, preliminary report of excess, except where an E.O. 11954 survey has been made. 644.388 Section 644.388 National... excess, except where an E.O. 11954 survey has been made. Upon receipt of a copy of the...

  5. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  6. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  7. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  8. Using Programmable Calculators to Evaluate Complicated Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    The application of the programmable calculator to evaluating complicated formulas is illustrated by considering the formula for finding the area of any triangle when only the lengths of the three sides are known. Other advantages of the programmable calculator are discussed such as freeing the student to explore more challenging problems and…

  9. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  10. Occupational and patient exposure as well as image quality for full spine examinations with the EOS imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Damet, J. Fournier, P.; Monnin, P.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F. R.; Baechler, S.; Ceroni, D.; Zand, T.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: EOS (EOS imaging S.A, Paris, France) is an x-ray imaging system that uses slot-scanning technology in order to optimize the trade-off between image quality and dose. The goal of this study was to characterize the EOS system in terms of occupational exposure, organ doses to patients as well as image quality for full spine examinations. Methods: Occupational exposure was determined by measuring the ambient dose equivalents in the radiological room during a standard full spine examination. The patient dosimetry was performed using anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adolescent and a five-year-old child. The organ doses were measured with thermoluminescent detectors and then used to calculate effective doses. Patient exposure with EOS was then compared to dose levels reported for conventional radiological systems. Image quality was assessed in terms of spatial resolution and different noise contributions to evaluate the detector's performances of the system. The spatial-frequency signal transfer efficiency of the imaging system was quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Results: The use of a protective apron when the medical staff or parents have to stand near to the cubicle in the radiological room is recommended. The estimated effective dose to patients undergoing a full spine examination with the EOS system was 290μSv for an adult and 200 μSv for a child. MTF and NPS are nonisotropic, with higher values in the scanning direction; they are in addition energy-dependent, but scanning speed independent. The system was shown to be quantum-limited, with a maximum DQE of 13%. The relevance of the DQE for slot-scanning system has been addressed. Conclusions: As a summary, the estimated effective dose was 290μSv for an adult; the image quality remains comparable to conventional systems.

  11. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  12. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  13. A modularized pulse programmer for NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenping; Bao, Qingjia; Yang, Liang; Chen, Yiqun; Liu, Chaoyang; Qiu, Jianqing; Ye, Chaohui

    2011-02-01

    A modularized pulse programmer for a NMR spectrometer is described. It consists of a networked PCI-104 single-board computer and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The PCI-104 is dedicated to translate the pulse sequence elements from the host computer into 48-bit binary words and download these words to the FPGA, while the FPGA functions as a sequencer to execute these binary words. High-resolution NMR spectra obtained on a home-built spectrometer with four pulse programmers working concurrently demonstrate the effectiveness of the pulse programmer. Advantages of the module include (1) once designed it can be duplicated and used to construct a scalable NMR/MRI system with multiple transmitter and receiver channels, (2) it is a totally programmable system in which all specific applications are determined by software, and (3) it provides enough reserve for possible new pulse sequences.

  14. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  15. An EO-Based Approach to Modelling Ecosystem Health in Response to Wildfire in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Aaron; Petropoulos, George P.

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of ecosystem health is becoming more relevant in a world where ecosystems are being used unsustainably and have been showing increased signs of stress and dysfunction. Therefore, this research has set out to establish an Earth Observation (EO) based methodology in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to establish and monitor the indicators of ecosystem health in a region affected by wildfire in Central Greece. A further goal has been to assess the responses of ecosystem health to wildfire and urban expansion in the studied region. The methodology integrated GIS software and EO data to assess ecosystem characteristics including: vigour, organisation and resilience. The characteristics were quantified using remote sensing techniques focusing on Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images derived from Landsat imagery from 1999-2011. Topographic features including slope and aspect were extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). These elements were then assigned weightings based upon research and combined in a model to produce a map of ecosystem health. The map of ecosystem health was validated against a compound topographic index that was produced for the study region, completed by overlaying the layers in Google Earth. This software allowed for a direct comparison of each layer. The results of the model have demonstrated correlations with past wildfires and the associated recovery. The findings are in agreement with the hypothesis that ecosystem health maps can illustrate the effect wildfires have on ecosystem health, thus providing useful information to land managers and policy makers who manage wildfire. The results further demonstrate that the resolution of Landsat imagery is excellent for obtaining a general overview of ecosystem health mapping. The methods described in this study could provide more detailed information if applied to high resolution imagery such as Worldview or IKONOS data. Results could be further

  16. EOS--AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell Interim Life Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. W.; Keys, D. J.; Rao, G. M.; Wannemacher, H. E.; Vaidyanathan H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of the tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-1 cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 18202 LEO cycles completed as of September 1, 1997. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell. 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 amperes (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three. 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battery, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operatina at +30 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements throuch the first 18

  17. EOS-AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell Interim Life Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. W.; Keys, D. J.; Rao, G. M.; Wannemacher, H. E.; Vaidyanathan, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of the tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-l cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 13000 LEO cycles completed as of September 2, 1996. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell, 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 ampercs (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three, 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battely, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operating at +3 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements through the first 13

  18. BingEO: Enable Distributed Earth Observation Data for Environmental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Yang, C.; Xu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Our planet is facing great environmental challenges including global climate change, environmental vulnerability, extreme poverty, and a shortage of clean cheap energy. To address these problems, scientists are developing various models to analysis, forecast, simulate various geospatial phenomena to support critical decision making. These models not only challenge our computing technology, but also challenge us to feed huge demands of earth observation data. Through various policies and programs, open and free sharing of earth observation data are advocated in earth science. Currently, thousands of data sources are freely available online through open standards such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS). Seamless sharing and access to these resources call for a spatial Cyberinfrastructure (CI) to enable the use of spatial data for the advancement of related applied sciences including environmental research. Based on Microsoft Bing Search Engine and Bing Map, a seamlessly integrated and visual tool is under development to bridge the gap between researchers/educators and earth observation data providers. With this tool, earth science researchers/educators can easily and visually find the best data sets for their research and education. The tool includes a registry and its related supporting module at server-side and an integrated portal as its client. The proposed portal, Bing Earth Observation (BingEO), is based on Bing Search and Bing Map to: 1) Use Bing Search to discover Web Map Services (WMS) resources available over the internet; 2) Develop and maintain a registry to manage all the available WMS resources and constantly monitor their service quality; 3) Allow users to manually register data services; 4) Provide a Bing Maps-based Web application to visualize the data on a high-quality and easy-to-manipulate map platform and enable users to select the best data layers online. Given the amount of observation data

  19. Evaluation and characterization of vegetation indices with error/uncertainty analysis for EOS-MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Tomoaki

    2000-10-01

    A set of error/uncertainty analyses were performed on several "improved" vegetation indices (VIs) planned for operational use in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) VI products onboard the Terra (EOS AM-1) and Aqua (EOS PM-1) satellite platforms. The objective was to investigate the performance and accuracy of the satellite-derived VI products under improved sensor characteristics and algorithms. These include the "atmospheric resistant" VIs that incorporate the "blue" band for normalization of aerosol effects and the most widely-used, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The analyses were conducted to evaluate specifically: (1) the impact of sensor calibration uncertainties on VI accuracies, (2) the capabilities of the atmospheric resistant VIs and various middle-infrared (MIR) derived VIs to minimize smoke aerosol contamination, and (3) the performances of the atmospheric resistant VIs under "residual" aerosol effects resulting from the assumptions in the MODIS aerosol correction algorithm. The results of these studies showed both the advantages and disadvantages of using the atmospheric resistant VIs for operational vegetation monitoring. The atmospheric resistant VIs successfully minimized optically thin aerosol smoke contamination (aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.67 mum < 1.0) but not optically thick smoke (AOT at 0.67 mum > 1.0). On the other hand, their resistances to "residual" aerosol effects were greater when the effects resulted from the correction of optically-thick aerosol atmosphere. The atmospheric resistant VIs did not successfully minimize the residual aerosol effects from optically-thin aerosol atmosphere (AOT at 0.67 mum ≤ ˜0.15), which was caused mainly by the possible wrong choice of aerosol model used for the AOT estimation and correction. The resultant uncertainties of the atmospheric resistant Vls associated with calibration, which were twice as large as that of the NDVI, increased with increasing AOT

  20. EOS Aura's Education and Public Outreach Program - A Lesson for a Scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilsenrath, E.

    2002-12-01

    NASA's EOS Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is designed to answer three basic questions about the Earth's atmosphere: a) Is the Earth's ozone layer recovering? b) Is air quality changing? c) How is the Earth's climate changing? The Aura Project agreed to support an ambitious EPO program early in the mission to establish an Aura presence with the public prior to and after launch. The Aura EPO program's overarching objectives is to inform students, our peers, the general public, policy makers and industry. One of my roles as Aura Deputy Project Scientist was to develop a plan, cost, and schedule through launch with these objectives. Our goal was to have the maximum number of outreach contacts for the least cost. This meant taking advantage of well established and proven EPO enterprises. The selected Aura EPO partners include GLOBE, the American Chemical Society, the Smithsonian Institution, Environmental Defense, and NASA's Earth Observatory websites. Managing these tools to convey the Aura message through launch became an over arching task. A Project Scientist's role for a large NASA space mission has many facets and running an EPO program has several challenges. The first success came with bringing on-board experienced Outreach personnel familiar with NASA missions. This step was invaluable in launching Outreach projects since they did not necessarily conform to the NASA way of conducting research and flight missions. "Leveraging" is key element in Outreach programming and we found many avenues among our partners to put this to full use particularly since atmospheric chemistry is an important and sometimes controversial environmental issue. It was gratifying to see, as a scientist, our Outreach contacts get excited about the subject when explained in a personal way. Another important challenge for a scientist is the balance of time spent between research and Outreach. Each requires creativity and dedication of time and both have rewards that are very